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# Introduction to FEM

The Direct
Stiffness Method
Part II

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 1
Introduction to FE

## The Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) Steps

(repeated here for convenience)

 Disconnection
Breakdown Localization
 Member (Element) Formation

 Globalization
Merge
Assembly & Application of BCs
Solution  Solution
Recovery of Derived Quantities

## conceptual processing post-processing

steps steps steps

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 2
Introduction to FEM

## 1. Compatibility: The joint displacements of all

members meeting at a joint must be the same

## 2. Equilibrium: The sum of forces exerted by all

members that meet at a joint must balance the
external force applied to that joint.

## To apply these rules in assembly by hand, it is convenient

to expand or augment the element stiffness equations
as shown for the example truss on the next slide.

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 3
Introduction to FEM
Expanded Element Stiffness Equations
of Example Truss
 (1)     u(1) 
f x1 10 0 −10 0 0 0 x1
 (1) 
f y1    u (1) 
   0 0 0 0 0 0   y1 
 (1) 
f x2    u(1) 
  −10 0 10 0 0 0  x2 
 (1)  =    (1) 
 f y2   0 0 0 0 0 0   u y2 
    
 (1) 
f x3 0 0 0 0 0 0   u(1) 
x3
f (1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 u (1)
y3 y3
 (2)   
 u (2) 
f x1 0 0 0 0 0 0 x1
 (2)   (2) 
 f y1  0 0 0 0 0 0  
u y1 
 (2) 
f x2     u (2) 
 0 0 0 0 0 0   x2 
 (2)  =   (2) 
 f y2   0 0 0 5 0 −5   u 
    y2 
 (2) 
f x3 0 0 0 0 0 0   u(2) 
x3
f (2) 0 0 0 −5 0 5 u (2)
y3 y3
 (3)     u (3) 
f x1 10 10 0 0 −10 −10 x1
 (3)
f y1   10  
10 0 0 −10 −10   y1  u (3) 
  
    u (3) 
0 
(3)
 f x2   0 0 0 0 0  x2 
 =  (3) 
 (3)
f y2   0 0 0 0 0 0  
  u y2 
   
 (3)
f x3  −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u(3) 
x3
(3)
f y3 −10 −10 0 0 10 10 u (3)
y3

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 4
Introduction to FEM
Reconnecting Members by
Enforcing Compatibility Rule
 (1)   u 
f x1 10 0 −10 0 0 0 x1
 (1)    To apply compatibility, drop
 f y1   0 0 0 0 0 0
u y1 
 (1) 
f x2    u x2 
the member index from the
  −10 0 10 0 0 0  
 (1)  =     nodal displacements
 f y2   0 0 0 0 0 0   u y2 
    
 (1) 
f x3 0 0 0 0 0 0u 
x3
f (1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 u y3
y3
 (2)  u 
f x1 
0 0 0 0 0 0 x1 f (1) = K(1) u
 (2)   
 f y1  0 0 0 0 0 0  
u y1 
 (2) 
f x2    u x2 
 0 0 0 0 0 0   
 (2)  =    
 f y2   0 0 0 5 0 −5   u y2 

 (2) 
f x3
 
0 0 0 0 0 0 u 
  f (2) = K (2) u
x3
f (2) 0 0 0 −5 0 5 u y3
y3
 (3)   u 
f (3) = K (3) u
f x1 10 10 0 0 −10 −10 x1
 (3)
f y1   10  
10 0 0 −10 −10   y1 u 
   
   u 
0 
(3)
 f x2   0 0 0 0 0  
 =  x2 
 (3)
f y2   0 0 0 0 0 0  u 
    y2 
 (3)
f x3  −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u 
x3
(3)
f y3 −10 −10 0 0 10 10 u y3

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 5
Introduction to FEM

## Next, Apply Equilibrium Rule

3
3 f3
f3(3)
(3) f3(2)
− f3 (2)
− f3 (3)

(2)
Be careful with + directions
of internal forces!

## Applying this to all joints (see Notes):

(2)
f = f (1) + f + f (3)

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 6
Introduction to FEM

## Forming the Master Stiffness Equations

through Equilibrium Rule

## (2) (2) (3)

f = f (1) + f + f = (K + K + K ) u = K u
(3) (1)

    
f x1 20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 u x1
 f y1   −10 −10   
   10 10 0 0   u y1 
 f x2   0   
  =  −10 0 10 0 0   u x2 
 f y2   −5   
   0 0 0 5 0   u y2 
 f x3   −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u x3 
f y3 −10 −10 0 −5 10 15 u y3

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 7
Introduction to FEM

Boundary Conditions to Example Truss
1
3 2
Recall:
Displacement BCs:
u x1 = u y1 = u y2 = 0

Force BCs:
f x2 = 0, f x3 = 2, f y3 = 1
1 2
;;
;;

;;
;;

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 8
Introduction to FEM

## Where Do Boundary Conditions Go?

u x1 = u y1 = u y2 = 0
Recall
f x2 = 0, f x3 = 2, f y3 = 1

    
20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 u x1 f x1
 10 10 0 0 −10 −10     f y1 
   u y1   
 −10 0 10 0 0 0     f x2 
   u x2  = 
 0 −5     f y2 
 0 0 5 0   u y2   
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u x3   f x3 
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15 u y3 f y3

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 9
Introduction to FEM

## Reduced Master Stiffness Equations

for Hand Computation

## Strike out rows and columns pertaining to known displacements:

      
10 0 0 u x2 f x2 0
 0 10 10   u x3  =  f x3  =  2 
0 10 15 u y3 f y3 1

or Reduced
^ ^ ^
K u = f stiffness
equations

## Solve by Gauss elimination for unknown node displacements

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 10
Introduction to FEM

## Solve for Unknown Node Displacements

and Complete the Displacement Vector
   
u x2 0
 u x3  =  0.4 
u y3 −0.2
Expand with known
displacement BCs
 
0
 0 
 
 0 
u= 
 0 

 
 0.4 
−0.2

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 11
Introduction to FEM

## Recovery of Node Forces Including Reactions

    
20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 0 −2
 10 10 0 0 −10 −10     −2 
  0   
 −10 0 10 0 0 0     0 
f = Ku =  0  =  
 0 0 0 5 0 −5     1 
  0   
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10   0.4   2 
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15 −0.2 1
1
3 2 Reaction
Forces
;;
;;
;;
;;
1 2

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 12
Introduction to FEM

## Recovery of Internal Forces

(Axial Forces in Truss Members)

## 3 For each member (element) e = (1), (2), (3)

1. extract u e from u
F (3) 2. transform to local (element) displacements
(2)
F _e e e
u = T u
1 F (1) 2
3. compute elongation d e = ū xe j − ū xi
e

direction of arrows
is for +F e (tension) E eA e e
4. compute axial force Fe = d
Le
See Example 3.1 of Notes for a detailed calculation

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 13
Introduction to FEM

## Computer Oriented Assembly and

Solution in Actual FEM Codes
(delayed until Part III of course)

## K stored in special sparse format

(for example "skyline format")

## Equations for supports are not physically deleted

(Sec 3.5.2) Next slide explains this for the example truss

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 14
Introduction to FEM
Computer Oriented Modification
of Master Stiffness Equations
(delayed until Part III of course)

Recall u x1 = u y1 = u y2 = 0 (freedoms 1, 2, 4)
f x2 = 0, f x3 = 2, f y3 = 1

    
20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 0 f x1
 10 10 0 0 −10 −10     f y1 
  0   
 −10 0 10 0 0   
0   u x2  =  
  0 
 0 0 0 5 0 −5     f y2 
  0   
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u x3   2 
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15 u y3 1
zero out rows and columns 1, 2 and 4
store 1's on diagonal

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 15
Introduction to FEM

## Computer Oriented Modification of

Master Stiffness Equations
(delayed until Part III of course)
1 0 0 0 0 0   u x1   0 
0 1 0 0 0 0   u y1   0 
 0 0 10 0 0   u x2   0 
 0   =  
0 0 0 1 0 0   u y2   0 
    
0 0 0 0 10 10 u x3 2
0 0 0 0 10 15 u y3 1

## Modified master ^ ^ same u as in

stiffness equations K u= f original equations

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 16
Introduction to FEM

## Prescribed Nonzero Displacements

in Example Truss
fy3 = 1

3
fx3 = 2

u y1 = −0.5 u y2 = +0.4
2
going down going up
;
;
1 ux1 = 0
;
;

no horizontal motion

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 17
Introduction to FEM

## Recall the master stiffness equations

    
20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 u x1 f x1
 10 10 0 0 −10 −10     f y1 
   u y1   
 −10 0 10 0 0 0     f x2 
   u x2  =  
 0 0 0 5 0 −5     f y2 
   u y2   
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u x3   f x3 
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15 u y3 f y3

## The displacement B.Cs are now

u x1 = 0, u y1 = −0.5, u y2 = 0.4

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 18
Introduction to FEM

## Prescribed NZ Displacements (cont'd)

    
20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 0 f x1
 10 −10 −10     f y1 
 10 0 0   −0.5   
 −10 0 10 0 0 0     0 
   u x2  =  
 0 0 0 5 0 −5     f y2 
   0.4   
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u x3   2 
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15 u y3 1

## Remove rows 1,2,4 but (for now) keep columns

 
0
   −0.5   
−10 0 10 0 0 0   u x2 
 0
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10     
 0.4  = 2
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15   u x3 
 1
u y3

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 19
Introduction to FEM

## Prescribed NZ Displacements (cont'd)

Transfer effect of known displacements to RHS, and delete columns:
    
10 0 0 u x2 0
 0 10 10   u x3  =  2  −
0 10 15 u y3 1
   
(−10) × 0 + 0 × (−0.5) + 0 × 0.4 0
 (−10) × 0 + (−10) × (−0.5) + 0 × 0.4  =  −3 
(−10) × 0 + (−10) × (−0.5) + (−5) × 0.4 −2

Solving gives
   
u x2 0
 u x3  =  −0.5 
u y3 0.2

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 20
Introduction to FEM

## Prescribed NZ Displacements (cont'd)

   
u x2 0
 u x3  =  −0.5 
u y3 0.2

## Complete the displacement vector with known values

 
0
 −0.5 
 
 0 
u=  0.4 

 
 −0.5 
0.2

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 21
Introduction to FEM

## Recovery of reaction forces and internal

member forces proceeds as before

## In summary, the only changes to the DSM

is in the application of displacement
boundary conditions before solve

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 22