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T H E

G R E E N L I N I N G

I N S T I T U T E

issue brief | october 2009

RACE STILL MATTERS


Making the Case for a Racial Lens in Measuring Poverty and Inequality
Ilana Golin Research Associate, Greenlining Academy

Introduction: A Dream Deferred

byraceandethnicity,thisincludes:8.2%of Whites,10.3%ofAsians,24.3%ofBlacks,and 21.5%ofLatinosofanyrace.Inotherwords, oneinfourBlacksandoneinfiveLatinoslives inpoverty,comparedtolessthanoneinten Whites. Inshort,raceandpovertyareheavily intertwined,andthusraceisimplicitinahost ofpressingpolicyarenas.Failingtoreportand collectdataonraceandethnicityobfuscates thedisproportionateimpactofpovertyon peopleofcolor. The New Majority Americaisonthevergeofbecominga minoritymajoritycountry.Already, California,Hawaii,NewMexico,andTexas havearacialcompositionthatislessthanhalf White.AccordingtotheUSCensusBureau, thenationisprojectedtobe54%minorityby 2050.Theshiftwillhappensooneramong children:by2023,morethanhalfareexpected tobefromaminoritygroup,andby2050,the proportionwillbe62%. Theeconomicimplicationsofthese demographicshiftsaresignificant.For

heUnitedStatesdefinesitselfbya collectivedreamofeconomic opportunity.Thepromiseofupward

mobilityisatruthweasanationholdtobe selfevident,yetthispromiseisnotarealityfor manypeopleofcolor.Moreover,ourcountrys legacyofdiscriminatorypoliciesandpractices contributestoaclimateinwhichraceisa

contentioustopicformanytodiscuss. DebatesabouttheAmericanDreamoftenleave raceoutoftheconversation,andinstead highlightsocioeconomicstatusasthemore salientissue.Indeed,forsome,Barack Obamaselectiontopresidencyservesas evidencethattheracialplayingfieldisfinally level.Butoneneedonlylookasfarastodays headlinestounderstandthatracestillplaysa significantroleinUSpoliticsandpolicies.
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Moreover,theconfluencebetweenraceand classissignificant.Accordingtothe2007US Census,peopleofcolormakeupabouta quarterofthenationspopulation,yethalfof Americanslivinginpovertyareminorities. Currentdatashowsthat12.5%ofall Americansarelivinginpoverty.Brokendown

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instance,thepurchasingpowerofLatinos,Blacks,and AsianAmericanscombinedtripledfrom1990to2008, reaching$1.5trillion.(Humphreys,2008).AndtheUS DepartmentofCommerceprojectsthatthepurchasing powerofpeopleofcolorwilltripleagainby2045. Atthesametime,peopleofcolordisproportionately attendinferiorschools,lackhealthinsurance,andface detrimentalhousingconditions.Forexample:

The Nations Changing Demographics Thecurrentminoritymajoritystatesare: California,Hawaii,NewMexico,Texas Withmorethan40%peopleofcolor,thenextstates expectedtobecomeminoritymajorityare: Arizona,Georgia,Maryland,Mississippi,andNewYork

Themedianhouseholdofcolorhas$0.15forevery dollarofWhitewealth(Oliver,1995). Povertydisproportionatelyaffectschildrenofcolor: 61%ofLatinochildren,60%ofBlackchildren,and 30%ofAsianchildrenliveinlowincomefamilies. ThefigureforWhitesis26%(NCCP,2009).

Only54%ofBlacksand66%ofLatinosownbank accounts,comparedto86%ofWhites.(FirstData Corp.,2008)

Whileover75%ofWhiteshavehealthinsurance,only about60%ofAsians,57%ofBlacks,andlessthan50% ofLatinosdo,reflectingalackofgoodjobsamong communitiesofcolor(PPIC,2002).

35.6%ofchildrenofcolorareraisedinsingleparent households,comparedto19.6%ofWhitechildren(US Census,2008).

Thus,ournationschangingpopulationpatternspointtoa seriousimpact:ifwedonotinvestinthesuccessof communitiesofcolor,withinonegeneration,asignificant portionofourcountrycouldbestruggling.Thispotential scenarioisnotonlyanaffronttoournationalvalues,but alsohasenormousfiscalimplications.Americas economicstandingrestsonbuildinghumancapitalwith theskills,education,andhealthtomaintainournations powerfulglobalposition.Strategicinvestmentsinall communitieswillprovidereturnstothecountryasa whole. Intergenerational Mobility & Asset-Building IntheUnitedStates,accessto opportunitiesisthekeytoachieving theAmericandream.Success dependsonindividualscurrent assets,aswellastheircapacityto growthoseassets.Although comparingincomelevelsacrossracial
Pe rce ntofRace Whoare Lowe rIncome Re pre se ntation inUS Population
4.50% 10.3%

BlacksandLatinoswere2to3timesmorelikelyto receiveasubprimeloan,andaremorelikelytobein foreclosure(NCRC,2007).

While75%ofWhitesowntheirownhomes,only 59.5%ofAsians,49.1%ofLatinos,and47.4%ofBlacks do(USCensus,2008).

EvenamongborrowerswiththehighestFICOscores (720orhigher),13.5%ofLatinoand12.8%ofBlacks receivedhighcostloans,comparedto2.6%ofWhites. (FederalReserveBankofSF,2009).

Racial Representation of the US Population and Percent of Each Race Who are Lower-Incom e
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% White Latino Black

65.60%

andethnicgroupscanprovideuseful informationaboutthelabormarketat aparticularpointintime,social scientistsagreethatamoreaccurate measureofeconomicmobilityis wealth.Whileincomeisthemoney thatpeoplereceivefromwork, governmentbenefits,orinvestments, wealthreferstosavings,realestate,

15.40% 8.2%

12.80% 24.3%

20.6%

Asian

RACE STILL MATTERS | PAGE 2

The racial wealth gap is widening. In1998,thenetworthofWhitehouseholdswas,on average,$100,700higherthanthatofBlackhouseholds. By2007,thegaphadincreasedto$142,600. securities,andotherfinancialassets.Inshort,wealthis definedasonesnetworth,orwhatonetrulyownsafter alldebtshavebeensubtracted. Wealthmattersbecauseitprovidesacushionwhenthe economytakesadownturnorwhenpersonal circumstancesnecessitatequickaccesstomoney.Wealth, notincome,iswhatenablesafamilytoliveinasafer neighborhood,provideforhealthandeducationneeds, andevenimpartgreaterpoliticalinfluence. ApproximatelyhalfofthewealthiestpeopleinAmerica inheritedfamilyfortunes.Buttheeffectofinherited wealthcanbeseenonamoremodestlevelaswell.For example,acouplethatbuysahousewiththefinancial helpfromtheirparentsorastudentthathashisorher collegeeducationpaidfor,arebenefitingdirectlyfromthe accumulatedwealthofpreviousgenerations(Gilbert, 2002). ThelatestSurveyofConsumerFinancesdataindicates thattheracialwealthgapiswidening.Thissurvey, supportedbytheFederalReserveBoard,showsan increasinglywiderchasminracialwealthinequalityfrom the1990stotoday.In1998,thenetworthofWhite householdswas,onaverage,$100,700higherthanthatof Blackhouseholds.By2007,thegaphadincreasedto $142,600.Thisdataiscollectedeverythreeyears,and everytimeithasbeencollected,theracialwealthgaphas widenedfurther. Inexaminingfamiliesovertime,EdwardN.Wolff,a seniorscholarattheLevyEconomicsInstitute,foundthat Blackswouldhavegainedsignificantgroundrelativeto Whitesinthepast30yearsifthetwogroupshadinherited similaramountsandhadcomparablelevelsoffamily income.Eveniftheracialincomegapcouldimmediately beeliminated,itcouldtakeanothertwogenerationsfor thewealthgaptoclose(Wolff,2001).

Researchdrawingondatathatspansthirtyyearsandtwo generationsshowsreversemobilitytrendsamongWhites andBlacks.WhiteAmericansaremorelikelytobe upwardlymobilethandownwardlymobile.Theopposite istrueforBlacks.Forexample,theproportionofBlacks whomoveupthewealthladderis5%,whilethe proportionmovingdownitis48%(Hertz,2005). Thistrendholdsacrossallincomelevelsandis particularlystrongatthetopoftheincomedistribution, indicatingthathigherincomeBlackshaveespeciallypoor prospectsofstayingontheirparentsrungoftheladder (Hertz,2005).SuchresultsindicatethattodaysBlack Whitewealthgapcannotbeexplainedsolelybythefact that,onaverage,Blackswereborntofamiliesthathad fewerresourcestoinvestintheirchildren. AsimilarpatternexistsamonglowincomeBlacks. Controllingforfamilysize,parentsincomeand education,Blackfamilieshavea14%higherrateof persistenceinthebottomincomequartilefromone generationtothenextthanWhitefamilies.Differencesin mobilitybetweenWhitesandBlackspersistevenafter controllingforadditionalparentbackgroundfactorsand childrenseducationandhealth,aswellaswhetherthe householdheadwasfemaleorreceivingwelfare.(Hertz, 2006). Moreover,middleclassstatusismoredifficultformany peopleofcolortomaintain,comparedtotheirWhite counterparts.ArecentstudyconductedbyDemosfound thatoneinfive(21%)Whitefamiliesisathighriskof slippingoutofthemiddleclass,ascomparedtoonein three(33%)Blackheadedhouseholdsandtwoinfive (41%)Latinofamilies(Demos,2007).

Blacks are More Likely to Stay in Poverty than Whites Whites Blacks Percentremainingin bottomquartile 62.9% 32.3% Percentacquiring topquartile 3.6% 14.2%
Source:Hertz,2005

RACE STILL MATTERS | PAGE 3

The Myth of the Model Minority Bymanyaccounts,AsianAmericanshaveappearedtodowellforthemselvesintermsofeducation,employment,and assetbuilding.Butacloserlookatthedatatellsamorenuancedstory. First,notallAsianAmericansarethesame.Breakinginformationdownintonationalitycategoriesisrevealing.For instance,while46%ofChineseAmericansand41%ofJapaneseAmericanshavecollegedegrees,only9%of Cambodian,Hmong,orLaotianAmericansdo.Amongthislattergrouping,52.7%havenotcompletedhighschool, comparedto24%ofChinese,10%ofJapanese,and15.3%ofWhites. Second,themostcommonlycitedinformationcanbemisleading.Census datashowsthat,asawhole,AsianAmericanfamilieshavehighermedian incomesthanWhitefamilies.ButsincethetypicalAsianAmericanfamily tendstohavemorememberswhoareworkingthanthetypicalWhite family,suchdatagivesthefalseimpressionthatAsiansaredoingbetter thanWhites.Amoreaccuratemeasureofeconomicwellbeingismedian personalincome.AnalysesalongthismeasureindicatethatAsian AmericansarestilltrailingWhites. Whites Asian Amer. Personal vs Family Income Median Personal Income $23,640 $20,200 Median Family Income $48,500 $59,000

Third,despitesomesuccessesinattainingaccesstoeducationandsecuringhigherincomes,AsianAmericanscontinue tobeunderrepresentedinleadershippositions.JustlikeBlacksandLatinos,theyareunderrepresentedinpolitical positionsatthefederal,state,andlocallevels.And,justlikeBlacksandLatinos,theyareunderrepresentedasCEOs, boardmembers,andhighlevelsupervisors. Inshort,theAsianAmerican,NativeHawaiian,andPacificIslanderpopulationisverydiversewithover50different race/ethnicitieswhospeakover100differentlanguages.Theheterogeneityinlanguagesandculturesnecessitate breakingdownaggregate(oraverage)dataintospecificsubgroupsbecauseissuestendtogetlostorloseimportance inaggregateddata.Withmorecredibleinformation,wecanbetterunderstandthispopulationsrepresentationinthe


Asian Am ericans Are Very Div erse

Vie tname se ,10.9%

Kore an,10.6% Japane se ,7.8% Othe r,7.5%

Filipino,18.3% Othe r,15.0% Bangle de shi,0.1% Cambodian,0.2% Hmong,1.7% Indian,16.4% Chine se ,22.6% Laotian,1.7% Pakistani,1.5% Taiwane se ,1.2% Thai,1.1%

RACE STILL MATTERS | PAGE 4

Unemployment of College-Educated Persons, by Race


3.8% 7.2%

disparities.Onesuchstudylookedattherateinwhich employerscalledapplicantsbackforsecondjob interviewsandfoundthatalthoughexoffendersreceived alowercallbackratethanthosewhohadnotbeen incarcerated,Whiteexoffendershadacallbackrateequal toBlackswithoutcriminalrecords.(Pager,2005). Similarly,inanexperimentwhereresearcherssubmitted

March2009

5.0% 5.0%

1.6% 2.7%

resumessomewithBlacksoundingnameslike LakishaandJamal,andsomewithWhitesounding nameslikeEmilyandGregtoemployerswithopen


2.5%

March2007

1.7%

positions,thosewithWhitesoundingnamesreceived twiceasmanycallbacksforinterviews,despite

0% Asian

2% Latino

4% Black

6% White

8%

comparablelevelsofeducationandexperiencebetween thetwogroups.Thestudyfoundlittleevidencethat employerswereinferringsomethingotherthanracial differences,indicatingthatdiscriminationisaprominent factorinemploymentdecisions(Bertrand,2004). Whilefurtherinvestigationisneededtoascertainthe pervasivenessoftheproblem,dataclearlypointstoracial discriminationinhiringpractices,evenifitisnot intentional.Infact,intheresumestudy,federal contractorsandemployersthatdescribethemselvesasan EqualOpportunityEmployerintheirjobannouncements discriminatedjustasmuchasotheremployersinthe sample.Themessageisclear:theEqualEmploymentAct isnotenoughtoensurenondiscriminatoryhiring practices. Race and Homeownership Inadditiontoaccesstoemploymentopportunities, homeownershipisacriticalcomponentofestablishing wealth.Homeownershipratesvarysignificantlybyrace,

Race & The Labor Market Whiletheaccumulationofwealthdoesnotnecessarily dependonemployment,thetypeofjoboneholdsand accompanyingincomelevelundoubtedlyplaysan importantroleinanindividualsabilitytoacquireand maintainassets. Peopleofcolorcontinuetobehitdisproportionably harderbythecurrenteconomicrecession,highlighting theirmorevulnerablepositioninginsociety.Accordingto aJuly2009assessmentbytheUSBureauofLabor Statistics,theunemploymentrateforWhiteswas8.6%, comparedto12.7%forLatinos,and14.9%forBlacks.And accordingtoAlgernonAustinattheEconomicPolicy Institute,Evenwhenthenationalunemploymentpicture isgood,theBlackunemploymentrateismorethantwice thatoftheWhiteunemploymentrate. TheunemploymentrateforBlacksexceedsthatofWhites ateveryeducationlevel,makingitclearthattheproblem ofjoblessnessamongBlackscannotbesolvedby educationalone.Thedisparitiesamongthecollege educatedstronglysuggestthateveniftheBlack educationalattainmentdistributionwasexactlythesame astheWhitedistribution,Blackswouldstillhaveahigher unemploymentratethanWhites(EconomicPolicy Institute,2008). Agrowingbodyofresearchabouthiringpractices indicatesthatdiscriminationcontributestotheseracial

Natl. Hom eownership Rate by Race, 2008


80% 60% 40% 20% 0% White Asian Latino Black

RACE STILL MATTERS | PAGE 5

withWhiteshavingthehighestratesofhomeownership andBlackshavingthelowest(USCensus,2008). Historically,thelowerpercentageofBlack homeownershipcouldbetracedtodiscriminationinthe lendingindustry.Analysesconductedintheearly1980s demonstratedthatthepercentageofBlackresidents withincensustractswasinverselyrelatedtothenumber ofhousingloans.Moreover,studiesshowedthatpeople ofcolorpaidmoreforhousing,facedmorerestrictionsin bothlocationandhousingquality,andpaidmorefor loansfromprivatelenders(Horton,1992). Inrecentyears,thecreditpendulumhasswunginthe oppositedirectionandBlacksandLatinoswere disproportionatelytherecipientsofhigherpricedhome loans,evenwhencontrollingforincomeandcreditscores. AccordingtotheFederalReserve,amongborrowerswith thehighestFICOscores(greaterthan720),13.5%ofLatino and12.8%ofBlacksreceivedhighcostloans,whileonly 2.6%ofWhiteborrowerswiththesamescoresreceived suchloans(FederalReserveBank,2009). Theimpactsoftheseinequitablelendingpracticesare comingtolightastheforeclosurecrisiscontinuesto unfold.InCalifornia,astatehitparticularlyhardbythe crisisandaminoritymajoritystate,theforeclosurerates arehighestinneighborhoodsthatpredominantlyhouse peopleofcolor.TheFederalReservefoundthat communitiesofcolorhadaccesstoverydifferent mortgagemarketsthantheirWhitecounterparts,with 45.2%ofLatinoand42.9%ofBlackborrowersreceiving theirloansfromindependent,nonfederallyregulated mortgagecompanies,comparedto29.2%ofWhites.Itis importanttonotethatthemajorityoftheBlackandLatino householdsforecloseduponwerenotpoorhouseholds, butrathermiddleclass,earningbetween$60,000and $120,000peryear(FederalReserveBank,2009). Amongthosewhodomaintaintheirhomes,peopleof colorcanexpecttopaywhathasbeentermeda segregationtax.Thisexpressionreferstothe phenomenonwherehomesofsimilarqualityina neighborhoodoccupiedbypeopleofsimilarincomehave significantlydifferentvalues,dependingonwhetheritis majorityWhiteormajorityBlack.DavidRuskatThe

Disaggregated Data is Crucial to Understanding our Diversity Disaggregateddataisneeded,regardlessofareaof studyto: Identifypatterns(similarities,differences) Develop,monitor,andimproveprograms Preventissuesfromgettinglostinaggregatedata Identifyandaddressspecificneeds(e.g.education, health,employment) Provideevidencetoinformandinfluenceprograms andpolicies Advocatefor,andenableappropriateallocationof resourcesatcommunity,local,state,andfederal levels

BrookingsInstitutionfoundthatBlackhomeowners received18%lessvaluefortheirhomesthanWhite homeowners.Thisdiscrepancyisprimarilyduetothe highdegreeofracialsegregationinneighborhoods(Rusk, 2001). Recommendations Policycandomorethansetstandardsandenforce regulations.Policycanalsoshiftculturalnormstomake theAmericandreamattainableforallpeople.Realizing thispotentialwillimproveourentirenation,forwhenour workplaces,neighborhoods,andschoolsreflecttherich diversitythatmakestheUnitedStatesunique,we capitalizeonasignificantcomparativeadvantage. Tothisend,weofferthefollowingrecommendations: Collectmoredatafromdiverseracialandethnicgroups. Theracialterminologyandcategorizationsusedbythe federalgovernmenthavesignificantimplicationsfora hostofarenas,fromresearchgrantstopolicyinitiativesat alllevels.DelineationssuchasWhiteandNonWhite arenotsufficientforacountryonthebrinkofbecoming majoritypeopleofcolor.Thefederalandstate governmentmusttaketheleadincollectingdatafrom communitiesofcolorandhavetheforesighttolookat impendingdemographicshiftsinordertodetermine whichdatawillbeneededmost.Scholarsand policymakersrelyonrobustdatasetstoundertake

RACE STILL MATTERS | PAGE 6

rigorousanalysisofpublicproblemsandpotential solutions;informationmustbecollectedfromdifferent groupsofAmericans,includingBlacks,Latinos,Asianand PacificIslanders,NativeAmericans,aswellassub populationswithinthesegroups. Developfederalprogramsthatdiscouragedefacto segregation. Theliteratureonracialdisparitiescitessegregation, particularlyindiversemetropolitanareas,asacritical contributortoahostofsocialwelfareproblems,from educationtoemployment.Thespatialmismatch betweenwherepeopleofcolorliveandwherejob opportunitiesarelocatedcontinuestobeabarrierto mobilitywithinthelabormarket(Brookings,2005). Moreover,thesegregationtaxincurredbyminority homeownerswillpersistunlesseffortsaremadeto diversifyneighborhoods. TheUnitedStateshasahistoryoffederalgovernment interventiontoencouragestablehousingsettlements.The HomesteadActof1862andtheG.I.Billof1944are instancesofsuchinterventions.Thecurrentforeclosure crisisisanunprecedentedphenomenonthatpresentsa uniqueopportunitytodeveloppoliciesatthefederallevel thathelpcommunitiesofcolor,whilesimultaneously stimulatingtheoverallnationaleconomy. Poverty disproportionately affects people of color Failingtoreportandcollectdataonraceandethnicity obscuresthedisproportionateimpactofpovertyon peopleofcolor. StrengthentheCommunityReinvestmentAct TheCommunityReinvestmentAct(CRA)servesasan exampleofsuccessfulfederallegislationthathas simultaneouslysupportedlowincomecommunitiesof colorandhelpedbanksfindprofitablemarketsthat otherwisewouldhavebeenavoided.Asournationgrows morediverseandourbankingsystemmorecomplex,now isthetimetostrengthentheCRAbymakingitapplicable toallfinancialinstitutions,includinginvestmentbanks, hedgefunds,largecreditunions,insurancecompanies, andanyotherinstitutionsthatprovidefinancialservices.

Furthermore,tosucceedinthefuture,CRAshouldfocus onavarietyofassetandwealthbuildinginitiativesand regulatorsshoulduseacoordinatedapproachtotrack progress.Indicatorsthatregulatorscanfocusoninclude, butarenotlimitedto:homeownership,business ownership;checking,savings,andretirementaccounts; stockownership;andemployment. Conclusion ThefutureofAmericadependsontheproductivity, health,andwealthofitsworkersandleaders,themajority ofwhomwillbepeopleofcolorbytheyear2050(US Census,2008).Therefore,thefutureofAmericadepends onthepoliciesweadopttodaythatwillsupportthe successofBlacks,Latinos,andAsianAmericans.This includesfindingasolutiontoimprovingeducational outcomes,providingaffordablehealthcaretoall,and creatingentryleveljobopportunitieswiththepossibility ofadvancement. Americanpolicyhastheresponsibilitytoensurethatwe aretrainingthenextgenerationtoassumethereinsofour prosperity.Failingtodosowillhavegraveimplications forourabilitytomaintainourstandardoflivingandour globalleadershipposition.

RACE STILL MATTERS | PAGE 7

References Bertrand,MarianneandSendhilMullainathan.AreEmilyAndGregOreEmployableThan LakishaAndJamal?AFieldExperimentOnLaborMarketDiscrimination.AmericanEconomic Review,Sep4:9911013.2004. BrookingsInstitution.JobSprawlandtheSpatialMismatchbetweenBlacksandJobs.MichaelA.Stoll, February2005. BureauforLaborStatistics.TableA12.Alternativemeasuresoflaborunderutilization.July 2009. Demos.ByAThread:TheNewExperienceofAmericasMiddleClass.JenniferWheary,Thomas M.Shapiro,TamaraDraut,2007. EconomicPolicyInstitute.WhatarecessionmeansforBlackAmerica.AlgernonAustin,Issue Brief#241,January18,2008. FederalReserveBankofSanFrancisco.TheUntoldCostsofSubprimeLending:TheImpactsof ForeclosureonCommunitiesofColorinCalifornia.CarolinaReidandElizabethLaderman, 2009. FirstDataCorporation.Unbanked/UnderbankedOpportunity.2008.Availableathttp:// www.firstdata.com/about/thought_leadership/whitepapers/WP13_Unbank_Underbank.pdf. Gilbert,Dennis.TheAmericanClassStructureinanAgeofGrowingInequality.N.p.:Wadsworth Publishing,2002. Hertz,Tom.Rags,RichesandRace:TheIntergenerationalEconomicMobilityofBlackandWhite FamiliesintheUnitedStates.InUnequalChances:FamilyBackgroundandEconomicSuccess. SamuelBowles,HerbertGintisandMelissaOsborneGroves,eds.Princeton,NJ:Princeton University,2005. Hertz,Tom.UnderstandingMobilityinAmerica.CenterforAmericanProgress,2006. Horton,DerrickHayward.RaceandWealth:ADemographicAnalysisofBlack Homeownership.SociologicalInquiry,62:480489.1992. Humphreys,JeffreyM.TheMulticulturalEconomy2008,TheSeligCenterforEconomic Growth,2008. NationalCenterforChildreninPoverty.BasicFactsaboutLowIncomeChildren.AyanaDouglasHall andMichelleChau,October2008.Availableathttp://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_845.html. NationalCommunityReinvestmentCoalition.IncomeisNoShieldAgainstRacialDifferencesin Lending:AComparisonofHighCostLendinginAmericasMetropolitanAreas.JohnTaylor,David Berenbaum,JoshuaSilver,andAnnaGullickson,July2007. Oliver,MelvinandTomShapiro.BlackWealth/WhiteWealth:ANewPerspectiveonRacialInequality.New York:Routledge,1995. Pager,DevahandLincolnQuillian.WalkingtheTalk:WhatEmployersSayVersusWhat TheyDo.AmericanSociologicalReview,7(3):355380.2005. PublicPolicyInstituteofCalifornia.APortraitofRaceandEthnicityinCalifornia.BelindaReyes,2001. Rusk,David.TheSegregationTax:TheCostofRacialSegregationtoBlackHomeowners.The BrookingsInstitution,2001. USCensus.AnOlderandMoreDiversePopulationbyMidcentury.ReleasedAugust14,2008. USCensusAmericanCommunitySurvey.TableC9:Children/1byPresenceandTypeofParent(s),Race, andHispanicOrigin,2008. USCensus.CurrentPopulationSurvey/HousingVacancySurvey.Table22.HomeownershipRatesby RaceandEthnicityofHouseholder:1994to2008. THE GREENLINING INSTITUTE The Greenlining Institute is a national policy, organizing, and leadership institute working for racial and economic justice. We ensure that grassroots leaders are participating in major policy debates by building diverse coalitions of grassroots leaders that work together to advance solutions to our nation's most pressing problems. Our mission is to empower communities of color and other disadvantaged groups through multi-ethnic economic and leadership development, civil rights and anti-redlining activities. WWW.GREENLINING.ORG RACE STILL MATTERS | PAGE 8