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Introduction to FEM

The Direct
Stiffness Method
Part II

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 1
Introduction to FE

The Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) Steps


(repeated here for convenience)

 Disconnection
Breakdown Localization
 Member (Element) Formation

 Globalization
Merge
Assembly & Application of BCs
Solution  Solution
Recovery of Derived Quantities

conceptual processing post-processing


steps steps steps

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 2
Introduction to FEM

Rules That Govern Assembly

1. Compatibility: The joint displacements of all


members meeting at a joint must be the same

2. Equilibrium: The sum of forces exerted by all


members that meet at a joint must balance the
external force applied to that joint.

To apply these rules in assembly by hand, it is convenient


to expand or augment the element stiffness equations
as shown for the example truss on the next slide.

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 3
Introduction to FEM
Expanded Element Stiffness Equations
of Example Truss
 (1)     u(1) 
f x1 10 0 −10 0 0 0 x1
 (1) 
f y1    u (1) 
   0 0 0 0 0 0   y1 
 (1) 
f x2    u(1) 
  −10 0 10 0 0 0  x2 
 (1)  =    (1) 
 f y2   0 0 0 0 0 0   u y2 
    
 (1) 
f x3 0 0 0 0 0 0   u(1) 
x3
f (1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 u (1)
y3 y3
 (2)   
 u (2) 
f x1 0 0 0 0 0 0 x1
 (2)   (2) 
 f y1  0 0 0 0 0 0  
u y1 
 (2) 
f x2     u (2) 
 0 0 0 0 0 0   x2 
 (2)  =   (2) 
 f y2   0 0 0 5 0 −5   u 
    y2 
 (2) 
f x3 0 0 0 0 0 0   u(2) 
x3
f (2) 0 0 0 −5 0 5 u (2)
y3 y3
 (3)     u (3) 
f x1 10 10 0 0 −10 −10 x1
 (3)
f y1   10  
10 0 0 −10 −10   y1  u (3) 
  
    u (3) 
0 
(3)
 f x2   0 0 0 0 0  x2 
 =  (3) 
 (3)
f y2   0 0 0 0 0 0  
  u y2 
   
 (3)
f x3  −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u(3) 
x3
(3)
f y3 −10 −10 0 0 10 10 u (3)
y3

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 4
Introduction to FEM
Reconnecting Members by
Enforcing Compatibility Rule
 (1)   u 
f x1 10 0 −10 0 0 0 x1
 (1)    To apply compatibility, drop
 f y1   0 0 0 0 0 0
u y1 
 (1) 
f x2    u x2 
the member index from the
  −10 0 10 0 0 0  
 (1)  =     nodal displacements
 f y2   0 0 0 0 0 0   u y2 
    
 (1) 
f x3 0 0 0 0 0 0u 
x3
f (1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 u y3
y3
 (2)  u 
f x1 
0 0 0 0 0 0 x1 f (1) = K(1) u
 (2)   
 f y1  0 0 0 0 0 0  
u y1 
 (2) 
f x2    u x2 
 0 0 0 0 0 0   
 (2)  =    
 f y2   0 0 0 5 0 −5   u y2 

 (2) 
f x3
 
0 0 0 0 0 0 u 
  f (2) = K (2) u
x3
f (2) 0 0 0 −5 0 5 u y3
y3
 (3)   u 
f (3) = K (3) u
f x1 10 10 0 0 −10 −10 x1
 (3)
f y1   10  
10 0 0 −10 −10   y1 u 
   
   u 
0 
(3)
 f x2   0 0 0 0 0  
 =  x2 
 (3)
f y2   0 0 0 0 0 0  u 
    y2 
 (3)
f x3  −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u 
x3
(3)
f y3 −10 −10 0 0 10 10 u y3

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 5
Introduction to FEM

Next, Apply Equilibrium Rule


3
3 f3
f3(3)
(3) f3(2)
− f3 (2)
− f3 (3)

(2)
Be careful with + directions
of internal forces!

Applying this to all joints (see Notes):

(2)
f = f (1) + f + f (3)

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 6
Introduction to FEM

Forming the Master Stiffness Equations


through Equilibrium Rule

(2) (2) (3)


f = f (1) + f + f = (K + K + K ) u = K u
(3) (1)

    
f x1 20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 u x1
 f y1   −10 −10   
   10 10 0 0   u y1 
 f x2   0   
  =  −10 0 10 0 0   u x2 
 f y2   −5   
   0 0 0 5 0   u y2 
 f x3   −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u x3 
f y3 −10 −10 0 −5 10 15 u y3

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 7
Introduction to FEM

Applying Support and Loading


Boundary Conditions to Example Truss
1
3 2
Recall:
Displacement BCs:
u x1 = u y1 = u y2 = 0

Force BCs:
f x2 = 0, f x3 = 2, f y3 = 1
1 2
;;
;;

;;
;;

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 8
Introduction to FEM

Where Do Boundary Conditions Go?

u x1 = u y1 = u y2 = 0
Recall
f x2 = 0, f x3 = 2, f y3 = 1

    
20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 u x1 f x1
 10 10 0 0 −10 −10     f y1 
   u y1   
 −10 0 10 0 0 0     f x2 
   u x2  = 
 0 −5     f y2 
 0 0 5 0   u y2   
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u x3   f x3 
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15 u y3 f y3

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 9
Introduction to FEM

Reduced Master Stiffness Equations


for Hand Computation

Strike out rows and columns pertaining to known displacements:


      
10 0 0 u x2 f x2 0
 0 10 10   u x3  =  f x3  =  2 
0 10 15 u y3 f y3 1

or Reduced
^ ^ ^
K u = f stiffness
equations

Solve by Gauss elimination for unknown node displacements

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 10
Introduction to FEM

Solve for Unknown Node Displacements


and Complete the Displacement Vector
   
u x2 0
 u x3  =  0.4 
u y3 −0.2
Expand with known
displacement BCs
 
0
 0 
 
 0 
u= 
 0 

 
 0.4 
−0.2

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 11
Introduction to FEM

Recovery of Node Forces Including Reactions


    
20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 0 −2
 10 10 0 0 −10 −10     −2 
  0   
 −10 0 10 0 0 0     0 
f = Ku =  0  =  
 0 0 0 5 0 −5     1 
  0   
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10   0.4   2 
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15 −0.2 1
1
3 2 Reaction
Forces
;;
;;
;;
;;
1 2

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 12
Introduction to FEM

Recovery of Internal Forces


(Axial Forces in Truss Members)

3 For each member (element) e = (1), (2), (3)


1. extract u e from u
F (3) 2. transform to local (element) displacements
(2)
F _e e e
u = T u
1 F (1) 2
3. compute elongation d e = ū xe j − ū xi
e

direction of arrows
is for +F e (tension) E eA e e
4. compute axial force Fe = d
Le
See Example 3.1 of Notes for a detailed calculation

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 13
Introduction to FEM

Computer Oriented Assembly and


Solution in Actual FEM Codes
(delayed until Part III of course)

K stored in special sparse format


(for example "skyline format")

Assembly done by "freedom pointers" (Sec 3.5.1)

Equations for supports are not physically deleted


(Sec 3.5.2) Next slide explains this for the example truss

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 14
Introduction to FEM
Computer Oriented Modification
of Master Stiffness Equations
(delayed until Part III of course)

Recall u x1 = u y1 = u y2 = 0 (freedoms 1, 2, 4)
f x2 = 0, f x3 = 2, f y3 = 1

    
20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 0 f x1
 10 10 0 0 −10 −10     f y1 
  0   
 −10 0 10 0 0   
0   u x2  =  
  0 
 0 0 0 5 0 −5     f y2 
  0   
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u x3   2 
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15 u y3 1
zero out rows and columns 1, 2 and 4
store 1's on diagonal

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 15
Introduction to FEM

Computer Oriented Modification of


Master Stiffness Equations
(delayed until Part III of course)
1 0 0 0 0 0   u x1   0 
0 1 0 0 0 0   u y1   0 
 0 0 10 0 0   u x2   0 
 0   =  
0 0 0 1 0 0   u y2   0 
    
0 0 0 0 10 10 u x3 2
0 0 0 0 10 15 u y3 1

Modified master ^ ^ same u as in


stiffness equations K u= f original equations

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 16
Introduction to FEM

Prescribed Nonzero Displacements


in Example Truss
fy3 = 1

3
fx3 = 2

u y1 = −0.5 u y2 = +0.4
2
going down going up
;
;
1 ux1 = 0
;
;

no horizontal motion

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 17
Introduction to FEM

Prescribed NZ Displacements (cont'd)

Recall the master stiffness equations


    
20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 u x1 f x1
 10 10 0 0 −10 −10     f y1 
   u y1   
 −10 0 10 0 0 0     f x2 
   u x2  =  
 0 0 0 5 0 −5     f y2 
   u y2   
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u x3   f x3 
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15 u y3 f y3

The displacement B.Cs are now

u x1 = 0, u y1 = −0.5, u y2 = 0.4

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 18
Introduction to FEM

Prescribed NZ Displacements (cont'd)


    
20 10 −10 0 −10 −10 0 f x1
 10 −10 −10     f y1 
 10 0 0   −0.5   
 −10 0 10 0 0 0     0 
   u x2  =  
 0 0 0 5 0 −5     f y2 
   0.4   
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10   u x3   2 
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15 u y3 1

Remove rows 1,2,4 but (for now) keep columns


 
0
   −0.5   
−10 0 10 0 0 0   u x2 
 0
 −10 −10 0 0 10 10     
 0.4  = 2
−10 −10 0 −5 10 15   u x3 
 1
u y3

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 19
Introduction to FEM

Prescribed NZ Displacements (cont'd)


Transfer effect of known displacements to RHS, and delete columns:
    
10 0 0 u x2 0
 0 10 10   u x3  =  2  −
0 10 15 u y3 1
   
(−10) × 0 + 0 × (−0.5) + 0 × 0.4 0
 (−10) × 0 + (−10) × (−0.5) + 0 × 0.4  =  −3 
(−10) × 0 + (−10) × (−0.5) + (−5) × 0.4 −2

Solving gives
   
u x2 0
 u x3  =  −0.5 
u y3 0.2

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 20
Introduction to FEM

Prescribed NZ Displacements (cont'd)


   
u x2 0
 u x3  =  −0.5 
u y3 0.2

Complete the displacement vector with known values


 
0
 −0.5 
 
 0 
u=  0.4 

 
 −0.5 
0.2

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 21
Introduction to FEM

Prescribed NZ Displacements (cont'd)

Recovery of reaction forces and internal


member forces proceeds as before

In summary, the only changes to the DSM


is in the application of displacement
boundary conditions before solve

IFEM Ch 3 – Slide 22