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INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE

CLASSROOM: AN INTRODUCTION




















An ntroduction

I NSTRUCTI ONAL MEDI A AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CLASSROOM
An Introduction











Lockias Chitanana
MidIands state University
Department of EducationaI TechnoIogy



Contents Page
AN 0vRvlW 0F 00CAIl0NAL M0lA AN0 ICHN0L00V 1
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 1
What is Instructional Technology?............................................................................................. 1
Technology as tool ........................................................................................................................ 1
Technology as system .................................................................................................................. 1
Instructional technology .............................................................................................................. 2
Does Educational Technology differ from Instructional Technology? ................................ 4
The Educational Technology Centre .......................................................................................... 5
Why Use Technology in Instruction? ......................................................................................... 6
Characteristics of Good Instructional Technology ................................................................. 8
SOME GUIDELINES FOR USING INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY ................................................................... 8
Selecting technology .................................................................................................................. 10
DALE'S CONE OF EXPERIENCE AND SELECTION OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY ............................. 12
NON PROJECTED/ELECTRONICALLY ENHANCED VISUAL AIDS ................................................................. 14
SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................... 16
REFERENCE ........................................................................................................................................ 17
!$VCH0L00lCAL F00N0AIl0N$ 0F lN$IR0CIl0NAL ICHN0L00V 18
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 18
What is learning? ......................................................................................................................... 18
Learning Styles ............................................................................................................................ 19
Visual Learners ............................................................................................................................ 19
Auditory Learners ........................................................................................................................ 20
Kinesthetic/Tactile Learners ...................................................................................................... 21
Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles ............................................................................. 21
Implications of Multiple Intelligences for Instructional Design ........................................... 22
Multiple intelligence and Technology selection ..................................................................... 23
Why should teachers know about learning styles? .............................................................. 25
Learning Theories and Their Implications for Instructional Design ................................... 26
Behaviourism ............................................................................................................................... 26
Implications of Behaviourism for Instructional Design ........................................................ 27
Cognitivism ................................................................................................................................... 29
Implications of Cognitivism to Instructional Design ............................................................. 29
Constructivist Theory ................................................................................................................. 30
Implications of Constructivism for Instructional Design ..................................................... 31
(i.) Collaborative Learning ................................................................................................... 33
(ii.) Anchored Instruction ...................................................................................................... 33
(iii.) Apprenticeship ................................................................................................................. 33
Learning Styles versus Learning Theories ............................................................................. 33
Summary ....................................................................................................................................... 34
lN$IR0CIl0NAL 0$l0N 35
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 35
What is Instruction? .................................................................................................................... 35
What is Instructional Design? ................................................................................................... 36
The systematic approach to Instructional Design ................................................................. 37
Instructional Design Models ...................................................................................................... 38
The ADDIE Model ......................................................................................................................... 39
Analyze .......................................................................................................................................... 39
Design ............................................................................................................................................ 40
Develop .......................................................................................................................................... 40
Implement ..................................................................................................................................... 40
Evaluate ......................................................................................................................................... 41
THE ASSURE MODEL ........................................................................................................................ 42


Analyze Learners ......................................................................................................................... 43
b) State Objectives .................................................................................................................. 43
c) Select Methods, Media, and Materials ............................................................................ 44
d) Utilize Media and Materials ............................................................................................... 45
e) Require learner participation ............................................................................................ 45
f) Evaluate and revise ............................................................................................................ 46
Summary ....................................................................................................................................... 47
N0N-!R0ICI0 vl$0AL$ 48
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 48
What is visual literacy? .............................................................................................................. 48
Why is visual literacy important? ............................................................................................. 48
Strategies for developing visual literacy skills ...................................................................... 49
Input Strategies ............................................................................................................................ 49
Output strategies ......................................................................................................................... 50
Real things and realia ................................................................................................................. 50
Models ........................................................................................................................................... 50
Cut- aways .................................................................................................................................... 51
Advantages of realia and models ............................................................................................. 52
Limitations of realia and models .............................................................................................. 52
Dioramas ....................................................................................................................................... 52
Mobiles .......................................................................................................................................... 52
Printed text.................................................................................................................................... 52
Forms of printed text .................................................................................................................. 53
O Textbooks ............................................................................................................................ 53
O Syllabus ................................................................................................................................ 53
O Handouts .............................................................................................................................. 53
(i.) Lesson presentation transcripts ................................................................................... 53
(ii.) Background notes ........................................................................................................... 53
(iii.) OHP transparencies or PowerPoint presentation print-out ..................................... 53
(iv.) An outline of the presentation ....................................................................................... 54
(v.) Course outline .................................................................................................................. 54
(vi.) Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 54
(vii.) Diagrams ........................................................................................................................ 54
Developing Handouts ................................................................................................................. 54
Using Handouts ........................................................................................................................... 54
Using Printed Text ....................................................................................................................... 55
Advantages of Print..................................................................................................................... 55
Limitations of print media .......................................................................................................... 56
Charts ............................................................................................................................................ 56
O Verbal Charts ....................................................................................................................... 56
O Pie charts ............................................................................................................................. 56
O Flow charts .......................................................................................................................... 56
Producing lettering on charts.................................................................................................... 57
GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING CHARTS .................................................................................................. 58
O Line graphs .......................................................................................................................... 59
Posters .......................................................................................................................................... 60
Making posters............................................................................................................................. 61
Still picture and photographs .................................................................................................... 61
Using pictures and photographs .............................................................................................. 62
Display Boards ............................................................................................................................. 62
The chalkboard ............................................................................................................................ 62
Using the Chalkboard ................................................................................................................. 62
Strengths of the chalkboard ...................................................................................................... 64
Limitations of the chalkboard.................................................................................................... 64
The Whiteboard ............................................................................................................................ 64
ADVANTAGES OF WHITEBOARDS ......................................................................................................... 65


Limitations of Whiteboards........................................................................................................ 65
Flipchart ........................................................................................................................................ 66
Using Flipcharts ........................................................................................................................... 67
Limitations of flipcharts ............................................................................................................. 67
Strengths of the flannel board .................................................................................................. 68
Limitations of a fletboard ........................................................................................................... 68
Using the magnetic board .......................................................................................................... 69
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................ 69
!R0ICI0 vl$0AL$ 70
Using the Overhead Projector ................................................................................................... 70
Setting up the projector .............................................................................................................. 71
Overhead projector maintenance ............................................................................................. 73
Overhead Transparencies .......................................................................................................... 74
Creating transparencies for overheads ................................................................................... 74
HANDMADE MATERIALS ...................................................................................................................... 74
USING A PRINTER ................................................................................................................................ 75
Using a photocopier .................................................................................................................... 75
Procedure for making transparencies using a photocopier ................................................ 76
Using the Overhead Projector for classroom teaching ........................................................ 76
Using the Projector as a Chalkboard ....................................................................................... 76
Using the projector as a demonstration stage ....................................................................... 76
The OHP as an enlarger .............................................................................................................. 76
Using the projector with prepared transparencies ................................................................ 76
Some aspects to consider during a presentation .................................................................. 77
SLIDES ................................................................................................................................................ 78
Making slides................................................................................................................................ 80
Using Slide for classroom presentation .................................................................................. 81
Advantages ................................................................................................................................... 81
Disadvantages .............................................................................................................................. 81
OPAQUE PROJECTOR.......................................................................................................................... 82
Instructions for operating the opaque projector.................................................................... 83
Using the opaque projector ....................................................................................................... 83
STRENGTHS OF THE OPAQUE PROJECTOR ........................................................................................... 83
Limitations of the opaque projector ......................................................................................... 83
FILMSTRIPS ......................................................................................................................................... 83
Using Films ................................................................................................................................... 83
Strengths of using film strips .................................................................................................... 84
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Projection Panel....................................................................... 84
Maintaining the multimedia projector ...................................................................................... 85
Using the LCD for classroom teaching.................................................................................... 85
Advantages of LCD's .................................................................................................................. 85
Multimedia Projection ................................................................................................................. 85
Screen Size ................................................................................................................................... 89
Throw Distance ............................................................................................................................ 90
Using Multimedia Projector ....................................................................................................... 90
A00l0 M0lA 92
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 92
What is audio media? ................................................................................................................. 92
Hearing and Listening ................................................................................................................. 93
Developing listening skills ......................................................................................................... 93
Radio broadcasts......................................................................................................................... 95
Audiotapes and Audiocassettes ............................................................................................... 95
Using of Audiocassettes ............................................................................................................ 96
Strengths of Audiotapes ............................................................................................................ 96
Audio Discs .................................................................................................................................. 96


Summary ....................................................................................................................................... 97
M0Il0N M0lA 98
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 98
Why Use Video ............................................................................................................................. 98
Technologies for Delivering Video ........................................................................................... 99
Videotapes .................................................................................................................................. 101
Using Video for classroom teaching ...................................................................................... 101
(i.) Silent Viewing Activities ............................................................................................... 104
(iii.) Sound only activities .................................................................................................... 104
(iv.) Freeze framing (still picture) activities ...................................................................... 104
(vi.) Thoughts and Emotions ............................................................................................... 105
(vii.) Paired Viewing Activities .......................................................................................... 105
Advantages of Video ................................................................................................................. 105
Advantages of Video ................................................................................................................. 106
Limitations of Video .................................................................................................................. 106
LIVE TELEVISION ............................................................................................................................... 106
Designing Instruction for Live ................................................................................................. 106
Conducting Live Television Lessons ..................................................................................... 107
Set the stage (Pre-viewing activities) ..................................................................................... 107
During the Live Television Session (while viewing activities) .......................................... 107
Opportunities to enhance students interaction ................................................................... 108
Following the Session (Post-viewing activities) ...................................................................... 108
Advantages of Instructional Television ................................................................................. 108
Limitations of Instructional Television .................................................................................. 108
C0M!0IR M0LIlM0lA 110
Components of a Computer .................................................................................................... 111
COMPUTER HARDWARE ..................................................................................................................... 111
INPUT DEVICES .................................................................................................................................. 111
PROCESSING UNIT ............................................................................................................................ 112
OUTPUT DEVICES .............................................................................................................................. 112
Computer storage ...................................................................................................................... 113
Primary storage.......................................................................................................................... 113
Secondary storage .................................................................................................................... 113
SOFTWARE ........................................................................................................................................ 114
SYSTEM SOFTWARE ........................................................................................................................... 114
APPLICATION SOFTWARE .................................................................................................................. 114
Examples of Application Software ......................................................................................... 115
Computer software application in teaching and learning .................................................. 115
O Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) ............................................................................ 115
O Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) ........................................................................... 115
O Computer Mediated Communication ............................................................................ 116
Types of Educational Software ............................................................................................... 116
SOME EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS OF GENERIC SOFTWARE IN TEACHING AND LEARNING ............... 116
Word Processing ....................................................................................................................... 116
Spreadsheets.............................................................................................................................. 116
Presentation Software .............................................................................................................. 116
Databases ................................................................................................................................... 117
Subject-Specific Software ........................................................................................................ 117
Tutorial ........................................................................................................................................ 117
Drill and Practice ....................................................................................................................... 117
Simulation ................................................................................................................................... 118
Computer Games ....................................................................................................................... 118
EDUCATIONAL CD-ROM MATERIALS ................................................................................................ 119
Using Computer multimedia .................................................................................................... 119
SOME TEACHING STRATEGIES WITH THE COMPUTER ........................................................................ 120


Using the computer for individual learning .......................................................................... 120
Using a computer a collaborative learning tool ................................................................... 120
Using a computer as a tool for individual input as part of a larger group or class project
...................................................................................................................................................... 120
Advantages of Computers ....................................................................................................... 120
Limitations of Computers ........................................................................................................ 121
Educational Value ...................................................................................................................... 121
Activities...................................................................................................................................... 123
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Introduction
ducation has sustained a long-term interest in the use of instructional technology
as a means to facilitate more efficient and effective learning opportunities for students.
Technology of the early days has been in the form of blackboards, pencils, slates; later on it
was films, radio, overheads and more recently computers, the nternet or even newer
technologies. Many new innovations have been added to the classroom through the ages.
Today the field is fascinated with the possibilities presented by the computer as a medium
of instruction because of its ability to integrate a variety of media into a single piece of
instructional technology. This chapter gives an overview of the concept of nstructional
Technology (T). The subsequent chapters look at the different technologies, their
characteristics and explore the ways through which teachers can employ these
technologies to enhance their teaching and student learning.
What is InstructionaI TechnoIogy?
To define nstructional Technology, we must first understand the term
technology. A number of definitions have been put forward for the word technology. n
general terms, technology can be defined as "the systematic application of knowledge
to practical tasks (Galbraith, as cited in Heinich, Molenda, Russell, and Smaldino,
1999, p. 18). n this sense, various technologies might be classified as either "hard or
"soft (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, and Smaldino, 1999), or as "resources and
"processes (Seels & Richey, 1994). n actual fact the word technology has its origins
in the Greek word technologia which in itself is made up two words, techne which
means "craft" and logia which means "saying". This implies that the term technology
means both the theory and the practice. Depending on the context, the word
technology has been defined from these two major perspectives, that is, technology
as a tool and as a system or technique. These perspectives are considered below.
TechnoIogy as tooI
This refers to the hard technologies. From this perspective technology is
viewed as the tools and machines that help us to solve problems. The word
technology is used to refer to the hardware tools, that is, the devices that serve as
tools to accomplish a given task. Although many people often confuse technology with
electronic devices, technology does not always include electronics or machines. t is a
term used to describe all the tools that we use to solve practical problems. n this view
technology in education is a far-reaching term that can include both simple tools, such
as a pencil, and complex tools, such as the computer.
TechnoIogy as system
This refers to the soft technologies.Technology in this sense includes
technical methods, skills, processes, techniques used to solve problems. These are
the soft technologies, which according to Saettler (1968); are based on applying
research from the behavioral sciences to improve human performance. Methods such
as needs assessment and task analysis, or various instructional strategies and tactics
Chapter
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we use are examples of soft technologies used in classroom teaching. As Davies
(1978) notes, the original meaning of the word technology was concerned with know
how or method. Davies further notes that it was not until the Great xhibition of 1851
that the word became overly associated with machines. This view is also reflected in
the Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (1993) which defines technology as 1. the
practical application of knowledge. 2. a manner of accomplishing a task, especially
using technical processes, methods or knowledge. From this view the word
technology is often used to refer to the means by which we make use of scientific
knowledge to solve practical problems. For example, James Finn, a prominent figure
in the field of educational technology defined technology as:
The processes, systems, management and control mechanisms both
human and non-human. a way of looking at the problems as to their
interest and difficulty, the feasibility of technical solutions, and
economic values-broadly considered-of those solutions (Gentry 1991:
2).
More concisely, technology is "the systemic and systematic application of
behaviour and physical sciences concepts and other knowledge to the solution of
problems (Gentry 1991:7). Technology thus assists us in our goal to solve problems
through the scientific application of knowledge and skills. Technology is meant to help
us find to solutions to problems by incorporating all that is known about scientific fact
into the problem-solving process. There may or may not be machines involved in
technology, but there is always the application of scientific knowledge. t could be a
scientific methodology, organized knowledge or the systematic application of practical
skills.

To summarise our discussion, in this section we have seen that besides the
latest gadgets and hardware, technology also refers to an approach towards or the
process behind finding solutions to problems, including those encountered in learning.
So technology really includes the hard technology such as the equipment that we find
in the classrooms and the processes or ways we go about solving problems. For us
as teachers we would like to take the word technology from this broader sense than
does the general public. For our field, technology involves not just the hardware, but
also more importantly the systematic process involved in approaching and solving
problems.
Now that we explained the meaning of technology as used in the field of
education, the next thing is to answer the question: what is instructional technology?
InstructionaI technoIogy
The conceptions of instructional technology have been evolving as the field
has and they continue to evolve. Consequently instructional technology is changing
definitions as fast as it is evolving. Basically instructional technology is the use of
technology to support the learning process. nstructional technology is concerned with
technology and its impacts upon the learning process that is in delivering subject
content, facilitating communication and providing assessment and feedback.
However, just like technology can be classified as hard or soft, instructional
technology can also be defined along the same lines which distinguish the media tools
from the methods.
One of the first definitions from the tool perspective which is found in
ducational Screen (1925) defines nstructional Technology as "visual instruction that
involves the schoolroom use of motion pictures, lantern slides, and a 'wealth of
devices' such as still pictures, wall maps, charts, and the actual objects." Another
definition of instructional technology which reflects this early view is also given by the
Commission of nstructional Technology (1970) which views instructional technology
as "media born of the communication revolution which can be used for instructional
purposes alongside the teacher, textbooks and blackboard From this perspective,
instructional technology refers to all kinds of tools, for example photographs, film,
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video and audio recordings, which can be used by the teacher for instructional
purposes alongside the textbook and blackboard.
From the second and less popular view, the definition of instructional
technology goes beyond the mere utilisation of particular medium or devices. Given
that technology includes the process by which we solve problems, then instructional
technology is basically the process by which we apply scientific knowledge about
human learning to solve instructional problems (Heinch, Molenda and Russel, 1993).
From this perspective, Seels and Richey (1994) concisely define the field of
nstructional Technology as: "the theory and practice of design, development,
utilization, management and evaluation of processes and resources for learning."
At the same time, the U.S. Commission on nstructional Technology (USCT)
describes instructional technology as;
a systematic way of designing, implementing and evaluating the
total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific
objectives, based on research in human learning and
communication and employing a combination of human and non-
human resources to bring about more effective instruction.
Another similar definition is given by the National Centre for Programmed
Learning, which views instructional technology as;
the application of scientific knowledge about learning, and the
conditions of learning, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of
teaching and training. n the absence of scientifically established
principles, educational implements techniques of empirical testing to
improve learning situations' (National Centre for Programmed
Learning UK)
The most recent definition of nstructional Technology provided by the
Association for ducational Communications and Technology (Seels & Richey, 1994)
is now more comprehensive, reflecting the maturity of the field. nstead of
distinguishing between media and method, nstructional Technology is now seen as:
the theory and practice of design, development, utilization,
management, and evaluation of processes and resources for
learning. ... The words nstructional Technology in the definition
mean a discipline devoted to techniques or ways to make learning
more efficient based on theory but theory in its broadest sense,
not just scientific theory. ... Theory consists of concepts,
constructs, principles, and propositions that serve as the body of
knowledge. Practice is the application of that knowledge to solve
problems. Practice can also contribute to the knowledge base
through information gained from experience. ... Of design,
development, utilization, management, and evaluation ... refer to
both areas of the knowledge base and to functions performed by
professionals in the field. ... Processes are a series of operations
or activities directed towards a particular result. ... Resources are
sources of support for learning, including support systems and
instructional materials and environments. ... The purpose of
instructional technology is to affect and effect learning (Seels &
Richey, 1994, pp. 1-9).
This definition sees instructional technology as the application of scientific
knowledge and technological hardware tools in solving instructional and learning
problems. nstructional technology is therefore more than the tools, that is, computers,
projectors, transparencies, filmstrips and all those other gadgets we find in the
classroom. t is a complex field that is concerned with both the processes of learning
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and tools that support learning. nstructional Technology is concerned with improving
the efficiency and effectiveness of instruction.
This view is also reflected in the latest definition given by National Council for
ducational Technology for the United Kingdom which defines instructional
technology as "the development, application and evaluation of systems, techniques
and aids (tools) to improve the process of human learning
Some early attempts to define the field of instructional technology also
incorporated the hardware/software distinction, defining instructional technology as
"the efficient utilization of every medium (tool) and method to promote learning (ly,
1963:19), or as the "media born of the communications revolution which can be used
for instructional purposes, along with a "systematic way of designing, carrying out,
and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching (Commission on
nstructional Technology, 1970: 21).
Gagn (1987) also noted these distinctions in identifying the knowledge
sources, resources, and activities that constitute the field of instructional technology.
His definition focuses on a concern for the "conditions necessary for effective
learning (Gagn, 1987:3), including both communications to the learners that are
"frequently delivered by equipment and its associated procedures, commonly referred
to as media (Gagn, 1987:6), as well as concern for the techniques of instruction that
"systematically aim for effective learning, whether or not they involve the use of
media (Gagn, 1987: 7).
This view extends our understanding of the instructional technology to include
not only the hardware tools, but also the resources, processes, knowledge sources
and practices of the people who design, develop, utilize, manage and evaluate
instruction.
To conclude this section it is important to mention that instructional
technology is the utilisation of teaching and learning resources whilst following a
systematic process by which we analyse the nature of instructional problem and
examine the needs of learners so as to effectively devise, implement, manage and
evaluate instructional solutions.
We have also seen that the definitions if instructional technology we have
considered illuminate the following essential characteristics of instructional technology:
O t is a systematic process
O t is based on scientific theory
O t is a practical and useful application of learning theory
O ts purpose is to create effective learning experiences.
O t uses appropriate technology to achieve learning objectives
Another important observation is that all the system approach definitions we
have considered identify five critical elements of instructional technology. These are
design of instruction, production of instructional products, implementation of the
instruction, management of instruction, and evaluation of instruction. These elements
are described in some detail in the following section.
Does EducationaI TechnoIogy differ from InstructionaI TechnoIogy?
As we have seen in this chapter, the term instructional technology is often
used interchangeably with the term educational technology. However, although
educational technology and instructional technology are sometimes used
interchangeably the two terms do not mean exactly the same. Basically, instructional
technology is used as we have seen in the previous section, to describe the process
of teaching and learning through purposeful use of teaching and learning strategies
and technology tools, whereas educational technology is used broadly to refer to the
use of technology in any aspect of education.
ducational Technology is the use of technology to support the learning process in
broader perspective. ducational technology encompasses the use of technology in the
administration and management of education for example student records, procurement,
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school finance and so on. nstructional technology is precisely concerned with technology
and its impacts upon the teaching and learning process, for example in delivering learning
materials, facilitating communication and providing assessment and feedback. Thus
ducational Technology is different from instructional technology in that instruction is
narrower than education in the sense that it refers to situations in which the learner is
directed towards specific goals, using predetermined methods and resources. Thus, just as
instruction is a subset of education, instruction technology is a subset of educational
technology. ducational technology refers to the general approach to achieving the ends of
education in general whereas instructional technology refers to the use of such
technological processes specifically for teaching and learning. nstructional technology
focuses more on the scientific approach and tends to use a systems approach towards
reaching educational goals while fully integrating relevant technologies. For example, the
development of the hardware and software technologies employed in the automatic
grading of multiple choice type tests falls within the field of educational technology, but
outside the field of instructional technology.












igure 1.2: Relationship between Educational Technology and Instructional
Technology
The EducationaI TechnoIogy Centre
There is a worldwide belief in the benefits of instructional technology to
learning. n Zimbabwe, the Ministry of ducation directs the Audio Visual Services
(AVS), which has been established to meet the audiovisual needs of all schools in the
country. The Audio Visual Services began to offer services to schools in 1948. The
development of the AVS was centralised right from the beginning. As a result of this
centralised development the AVS was able to service urban and government run
schools only. The AVS was established to supply schools with all the hardware they
need. Non-government schools, on the other hand, have to supply their own
hardware, and are able to take advantage of the existing software by becoming AVS
members.
n 1961, an educational television services was started. This service
broadcast imported 16mm film to schools. n 1971, after ten years of operation, the
service was terminated when it was realized that few schools were making sufficient
use of the service to justify the expenditure (Campbell 1983). n the middle of 1977,
AVS moved to the new buildings in Mount Pleasant, Harare. The new building has five
functional units:
O audio recording and broadcasting;
O library (16mm film, 35mm film strips, audio tapes, wall charts, art
reproductions, gramophone);
O equipment repair and maintenance;
O art reproduction for wall charts; and
O administration

Instructional Technology
Educational Technology
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n addition to the AVS in Harare there is a Teachers' Resource Centre and
Library in Bulawayo, which caters for the Matebeleland educational region. This
centre is made up of a library, similar to the one in Harare, and an equipment supply
and maintenance section.
Radio programs were recorded in AVS studios and broadcast on Radio 4 of
the then Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC). The school broadcasting had a
membership of 3500 primary schools and was the most widely used AVS facility.
Membership was granted to schools on request. Government schools were supplied
with radios by the AVS, and other schools had to supply their own radio equipment.
However all schools would receive free of charge, broadcasting support materials
such booklets and charts.
n addition to the primary school broadcasting, there was also a daily five-
minute broadcast for pre-school children in Shona and Ndebele. There was a program
for secondary schools children twice a week, during after-school hours and a
teacher's magazine program for both primary and secondary school teachers.
The library holds films, art prints, audio- cassettes, reel to reel tapes, 5mm
film strips, slides, records, transparencies, and museum cases. The library has also
print materials such as charts, poster and other reading materials. The majority of the
wall charts available at AVS are produced by a team of resident artists. They are used
to help in the teaching of a wide range of topics in language, science, music, history,
first-aid, and so on. They are of excellent quality and are one of the most sought after
AVS products, and demand has always exceeded supply.
Teachers can obtain charts in three ways. f the school is an AVS library
member, the school automatically receives samples of all new charts produced. A
second way of getting charts is to send a letter of request to AVS. Such requests are
promptly answered and teachers can expect to receive a maximum of six charts at a
time, by post. The third way of getting charts is for teachers to go to AVS and ask for
the charts.
Why Use TechnoIogy in Instruction?
Research has settled the question of whether instructional technology can
improve student learning: The more senses you can have the learners use, the more
effective your communication will be. f you lecture, the only sense the audience will
be using is hearing. f you lecture and use visual aids, the audience will use their
senses of sight and sound. f you use a demonstration, the audience will see, hear,
touch, and possibly even smell and taste.
nstructional aids add impact and interest to a presentation. They enable you
to appeal to more than one sense at the same time, thereby increasing the audience's
understanding and retention level. With pictures, the concepts or ideas you present
are no longer simply words - but words plus images. The chart below cites the
effectiveness of visual aids on audience retention.

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People tend to eye-minded, and the impacts visual aids bring to a presentation are,
indeed significant.
The majority of our students are visual learners and these learners need
graphic and other visual representations of ideas to understand concepts and learn
content effectively. Pictorial examples and symbolic representations of concepts will
not only clarify verbal lessons, but they also provide additional cues for memory for
visual learners.
The studies, below, reveal interesting statistics that support these findings:

O n many studies, experimental psychologists and educators have found that
retention of information three days after a meeting or other event is six times
greater when information is presented by visual and oral means than when
the information is presented by the spoken word alone.
O Studies by educational researchers suggest that approximately 83% of
human learning occurs visually, and the remaining 17% through the other
senses - 11% through hearing, 3.5% through smell, 1% through taste, and
1.5% through touch.
O The studies suggest that three days after an event, people retain 10% of what
they heard from an oral presentation, 35% from a visual presentation, and
65% from a visual and oral presentation.
The use of visual aids, then, is essential to all lessons. t is clear that use of
instructional technology can indeed improve student learning. There is a firm belief
that the use of technology in teaching facilitates learning. For example Gerlach and
ly (1971) note that;
"Teaching without media (technology) in today's school is distinct
handicap; for teaching with media (technology) can extend
opportunities for learning. But there is no inherent magic- there
must be a count for its use which relates media to objectives.

Without them, the impact of your lessons may leave the learners shortly after
the audience leaves you. By preparing a lessons with instructional aids that reinforce
your main ideas, you will reach your audience far more effectively, and, perhaps,
continue to touch them long after the presentation ends.
arly research in instructional technology provides several good reasons for
using instructional aids in teaching. For example, Dale (1954) listed the following
proven contributions of instructional technology to teaching and learning:
O nstructional technology provides a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and
hence reduces meaningless word-responses of students.
O nstructional technology has a high degree of motivational influence for
students.
O nstructional technology makes learning more permanent.
O nstructional technology offers a reality of experience which stimulates self-
activity on the part of pupils.
O nstructional technology can develop a continuity of thought; this is especially
true of motion pictures.
O nstructional technology provides experiences not easily obtained without it
and contributes to the efficiency, depth, and variety of learning.
On the part of the teacher, the use of instructional technology saves a great deal of
learning time and energy because teachers do not need to write as much on the
blackboard. A great deal of the teacher's time and energy is also saved due to the fact that
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some materials such as charts, pictures, graphs can be prepared once if the subject matter
does not change much from time to time.
Characteristics of Good InstructionaI TechnoIogy
The question which you as a teacher may now be asking is which
instructional technology is the most effective and how one could identify an effective
instructional technology. Let us attempt to identify what might be the major
characteristics of an effective instructional technology.
ffective instructional technology is characterized by the ability to bring
improved learning opportunities to the different types of learners. We should therefore
expect an effective instructional technology to be able to facilitate teaching across all
types of learning styles. t should enable the teacher to appeal to more than one
sense at the same time, thereby increasing the learner's understanding and retention
level. With pictures for example, the concepts the teacher presents are no longer
simply words - but words plus images.
Good instructional technology involves the learner and requires a change
from one activity to another for example from hearing to seeing. t should be able to
support a more active learning experience through a high degree of learner
involvement, to promote deeper understanding of concepts to be learnt. t should also
be able to engage the learner in highly interactive learning activities as well as
presenting a highly personalized learning experience.
The list given below summarises some of the common characteristics of an
effective instructional technology.
O A good instructional technology follows recommendations from principles
of instructional design.
O t creates an environment in which the learner is an active participant
rather than a passive recipient of information
O t has the ability to provide interactive learning activities.
O t increases motivation by gaining the learner's attention, engaging the
learner in productive work and allowing the learner to have fun as he/she
works.
O Should link learners to information and learning activities that help them
visualize problems and their solutions.
O t supports new instructional approaches such as collaborate learning,
multiple intelligences, problem solving and engages learners in higher-
level cognitive skills.
O t releases more time for the teacher to manage students' records and
help individual students.
O t should provide fast and more accurate source of information in a
friendly manner.
Some guideIines for using InstructionaI TechnoIogy
When using technology in teaching, we should not put the priority on technology.
We should not be blinded by the sophistication of new technology and fail to address the
real learner's needs. We should first think about what will best help us teach the topic. We
should be careful that we are not using technology for technology's sake, because it is easy
to slip into the trap.

The following guidelines should be followed as you use visual aids:
O Show visuaI aids onIy when you are taIking about them.
Visual aids compete with you for attention. When you use a visual aid to help
make a point, you expect the audience's attention to be directed to the visual aid.
Therefore, after the point is made, the audience's attention should focus back to
you. f the visual aid is still in view when you are talking about something else, the
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audience's attention will be split between you and the visual. So, when the visual
is not helping make the point that you are trying to make, keep it out of sight so
your audience's attention is not distracted.
O TaIk about the visuaI aid whiIe you are showing it.
A visual aid is not meant to stand alone; you need to explain to the audience what
to look for. Once you have done this, remove it from view.
O TaIk to audience not the visuaI aid.
One of the most common mistakes encountered while using visual aids is looking
at and talking to the visual aid, rather than the audience. You will need to look at
the visual aid occasionally, but you must maintain eye contact with the audience.
Be sure that you know the content of the visual well enough so that you don't
have to study it while you talk. One of the worst things you can do is read your
visuals to a group.
O Be sure that everyone in the audience can see the visuaI aid.
f the seating arrangement is such that certain audience members might have
difficulty seeing, then rearrange the seating, use another type of visual, or make
other arrangements so each member of the audience can see. f the item you
need to show is small, you may use a video camera and a series of video
monitors to show the object. You might also use an overhead projector and
transparency to show it.
O Do not pass objects around the audience whiIe you are speaking.
t is tempting for speakers to pass an object around in the audience while they are
speaking. This should not be done because it distracts the audience and prevents
one or more people from paying attention to you. Your audience will look at the
object, read it, handle it, and think about it. f you must pass items out to the
audience, have enough for everyone. Tell audience members when to look at it,
what to look for, and when to put it away so they can again focus their attention on
you and your message.
O Practice using the visuaI aid before using it in a presentation.
One of the common pitfalls in using visual aids is assuming that you can
effectively use the visual and audio-visual equipment. ven though most visuals
are easy to use and most audio-visual equipment is relatively easy to operate,
don't underestimate the problems that can arise. t is important to practice using
visuals in exactly the way you plan to use them when you make your presentation.
This is especially important when using multi-media presentations.
O Do not overuse visuaI aids.
Don't feel as though every point to be made has to be reinforced with visual aids;
simply make the major points with visuals. Visual aids may become security
blankets if overused.
O Coordinate audio and visuaI.
This takes some practice, but it is critical to the success of your presentation.
Always deliver the audio message at the same moment as the visual message,
and make certain they are compatible. This will give the message maximum
impact and help audience members absorb the information because they're
hearing and seeing the message.
O Using "reveaIs".
This is important when using word slides. f you show audience members a slide
with six lines of type, they will want to read everything on the slide at once. Thus,
they are not paying attention to what you are saying. Gradually reveal the
information on the slide by showing only one line at a time as it is discussed.

Before we plan to use technology, we should answer the following questions.
O s the use of technology really necessary?
O What is it that students need to accomplish with the technology?
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GuideIines for effective use of InstructionaI TechnoIogy
O nstructional technology should augment the presentation; they are not meant to be
the entire presentation.
O t is important to be able to teach without them. nstructional aids may arrive late, or
not arrive at all. Also, something may go wrong or break down. ven careful
planning cannot cover every possibility.
O t is imperative that all instructional technology is previewed before they are used in
class. This will enable you to familiarise with content and structure, as well as
ensuring that no unfortunate and sometimes embarrassing mix-ups have occurred.
O The teacher is encouraged to practice using the technology in the actual classroom
before the lecture begins.
O Technology should be displayed or switched on only when you are ready to use
them, and they should be kept visible or kept on until the students have finished
working with it. You should remove the materials or switch it off when you are ready
to talk about something else.
O We should bear in mind that effective teachers talk to the students, not the
technology.

O What is going to be the role of technology during instruction, is it just
to get the students attention and motivate them?
O s there another way that could be used to do the same thing?
















SeIecting technoIogy
As teachers, we are responsible for student learning, and this includes good
instructional planning and using relevant teaching and learning aids to maximise
learning. As regards the effective use of technology, how we select the technology to
use is a critical issue in the teaching and learning process. ffective use of
instructional technology is not a matter of simply grabbing what is available. There are
a number of aspects to be considered before we decide which instructional
technology to use in our teaching. These include learner characteristics, learning
objectives, technology available, nature of learning activities and time available
among other things.
O Learner characteristics
n all successful instruction the learner should always come first. n order for us to
come up with the most effective type of instructional technology to use with our
students we must identify first, the characteristics of the learners in terms of their
ability to read, to understand abstract symbols, and so on. We should always
consider students' prior knowledge and skills for the technology use.
Considering that the questions listed below can help us to analyse your
students and help you to select technology that could be used to meet the
students at a level at which they are ready to learn.
(i.) Who are the learners?
(ii.) What knowledge base do they bring to this lesson?
(iii.) What technology skills do they posses?
(iv.) What is their intellectual disposition?
(v.) Which intelligences need to be further developed?
O Learning objectives
When we choose instructional media, they should be chosen on the
basis of their contribution to the learning objectives rather than on the basis of
availability or easy of use. nstructional media and technology should be directly
related to the purpose and objectives of the lesson.
n terms of objectives we need to answer the following questions;
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(i.) s the objective appropriate?
(ii.) What are the learners expected to be able to do by the end of the
lesson?
(iii.) What technology can help you to achieve the objectives?
(iv.) How can you structure the lesson and technology to achieve the
objectives?
(v.) How will you be able to measure student success in accomplishing
the objectives?
O TechnoIogy avaiIabIe
Although the idea is not to use technology because it is available your
choices for technology should be guided by the technology available to you
for selection. You should not assume that you always need higher-level
technologies for students to achieve the set learning objectives. More often
than not learning objectives are achieved with simple types of instructional
technology devices. The simpler and easier the media that you can use and
still meet our instructional objectives, the better.

The questions listed below can help you to settle on the technology to
improve the teaching and learning process:
(i.) What do we want the learners to do and what can instructional technology
allow them to do it?
(ii.) Which technology or combination of technologies might be best for the
instructional purpose?
(iii.) Can the technology be available at learner's conveniences?
(iv.) How will we achieve activity-based learning using the technology tools?
(v.) How will we provide feedback, monitor progress and adjust learning
strategies using the instructional technology?

n answering these questions, you get a step closer to identifying the
appropriate technology for your lesson.
O Type of activities
You should also bear in mind that different learning tasks may require
different media. You must therefore identify the activities that your students are
going to be engaged in during the lesson and choose instructional media that will
support the different activities.
O Time avaiIabIe
The time you have for the lesson is a very important factor in instructional
technology selection. Given other lesson activities such as reading instructions
and written work, you should consider how much time you are going to give our
students to spend on activities that use the technology. When you plan for
instructional technology selection, you should consider the overall time needed to
prepare the media and the time needed for students to master the media,
especially if students will use the media for learning.
O Other considerations
Some types of instructional technology might not be a practical choice
even though we are sure that our students will benefit from it. This may be for
many reasons including budget, media special requirements, and many other
reasons. Our selection of instructional technology should be therefore based on
practical factors such as cost, equipment availability, user expertise, and other
general considerations. t is of no use for us to recommend for a technology which
we know our school on not afford to buy.
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Only use aids with which you feel comfortable. Don't try to use multi-
media for the very first time during an important lesson. Any visual aid should fit
naturally into the lesson presentation. t should not draw excessive attention to
itself or be the main focus of the lesson.
DaIe's Cone of experience and seIection of InstructionaI TechnoIogy
Dale's cone's of experience which is shown in figure 1.1 below is very useful
in selecting instructional resources and activities. For our purposes at this stage, we
are not going to examine the cone and its several levels in depth; but we are only
going to make a few pertinent observations. The cone of experience is a visual device
meant to summaries Dale's classification system for the different types of teaching
and learning media. t is based on the relationships of various educational
experiences to reality. The cone shows a progression from concrete experiences at
the bottom of the cone to the most abstract at the top of the cone. The original
categories from the bottom of the cone are; direct purposeful experiences, contrived
experiences, dramatic participation, demonstration, field trips, exhibits, motion
pictures, radio-recordings, still pictures, visual symbols and verbal symbols. ach
subsequent level above the base of the cone moves the learner a step further away
from real-life experiences.

Direct purposeful experiences represent reality or the closest things to real,
everyday life. They give the learner the opportunity to use a variety or several senses
(sight, smell, hearing, touching, movement) during their learning. Contrived
experiences which come second are activities that are highly participatory and
simulate real life situations. Dramatised experiences are defined as experiences in
which the learner acts out a role or activity. A motion picture, including video and
television, is where the learner is involved in observational experiences with little or no
opportunity to participate or use senses other than seeing and hearing. The
experiences focusing only on the use of verbal symbols are the furthest removed from
real life. This should remind us about a student reading material without any pictures
or other visuals or a student listening to a lecture that is nothing but words.


Verbal
Symbols
Visual
Symbols
Raoio
Still Pictures
Motion Pictures
Lxhibits
Fielotrips
Demonstration
Dramatiseo Lxperience
Contriveo Lxperience
Direct Lxperience
gure 1 Dale's Cone of Experence

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The significance of Dale's cone of experience is that it provides the tools to
help us make decisions about teaching and learning resources or activities we could
use to enhance our students' learning. However we should note that according to
Dale (1969:52) "the cone, of course, is merely and aid to understanding this subject .
something to help explain the relationship of the various types of sensory materials.
ssentially, the cone of experience is a visual metaphor for the idea that learning
activities can be placed in broad categories based on the extent to which they convey
the concrete referent of real-life experiences.
When properly understood and used, Dale's Cone of xperience can be a
helpful and practical guide for selection of the most appropriate technology to use to
facilitate learning. Using our knowledge of the cone, we can ask ourselves several
questions about the potential value of teaching and learning resources to student
learning. These questions include the following;
O Where will the student's experience with this resource fit on the cone?
O How far removed from real life experience is it?
O What kind of learning experience do want to provide students through
the teaching and learning resources bring to them?
O What will these resources add to developing students' ability to apply
knowledge and skills in daily life?
O What and how many senses can learners use when interacting with the
teaching and learning resources?
However, you should note that Dale's cone is not a prescriptive formula for
selecting instructional technology. t does not advocate the selection of certain media
and methods over others. nstead, Dale advocated the use of whatever methods or
instructional media technology which are appropriate for the learners and the task. As
Dale (1969:48) "Abstractions must be combined, if we are to have rich, full, deep and
broad experiences and understanding. n brief, we ought to use all the ways of
experiencing that we can.
An over view of InstructionaI TechnoIogy
There are two categories of instructional technologies non-projected and projected
(electronically enhanced technologies).

Non-projected technologies include the following instructional technologies;
The human body
This probably represents the most important and frequently used visual aid of all,
though many fail to consider it when visual aids are discussed. During your lesson
presentation you will use gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements
which are effective in helping you get your message across to your audience. f you
demonstrate how to graft a citrus tree or how to prune a hedge, you will also use your
body as a visual aid.
ActuaI objects
A physical object has the advantage of exactness and realism.
ModeIs of actuaI objects
When certain characteristics of physical objects, such as their size or complexity,
make their use inappropriate, then models of such objects might serve the same
purpose. A cutaway model of the diesel engine would probably better serve most
presentations than the actual engine, since the engine's interior could be studied in
much greater detail.


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Posters and fIip charts
Posters and flip charts are very effective for summarizing information. Care should be
taken to ensure that graphs and charts are as simple as possible and large enough to
see.
Photographs and pictures
These aids serve basically the same purpose as physical models. The photographs
must be quite large for ease of viewing by the entire audience. They are not practical
for use in large groups.
Maps
Certain presentations require the use of maps, such as talks on travel, international
affairs, weather, and the location of various activities within a county.
ChaIkboard
The chalkboard is an extremely accessible and popular visual aid. t is available in
most public-speaking and teaching environments. The chalkboard allows unlimited
flexibility and spontaneous modification. One problem is that it is too often used as a
substitute for greater creativity and preparation on the part of the speaker. The
speaker should not address the audience while writing on the board. Write neatly and
large enough for the entire audience to see.
Non projected/EIectronicaIIy Enhanced VisuaI Aids
Overhead transparencies
Overhead transparencies are an effective and commonly used visual aid. They can be
used in large and small meetings that are formal or informal.
35mm sIides
Slides represent an easily manageable and elegant visual format. Slides allow you to
bring realism into your presentation.
Videotape
Videotape should be used when teachers want to present information that entails
moving video. Professionally produced videotapes on a wide variety of subjects can
be rented or purchased for educational purposes. Also, educators may wish to shoot
their own video, using video camcorders, to show in classroom or xtension settings.
Refer to the xtension fact sheet "Producing Your Own Video Program" and
"Producing an ducational Video."
Computer-generated sIides/graphics
Computer-generated slides are similar to overhead transparencies in that they can
provide textual information through the use of a computer (usually a laptop) and a
computer projector. However, computer-generated slides also can encompass
scanned-in photographs and slides, clip art, audio clips, and video segments.
nteractive World Wide Web pages also can be included in computer-generated slide
pages.
Since the range and scope of technology is vast, it is useful to categorize
technology into some kind of workable taxonomy. Therefore, for our purposes we
shall classify instructional technology as the uses of
a) Non-projected media technology including real objects, print
photographs and;
b) Projected visuals including overhead transparencies, slides and);
c) Audio technology, including radio and tapes;
d) Motion technology (including video and television);
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e) Computer-based multimedia including computer assisted instruction,
drill and practice programs, tutorials and simulations as well as
interactive technologies; and the nternet bases technologies.
Mastering these basic technologies has the advantage of providing you the
teacher with a base of knowledge that will help you to enhance your teaching and
students learning. These categories have been used to organize the chapters of this
book are organized around these categories of instructional media technologies.

Table 1.1: A summary of types of instructional technology
















The WorId Links TeIecentres
The World Links program is focused on promoting CT literacy, access and
training to teachers and students in developing countries. The World Links for
Development (WorLD) Program in Zimbabwe began in 1998 with 13 school-based
telecentres. To date, the program has 12 community-based and 45 school based
telecentre around the country which provide comprehensive training in the use of CT
across the curriculum and for community development. The World Links program has
received much of its support from the World Bank, but the Ministry of ducation has
been incredibly supportive as well, providing two full-time teachers to each of the
WorLD sites.
The principal objectives of the program include enhancing teaching and
learning through CT integration, online collaborative projects and development of the
youth through increased employment opportunities through CT literacy.
The Ministry of education has provided a large van which was converted into
a mobile computer laboratory, affectionately code named the BG BLU. The van is
equipped similar to any of the fixed location WorLD
computer laboratories with ten networked
computers running Windows and Office 95/98,
Office software, educational software. The
computers are wired for dial-up connectivity when
there's access to a phone line. The van also has a
rear projection video screen which can display
videos to large groups.
Category

ExampIe of technoIogies

Non-projected visuaIs Real objects and models
Printed text (books, handouts, Worksheets)
Printed visuals (pictures, photos, drawings,
charts)
Graphics (charts, graphs, maps and globes,
posters, diagrams)
Display boards (chalk, bulletin, multipurpose)
Projected VisuaIs Overhead transparencies
Slides and filmstrips
Opaque projections
Audio technoIogies Radio,
Tape
Disc
Voice.
Motion technoIogies Video and film (tape, disc) a
Television (live)
Computer-based
MuItimedia and the
internet
Computer assisted instruction (CA), including
tutorials, drill and practice, simulation, games.
,computer projections, the world wide web, email
and online databases
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The van is innovative insofar as addressing the common question of digital divide and
schools in rural areas. A World Links trained teacher manages the van. As an
autonomous computer laboratory which can be connected to the phone line through
dial-up it can enable pupils in rural schools to access CT resources and tools
firsthand. There are plans to connect to the nternet through wireless connections. For
a trip to the rural areas, the Ministry of ducation provides a driver and one or two
teachers who have been trained by the WorLD program in the use of CT as a
learning tool and resource.
Video Learning Centre
The Global ducation Partnership has established 20 Video Learning Centres
(VLC), donkey driven cart with solar powered TV and VCR to enable even the most
remote schools and communities in Zimbabwe access to information and enable them
to learn from programming in their own language. Learning Centers are established in
existing structures that can serve as centers for community learning. The Learning
Centers are located in schools, community centers, libraries, mobile van, and a
donkey-drawn TV cart. The first centre was established in Victoria Falls at Ndlovu
Secondary School.
The Global ducation Partnership equips each Learning Center with the
following:
O A television and VCR, satellite or cable technology if possible, and solar
power if necessary.
O Relevant educational video programming, accompanying teacher resource
guides, and makes available existing programs from a wide variety of
sources.
O Three years teacher training program for teachers and monitoring in the use
of video as a teaching tool, as well as support in utilizing the Learning Center
as a local education and information hub.
The video learning centers are providing students, teachers, and the general
community with access to information ranging from HV/ADS, child abuse, science
and natural history, to local and international news.
n collaboration with Rural Libraries for Resource Development (RLRDP),
Discovery Channel Global ducation Partnership has been using donkey power to
bring information and education to the most remote schools and communities in
Matabeleland North since 1990. By modifying cart design to hold a solar powered TV
and VCR, in addition to library books, schools and communities can receive video
programming in their own language on a variety of subjects. The RLRDP and the
Partnership train cart drivers to facilitate learning through literature and TV and video
resources. Surrounding communities share the resources by developing a circuit for
the donkey carts and a timetable for school and community use.
Summary
This chapter has attempted to provide the teacher with an insight into the term
instructional technology. t could be concluded that instructional technology is a complex,
integrated process that involves people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization, for
analysing the teaching and learning problems, as well as designing, implementing,
managing and evaluating solutions to those problems.
As a field of study instructional technology should make you understand a
number of issues related to the teaching and learning. These include issues such as
learning theory; develop an inquiring mind; develop good problem-solving and
analytical skills; be able to manage, time and learning resources; become well-versed
in learning delivery techniques; have technical knowledge of hardware; and above all
make you to be creative. You should be able to design instruction, produce
instructional materials, and manage the instructional process and learning resources.
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This chapter has also shown that as the teacher you should have an in depth
understanding of the technologies to be able to make informed decisions about the
selection and utilization of technology. t is therefore important that teachers do not use
technological equipment just for the sake of using technology. n all teaching the learning
objectives should come first. This should then be followed by us determining how
technology can support those learning objectives and make learning interesting for
students. The technology must enhance the lesson in order for the use of the technology to
be effective.
The rest of the chapters that follow are largely on the description and application of
the various instructional technologies.
Reference
Dale, dgar. (1969). Audiovisual Methods in Teaching, 3rd edition. New York:
Holt/Dryden Publications. (for more information on the cone of experience) .
Seels, B. B., & Richey, R. C. (1994). nstructional technology: The definition and
domains of the field. Washington, DC: Association for ducational
Communications and Technology.
Commission on nstructional Technology. (1970). To improve learning: A report to the
President and the Congress of the United States. Washington, DC:
Government Printing Office.
ly, D. P. (d.). (1963). The changing role of the audiovisual process in education: A
definition and a glossary of related terms. TCP Monograph No. 1. AV
Communication Review, 11 (1), Supplement No. 6.
Heinich R., Molenda, M., Russell, J, & Smaldino, S. (1999).nstructional Media and
Technologies for Learning (6th. ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Robyler, M. D. and dwards, J (2000). ntegrating ducational Technology into
Teaching (2nd. d). New Jersey: Prentice Hall
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Introduction
This chapter takes a brief look at the major categories of learning theories
from behaviourism to constructivism and the implications of these theories for the use
of instructional technology in classroom teaching and learning. This is done in
realization of the fact that learning theories have significant bearing on instructional
design, as there is a logical development from learning to instruction. nstructional
design maximises learning outcomes while learning theories are the backbone of any
instructional design. nstructional design is the articulation of the learning theories,
and its main aim is to optimise learning by using the established facts about how
people learn. However it should be born in mind that theory only provides a general
explanation for observations made over time. t explains and predicts behaviour, but
can never be established beyond all doubt and may be modified. Before we discuss
the different theories of learning, let us establish what we mean by learning.
What is Iearning?
The act of learning is paradoxical in nature. t can at times appear to be a very
simple act, so simple, that as teachers we do not question its presence as we go
about our daily activities. Although learning appears to be a simple natural process,
the root of understanding how we learn is not as straightforward. t is therefore very
dangerous for us to assume that learners understand what we teach them every time
we stand in front of them in a classroom. More often than not many of our students
will have problems understanding what we teach.
The existence of numerous definitions of learning and learning theories attest
to the complexity of this process. A random sampling of any educational psychology
text will illustrate the variance in views to what exactly is learning. Basically, learning
can be defined as a relatively permanent change in the individual's behaviour as a
result of some intervention. While this definition reflects a behaviourist view of
learning, because it equates learning to an outcome, it is a starting point for us to
expand our description of learning into many other realms, namely the different
theories of learning. For example cognitivists would want to take learning as the
process of gaining knowledge, skills or experience.
A close analysis of our basic definition of learning shows that learning
involves the following aspects:
O Learning is reflected by a change in behaviour, which should be translated
into observable behaviour.
O The change is relatively permanent, but this change need not occur
immediately following the learning experience.
O The change in behaviour results from experience or practice.
O The experience or practice must be a result of some intervention or
reinforcement.
As a result of learning, learners should be capable of performing a new skill or
task which they could not do before the learning experience. Most learning theorists
advocate for the use of instructional technology during the teaching and learning
Chapter
2
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process because they see the potential of technology to enhance the opportunities for
learning. This view is supported by Tapscott's thesis that the "technological revolution"
that is permeating every aspect of our lives forces us to examine the use of computer
technology as learning devices.
Learning StyIes
Since learning is a personal act, each learner has his or her preferred learning
style. That is why people can respond so differently to the same thing. A learning style
is the learner's consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in the context of
learning. t is the way that a learner best perceives, conceptualises, organizes and
recalls information. There are three basic learning styles, namely visual (seeing),
auditory (hearing) and kinesthetic (moving) or tactile (touching). Learners who prefer a
particular learning style have distinct characteristics. These are discussed in detail
below.
VisuaI Learners
Visual learners prefer to learn through their sense of sight. They have an
incredible ability to perceive the visual. These learners think in terms of pictures and
need to create vivid mental images to retain information. Visual learners have two
sub channels, that is, linguistic and spatial. The learners who are visual-linguistic
prefer to learn through written language, such as reading and writing tasks. They
remember what has been written down, even if they do not read it more than once.
Learners who are visual-spatial usually have difficulty with written language and do
better with charts, demonstrations, videos, and other visual materials. They easily
visualize faces and places by using their imagination and seldom get lost in new
surroundings.
Visual learners show the following general characteristics:
O Look at the teacher's face intently
O Like looking at wall displays, books and other visuals.
O Often recognize words by sight
O Use lists to organize their thoughts
O Recall information by remembering how it was laid out on a page
To integrate this style into the teaching and learning environment we may
employ the following:
O Use graphs, charts, illustrations, or other visual aids such as computer
multimedia, videos and filmstrips for teaching.
O nclude outlines, summaries and detailed handouts for students to read and
make their own notes.
O Leave some free space in handouts for students to make additional notes or
summaries.
O Give students chance to ask questions to help them stay alert during the
lesson.
O mphasise key points to cue when to takes notes.
O Supplement textual information with illustrations whenever possible.
O Ask students to summarise what they have learnt using diagrams or tables.
O Use illustrated textbooks.
O Use Mind Maps to help map the relationship between key elements of
information.

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Some practicaI Suggestions to heIp visuaI Iearners

Make sure learners are seated in the clear line of vision when you are teaching
so they can see your body language and facial expressions.
Use colour to highlight important points in the text or when writing on the
chalkboard.
Use colourful visual materials such as pictures, charts, maps and graphs.
Provide notes or handouts for the topic being taught.
Use illustrations for stories.

Tips for reaching auditory Iearners
O Make sure that all the learners are sitting where they can hear you and give them
chance to review what you are saying.
O Discuss topics, talk things through and listen to what learners have to say
O ncorporate group discussion work
O Give your learners an opportunity to summarise what they heard verbally.
O Give learners chance to verbally review new words and lessons among themselves or
with another person.
O Frequently ask learners to read aloud or re-auditorise written material or restate in
their own words what they have read.
O Repeat verbal instructions and write them down.
O Assessment should include interviews, oral reports and tests where possible










Auditory Learners
Auditory learners learn by hearing. They relate most effectively to the spoken
word. During a lesson they prefer to listen first and then take notes afterwards, or rely
on handouts. More often than not information written down has little meaning until it
has been heard, it may, therefore help auditory learners to read written information out
loud. Auditory learners may be sophisticated speakers, and may excel in subjects like
the languages and social sciences.
They portray the following characteristics:
O They often use rhythm and sound as memory aids to remember things.
O Are distracted by noise
O Talk while they write
O They are usually sophisticated speakers
O They often move their eyes down and to their right when they are listening to
others
O They often talk to themselves.
O They may move their lips and read out loud.
O They may have difficulty with reading and writing tasks.
n classroom learning auditory learners prefer teachers who provide verbal
instructions. Auditory learners like to be involved in dialogues, discussions and plays
and solving problems by talking about them.















To integrate this style into the teaching and learning environment, we may
use audiotapes and videos, storytelling, songs, chants, memorization and drills.
nclusion of auditory activities, such as brainstorming, buzz groups, or discussion,
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Tips for teaching kinesthetic Iearners

O ncorporate a hands-on approach
O Use practical activities or demonstrations
O Choose kinesthetic learners to carry out demonstrations
O Use activities that get the learners up and moving.
O Use coloured chalk to emphasise key points on chalkboard.
O Give frequent stretch breaks.
O Provide highlighters, colored pens and/or pencils.
O Guide learners through a visualization of complex tasks.
O Have them transfer information from the text to another medium such as charts.

helps auditory learners to master content. We should also leave enough time at the
end of the lesson for debriefing activities to allow students to make connections of
what they learnt and how it applies to their situation. We are also encouraged to plan
lessons which allow students to engage in oral presentation and have them verbalize
the questions.
inesthetic/TactiIe Learners
Kinesthetic/tactile learning style has two sub channels, namely kinesthetic
(movement) and tactile (touch). These learners portray the following general
characteristics.
O They tend to lose concentration if there is little or no external stimulation or
movement.
O They have problems sitting still for long periods.
O They want to sense the position and movement of what they are working on.
O They want to touch things around them.
O When listening to lectures they may want to take notes.
O When reading, they like to scan the material first, and then focus in on the
details.
O They often use movement as a memory aid.
Kinesthetic/tactile learners learn effectively through touch and movement.
They learn best when they are involved or active during the lesson. To reach these
learners teachers could use physical activities, competitions, games, demonstrations
and role plays. These learners prefer a mixture of activities which require students to
sit quietly with activities that allow them to move around and be active. When using
the lecture method the teacher may use while-listening and writing activities as a way
of involving them. For example, a teacher could ask the students to fill in a table while
listening to a talk or to label a diagram while reading.
Often, kinesthetic learners do not do well in traditional classrooms because most
of these classrooms do not offer enough opportunity to move and touch. Although
kinesthetic or tactile learners may catch up and exceed the lesson plan by working through
hands-on activities, they feel neglected when we depend much on the discussion methods
or the written materials as our teaching strategy.















MuItipIe InteIIigences and Learning StyIes
Howard Gardner proposes that there are multiple intelligences, and that we all
use one or two for the most effective learning. By "intelligence" Gardener means a set
of skills allowing individuals to find and resolve genuine problems they face. His
theory proposes that there are at least seven other kinds of intelligence namely
linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, musical intelligence, bodily-
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kinesthetic intelligence, spatial intelligence, interpersonal intelligence and intra-
personal intelligence.
i.) Linguistic inteIIigence
This intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability
to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain
goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express
oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember
information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard
Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence.
ii.) LogicaI-mathematicaI inteIIigence
The logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyse
problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues
scientifically. n Howard Gardner's view, logical-mathematical intelligence entails
the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This kind of
intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.
iii.) MusicaI inteIIigence
The musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and
appreciation of musical patterns. t encompasses the capacity to recognize and
compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms.
iv.) BodiIy-kinesthetic inteIIigence
The bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the ability to use one's whole body or
parts of the body to solve problems. t is the ability to use mental abilities to
coordinate bodily movements.
v.) SpatiaI inteIIigence
Spatial intelligence involves the ability to recognize and use patterns of both
wide space and more confined areas. The learners with this kind of intelligence
are very aware of their environment. They think in terms of physical space.
These learners have the ability to manipulate and create mental images in order
to solve problems.
vi.) InterpersonaI inteIIigence
The interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the
intentions, motivations and desires of other people. t allows people to work
effectively with others. ducators, salespeople, religious and political leaders as
well as counselors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.
vii.) Intra-personaI inteIIigence
The intra-personal entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate
one's feelings, fears and motivations. n Howard Gardner's view it involves
having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such
information to regulate our lives.
Although we have considered the multiple intelligences separately, you
should think of all intelligences as equally important. This is in great contrast to the
traditional education systems that usually places a strong emphasis on the
development and use of verbal and mathematical intelligences. Gardner's theory of
Multiple ntelligence suggests a more balanced curriculum that incorporates the arts,
self-awareness, communication, and physical education.
ImpIications of MuItipIe InteIIigences for InstructionaI Design
Accepting Gardner's theory of Multiple ntelligences has several implications for
classroom teaching. According to Gardener's theory of Multiple ntelligence, learners
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have a unique blend of intelligences. As teachers we should be aware that children
have different minds. t is therefore very important that as teachers we take individual
differences among students very seriously. The broad spectrum of learners would be
better served if learning materials could be presented in different ways and if learning
could be assessed through a variety of means. Our big challenge however is how to
best take advantage of the uniqueness conferred on us as a species exhibiting
several intelligences. Technology can help teachers to reach all students by using the
different intelligences. f teachers understand the different intelligences of their
students they will be able to choice instructional technologies that could support each
learner to develop his/her intelligence.
The theory of Multiple ntelligences implies that we should recognize and
teach to a broader range of talents and skills. We are required to structure our
presentation of material in ways that engage all the intelligences. t is only through our
awareness of the theory Multiple ntelligence that we may strive to find ways of
helping our students to develop in their different talents. Knowledge of the theory of
Multiple ntelligence can help us to plan lessons that allow all students to succeed in
their own talent.
n terms of instructional methods, the theory of Multiple ntelligence advocates
for methods that appeal to all the intelligences, including role playing, musical
performance, cooperative learning, reflection, visualization, story telling, and so on.
Howard Gardener's theory calls for assessment methods that take into account the
diversity of intelligences, as well as self-assessment tools that help students
understand their intelligences.
MuItipIe inteIIigence and TechnoIogy seIection
Let us now take a closer look at each of Gardner's Multiple ntelligence and
propose technology that could be employed to promote and support the development of
each of these intelligences. n many cases we are tempted to select technology which
we want to use and then make it fit the learners. However it is best that we start by
understanding our learners' intelligences and then consider which technology would
naturally support their learning. n this way, we can avoid allowing technology to
dictate our instructional choices and put it in its proper place in instruction: as a
delivery vehicle for content, concepts and skills.
i.) Linguistic
Learners who possess this intelligence have highly developed auditory skills and
often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or
stories. They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words as well
as read books together. The instructional tools that can help the learners to
learn include textbooks and audio media such as radio, tape recorders as well
as the teachers' voice during a lecture. n addition to these traditional tools,
more computer-based technologies and multimedia can be added to the list of
tools that could be used. You may want to consider how word processing could
promote not only composition but also editing of a document in ways that make
learning more fascinating. Desktop publishing and web-based publishing tools
take this idea to higher levels of efficacy. lectronic mail is another tool that
could be used to promote verbal/linguistic learning, as learners are prompted to
inquire of and respond to correspondents through written text.
ii.) LogicaI/MathematicaI
These learners depend on reasoning and calculating. They think abstractly and
are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment,
solve puzzles and ask cosmic questions. They can be taught through logic
games, investigations, and problem solving. n addition, computer technologies
have introduced new tools that could be used to promote logical/mathematical
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intelligence. For example a spreadsheet program or statistical packages such
SPSS could be used to allow these learners to analyse data and identifying
patterns. Programming languages such as LOGO and concept mapping
programs such as nspiration, can be used to help the learners organize their
ideas and identify patterns and trends from given information.
iii.) VisuaI-SpatiaI
Visual-spatial learners can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical
imagery. nstructional tools that could be used to support this intelligence include
models, graphics, charts, texts with pictures, charts and graphs, photographs,
drawings, overhead projectors, video, and television. While the traditional
overhead projector, slide projector and television have been found to be
effective, the use of digital slide shows is an even more effective way to
manipulate and present visual learning in the classroom. Charting and graphing
have been made much easier through a host of computer based tools such as
word processors, draw/paint programs, spreadsheets, databases, and graphic
editors, which allow the learner to manipulate any image to meet their learning
needs. The new developments on the nternet as well as the advances in digital
animation and movies have some positive influence on the development of
visual/spatial intelligence.
iv.) BodiIy-kinesthetic
As has been described in the previous section bodily-kinesthetic learners can
use their bodies effectively. They show a keen sense of body awareness and
like movement, touching and feeling things. They communicate well through
body language. As a result, these learners can be best taught through physical
activity, hands-on learning, acting out and role-playing. nstructional aids that
could be used to support these learners include equipment, models and real
objects. Computer simulation and animations are new tools that could be used
to accommodate the bodily/kinesthetic intelligence.
v.) MusicaI
As described in the previous section, these learners show sensitivity to rhythm
and sound. They love music and they are also sensitive to sounds in their
environments. Turning lessons into lyrics and speaking rhythmically can teach
these learners better. ncorporating digital sounds into a multimedia presentation
can also accommodate this style of learning. The instructional tools that could
be used to develop this intelligence include musical instruments, music, radio,
CD-ROM, multimedia. Computer based technologies can provide an enriched
learning environment for these learner as they can listen to different sounds,
compose their own music, as well as mixing and editing their music.
vi.) InterpersonaI
As has been highlighted in the previous section, learners in this category show
understanding of other people's feeling and interact very well with others. They
have many friends and have empathy for others. These students learn through
interaction. They can be taught through group activities, seminars, dialogues
and collaborative projects. Computer based instructional tools that could be
used to reach them include audio conferencing, video conferencing, writing,
computer conferencing, e-mail, and discussion forums as well as chat rooms.
Synchronous chats between groups of students or with experts; participation in
newsgroups on an assigned topic could be used to extend interaction beyond
the four walls of the classroom. Asynchronously communication tools such as
mailing lists can also allow multiple classes to share ideas and experiences,
beyond the boarders of the classroom.

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vii.) Intra-personaI
These learners understand their own interests and goals. They are in tune with
their inner feelings; they show wisdom, intuition and high levels of intrinsic
motivation, as well as a strong will and confidence. They tend to shy away from
others. n other words they are best described as independent learners. As a
result, these learners can be taught through independent study and
introspection. nstructional tools include books, handout, study guides, that have
been designed for individual learning. Computer based instructional programs
such as tutorials and drill and practice are useful tools to help these learners to
learn at their own pace.

1able 2.1: Summary of multiple intelligence and media selection


InteIIigence


Learning StyIes

Recommended TechnoIogy
VerbaI/Linguistic

Hearing, reading, speaking,
writing, discussing, and
debating
Textbook, newspapers, magazine,
worksheet, word processing, electronic mail,
desktop publishing, electronic publishing
tools, radio, speech, recognition devices
LogicaI/
MathematicaI

Working with patterns and
relationships, classifying,
categorizing, working with the
abstract
Measuring scales, rulers, graphing
calculators, spreadsheet, search engine,
directory, problem solving tasks,
programming languages, concept mapping
tools
VisuaI/SpatiaI

Working with pictures and
colors, visualizing, using the
"mind's eye", drawing
Overhead projector, slide shows, television,
video, books with pictures and illustrations,
chalkboard, charts, graphs, digital camera,
scanner graphics editor, photo editors, digital
animation/movies
BodiIy/ inesthetic
Touching, moving, processing
knowledge though body
sensations
Manipulative materials, construction tools,
training kits, physical education equipment,
Science apparatus, simulations that require
eye-hand coordination,
MusicaI/ Rhythmic

dentifying rhythm, enjoying
melody, singing, listening to
music and melodies
Musical instruments, phonograph,
headphones, tape player/recorder, digital
sounds, pattern blocks, puzzles, online
pattern games, multimedia presentations,
speakers, CD ROM disks, CD ROM player
InterpersonaI
Sharing, comparing, relating,
interviewing, cooperating
Handouts, Study Guides, games, children's
literature, digital portfolios with self-
assessments
Intra-personaI


Working alone, doing self-
paced projects, having space,
reflecting
Collaborative projects, chat, message
boards, instant messenger. Class
discussion, class debate, real time projects,
online discussion forums,
Why shouId teachers know about Iearning styIes?
As we have learnt from the discussion above, individual learners prefer to use
different learning styles for different tasks. ndividuals perceive and process
information in very different ways. This observation emphasizes the fact that in every
instructional setting the teacher is confronted by students with varied learning styles. t
is therefore important for teachers to consider the learning styles of students when
developing our lessons. An awareness of students' learning styles enables us to plan
lessons that will be effective for the different types of learners. Furthermore, the
selection of an effective teaching and learning technology is enhanced if the teacher is
aware of the types of learners that he/she is dealing with.
Students learn better and more quickly if the teaching methods used match
their preferred learning styles. Although learners may use all the three learning styles
to receive information, usually one of these learning styles is normally dominant. Just
because a learner prefers one style, does not necessarily mean that the learner can
not benefit from the other two learning styles. The dominant style defines the best way
for a person to learn new information by filtering what is to be learned. The dominant
learning style may however, not always the same for all learning tasks. The learner
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may prefer one style of learning for one task, and a combination of others for another
task. As teachers, we need to present information using all three styles. This allows all
learners, no matter what their preferred style is, the opportunity to become involved.
Learning Theories and Their ImpIications for InstructionaI Design
Learning theories are organized sets of principles that explain how individuals
acquire, retain and recall knowledge. Leaning theories enable us to make predictions
about learning outcomes. They can be used as guidelines to help us select
instructional tools and strategies that promote learning and enable students to attain
learning objectives. Currently there are several different theories of learning. However
there are three fundamental learning theories when it comes to teaching and learning,
that is, behaviourist, cognitivism, and constructivism. These theories are relevant and
play an important role in the field of instructional technology.
Behaviourism
Behaviourism is a theory of learning that focuses on objectively observable
behaviours and discounts mental activities. t views the mind as a black box in the
sense that it argues that response to stimulus can be observed quantitatively, totally
ignoring the possibility of thought processes occurring in the mind. For example John
B. Watson, who is generally credited as the first behaviourist, argued that the inner
experiences that were the focus on psychology could not be properly studied, as they
were not observable. nstead he turned to laboratory experimentation. The result was
the generation of the stimulus-response model. n his experiments the environment
was seen as providing stimuli to which individuals develop responses. Three major
assumptions of behaviourism that are fundamental to our understanding of how
children learn resulted from these experiments. These are:
O Observable behaviours rather than internal thought processes are the
indicators of learning. n particular, learning is manifested by a change in
behaviour.
O The environment shapes one's behaviour; what one learns is determined by
the elements in the environment, not by the individual learner.
O The principles of contiguity and reinforcement are central to explaining the
learning process.
Other behavioural researchers like dward L. Thorndike build upon these
foundations and, in particular, developed the stimulus-response (S-R) theory of
learning. He noted that responses were strengthened or weakened by the
consequences of behaviour. This notion was refined by Skinner and is perhaps better
known as operant conditioning, that is, reinforcing what you want people to do again;
ignoring or punish what you want people to stop doing. For example, leading
behaviourist B.F. Skinner used reinforcement techniques to teach pigeons to dance
and bowl a ball in a mini-alley. Skinner believed that positive reinforcement was
important in learning. He also argues that the learning processes should be divided
into small steps and some form of reinforcement should follow each step.
Another important experiment established classical condition. Classic
conditioning occurs when a natural reflex responds to a stimulus. The most popular
example is Pavlov's observation that dogs salivate when they eat or even see food.
ssentially, animals and people are biologically tuned so that a certain stimulus will
produce a specific response.
The behaviourist theory views the learner as a blank slate and the teacher
must provide the experience. n terms of learning what we can learn from behaviourism is
that learning is repetitive, thus frequent practice is therefore necessary for learning to take
place. A stimulus from the environment is presented and the learner reacts to the
stimulus with some type of response. Consequences that reinforce a desired
behaviour are arranged to follow the desired behaviour. Positive reinforcers like rewards
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and successes are preferable to negative events like punishments and failures, for learning
to take place. The behaviour of the learner signifies that learning has occurred.
n summary behaviourist learning is characterized by:
O Prescribed knowledge that is transmitted to learners according to a pre-
planned program.
O Specific activities are carried out to achieve the objectives
O Learning is shaped by repetition and reinforcement as the learner
responds to specific stimuli.
O The learner has no control over the learning or on the time span of the
learning process.
O The teacher is the custodian of knowledge and center of the teaching
event.
O valuation is done individually at the end of the learning process to
determine if objectives were met.
O Failure means the concept/learning content will be repeated until it is
mastered.
ImpIications of Behaviourism for InstructionaI Design
Behaviourists believe that teaching and learning should be goal oriented.
Objectives should be clearly stated prior to the learning process. The objectives
should be stated in behavioural terms, representing the intended outcomes of the
educational experience. For example, 'By the end of the lesson pupils should be able
to count from 1 to 10. Objectives provide a basis on which instructional planning,
implementation, and evaluation could be made more precise. They also form a basis
for psychological investigation to shed light on changes in the learner's behaviour.
According to the behaviourist theory students learn as result of instruction so
they should be instructed in what they learn. This has resulted in is Skinner's
instructivism model which denies the importance of internal states in learning. Skinner
believed that learning is a stimulus-response association that shapes desirable
behaviours. To be effective behaviourist instruction should include regular lectures
and structured textbooks, with sequential development and graded exercises and
problems. The recommended teaching strategies include feedback, reinforcement,
review and practice, for example drill and practice exercises. Learning tasks should
be reduced to individual components and each task should be mastered
independently.
nspired by behaviourist movement Bobbitt and Ralph Tyler have
recommended a behavioural approach to curriculum and instructional design, founded
on the specification of educational objectives. Tyler (1932) is in favour of having
teachers to state objectives when he stresses that,
Formulating the course objectives, define the objectives in terms
of student behaviour, collect situations in which students are to
indicate the presence or absence of each objective, and provide
the method of evaluating the student's reactions in the light of
each objective.
Tyler's model demonstrates that, behavioural objectives should be defined
clearly because they will form the basis for the evaluation procedures. He warns that
objectives should not be confused with things which teachers are to do, but they must
be expressed in behavioural terms of changes in student behaviour. nstructional
evaluation should therefore look at the behaviour of students and the changes in
behaviours as a result of the process of instruction.
Behaviourism has pervasive influence on instruction and instructional design,
although this influence is fading considerably due to new developments in
instructional technology. Contemporary computer-assisted instruction is a direct
descendant of teaching machines and programmed instruction, both of which were
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attempts to create a technology of teaching in accordance with behaviourist learning
principles. nstruction created according to behaviourist principles such as
programmed instruction, early computer-based instruction, and some contemporary
computer-based tutorials and drill-and-practice, were designed following the
behaviourists learning characteristics:
O Emphasis on specific observabIe Iearning outcomes
The target behaviours needed to be specified so that the teacher could provide
appropriate reinforcement when they were achieved.
O IndividuaIised Iearning.
ach learner works independently, at his/her own pace. This permits
reinforcement to occur at the moment the learner completes a particular objective.
O Frequent reinforcement
The material to be learned is broken into very small chunks, usually somewhere
between a paragraph and a page of text. This is done to enable the learner to be
reinforced frequently while working through the material.
O nowIedge of correct resuIts as a reinforcer
The usual pattern of this kind of instruction is to present a small amount of reading
or a problem, then to pose a question. n behaviourist terms, the reading or
problem is a discriminative stimulus; when the student answers the question, they
will be emitting a response; and reinforcement that follows the response is finding
out whether the learner has answered the question properly.
Skinner's concept of programmed instruction emphasised the role of
instructional technology in facilitating individual learning. The process involved in
programmed instruction is identifying objectives, arranging subject matter into logical
sequences, preparing and testing instructional programs and then implementing,
testing and revising them. Subject matter is divided into smaller concepts and
instruction is given in steps or frames. ach step is followed by a question which the
learner can almost always answer correctly. This sequence of events (chaining)
influences the procession and retention of the information as the deductive reasoning
is enhanced by correctly sequencing the events.
Computer Assisted nstruction (CA) packages such as tutorials, drill and
practice and simulation software are also based on some of the key behaviuorist
principles. These include:
O Stating the objectives of the software.
O Applying appropriate reinforcers, be it text, visual or audio.
O Provides repetition and immediate feedback to the learner.
O Principles of behaviour shaping, chaining, modeling, punishment and
rewarding are used.
O A scoring system is very often present and the software should provide the
status of progress of the learner.
O Motivation is also enhanced, as the student is continually kept on track of
his/her performance.
However behaviourism is not without problems. Some critics argue that
behaviourist principles encourage rote learning which does not develop problem
solving skills in learners. Thus some theorists argue that learning acquired through the
behaviourist approach may not be as flexible as learning acquired through other
methods. Students taught using behaviourist approach will often need to modify what
they have learnt outside of the predictable responses in order to accommodate
changes in the environment or situation in which they find themselves. Another major
criticism leveled against behaviourism is that it oversimplifies human behaviour.
Behaviourists see human beings as automatons instead of creatures of will and
purpose. f all behaviour or responses are reinforced by repetition, as well as positive
and negative reinforcers, it may be difficult for a single teacher to appropriately and
individually reinforce thirty or more learners at the same time.
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Cognitivism
Whereas Behaviourists looked at the out ward observable behaviour,
cognitivisim is based on the thought process behind the behaviour. Cognitive theorists
view learning as involving the acquisition or reorganisation of the cognitive structures
through which humans process and store information. n other words, they were
concerned with cognition as the act or process of knowing. The learner's mind is
viewed like a mirror by which new knowledge and skills will be reflected. Changes in
behaviour are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the
learner's mind.
Some of the major players in the development of cognitivism are Jean Piaget,
who developed the major aspects of his theory as early as the 1920's and Bruner who
founded the Harvard Centre for Cognitive studies. Jean Piaget, while recognizing the
contribution of environment, explored changes in internal cognitive structure. He
identified four stages of mental growth namely sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
operational and formal operational. Jerome Bruner explored how mental processes
could be linked to teaching emphasizing, among other things, learning through
discovery.
ImpIications of Cognitivism to InstructionaI Design
Cognitivist strategies for instructional design attempt to ameliorate some of the
criticisms of the behaviourist approach. Cognitive psychologists contend that learning is an
internal process that cannot be observed directly. The changes in behaviour are observed,
but only as an indicator to what is going on in the learner's mind. Cognitivists acknowledge
learners' existing thoughts, beliefs and experiences as being influential in the learning
process. Learning is said to have taken place when a mental schema change occurs. That
is, when the learner has modified the way in which s/he sees the world as a result of the
instruction they have just undergone.
The cognitivist theory is employed when the learner plays an active role in
seeking ways to understand and process information that he or she receives and
relate it to what is already known and stored within memory. The learner is viewed as
having a more proactive role in his/her own learning with this theory.
Conditions under which cognitivism effectively contributes to learning are
when:
O The learner has experience with subject matter or related area of knowledge.
O Resources such as teaching and learning aids are available to help the
learner link subject matter with existing knowledge.
O Learner needs to be guided to a more developed understanding of
information.
O nstruction time is not severely limited.
O nstruction is well organised Well-organized materials easier to learn and to
remember.
O nstruction is clearly structured and subject content is presented in logical way
that allows relationships between key ideas and concepts to be identified
easily.
O New knowledge and skills fit well with what is already known by the learner.
O Reinforcement comes through giving information rather than simply a reward.
The teacher must provide ways to help the learner process the information. The
emphasis is on presenting the information in a clear and logical manner. The teacher's role
is to arrange lessons such that they will allow the student to build upon prior knowledge or
experience, and then to provide appropriate feedback when behaviour indicates that they
have acquired insight, assimilated or accommodated the new information. The learner
must organize the information to digest and process it, so chunking and logical sequencing
are essential.
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Key learning strategies include lessons designed to facilitate assimilation,
accommodation, or schema changes. Some specific cognitive design approaches
include analogies, concept mapping, interactivity and linking to pre-existing
knowledge. Designing these lessons necessitate an assessment of the existing
prerequisites to the learner.
nstructional methods used with cognitive information processing are:
O Discussions and reasoning
O Problem solving or troubleshooting
O Analogies or imagery
O Classifying or chunking information into logical groups
O Mnemonics (abbreviations or phrases that help learners remember)
However there are some important observations that have been made by
critics of cognitivism. For example the critics argue that learning new behaviour
changes to a particular problem may not necessarily be the most effective and
productive solution. This approach, while recognising the role of the mind in the
learning process, seeks not to encourage new thought, but rather to generate a
conditioned thought or responses to identifiable stimuli.
Constructivist Theory
Constructivism is a theory of learning founded on the premise that we all
construct our own perspective of the world, based on individual experiences and
internal knowledge structure. Constructivism holds that knowledge and truth are
constructed by people and do not exist outside the human mind. Hence learning is
based on how the individual interprets and creates the meaning of his/her
experiences. Knowledge is constructed by an individual and since everyone has a
different set of experiences, learning is unique and different for each learner.
Constructivism is associated with cognitive psychology because it focuses on
a learner's ability to mentally construct meaning of their own environment and to
create their own learning. ach learner generates his or her own rules and mental
models, which they use to make sense of our experiences. Learning, therefore, is
simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences.
The purpose of learning is for an individual to construct his or her own meaning, not
just memorize the right answers and regurgitate someone else's meaning.
One important constructivist theory is the social cognition learning model which
asserts that culture is the prime determinant of individual development. According to this
view a child develops in the context of a culture. Therefore, a child's learning development
is affected by the culture, including the culture of family environment, in which he or she is
raised. Culture makes two major contributions to a child's intellectual development. First,
through culture the child acquires much of the content of their thinking, that is, their
knowledge. Second the surrounding culture provides a child with the processes or means
of their thinking, what Vygotskians call the tools of intellectual adaptation. n short,
according to the social cognition learning model, culture teaches children both what to think
and how to think.
Central to the tenet of constructivism is that learning is an active process.
Woolfolk (1993:485) describes the constructivist view of the learning process as
follows:
The key idea is that students actively construct their own
knowledge: the mind of the student mediates input from the
outside world to determine what the student will learn. Learning
is active mental work, not passive reception of teaching.
1

n Dewey's terms, it is the 'problematic' that leads to and is the organiser for
learning (Dewey, 1938). Savery and Duffy (1995) talk about the learner's 'puzzlement'
as being the stimulus and organiser for learning. The important point here is that it is

1
\oololk, A. L. ,1993,. avcatiovat .,cbotog,, Bosten: Allyn and Bacon.
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the problematic situation or context that is central to the learning process in
constructivism.
The theory of constructivism is linked to many theorists who include John
Dewey, Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Seymour Papert and Mitchell
Resnick.
ImpIications of Constructivism for InstructionaI Design
Constructivism is a fundamental departure in thought from what we know
about the nature of teaching and learning. The principles of constructivist learning as
follows:
O Learning is a search for meaning. Therefore, learning must start with the issues
around which students are actively trying to construct meaning.
O Meaning requires understanding wholes as well as parts. Parts must be
understood in the context of wholes, thus the learning process should focus on
primary concepts, not isolated facts.
O The purpose of learning is to construct one's own meaning, not to have the
right answers by repeating someone else's meaning.
From these basic principles of constructivism a number of guidelines for
instructional designing can be established. According to the constructivist perspective,
learning is determined by the complex interplay among learners' existing knowledge,
the social context, and the problem to be solved. Thus, during the learning process,
learners may conceive content differently, based on their unique set of experiences
with the world and their beliefs about them. t is therefore important that we give
learners a chance to discuss their understanding with others and thus to develop
shared understandings. Good teaching then involves providing learners with
opportunities for collaboration in which they have both the means and the opportunity
to construct new understanding.
Since learning is viewed as a personal interpretation of the world, it must start with
the issues around which students are actively trying to construct meaning. Learners are
expected to construct their own understanding about what we teach them. They do not
simply absorb what we tell them, but they look for meaning. Learners should be engaged in
constructing their own knowledge by testing ideas and approaches based on their prior
knowledge and experience, applying these to a new situation, and integrating the new
knowledge gained with pre-existing intellectual constructs. We may impose but we cannot
force our students to understand for it must come from within.
n order to teach well, we must understand the previous experiences and
knowledge upon which students can base their understanding of the world.
Furthermore we must structure our lesson in such a way that we minimise the gap
between what the student knows and the next, more complex things they are learning
about. This means that we must have a full understanding of how the learner already
sees the world as well as being able to identify the gaps between what they know and
what we want to teach, in order to assist them towards building on to their existing
knowledge and attain new insights or knowledge. This method is often referred to as
scaffolding and its purpose is to allow the learner to focus their attention on the next
thing they need to learn in a chain of progressively more complex lesson.
As teachers we should design instruction, which gives the learner opportunities to
solve realistic and meaningful problems. The learner needs to experience real world
applications and construct knowledge. From a constructivist perspective, our primary
responsibility as teachers is to create and maintain a collaborative problem-solving
environment, where students are allowed to construct their own knowledge, with us
teachers only acting as facilitators and guides. We are expected to design group-learning
activities which allow learners to interact and solve real life problems.
To a large extent constructivism promotes a more open-ended learning
experience where the methods and results of learning are not easily measured and
may not be the same for each learner.
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The constructivist theory of learning has the following general implications to
teaching and learning;
O Provide multiple representations of reality, while avoiding oversimplification of
instruction by representing the natural complexity of the world.
O Allow a student-centred learning process whereby students play an important
role in setting the goals for learning.
O Present authentic tasks by contextualising learning activities
O Provide opportunities for collaboration.
O ncourage meta-cognitive and reflective activities
O nable context- and content-dependent knowledge construction by providing
real-world, case-based learning environments, rather than pre-determined
instructional sequences
O Support collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation,
not competition among learners for recognition
O use a wide variety of materials, including raw data, primary sources, and
interactive materials and encourage students to use them;
O encourage students to engage in dialogue with the teacher and with one
another;
Since learning is inherently inter-disciplinary the only valuable assessment of
learning is assessment that is part of the learning process and that provides students
with information on the quality of their learning.
As regards instructional technology, their use will have the greatest
effectiveness when they are applied within constructivist learning environments. A rich
environment of textbooks, electronic equipment, construction kits, symbolic
representation and inscription characterize constructivist tools. The constructivist
theory of learning advocates the use of technology as knowledge construction and
mediation tools. nstruction technology empowers learners to design their own
representation of knowledge rather than absorbing representation preconceived by
others. nstruction technology can be used to support the deep reflective thinking that
is necessary for meaningful learning.
The strength of using the constructivist approach is in its ability to generate
authentic thinking skills in the learner. While the behaviourist and to some extend
cognitivist camps have clearly defined goals and results in predictable outcomes, they
do not teach the skill of active thinking, constructivism seeks to allow the learner to
have multiple realities when addressing a problem or situation. Here there is no one
particular correct response or behaviour to a given problem situation but rather the
student is thought to articulate possible responses and behaviours and then choose
the one which fits that particular problem or situation appropriately. By so doing
constructivism teaches active thinking and the skill of evaluating alternatives to a
given situation.
The major criticism of this approach is that it fails to produce uniform and
predictable responses in the learner population; a critical outcome if for instance you were
teaching in a centralised curriculum. Another thing that makes the constructivist theory
controversial is that it calls for the elimination of a standardized curriculum. nstead, it
promotes using curricula customized to the students' prior knowledge. Constructivism calls
for the elimination of grades and standardized testing. nstead, assessment becomes part
of the learning process so that students play a larger role in judging their own progress.
The question that remains to be answered is to what extent is all this practical.
Constructivist Teaching Strategies
Constructivist instructional design strategies are non-linear and focus much
on the learners than the content to be taught. The most common strategies include
collaborative learning, coaching, anchored instruction and problem based learning.
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i.) CoIIaborative Learning
The constructivist perspective argues that learners learn through interaction with
others. Collaborative learning involves learners working together in small groups
to develop their own answer through interaction and reaching consensus, which
is not necessarily a predetermined answer. Learners work together as peers,
applying their combined knowledge to find solutions to a problem. The dialogue
that results from this combined effort provides learners with the opportunity to
test and refine their understanding. Through group activities learners get an
opportunity to integrate their experiences, knowledge, and beliefs as well as
obtaining new ones. Collaborative learning also entails giving learners
opportunities to develop, compare, and understand multiple perspectives on an
issue.

n traditional classroom teaching collaborative learning can be carried out
through exercises that involve learners working in small groups on an assigned
learning task or problem under the guidance of the teacher who monitors the
groups, making sure the learners are staying on task and are coming up with the
a reasonable or best possible answers, if there is a right or a best answer.
Collaborative learning requires us as teacher to act as facilitators, with our main
function being to help students become active participants in their learning and
make meaningful connections between prior knowledge, new knowledge, and
the processes involved in learning.
ii.) Anchored Instruction
The primary goal in anchored instruction is to help learners develop skills in the
context of meaningful problem-posing and problem-solving activities, rather than
as isolated, out of context activities. Anchored instruction involves designing
dynamic, interactive, task-driven exercises that enable learners to experience a
concept rather than just hear about it in a classroom.

The instruction should provide opportunities for students to explore different
solutions and actively participate in the learning process. Using this strategy
means creating an authentic, problem-rich environment that encourages
learners to draw upon prior knowledge, collaborate with each other and, in doing
so, and explore a multiple of perspectives and various possible solutions.
iii.) Apprenticeship
Cognitive apprenticeship describes an instructional process in which the
teachers provide and support students with scaffolds while students carry out
authentic tasks. t is a teaching and learning strategy that allows students to
learn from an experienced person, who, in the classroom situation, is the
teacher. The main characteristics of cognitive apprenticeships model: are
heuristic content, situated learning, modeling, coaching, articulation, reflection,
exploration, and order in increasing complexity.
Learning StyIes versus Learning Theories
n this chapter we took learning style inventories to increase our knowledge of
how people process information in a learning situation. We ended up looking at
learning theories to help us understand how the learning occurs. We have seen that
learners may be visual, auditory or kinaesthetic learners. This means learners have
different preferences for whether information comes into them by seeing, hearing or
hands-on activities. We have studied these topics to increase our awareness of how
people process information and learn. This knowledge will help us to be able to plan a
variety of learning activities and design instruction that will facilitate student learning.
We will also be able to adapt to different groups of students with a variety of needs as
necessary.
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Summary
Learning has been defined as an active process. Learning cannot occur without
the effort of the learner. We have seen that learners possess different learning styles.
Whilst psychology has yet to provide a definitive explanation of the learning process, it is
clear that different people learn best in different ways. At present there are a number of
competing theories of how learning takes place. However, in as far as the teaching and
learning, there are basically three dominant theories, namely behaviourist, cognitivist and
constructivist theory.
We may take these learning theories as a set of glasses that give us lenses to
focus the educational experience. One prescription may not be enough. t may take
bifocals to focus and combine theories to create the desired outcome. ach eye sees
slightly differently, so some adjustments in plans may be necessary. Knowledge of all the
theories increases the likelihood of finding a teaching strategy that supports the type
of learning being attempted. Some strategies overlap and it may be necessary to
incorporate strategies from different theoretical perspectives as needed.
There is therefore no one single theory which designers are required to keep
in mind while designing the instructional strategies and content. nstead a solid
foundation in all the learning theories is an essential element in the effective use of
instructional technology in teaching and learning. Depending on the learners and
situation, different learning theories may apply. The theory of multiple intelligences for
example suggests that there are a number of distinct forms of intelligence that each
individual possesses in varying degrees. As teachers, we must understand the
strengths and weaknesses of each learning theory to optimise their use in determining
the most appropriate technology utilisation strategy.

References
Woolfolk, A. . (1993). Educational psychology, Bosten: Allyn and Bacon
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lN$IR0CIl0NAL 0$l0N
Introduction
One of most important activities in instructional technology is the process of
planning and designing instruction. n this chapter we address the procedural guide by
which we can successfully design effective instruction. However, before we do that,
we are going to start by defining the term instruction.
What is Instruction?
According to Bruner (1966:1) 'Instruction is, after all, an effort to assist or to shape
growth.' n this definition Bruner is defining instruction in terms of the goal to be achieved.
This view is echoed by Romiszowski (1981), a proponent of systems thinking, who
proposes the following:
'By 'instruction' we shall mean a goal-directed teaching process
which is more or less pre-planned. Whether the goal has been
established by the learner or by some external agent such as a
teacher of a syllabus is immaterial. What is important is that a
predetermined goal has been identified. Whether the routes to the
goal are then unique or various, whether they are prescribed by
the instructor or chosen by the learner is immaterial. What is
important is that pre-planning has taken place to establish and test
out viable routes...' (p. 4)
According to Romiszowksi (1981) an instructional systems is characterised by
the presence of precise goals or objectives and the presence of careful pre-planning
and testing out. Thus instruction can be viewed as a pre-planned process in which
new knowledge is presented to the learner or a group of learners by a mediator, who
identifies one or more goals in advance.
Gagne (1985:244) sees instruction as constituting the application by a
mediator of nine instructional events.
'When one is concerned with instruction, one deals with the
deliberate arrangement of events in the learner's environment for
the purpose of making learning happen, but also to make it
effective.' (p. 244
n his earlier publications Gagne (1974) defined instruction as:
'.as the set of events designed to initiate, activate, and support
learning in a human learner. Such events must first be planned,
and secondly they must be delivered, that is, made to have their
effects on the learner. There is a planning for the teacher's activity
. and also for the student activity....'(p. 2)
From the definitions of instruction cited above it can be deduced that
instruction is made up of the following parts:
O the process is first planned,
Chapter
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O an arrangement of events by the teacher,
O learning content must delivered in an effective manner,
O the learning content is then delivered
O the goal is that learning must happen,

Now let us turn to what authorities say about instructional design.
What is InstructionaI Design?
One of the shortest but loaded definitions of instructional design is the one
given by Dick, Carey and Carey (2001) who see instructional design as the systematic
approach for the design, development, implementation and evaluation of instruction.
2

Russell et al., (1998:3) in introducing their nstructional Design nvironment
(D) describe instructional design as:
The task of instructional design extends from analysis of the
domain knowledge to be taught, to the development and delivery
of the instructional materials. (...) Viewed from a design
perspective, the instructional design process is a series of analysis
and synthesis steps that transforms a large amount of knowledge
(about students, tasks, and the domain) from its original form into
a form that be can be used for teaching.
Reigeluth (1983:4) sees instructional design as the 'linking science' between
learning theory and educational practice. He states the following:
nstructional design is a discipline that is concerned with
understanding and improving one aspect of education: the process
of instruction.(...) the discipline of instructional design is concerned
primarily with prescribing optimal methods of instruction to bring
about desired changes in student knowledge.'
n this view instructional design is concerned with (1) with the decision what methods
of instruction are best for bringing about changes in a given situation (professional
activity) and (2) producing knowledge about methods of instruction (scientific
discipline).
Gagne (1974:97-146) had earlier on proposed a similar view, although he does
not use the word 'instructional design.' He sees two important aspects of instruction:
Like many complex human activities, instruction has two parts to
its accomplishment. Because it is complex and subject to the
various constraints of specific situations, it first must be planned.
Teachers may plan specific 'next assignments' for particular
students. They may plan lessons for groups or classes of children.
(...) The second component, following the planning, is the conduct
of instructional 'operations' or the delivery of instruction. Here a
teacher may be arranging an external supporting situation for an
individual student, a small face-to-face group, or a larger group
like a class. (...) Thus, besides the planning the teacher has done
in preparation for instruction, many moment-to-moment decisions
are required for instructional delivery.
The process of instructional design can be broken down into the following
steps which have to be completed in that order.

2
ick, W., Carey, L., Carey, J.O., The Systematic esign oI Instruction, 2001.

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O dentification of the instructional goal for the lesson in terms of terminal
behaviours that is, what the learner will be able to do when they have
finished the instruction.
O dentification of prerequisite basic skills which are required for the learners to
be able to achieve the required behaviour. These are the minimum level of
skills which learners are expected to come with to the instruction.
O Statement of performance objectives. Performance objectives differ from
instructional goals in that performance objectives are the behaviours that the
learner is expected to perform at the end of the instruction.
O Development of the actual instruction. This step includes instructional media
technology selection and the development and production of the strategy to
implement the instruction.
O Development of test items based on the performance objectives.
O valuation of the effectiveness of the instruction.
The systematic approach to InstructionaI Design
As we have discussed above instructional design is a systematic process of
designing learning experiences so as to maximise learning effectiveness. n order to
engage in a systematic instructional planning, we should adhere to the following four
principles;
O Begin the planning process by clearly identifying the general goals and
specific objectives students will be expected to attain;
O Plan instructional activities that are intended to help students attain those
objectives;
O Develop assessment instruments that measure attainment of those
objectives; and
O Revise instruction in light of students' performance on each objective and
student attitudes towards the instructional activities.
The systematic planning process recommended for teachers by Reiser and
Dick (1996) comprise of seven steps. These stages are shown in figure 2.1 below.
As shown in figure 2.1, the first step in the planning process involves
identifying instructional goals. An instructional goal is a general statement of what
learners will be able to do as a result of instruction. After identifying the general goals,
the next step involves the formulation of specific instructional objectives. These
objectives are the specific statement of what students will be able to do at the end of
the instructional process. The objectives are based on the general aims of instruction.
Once we have identified what we want students to learn as expressed by the
objectives, we can then start thinking about the instructional activities that can assist
students in the learning process. Thus the third step in the planning process requires
us to identify the instructional activities we could employ in order for us to achieve the
stated objectives. t is most likely that the instructional activities we suggest will
involve the use of instructional media, such as textbooks, chalkboard and other
teaching and learning aids. The forth step therefore focuses on the selection of
instructional media.
As teachers we should be interested in knowing whether our students have
learnt what we wanted then to learn. The fifth step in the planning process requires us
to develop assessment tools to determine whether our students can demonstrate the
skill, knowledge, and attitudes that we stated in our objectives. After we have
identified our aims and objectives and arranged the instructional activities as well as
the appropriate assessment techniques, we are then ready to implement the
instruction with our students.

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The seventh and final step in the planning process involves revising the
instruction based upon the results of the implementation stage. Depending on what
we will have observed during the implementation stage, are required to revise the
instruction in order to achieve effective learning.
InstructionaI Design ModeIs
nstructional design models are based on years of research on how best to
present learning materials. Just as there are numerous definitions of instructional
design, so too has been the proliferation of D models. There are over one hundred
different models, each with its own benefits. Before we discuss in detail the selected
D models, let us first understand what an nstructional Design model is.
nstructional Design (D) model may be defined as the visualised
representation of an instructional design process showing the main elements or
phases of instructional design and their relationships. While instructional theory
attempts to understand and explain the elements which occur within a systematic
design of learning materials, the model provides a detailed step by step guidance for
the creation of the design.
As implied above instructional design models are helpful for a number of
reasons. Sometimes when given a task like planning a lesson, it is difficult to know
where to begin. A design model gives us a step-by-step process to be followed from
the starting point up to the last step. An instructional design model contains all the
elements of creating a well-rounded lesson. These models were created with the
assumption that if all steps are followed the result will be a quality product.
For our purposes, two models, namely the ADDIE and the ASSURE models
are be discussed in detail. The two models have been chosen for special reasons.
The ADDIE has been selected because it is a classic model of instructional design
and many other models are based on this model or are at least variations of the
model. Once we understand the ADDIE, we will be in a position to understand all the
oentify
nstructional
Coals
Formulate
Objective
Plan
nstructional
Activities
Select
nstructional
Meoia
Develop
Assessment
1ools
mplement
nstruction
R
e
v
i
s
e

n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n

igure 2.1: The Systems Approach to Instructional esign
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other models. The ASSURE was chosen because it is based on the most recent
research and is especially useful for designing instruction that makes use of
technology.
The ADDIE ModeI
The ADDIE model is a generic systematic model that can be used for
designing all types of instruction. t is a scientific approach which can be replicated
and it maintains focus on attaining the lesson's objectives through data collection and
analysis. t is a cyclic model whose individual steps are to assess and analyse needs,
design instruction, develop materials, implement activities, and evaluate student
progress as well as instructional materials effectiveness. As we have seen in
chapter one each of these phases is an important eIement of the instructionaI
design process. n each phase, the teacher makes decisions that are critical for
ensuring the effectiveness of the instructional experience.





















The stages of the model are discussed in detail below.
AnaIyze
This phase is the foundation for all the other phases of instructional design.
During this phase, the teacher must define the problem, identify the sources of the
problem and determine possible solutions. Needs analysis starts from finding out how
the last lesson went and what could be done to make it better. The teacher needs also
to examine the goals and objectives of the lesson and the nature of the learners so as
to determine the appropriateness of the instructional design. To begin this process,
ask yourself and provide answers to the following questions:
O Who is the intended learning audience?
O What needs to be learned?
O What are the goals and objectives for learning?
O What is the current level of the learners' knowledge?
O Where and how will learning be delivered?
O What resources are needed to successfully complete the lesson?
Using the results of the needs analysis, you will need to decide on:

ANALYSE
DESIGN
EVALUATE
DEVELOP IMPLEMENT
g 31: Stages of the ADDIE Model

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O What goals and objectives should the lesson address?
O What is required to complete(achieve) the objectives successfully?
O How will student demonstrate what they've learned?
O What are the appropriate ways to provide authentic assessment?

Design
Design is concerned with subject matter analysis, lesson planning, and media
selection. During this phase, you will produce all the materials required for instruction.
You will also need to establish the performance standards you want learners to be
able to exhibit before you consider them competent. ach objective should be
specified as a measurable behaviour and an acceptable level of correctness or
behaviour has also been specified.
You should always remember that good lesson planning requires
consideration of:
O Objectives stated in terms of specific measurable learning outcomes
O Skills, knowledge and attitudes to be developed
O Resources and strategies to be utilised
O Structuring, sequencing, presentation, and reinforcement of the content
O Assessment methods matched to the learning objectives to ensure agreement
between intended outcomes and assessment measurements.
The choice of media is determined by contingencies of the participant's needs
and available resources.
DeveIop
The purpose of this stage is to generate the lesson plans and learning
materials. The teacher will develop and test the instruction media that will be used
during the instructional process as well as any other relevant supporting
documentation. The teacher will seek to answer the following questions.
O Have the learning needs and characteristics of the learners been accurately
analysed?
O Were the problem statement, the instructional goals and the instructional
objectives appropriate for the learning needs of the learners?
O To what extent are the teaching resources, instructional strategies and the
learning experiences successful in effectively meeting the instructional goals
and objectives of the target audience?
O s it possible to accurately assess learners' learning with the proposed course
of instruction?
Make sure to create interactive learning activities that are directly linked to the
stated objectives and assessment procedures.
ImpIement
The implementation stage refers to the actual delivery of the instruction. The
teacher will now conduct the actual lesson. The teacher is now going into the
classroom to present the learning as designed. This may involve showing learners
how to make the best use of the learning materials, coordinating and managing
learning activities. The teacher should organise the content in a manner that the
learners are able to build upon what they have already learned. The teacher should
also provide an elaborate feedback and assess learners' performance with respect to
the new skills and knowledge presented in the lesson.
Usually, the planning for the implementation phase starts well before the
instruction is ready for delivery. t is important to make sure that the instruction is
delivered smoothly and effectively to the learners. Of course, instructional delivery
issues depend, substantially on the instruction's delivery format.
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EvaIuate
The evaluation phase provides a final review checkpoint for the instruction.
During the evaluation phase, the teacher measures how well the instruction achieved
its goals. The evaluation phase measures the instruction's efficacy and locates
opportunities to improve learners' performance. valuation should be done at two
levels. The teacher has to evaluate the performance of the students, as well as the
performance of the assessment methods and lesson materials. Firstly determine the
degree of success of the participant in obtaining and retaining the learnt skills and
knowledge. Then, the teacher has to determine how successful the instructional
design package was in facilitating effective student learning.
valuation should actually occur throughout the entire instructional design
process throughout the phases. ach of the five ADD phases provides review
checkpoints that allow the teacher to evaluate the work that has been produced so far.
This evaluation could be either formative or summative. Formative evaluation is an
ongoing process during and between. ts purpose is to improve the instruction before
the final version of instruction is implemented. Summative evaluation is carried out
after the final version of instruction has been implemented. This type of evaluation
assesses the overall effectiveness of the instruction.
The ADD model stresses the concept that good instructional programs
require planning, review, and revision. Therefore the teacher should use the
information obtained to revise and improve the next lesson presentation. Ask yourself
the following questions:
O Did students achieve the desired and stated outcomes?
O What did students learn?
O How did they learn it? Observe students using materials, interacting with each
other
O What areas remain unclear?
O How can the lesson be further improved?
Table 3.1 summarises our discussion on the ADD model
Table 3.1 Summary of the ADDIE Model
Phase

Activities

A

AnaIyze

stablish the audience and their leaning learn
Consider the instructional delivery options.
Determine the constraints
D



Design

Select the most appropriate learning environment by examining
the kinds of cognitive skills required to achieve the learning
objectives
Write the instructional objectives and select the appropriate
strategy
specify learning activities, assessment and choose methods and
media
D

DeveIop

Obtain or create the required technology
Determine the appropriate learning activities and interactions.
Carry out formative evaluation, and revise
I


ImpIement
Put the plan into action
Duplicate and distribute materials, handouts, as necessary
Be prepared in the event that technical problems occur and
consider alternative plans ahead of time
E

EvaIuate

evaluate the plan from all levels for next implementation
Determine how you will measure attainment of learning
objectives.

The major weakness of this model that it follows a linear fashion and as result fails to
recognise the significance of the dynamic nature of instruction. The evaluation phase
is usually seen as the final stage of development but in actual fact evaluation should
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occur constantly through out the development process. The ADD model as shown
in figure 3.1 does not really show the dynamics of the SD model.






















The five phases of the model should be seen as on-going activities that should
continue throughout the teaching program. After building an instructional package, the
other phases do not end once the instructional program has been implemented. The
five phases work like in a cycle, they are continually repeated on a regular basis to
see if the instructional program could be further improved. Figure 3.2 shows how the
flow of activities during the instructional process.
As shown in figure 3.2 the five phases of the ADD models should be
continuously repeated in order to improve the instructional process. Figure 3.2 also
highlights the importance of evaluation and feedback throughout the entire process of
the instructional process. t also stresses the importance of gathering and distributing
information in each of the five phases and shows that the teaching and learning
process is not a static process, but should be treated as an iterative flow of activities.
The ASSURE ModeI
Although the ADDIE model of instructional design is well entrenched in
practice and has influenced teaching and learning in many ways, various alternatives
to this approach have emerged over the time. While constructivist approaches have
not yet replaced behavioural approaches as the dominant theoretical framework, they
have already made a significant impact on how learning should be conceived of and
provide wide-ranging implications for instructional design derived from a constructivist
view. One such an approach is the ASSUR model.
The ASSURE model is a simplified instructional design model developed at
ndiana University for nstructional Media, by Robert Heinich, Michael Molenda, and
James D. Russell (1993). The model is based on Gagne's vents of nstruction but
has been modified to be used by teachers in the regular classroom. t provides a
procedural guide for the planning and delivery of instruction that integrates technology
into the teaching and learning process.
Unlike most instructional design models, the ASSURE model does not have a
visual representation or diagram. nstead the model is described by the use of the
acronym ASSURE.
Analyse learners
State objectives
Select instructional methods, media, and materials

Analyse
Implement Desgn
Develop
Evaluaton
Figure 3.2: The dynamics of the ADDIE modeI
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Utilize media and materials
Require learner participation
Evaluate and revise
The ASSUR model requires us to first consider who the learners are and what
characteristics they have which might affect their learning. Next, we must state the
objectives of the instructional program and the learning objectives for the students.
Teaching and learning materials are selected in relation to the learners' preferences and
the objectives of the lesson. f we select to use existing materials, we must be sure that
they suit our set objectives, if they are not quite suitable, we may consider modifying them
or design our own teaching and learning materials. The learning materials should be
presented to the learners, used by them, and we are supposed to ensure that our students
are actively involved throughout the learning process. We can achieve this goal through
planning learning activities for the students. Finally, we should evaluate and revise the
teaching and learning process. These stages are discussed in detail below.
AnaIyze Learners
Before we can start teaching, we must know our target audience, the
students. This stage requires us to collect the following information about the
learners:
O GeneraI characteristics
This is a general description of the class as a whole. nformation to be collected
include the number of students, grade, age, ethnic group, sex, mental, emotional,
physical, and social problems, socioeconomic level, and many other relevant
background information.
O Specific entry competencies
These include prerequisite skills and knowledge, thus the stage requires us to
understand the kind of knowledge expected of our learners as well as their prior
knowledge, skills, and attitudes. We need to establish lessons that have been
taken prior to the one we are planning in order to determine what knowledge is
assumed.
O Learning styIes
This is a description of the different learning preferences of the individual learners
in the class. We are expected be able to establish the learner's perceptual
preferences and strengths. The learning styles we should take note of include
verbal, visual, tactile, musical, mathematical, logical and many others as we have
learnt in chapter two. We are also required to establish the different cognitive
variables that shape the information processing and learning habits of our
students. n addition to the psychological factors we are also supposed to establish
the motivational factors that influence our students' learning. These include things
such as anxiety, achievement motivation, cautiousness and competitiveness.
State Objectives
After having a clear picture of the nature and type of learner in our classes,
we can now start to consider what the student is going to learn, that is, the objectives
of the lesson. Objectives are statements of what the learner will be able to do as a
result of our teaching. They are the learning outcomes, what the learner is expected to
get out of the lesson.
The objectives should be carefully formulated so that they are realistic. As
such a number of suggestions have been put forward to us to formulate good
objectives. One suggestion is the ABCDs of writing objectives. ABCD is an acronym
which stands for:
Audience
Behaviour
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Condition
Degree
This strategy is explained in detail below.
O Our objectives should identify the audience for which the objective is intended.
O We must also state the behaviour to be demonstrated. The behaviour should
be on observable and measurable skill. The use of action verbs helps us to
frame objectives that have these characteristics.
O We have to specify the conditions under which the behaviour will be observed,
the condition can include equipment, tools, aids or references the learners may
use during the leaning process.
O We must also specify the degree to which the learned skills are to be
mastered. The degree to which the learnt skill should be mastered should
include time limit, range of accuracy and the proportion of correct responses
required among other things.
Table 3.2: A summary of the characteristics of learning objectives
A

Statement of the audience

B

A verb describing a new skill or learned concept after instruction

C

Conditions for the behaviour, what tools or materials will they use to
demonstrate mastery

D

State the degree of accuracy or proficiency.

The point being raised here is that when stating objectives, focus should be
on the learners and the behaviours stated should reflect the real world concerns. The
objectives should be spread over the cognitive, affective and psychomotor or motor
skill domains. A well stated objective should allow the teacher to do the following
before or after the lesson:
O dentify what is expected of the learner
O dentify the necessary requirements for the learning environment
O Assess the learning process
O dentify the needs for appropriate media or materials
t will be helpful to state the objectives using the ABCD format.
SeIect Methods Media and MateriaIs
The next thing we have to do is building the bridge between the learners and
the objectives. At this stage we are required to consider the following aspects of
instruction:
O The instructional method that is most appropriate to meet the lesson
objectives.
O Teaching and learning materials that would be best suited to work with our
selected instructional method, the objectives, and our students.
The criteria for selecting instructional materials include the following issues:
O Selection should be on the basis of students' learning needs.
O Appropriateness to stated learning objectives
O Appropriateness to the teaching method
O Consistence with the learners' capabilities and learning styles
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O Motivational factors and maintenance of interest during the lesson
O Provision of learner participation and involvement
O Good technical quality
O vidence of effectiveness through field test results.
We must select teaching and learning materials that provide the learners with
the help they need in mastering the objectives. These materials may be commercial
products which can be used as they are or we may modify them to meet our
specifications. We might decide to design and make our own materials for the
learners to use.
UtiIize Media and MateriaIs
Once selected, the media needs to be utilised. At this stage we are expected
to plan how we are going to deliver the lesson as well as how we are going to use the
instructional materials. n particular, we are required to describe precisely how we are
going to use the media and materials in the classroom. n doing this, we should
consider the "5Ps, that is, preparing materials, previewing the materials, preparing
the environment, preparing the learners and providing the learning experiences.
O Prepare the materiaIs.
At this point we should gather all our teaching and learning materials. We must make
sure that all the materials we want to use are available and if we have decided to make
modifications, these should be done before hand. f we are ordering equipment from a
central store, we have to make sure that we have done in time to avoid last minute rush.
O Preview the materiaIs.
Materials should be previewed to make sure that they are appropriate and are in good
working order. We are encouraged to practice using the materials where necessary. This
will help us to determine the sequencing of our instruction.
O Prepare the environment.
This involves setting up the stage where the instruction will take place. We are
supposed to decide on the seating arrangement, placement of the instructional materials,
the lighting and other logical aspects.
O Prepare the Iearner.
Students' readiness to use instructional materials is critical. n our introduction to the
lesson we are supposed to inform the students of what is expected of them. This is an
opportunity for us to stimulate motivation and provide cues to specific aspects of the
lesson.
O Provide the Iearning experience.
This is the beginning of the instructional process. We should plan for learning activities
that make use of the instructional materials we have selected.
Require Iearner participation
At this stage we are required to make sure that students will be actively
involved during the lesson. Active participation is possible when using most of the
different forms of media such as a multimedia computer simulation or games.
Whatever teaching strategy we choose we can incorporate questions and answers,
discussions, group work, hands-on activities, and other ways of getting students
actively involved during the lesson. t is up to us as teachers to make sure that all our
students have opportunities to participate in the learning activities during the lesson.
We should avoid lecturing for the entire lesson, we should also be prepared to listen
to our students and allow them to share their views with us. t is also important to
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allow for frequent feedback on the students' performance and give our students
opportunities to practice what they have learnt.
EvaIuate and revise
The final stage of the ASSUR model is to evaluate and revise. At this stage
in the process we are required to evaluate the student's performance, the methods we
have used as well as the instructional materials. After looking at all these areas we will
be in a position to decide if the intended outcome was reached.
valuation of the methods and instructional materials used questions such as:
O Was the presentation cost effective in terms of time and money?
O Were the instructional materials effective? Do they need to be modified?
O Did the media assist the leaner in meeting his/her objectives?
O Did the media and supporting materials provide meaningful student
participation?
O Did the use of the selected media arouse students' interest and motivation?
f performance objectives were not met, try to determine the cause by
considering the following questions.
O Has my audience changed?
O Were the objectives clear?
O Was my assessment fair?
O Did my assessment measure what was learned?
O Did the materials match the objectives?
O Were the performance requirements impossible to achieve?
When results are unsatisfactory, we should consider the possibility that the
lesson performed poorly, not the students. We should also bear in mind that we are
not bad teachers because a lesson did not work. We become bad teachers if we do
not reflect upon taught lessons and work on revising elements of the lesson until
students become successful learners. We should analyse the results of our evaluation
data and if we are not satisfied with the results, we should take time to revise and
modify the instruction. Usually most lessons can be improved through evaluation and
revision.
t should be pointed out that the ASSUR model emphasizes on teaching in a
constructivist learning environment where students are required to interact with their
environment and not passively receive information. ts focus is on learner participation
makes it stand out from many other design models. As we have learnt in chapter two,
the basis of the constructivist theory of learning is that students learn through active
engagement with their learning environment, not passive engagement. The ASSUR
model also recognises that students have different learning styles. As teachers we
can use the ASSUR model to design and develop the most appropriate learning
environment for our students. As an individual teacher, you can use ASSUR model
in planning everyday use of instructional technology as you design and develop your
lessons.
Table 3.3 summaries what is involved at each of the stages of the ASSUR
model.





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Table 3.3: A summary of the ASSURE model
A Analyze Learners
General character
Specific entry competencies
Learning Style
S State Objectives
Learning outcomes
Conditions of performance
Degree of acceptable performance
S
Select Methods, Media
and Materials
Select available materials
Modify existing materials
Design new materials
U
Utilize Media and
Materials
Preview the materials
Prepare the materials, environment
Provide the learning experience
R
Require Learner
Participation
n-class and follow-up activities so learner can process
the information
E valuate and Revise
Before, during and after instruction
Assess learner, media methods
Summary
As we have learnt in chapter two, effective instruction should be based on
some established truth about how people learn. Consequently, instructional design
and development must be based upon some theory of learning or cognition, effective
design is possible only if the developer has developed spontaneous awareness of the
theoretical basis underlying the design. t is however important that design practices
must do more than merely accommodating the learning theories, they should also
support the creation of powerful learning environments that optimise the value of the
underlying principles of learning. Our task as instructional designers is to assess and
review instructional theories, tools and resources at our disposal and consider how
effective learning may be facilitated.
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N0N-!R0ICI0 vl$0AL$
Introduction
Visuals are in different forms and shapes. Some are projected and others are
non-projected. n this chapter we explore non-projected instructional technologies.
Non-projected visuals could be two dimensional visuals, for example pictures,
diagrams in textbooks and magazines and others are three dimensional, for example
real things and models. t is important to note that the effectiveness of non-projected
visuals as teaching and learning tools depend on the learner's ability to read and
understand visual, a phenomenon referred to as visual literacy. So before the detailed
discussion of the different non-projected visuals, the chapter begins by exploring the
concept of visual literacy, what it is, its importance and explain how it can be
developed in our students.
What is visuaI Iiteracy?
A well elaborated definition of visual literacy is given by the Consensus of the
Visual Literacy Scholarly Community who define visual literacy as:
group of acquired competencies for interpreting and composing visible
messages. visually literate person is able to: (a) discriminate, and
make sense of visible objects as part of a visual acuity, (b) create static
and dynamic visible objects effectively in a defined space, (c)
comprehend and appreciate the visual testaments of others, and (d)
conjure objects in the mind's eye.'
This operational definition from the experts in the field may serve as a basis
for our understanding of what one needs to know and be able to do in order to be
visually literate. n practical terms this means that to be considered visually literate
one should be able to create appropriate images to convey various forms of
information as well as being able to read and derive meaning from the visual
messages created by others. Put in simple terms visual literacy means the ability to
read and understand visuals as well as being able to think, create, and communicate
graphically.
For the learner visual literacy is the ability to read and understand visuals
such as pictures, photographs, drawings, and other pictorial materials. The leaner
needs to learn to recognise subject content presented in the various forms of visuals.
n addition a visually literate learner is able to discern the intentions of the image
creators, the influence of production techniques as wells the role of visual expression
conventions to the meaning expressed by the visual message.
Why is visuaI Iiteracy important?
An important factor to remember on the psychology of learning is that seeing
comes before words. A child looks and recognizes before it can speak. As Berger
(1977) argues, it is seeing that establishes our place in the surrounding world and we
explain that world with words, but words can never undo the fact that we are
surrounded by it. t is generally believed that children in school learn over half of what
they know from visual images. Learning style theorists believe that more than half of
learners obtain more information from visual images. A research by Laver (1983)
indicates the need for learning visual cues because he observed that the informal
Chapter
4
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process of reading pictures differs greatly from the formal process of learning to read
and write. Thus being able to process information visually becomes a critical
requirement of learning. Visual literacy is a path to visual learning. t balances the
more passive process of decoding with the active process of encoding.
Rwambiwa, et al (1984) views visual literacy as an educational movement
aimed at teaching children to cope with the largely visual world. Visual literacy training
as recommended by groups such the nternational Visual Literacy Association is
aimed at the modern problem of preparing children for effective communication
needed in the out of school life. n our increasingly visually driven society, the ability to
create and interpret imagery is as imperative as the abilities to read and write and to
listen and speak. n addition to print, television, video, our students are confronted on
daily basis with many other new computer-based technologies such as computer
multimedia presentation and nternet all of which are media requiring a high degree of
visual literacy in order for them to cope with the overwhelming amount of information
presented.
Strategies for deveIoping visuaI Iiteracy skiIIs
Like any other literacy skills, visual literacy skills have to be thought. As
Heinch et al (1996) observe seeing a visual does not automatically mean that one will
learn from it. They argue that learners must be taught and guided towards the correct
way of decoding visual in order for them to get the meaning they carry. The overall
aim of teaching visual literacy should be to acquaint learners with the principles of
visual communication, which can then be put into practice in a variety of settings and
subject areas.
As we have seen above the two major aspects of visual literacy are skill of
interpreting and creating meaning from the visual. These are complex skills which
need to be taught to our students. The teaching of these skills is however complex.
Teaching visual literacy skills is made more complex by the fact that each of the
various visual media has its own characteristic structure and specific skills which
cumulatively enhance and enrich visual literacy. However some common processes
are involved in visual literacy, which could be used to plan the teaching of visual
literacy could be identified. Some of these aspects as derived from our discussion of
visual literacy are listed below.
O Being able to interpret imagery
O Critical thinking skills
O Being able to detect likenesses and/or differences
O Being able to detect patterns
O Being able to sequence visual images
O Developing high levels of visual memory
O Being able to create word-to-image relationship
Through such operationalision of the concept of visual literacy a picture of
what needs to be taught and learnt emerges and strategies to develop visual literacy
can be developed. Heinch et al (1996) propose two strategies which could be used to
develop visual literacy among learners. These are input strategies and out put
strategies.
Input Strategies
This involves helping learners to decode or read visuals proficiently by
practicing visual analysis skills. For example, visual literacy skills can be improved
through engaging students in group picture reading and analysis and discussion of
video programs.
There are challenges in doing so, but something you the teacher can do to
help the learners towards visual literacy is to help them learn read pictures. You can
help you students to develop skills to read pictorial information by asking them
questions on the picture. These questions should be developed to allow the learners
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Tips for using reaIia in cIassroom teaching
O Tell your students that it is "real"
O Have a clear idea of the purpose of the realia
O Choose realia that is relevant and interesting
O Provide the relevant cultural background beforehand
O Make connections to realia in your students' own culture
O Use dramatic techniques to help clarify written text or audio-visual materials
O For print materials, make sure you have enough copies
O For audio-visual materials, make sure that you preview the material beforehand

to look beyond the surface information through challenge to indirect thinking/
questioning. For example you can ask your students, what make you think that ..?
Or why are those people doing that?
Output strategies
This involves helping learners to encode or write visuals to express themselves
and communicate with others. Activities that can allow students to be able to encode
visuals include giving them opportunities to plan and produce photos and video
presentation. Concept mapping software such as nspiration can help learners to develop
their visual literacy.
Types of non-projected visuaIs
Non-projected visuals include a number of traditional visual aids which have been
used by teachers from time immemorial. As the name suggests, this category of
instructional technology includes all instructional materials which do not make use of an
optical or an electronic projector of any sort, for them to be viewed by the learner. These
include real objects, models, print materials and any other teaching and learning materials
that are used by the teacher to illustrate a point. n this section we discuss some of the
most commonly used non-projected visuals.
ReaI things and reaIia
Realia is a word coined to include real things, animals, people and events where the
learner merely observes rather than interact with them. Real things or realia are the
actual things which are used for teaching and learning. The teacher for example can
make use of his or her movements, gestures, signals, mimics and hands to bring
realia in the classroom.

















Real things can be brought to the classroom or the teacher can take the
class. n an infant or junior primary school class a teacher can bring real objects such
as fruits, tools and other relevant objects to help the learners to have a concrete
referent of an abstract idea. Real objects are extremely useful if they are readily
available, and can be easily displayed for close observation by the learners. They are
especially effective when they are small enough to be brought into the classroom, but
large enough to be seen by the learners.
ModeIs
A model is a copy of a real object. They are the closest alternatives to real things
and are often more convenient and suitable for teaching purposes than real things. A
model can be an enlargement, a reduction, or the same size as the original. A scaled
model represents an exact reproduction of the original, while simplified models do not
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Some specfc applcatons for models
O Use them as a vsual support n large classroom
O Use them as objects for study or manpulaton n ndvdual learnng
O Use to reduce a very large object and a very large object to a se that can be
convenently observed and manpulated
O To demonstrate nteror system wth clarty that s often not possble wth two
dmensonal representatons
O To demonstrate movement
O To represent a complex stuaton or process n a smplfed way that can be
easly understood by learners
represent reality in all details. Some models are solid and show only the outline of the
object they portray, while others can be manipulated or operated.
Although it is usually young children at primary school who will show a keen
interest in models such as toys, for educational purposes their use is of vital importance
from primary to university students. As instructional aids models attract considerable
interest and invite close attention. Models are usually more practical than originals
because they are usually lightweight and easy to manipulate. Models are particularly
useful in cases where three-dimensional representation is necessary, for example, animal
skeletons and crystal structures in science or where movement has to be demonstrated, for
example mechanisms and linkage. t is important to leave them on view long enough so
that that all the learners can have the opportunity to see them.
A model is even more effective if it works like the original, and if it can be
taken apart and reassembled. By manipulating a working model, the students can
observe how each works in relation to the other parts part. When you point to each
part of the model while explaining these relationships, students can have the chance
to observe the mechanical principles involved. However, the size of the model should
be big enough for all students to see or if this is not possible it should be passed
around.

















Models should be used to help the teacher teach a concept instead of detract
from what he or she is doing. t is therefore advised that simple models are developed
for classroom use, but care should be taken that the object is not oversimplified.
f you decide to use a model during a lesson, be prepared before the class so
that you do not appear like you are trying to set things up in the middle of your class
session. You must be sure that your model is in good working order before using it to
assist in your students' learning.
Mock ups
A mock-up is a three-dimensional or specialised type of working model made
from real or synthetic materials. Mock ups are used for studying or testing in place of
the real object, which may be too costly or too dangerous, or which may be impossible
to bring into the classroom. A mock-up may be used to emphasise or highlight certain
elements or components of the real thing, without having to bother about other
nonessential elements. This allows learners to focus on the most important part that
would help them to understand the concept being taught.
Cut- aways
n order to show internal details a teacher can make use of cut-aways. A cut-away,
is a built in sections and can be taken apart to reveal the internal structure. Whenever
possible, the various parts should be labeled or coloured to clarify relationships.
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Advantages of reaIia and modeIs
O Can provide a concrete reference of the concepts
O Represent the actual things/or near reality
O t will hold the student's attention to the point that is being put across.
O Can show movement and can help clarify the topic at the moment and help
retention of the information.
Limitations of reaIia and modeIs
O May not be ideal for large class
O A lot of time is involved in preparation and during presentation.
O They may be too big to bring to the classroom
O Models may oversimplify the real object, thereby risk misrepresenting the real
object.
Dioramas
These are static displays that combine a three-dimensional foreground, for
example a model landscape, with a two-dimensional background, thus creating a
feeling of solidity and realism.
Dioramas can be used in the teaching of a wide range of subject areas
situations, for example:
O n history to show historical or dramatic scenes, stage sets, or historical
battles.
O n geography, building studies to demonstrate the geological structures,
showing ancient buildings, towns, landscapes, pre-historic landscapes and
other significant scenes.
O n Biology and environmental studies to show plants or animals in their natural
habitats.
Although sophisticated dioramas, such as those we see in museums can be
extremely expensive and difficult to make up, it possible for you to produce highly
effective displays of this type using basic materials and artistic skills.
MobiIes
These are systems of two- or three-dimensional objects that are hung from
the roof of a class by thread, thus producing a visually attractive display whose shape
is constantly changing due to air currents. nstead of displaying pictures or words on the
wall, they are drawn on card and cut out or moulded, so that they can be hung
independently from the roof or a suitable beam using fine threads. The resulting display,
which moves and turns as it is affected by random air currents, acquires a vitality which can
never be produced in a flat display of the same material. Such mobiles should be
suspended in a corner of any learning room, where they will not get in people's way, but
should be clearly visible.
They are particularly useful for stimulating and creating interest among
younger children. At higher level they can be used for demonstrating principles in
subjects like science and practical subjects.
Printed text
There is no one who can dispute that for a long time print has been the
foundation of all education. ven in today's high-tech society the greater percent of
learning materials in our schools is still in print form. Printed text refers to scripted
words and other related signs symbols like numbers. Text, in our case, can also
include graphics such as pictures, charts, diagrams, and maps.
The quality of print has increased due to availability and access to relatively
low-cost desktop publishing and faster printing technology which have made the tasks
of preparing, updating, and revising textual and graphic materials much easier. Using
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computer technologies printed materials can now be generated to meet the
specifications of the learners in a very short period of time.

Forms of printed text
There are a variety of print media for teaching and learning. These include
textbooks, handouts, study guides, case studies and many others. A few of these are
discussed in detail below.
O Textbooks
Textbooks are the basis and primary source of content for most of what we teach.
Most schools make use of textbooks as a source of information for student
learning. Textbooks are written for classroom use as well as for independent
study and reference purposes. f written for self-study they are usually written in a
personal style, including self-assessment questions and review tests or questions
at the end of each main section or chapter. When you decide to use textbooks for
independent study, they should be complemented by a study guide with a
commentary and notes.
O SyIIabus
very course of study or subject in the school curriculum has a syllabus. A
syllabus provides the goals and objectives, the subject content to be covered and
at times a description of assignments, the grading criteria as well as related
readings. At higher and tertiary levels, the syllabus may be called a course/
module outline. The outline must be comprehensive and as complete as possible
in order to guide the students through the course in the absence of daily contact
with the instructor.
O Handouts
A handout is a hard copy text which supports, expands on or provides follow up to
the lesson. A handout can be a very powerful learning tool because, when it is
well prepared, it provides reinforcement of the information tought during the
lesson and it remains with the learners for a long time. Handouts are usually
prepared to supplement shortage of textbooks and other learning materials in
schools. They can also be photocopies of pages of a chapter of a book meant to
help students to focus their attention on a particular concept of the content to be
studied. Handouts can also be notes prepared by the teacher covering certain
content to be read by students.

Types of handouts
i.) Lesson presentation transcripts
This is a verbatim transcript of the teacher's words. t is rare for an experienced
teacher to read a script, as teachers we are expected to carry out teaching notes
to the class. These can be photocopied or duplicated and distributed to students
as hand out at the end of the lesson. Quite often students who, for one reason
or another, decide to miss a lesson will ask for these notes.
ii.) Background notes
Background notes are comprehensive and detailed notes on the subject which
can be used by the class to inform exercises or to supplement a lesson when
there is insufficient time to cover everything.
iii.) OHP transparencies or PowerPoint presentation print-out
This is a very quick and easy handout to produce; especially if the teacher had
not planned for a handout in advance. Most presentation packages have an
option for the teacher to print out handouts or the teacher can photocopy his or
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her overhead transparencies. However, this type of handouts tends to have little
value to anyone who has not been present during the lesson.
iv.) An outIine of the presentation
An outline of the lesson can be given as a handout at the beginning or end of
the lesson. An outline of what is to be covered in the lesson can help students to
follow the proceeding during the lesson. Such as handout can be more effective
if it can be designed to involve students in filling in some detail on their own.
v.) Course outIine
At higher levels of learning such as colleges and universities course outlines are
given at the beginning of the term or semester. These inform students about
what topics they will cover during the term. This will help them to prepare in
advance as well as help them to revise for examination.
vi.) BibIiography
A bibliography provides the class with a list of useful publications for background
or more detailed information on the topics covered in their study. A good
bibliography is one that is organised into sections and provide full information
about authors, publishers and dates of publication. f there is time to annotate
the bibliography it will really help students in deciding how to focus their reading.
vii.) Diagrams
Diagrams can provide useful illustrations of, or aides-mmoire to the subject
matter. n Science subjects diagrams help the teacher to summarise a complex
concept and show relationships between the parts of a complex object.
Sometimes part of the learning process may depend upon the class copying the
diagram but often it is more effective to provide the class with a copy.
viii.) Study Guides
Study guides are to reinforce points made during class or through the use of
other delivery systems. They will often include exercises, related readings and
additional resources to be used by the learner. Study guides are of particular
importance to open and distance learners.
DeveIoping Handouts
When developing handouts for teaching it is best to think about how they
might be used after the lesson is over. t is usually very important for the teacher to
make sure that the learners receive handouts.
A handout will be successful if the learners are able to use it: in the following
ways:
O To revise what they have learnt
O To extend their knowledge further by reading material not covered in the
course
O As a basis for their homework
O n cascading learning to their colleagues
Using Handouts
Handouts can act as support materials which might be used in conjunction
with a range of teaching and delivery methods.
The main reasons for giving handouts are:
O To reinforce learning
O To support lesson presentation and expand on content shared during the
lesson
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Tips for designing print materiaIs

You may consider the following areas:
O Use short sentences.
O Avoid compound sentences.
O Use the active voice.
O Use personal pronouns.
O Keep equivalent items parallel.
O List conditions separately.
O Use point form.
O Use familiar examples.
O Write as you would speak.
O Avoid unnecessary and difficult words.
O Avoid jargon; use technical terms only when necessary.
O Put sentences and paragraphs into a logical sequence: first things that affect many,
then things that affect few; first the general, then the specific; first permanent
provisions, then temporary ones.
O Avoid cultural and gender stereotyping.
O To help to focus learners' attention on the most important elements of the
course.
O To supplement the information from other sources such as textbooks
O To give learners something to go away with and read later
O To provide in-depth information on a topic or subject for students to read
during or after the lesson
O To provide learning activities and exercises after the lesson
Note that handouts can be distracting if handed out prior or during the lesson.
t is important to distribute the handout at an appropriate time. f the handout is just a
bullet point headings and intended for students to add their own notes, it may be
handed out at the beginning of the lesson. f it contains detailed notes it may depend
on the type of class whether it should go out at the beginning or the end. However, if
the handout is more interesting than the lesson, students may concentrate on the
handout rather than the teacher. On the other hand, there are chances that some
students may find it easier to follow by reading along with the handout. f we decide to
give a detailed handout at the end of the lesson it is important to tell the class that a
detailed handout will be given so that they can concentrate on listening without having
to take detailed notes.
A handout should not be given out as a take away, or as something that
students should go away with. When you decide to give a handout at the end of the
lesson you should explain the purpose of the handout.





















Using Printed Text
Printed text has many applications in teaching and learning. Print can
precisely represent facts, abstract ideas, rules, principles, and detailed, lengthy or
complex arguments. t is good for narrative or story telling. Print can also be used to
record activities, make detailed explanations as well as making summaries of key
concepts.
Advantages of Print
O Print materials are spontaneous; they can be used in any setting without the
need for sophisticated presentation equipment.
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O They are non-threatening; they are easily able to focus the learner on the
content, without becoming mesmerised or frustrated by the process of reading
itself.
O They are flexible, that is, they can be used any time and any place without the
aid of supplementary resources such as electricity, viewing screen, and
specially designed electronic classrooms.
O They can be used even by learners with limited access to advanced
technology.
O They are cost-effective, because they can be reused and easily duplicated.
Limitations of print media
O They are by nature passive, static and over rely on the written word and as a
result offer a bland view of reality.
O t takes high levels of motivation to read a book or work through a written
exercise.
O Lacks quick feedback
O Lack of ability to read cripples the effectiveness of even the most instructionally
sound print materials.
Charts
Charts are large sheets of paper, carrying pre-prepared textual, graphical or
pictorial information. There are several types of charts which can be used in
presenting data such as the pie chart, the flow chart, and the organisational chart,
among others. Some charts may consist of a series of single sheets or may be tied
together in a flip-chart format with several pages. The type of chart selected for use
depends largely on the type of information we wants to convey.
O VerbaI Charts
These use words to explain concepts, ideas or general information on a topic.
O Pie charts
These display proportions and percentages in relation to the whole. They provide
the clearest way of comparing parts of the whole.
O FIow charts
These demonstrate the flow or direction of information, process or ideas.
Charts used for teaching and learning are of two kinds, that is, those that are
used to illustrate information during the course of a lesson and those that are pinned
to the wall of a classroom in order to be studied by the students in their own time. The
later are commonly known as wallcharts. Although charts used during a lesson
presentation and wall-charts are basically the same, they can be distinguished in two
ways:
O Charts usually refer to displays on large sheets of paper that are designed to be
shown to a class or group in the course of lesson. Wall-charts are displays that
are pinned to a wall or bulletin board and are mainly intended for casual study
outside the context of a formal lesson. An example is the periodic table of
elements that are prominently displayed in practically all our science laboratories.
O The material on charts are usually larger and easier to read than on wall-charts as
the former has to be clearly distinguishable or legible at a distance whereas the
latter can be studied at close quarters.
Both charts and wall-charts have a great advantage in that they can contain
far more complicated and detailed information than say, transparencies or flipcharts.
They are extremely useful for providing supplementary material and can act as a
permanent aide- mmoire or reference system for learners.
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Charts can be commercially produced. Most of the charts we find in many of our
schools are produced by some specialist. The Centre for ducational Technology
distributes professionally developed charts for free for use in a wide range of subjects
across the school curriculum. However, creative teachers can prepare their own charts and
diagrams to use in their lessons. Since we find these ready made elsewhere, there is not
much we can do as teachers to improve on them, except that certain techniques must be
observed and followed if their use is to be made effective.
Making a chart
Although a wide range of charts and wallcharts is available commercially, it is
still often necessary for you to make your own charts in order to cover a given topic in
a specific way, especially in cases where the topic you want to teach is of a
specialised or unique nature. However, before embarking on the task of making a
chart or wallchart, it is always worthwhile investigating whether there is one that you
could use for the job you have at hand, either within your own school or from an
external source such as the ducational Technology Centre, an educational supplier,
an industrial or other organisations. f a chart is available, you could save yourself a
great deal of time and effort.
Producing the graphic materiaI
n many cases, the main graphic content of a chart or wallchart can be
produced using simple drawing tools such as a ruler, T-square and compasses. n
some cases, however, it may be necessary to reproduce a complicated drawing or
diagram from a smaller original contained in a book or magazine. n such cases you
could use the grid method or the projection method.
f the original drawing is larger than the version that you want to produce,
however, a variation of the projection method known as reverse projection may be
employed. This makes use of the fact that all optical systems are reversible, so that a
system such as the lens of an overhead projector which is normally used to throw an
enlarged image of the material on its platen onto a screen can also be used to
produce a reduced image of the diagram on the surface of the platen. This technique,
which may have to be carried out in a partially-darkened room, involves illuminating
the material to be copied with floodlights and copying the resulting reduced image
behind a suitable shield.
Producing Iettering on charts
Many teachers find it difficult to produce good lettering and as a result they
prefer to use one of the many lettering aids that are available to add text to their
charts. These include the following:
O Using stenciIs
Stencils are usually in the form of transparent plastic strips carrying the
complete alphabet in a given style and size. These can produce reasonably
good results, but not of the quality of transfer lettering or the other methods
described below. They have again largely been displaced by electronic
methods.
O Using Iettering machines,
Lettering machines operate on the 'Dymo' principle and can be used to print
lines of lettering on special adhesive ribbon; the ribbon can then be cut into
sections, and laid out in the required way. These can also produce very good
results, but are again comparatively expensive to use. They have again been
largely superceded by electronic methods.



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O Phototypesetting
This method employs a word processor-like device to compose text, which is
produced in the form of a photographic negative that can be used to produce
a positive print of whatever size is required. This again gives excellent results,
but the equipment is expensive.
O Desktop pubIishing
This is now by far the most commonly-used method in producing commercial
charts. This is done on a computer using appropriate desktop-publishing
software or a word processor to generate text in the required form. The final
copy is produced using a laser printer.
O oom photocopying
The required text size is created from smaller copy using a photocopier with a
zoom enlargement.
Adding coIour to charts
Colour can be added using a wide range of methods. Some of the most useful
methods are outlined below.
O Poster paint appIied with a brush
This is the standard method of producing bold colours on a poster or chart.
O Water-coIour paint:
This is useful for more subtle colours, or for producing subdued washes of
colour.
O CoIoured adhesive paper
Coloured adhesive paper is available in a wide range of colours, if cut to the
shape required, it can produce a sharpness and finish that is difficult to
achieve using paint.
O CoIoured transfer fiIms
These can be used in the same way as adhesive paper, but are much more
expensive.
O Using ready-made materiaI and photographic prints
Charts can be made from ready-made material such as photographs or
diagrams from magazines. This can save a great deal of time and can also
produce excellent results. Specially-prepared photographic prints can also
useful, especially on wallcharts and other permanent displays. Such material
can also be increased or reduced in size if necessary by making use of a
photocopier with zoom facilities.
GuideIines for deveIoping charts
Here are a few simple guidelines for commonly used charts:
O Have a clear and well defined purpose, the chart should describe one main
idea, concept or process
O Make the chart and all items on it big enough to be seen clearly by the entire
class or, in the case of a wallchart, in the context within which it is to be
used.
O Aim for maximum clarity, using a layout and printing technique that make
the 'message' that you are trying to get across perfectly clear.
O Do not make the chart unnecessarily complicated; too much detail may lead
to loss of clarity.
O nclude visual, verbal and other materials to facilitate learning
O Try to make the chart visually attractive, using colour if at all possible.

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Tips for deveIoping a good chart
O Keep titles and subtitles to a single line.
O Present only one main idea.
O Keep simple.
O Use key words.
O Use both upper and lower case letters.
O Maximum of 25 letters per line.
O Maximum of eight lines per chart.
O Leave a blank line between statements.
O Maximum of eight words per line.
O Make sure bullet types do not clash with other graphics.
O Show the audience one line at a time.













Using charts
Charts meant for displays should be of sufficient quality and interest to attract the
attention of the learner. Wallcharts, should present a challenge that students have to face
and try to solve. They should also present information that stirs up critical consideration. To
ensure that the charts will be used beneficially, you should introduce them, state their
purposes and how long they will stay on display. You should also indicate the expectation
of answering or performing some exercises about them. These expectations will cause
learners to take a positive action on the displays. f you do not do this your wallcharts, like
in many classrooms will be there for decorating the classroom.
Graphs
A graph is a symbolic drawing which shows relationships, chronological
changes, and distribution of components that allows you to make comparisons and
establish trends. They are instrumental in summarising numeric data through as a
visual representation. The most common types are the line graph and the bar graphs.
The selection of a graph for use in any given situation depends upon the type of
information the teacher wants to convey.
O Line graphs
These show a linear relationship between data plotted on the horizontal axis (X-axis)
and data plotted on the vertical axis (Y-axis
O
#anfall-Temperature Graph
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Tips for deveIoping a bar graphs
O Use no more than eight bars.
O To emphasize a single bar, change its color or add a shadow.
O Round off numbers.
O Use key words.
O Double space between lines

Bar graphs
These consist of parallel bars of varying lengths which are proportionate to the
quantities being compared. They facilitate direct comparison of quantitative variables.
Rainfall
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20
40
60
80
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Using Graphs
Graphs can be used effectively to show relationships, chronological changes,
distributions, components, and flow of events or variables. Graphs to be used for
illustrating certain points during a lesson should contain the visual information
necessary to illustrate the teacher's words. Their purpose is to supplement teaching
and is therefore not necessarily complete unless used by the teacher. Therefore you
must take care to display only a small amount of material and to make the material as
simple but meaningful as possible.
You should use graphs rather than tables whenever it is important for the
learner to quickly and easily recognise characteristics of data. Scanning data in tables
takes longer, and important data are easily overlooked in tables. t is also important to
avoid using chart types that are fancy, that distort relations between data, like 3D
charts. n cases where a graph can help the learner to easily grasp the essence of the
data but where also the exact values are needed, you may consider to provide both a
chart view and a table view at the same time.
Posters
Posters are prepared graphic devices that can be made of a variety of
materials and media such as photographs, diagrams, graphs, word messages, or a
combination of these. They are similar to wall charts, but generally contain less
information, often simply a single dramatic image. They are intended to catch and
hold the viewer's attention at least long enough to communicate a brief message.
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Tips for making posters
O ach poster should contain one message or theme.
O Pen them in a large enough size to be seen by everyone in the room.
O Use all capital letters, and do not slant or italicize letters.
O Make illustrations simple and bold.
O Use and vary the colour.
O Check from a distance to make sure the colour works well and is not distracting.
O Keep displays simple and text brief; a viewer should "get it" in 30 seconds. You can
provide in-depth information in a handout.
Hence, charts should be colourful and dynamic but they should remain simple and
elaborate. f a poster contains too much detail, they may be difficulty to read and
understand. Note that more elaborate posters require extensive preparation and can
be quite costly.
Making posters
Before you put pen to paper, decide whether you want to make it funny, dramatic
or factual. After making that decision you can then start by writing down a few simple words
that explain the main idea. You may create your draft with pencil guidelines and later on
write by hand or letter stencils using a might marker to create the final text. Avoid funny
letters, because they are difficult to read. Use plain block letters and avoid squeezing the
letters together or spacing them too much. Colour adds value and attractiveness to your
poster, but use colours that contrast with the background. Diagram cut out from magazines
and pictures are an economic and easy way of making posters.














You should make sure that the poster is simple and large enough to be seen by all
students. Remember to make the main idea the largest and brightest part of the
poster
Using posters
As a teaching and learning tool a poster can be used to one or all of the following:
O Attract and hold the learners attention
O Highlight key points
O Speed up learning
O ncrease retention
O Create a learning atmosphere in a classroom.
O To remind students of safety in a laboratory or workshop

Posters work best in smaller audience sizes. They can be used alone or in a series to
tell a story.
StiII picture and photographs
The chief value of pictures and photographs is their aerial authenticity. Pictures
and photographs provide realistic details necessary for visual recognition of important
subject material. They tend to produce more impact especially when their theme is
relevant to the student's activities, for example, those that are taken during a field trip and
stages of an experiment among others. The realistic details made possible with
photographs will provide a common ground for understanding and will often clear students'
misconceptions about a concept or object.
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Tips for using pictures and photographs
O The picture should be large enough for the entire class to see clearly
O They should illustrate at first sight, the point under discussion
O Coloured pictures are more effective than black and white
O The pictures should be relevant to the students' cultural background
O The picture should be familiar to the student so that they are easy to link to real life.
Using pictures and photographs
Most learners are visual learners, so pictures and photographs are a great help in
teaching and learning. Photographs are generally most suited for individualised instruction
because of their size. However photographs can also be projected with the use of an
opaque projector when group viewing is desirable. This projector uses reflected light to
project flat pictures or drawings on to a screen or white wall. Photographs can also be
reproduced in a format for projection using the overhead projector. When projected for
group viewing they provide a common visual imagery for both teachers and students.
Photographs can also be used in creating displays, photo-essays and
scenario analysis. nlarged prints made from photographic negatives may be used to
illustrate textual materials or make wallcharts.












DispIay Boards
Non-projected visuals need a way to display them. n a classroom the most
commonly used surface to display non-projected visual include the chalkboard, flannel
board, magnetic boards and whiteboards. These are discussed below.
The chaIkboard
The chalkboard needs no introduction to us but, if only to remind, certain points
need to be emphasised for us to know how to use it effectively The chalkboard is still one
of the most widely used of all visual aids, despite the fact that practically everything that can
be done using a chalkboard can be done more easily, and more effectively using an
overhead projector or computer projections. . Almost every classroom has a chalkboard
or its equivalence.

Using the ChaIkboard
The chalkboard is best used for emphasising essential information and
developing ideas as the class progresses. For example, you can use the chalkboard
to write new words that you meet for your student to discuss them. t is probably most
useful for displaying impromptu notes and diagrams during a taught lesson and for
working through calculations and similar exercises when the teacher is in front of a
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Tips for using the chaIkboard
O All ways plan your work in advance both on paper and in mind: some material
need to be on the board before class.
O Keep chalk, erasers, cleaning cloths, rulers, and related items readily
available to avoid interruption of the presentation.
O Write neatly and horizontally, making sure that your handwriting is large
enough for students to read.
O Use both upper and lower case letters appropriately. Board work should be
organized so that students will be able to interpret their notes later.
O Use coloured chalk only for emphasis. Be certain that the colours used are
visible from the back of the classroom. Do not use more than four different
colours at a time.
O Present material simply and briefly, make only one point at a time. A
complete outline tends to distract students and makes a logical presentation
difficult. f writing has been previously prepared, it should be covered and
then revealed one step at a time.
O Underline statements for emphasis.
O Use the upper part of the board. n many classrooms, students may not be
able to see the lower half.
O Be sensitive to obstructions, including the heads of students, which may
block the lower part of the board.
O Give students time to copy what has been written.
O Avoid modifying the board while students are copying information.
O Maintain eye contact with your students. This is difficulty at first, but with a
little practice, you will find that you can write while you are partially facing the
class.
O Do not talk to the chalkboard, written first, then talk.
O Check for glare on the board. Close the blinds if necessary. f there are
chalkboard lights, turn them on.
O Keep the chalkboard clean, erase all irrelevant material.

class. f used properly, the chalkboard can help the teacher to develop a concept
stage by stage allowing students to see and review the stages as listed on the
chalkboard.
The chalkboard can also be useful when you are giving notes to your
students. The notes can be written and displayed for a long time, long enough to allow
your students to copy them at their own time. You can also use the chalkboard to
write your students' contributions to the lesson. Please take note that when you are
writing students' contributions to the lesson, write only the correct answers, otherwise
if you also write the wrong answers, students may have problems distinguishing
between the wrong and the correct answers. Writing wrong answers would appear like
you are reinforcing the wrong answers.
f you are to use the chalkboard effectively and efficiently, it is very important
that you plan how you intend to use the chalkboard. Revisit your lesson notes to
determine the work you want to write or draw on the chalkboard as well as deciding
on the most logical way to present the work. nsure that you have an ample supply of
chalk; and the eraser handy.
One of the first and most important requirements for using the chalkboard is
that your writing should be large enough so that students at the back of the room can
read it. You may need to practice writing large and legibly. f your handwriting is poor,
you are advised to print in order to insure legibility. As many chalkboards nowadays
have a plastic instead of wooden surface, the grip between the chalk and the board is
not very good, make sure that your letters are bold and clear enough for easy viewing
even by those at the back of the classroom.























The seating arrangements in some classrooms may prevent students at the
back from seeing what is written on the lower part of the board, make an effort to
check with your students to determine which parts of the board they can see so that
you do not write below that area.
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Avoid talking to the board that is, talking while you are writing on the board.
This is a common teaching error among teachers, you should try to hold on to what
you have to say until you have finished writing and then turn to the class and say it. n
many cases teachers often block their students' view when writing on the board; get
out of the way after you have added something on the board.
Students will naturally copy everything you write on the board, so you need to
give them enough time to take down notes before you erase what you have written on
the chalkboard. More time may be required if you have notes and diagrams that will
help students to revise the work on their own. You are encouraged to divide the
chalkboard into convenient columns, so that you can erase previous writing in a
phased manner.
nstead of erasing and redrawing, diagram and complicated illustrations you
may use dotted lines or colored chalk to show changes on the original diagram so that
students will be able to follow your explanation better. You should, however, note that
finer details in complex drawings are often illegible or difficult to show on a
chalkboard, so it is better that you use another media, such as an overhead
transparency to show complex diagrams.
Use of coloured chalk can help you to highlight important words or major
concepts of your lesson. For example use of coloured chalk on diagrams often helps
to show the different parts of the object represented on the diagram. They are many
more uses of the chalkboard; the limit is your creativity as a teacher. Table 4.
presents a summary of tips you may consider to use the chalkboard effectively.
Strengths of the chaIkboard
The chalkboard has many advantages over other types of instructional
technologies. Some of them are listed below.
O t allows unlimited flexibility and spontaneous modification of materials
O Material presented can be erased, to allow the surface to be used again and
again
O t allows for joint student- teacher activity in the classroom.
O No special equipment is required except for the pieces of chalk
Limitations of the chaIkboard
O Cannot be used to show complex and detailed drawings
O There is a tendency to talk to the board while writing
O t takes a lot of practice to be able to write and draw well on the chalkboard

The Whiteboard
n some classrooms we can find a whiteboard, which is also sometimes
known as a multipurpose or marker board. A whiteboard is as the name suggests a
white surface where we can write using water soluble markers. A white board can be
used for more than one purpose hence the name multipurpose. The white surface is
also suitable for projecting films, slides and overhead transparencies. Some
whiteboards have a steel backing which can be as a magnetic board for displaying
magnetic visuals.
Using a Whiteboard
A whiteboard is ideal for a small group of students. t can be used like a chalkboard to jot
down important information and student contributions during a lesson. You should use
colour to enhance your illustrations.

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Tips for designing the Whiteboard
O Make sure that you have an ample supply of markers;
O Make sure you have the eraser handy;
O Make sure that the markers are not dry; use bold colours like dark blue or bright
red;
O Avoid using light colours like yellow and orange;
O Divide the whiteboard into two or three columns, so that you can erase previous
writing in a phased manner;
O Make good use of the magnetic property of whiteboards for "animated
presentations or the posting of charts and posters
O f you are going to make use of the magnetic property of the whiteboard, make
sure you have an ample supply of magnetic buttons/clips.

The whiteboard should be completely erased after use.
f you leave marks on the board overnight they will
became difficult to erase. To clean the board, simply
wipe the board clean with a soft damp cloth. Never use
permanent felt-tip markers, they are difficult to erase
and can damage the surface. Keep your markers
tightly capped and stored in a horizontal position with
the cap tight when not in use to prevent them from
drying out.
Advantages of whiteboards
O They are dustless, so there is no chalk dust on
the teachers' clothes. They are preferred for
use around computers because chalk dust can
be harmful to computers and accessories.
O They are able to display bright and colourful
lines.

Limitations of Whiteboards
O They may not be used with a large group of students
O Markers are usually expensive and they need extra care when using them, they
may dry up.
O The surface may be easily damaged, if materials are left there fore a long time.








Maintaining the Whiteboard
Once a week, the whiteboard should be lightly sprayed with a special spray
such as Noboclene Plus and wiped clean with a clean dry tissue or a clean dry lint-
free cloth. f the board has been stained by permanent marker, lightly spray Nobo
Deepclene on the stained area and allow it act for a minute and then wipe clean with
clean dry tissue or a clean dry lint-free cloth. This should be repeated if necessary.
Before the beginning of each term, or after heavy soiling or staining, the
whiteboard can be reconditioned by spraying a special cleaning agent such as
Noboclene Plus lightly over the board's surface, and wipe with clean dry tissue or
cloth. To remove permanent marker stains you can use a conditioning called Nobo
Deepclene. The conditioning foam has a thick wet consistency like shaving cream and
should be spread evenly over the entire surface of the board with a clean cloth. Allow

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the conditioner's foam to dry and polish to a brilliant, smooth shine using clean, dry
tissue or clean dry cloths
FIipchart
A flipchart is made out of large sheets of paper that are hung from an easel so
that they can be flipped backwards or forwards in order to reveal the information on a
particular sheet, or to produce a fresh blank sheet on which impromptu information
can be written or drawn. The most recent flipcharts no longer require easels, instead
they work on the lift and stick principle, thus having greater portability. Flipchart pads
are available commercially, but they can be made from large sheets of newsprint or
wrapping paper.
Although flipcharts are viewed as a low technology, they are consistently one
of the most popular forms of visual aids. This is mainly because they are reliable and
do not require any special skill to use them. A flipchart can be used to supplement
even the modern multimedia presentation. For example where a multimedia
presentation is used as the main mode of presentation, a flipchart could be used to
solicit our students' input.
GuideIines for Designing FIipcharts
The general flipchart order should normally be as follows

O The first page should have the title of the
presentation, that is, the title page following
are guide line that could be followed when
making flipcharts
O The second page should define the subject
O The subsequent pages should explain the
subject and support the explanations
O The last page should summarise and give
tasks for action
Below are some specific guidelines on
developing for classroom presentation.

i.) Write down key words onIy preferabIy not
more than 10 words a page
This will avoid overcrowding the page with words. The
idea is to keep our students focused on the important
points.
ii.) Be brief do not have more than 5 Iines of text on one sheet
There is a risk of loosing focus if there are too many concepts on the page.
iii.) Letters shouId be Iarge enough to be seen from a distance.
The size of your letters is determined by the size of your class and the distance
between the flipchart and the last student in the class.
iv.) Use the point form buIIets) for the key concepts
Bullets help students to be able to separate key points from minor points by
using bullets.
v.) Use coIour to highIight
Different colours can help students to make relationships and distinctions
between the concepts. However colour should be used sparingly. Consider
alternating between two colours so that students can tell where a new idea
begins and ends.
vi.) Leave a Iot of bIank spaces on the page and between fIipchart pages
These extra pages can be used to hide whatever follows and can also serve as
impromptu notes pages if needed. White space on the flipchart enables a
student to focus on key points.
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Tips for using a fIipchart
O Check the height of the easel before your presentation.
O For complicated diagrams and illustrations, prepare ahead in light pencil and then
trace with a marker during the lesson.
O Make sure you have enough paper.
O Title each page with a short topic or heading.
O Do not write more than ten lines on a page, ideally each sheet of paper should
contain one idea, sketch, or theme.
O Print the large block letters; your printing should be neat and legible.
O Use different colours for page headings and primary points.
O Do not use pastel colours, the following colours are acceptable, black, blue, dark
green and brown. The red colour should be used only for emphasis.
O Do not fill the page to the bottom; people in the back will be unable to see.
O Post important papers on the wall with masking tape or pins.
O Allow time for reading, retention and note taking.
O Do not talk to the board while writing on it.

Using FIipcharts
A flipchart is most appropriate for use with small groups of learners. When
using a flipchart, show it only when it applies, learners should be paying attention to
you, not the reading ahead on the next chart.

Try not to turn your back on the learners. Watch where you are
standing and make sure that you are not abstracting the learners'
view of the chart. To ensure that students at the back of the
classroom have a clear view the chart, place it high enough of its
easel or stand. Always talk to your students while you are facing
them and only turn to when referring to something on the flipchart. You should
increase the volume of your voice and watch your diction every time you turn away
from the learners: they may not hear you.


















Advantages of using fIipcharts
O Help the speaker proceed through the material
O Provide a record of what has been done in lesson or during a group discussion
O Provide the learners with something to look at in addition to the speaker
O Can be prepared prior to, as well as during, the presentation
O Demonstrate that the speaker has given thought to his or her remarks
O Can be easily converted to slides or notes
Limitations of fIipcharts
O Are not suitable for use with a large audience setting
O May be difficult to transport
O May require the use of graphics talent
FIanneI Board
A flannel board or flannel graph also known as the feltboard is a board
covered in felt or other rough fabric, or simply a large piece of rough cloth such as a
blanket. The flannel board is very popular with primary school teachers, but can offer
a great deal for teachers at secondary school as well. Pictures with a rough backing,
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Tps for successful story tellng
The Iollowing are suggestions Ior a successIul lesson:
O eep all the pictures in clearly marked bags or envelopes
O eIore the lesson, plan where you will place each picture
O Organise the pictures in the order they will be used
O Create the scenes as they happen in the story
O Take the pictures oII the board when you have Iinished using them

such as sandpaper, are placed on the board. t is usually hung or slanted at an angle
so that the pictures stay on.
Using a FIanneI Board
The flannel board or feltboard is one teaching and learning technology which
is rarely employed, yet its use could prove more effective than the chalkboard. t is
effective in teaching individuals as well as groups of students particularly students
who are poor at reading. The flannel board can add a demonstrative effect to a class
presentation. t is an extremely useful display technique, especially in situations that
require the movement or re-arrangement of pieces such as in Science demonstration.
A Flannel board can also be used with cut-outs, diagrams, pictures, or models to
make moveable displays to impart information both in the classroom and outside the
classroom.
A flannel board is especially useful in visually building up the principle parts of
a concept. You can use a flannel board as a chart that grows one idea at a time. For
example you can use the board to demonstrate steps in making something or to show
relationships of one set of things to another. You can also use it to direct the class to
key points. t can also help you to demonstrate steps in making something or to show
relationships of one set of things to another. You can also ask individual students to
place the pictures on the flannel board too, so that the class can be involved in the
learning. The students' attention is thus focused on visual aid and this helps them to
remember the concepts better
Strengths of the fIanneI board
O The feltboard is a comparatively cheap, and highly portable
O The visuals used are likely to be more genuine than quick rough drawings made
on the chalkboards.
O The teacher is saved time of subsequent preparations, since most of the visuals
can be stored and used over and over again.
O The illustrations can easily be depicted in colored felt or pellon that can be
coloured with felt pens.
Limitations of a fIetboard
O the feltboard may not be suitable for large groups of students
O t may not be used with heavy objects













The magnetic Board
A magnetic board is a ferromagnetic display boards on which moveable displays can
be produced using images and figures that are made of (or backed with) magnetic
materials, or are fitted with small magnets. They can be used in much the same way
as feltboards and hook-and-loop boards.
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Using the magnetic board
Magnet boards can be used in similar ways to flannel
boards. They are useful aids to telling stories,
demonstrating something or acting out a drama. This is
achieved by moving the magnetic figures around by
picking them up and placing them in different positions on
the magnet board. The materials will remain attached to
the board until you want to move them again. This is
useful in story telling, especially when sequences are
repeated.
The magnet board can also be used with
students in small groups; students can use it to re-tell a
story. Primary school pupils will naturally enjoy learning
by placing magnetic alphabetical letters and other fun
characters on the magnetic board.

Summary

Remember to make sure that the audience can see the visuals and that the visuals
will help you make the points you want to make. Also, when you make visuals, try to
keep them simple and readable. The effective use of visual aids will make you a better
presenter.

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!R0ICI0 vl$0AL$
Introduction
This chapter discusses a group of instructional technologies which are called
projected visuals. This category includes all visual aids that require an optical
projector in order to display them for the whole class to see. A projector is a device
that is used to display images onto a wall or screen for large image viewing. There are
many projection devices available on the market. n this chapter we are going to look
at a few projection devices that are commonly used in the classroom.
Image projection
Projection is usually achieved by passing a strong light through a transparent
film such as the overhead transparencies, slides and filmstrips, magnifying the images
through a series of lenses and then casting the image onto a screen. Opaque
projections also qualify to be projected visuals. n opaque projection, light is cast into
an opaque image such as a textbook illustration. The light is reflected from the
opaque material onto a mirror, which transmit the reflection through a series of lenses
onto a screen. xamples of projected visuals include film, opaque, slide, overhead
filmstrip and many others. Like non-projected instructional technologies, projected
instructional technologies depend on the level of visual literacy among learner.
The Overhead Projector
As an instructional technology, the overhead projector (OHP) is fairly old,
dating from 1930s. ven in this computer age, the overhead projector (OHP) is still
one of the most effective teaching aids in the classroom. This machine projects text
and graphics from transparencies onto a screen or blank wall in the room. Many
teachers will have little difficulty using overhead projectors, because it is easy to
operate, having only an on-off switch and focus knob, which requires only a little
practice to master.
OHPs come in a variety of makes but all have similar features. They contain
two bulbs. At any time, one of these bulbs can project light through a fresnel, which
diffuses the light, through the glass stage, and a lens in the projector head, and then
onto a screen.
Using the Overhead Projector
The OHP is a simple and straightforward tool to use. Just point it toward the
screen, switch it on and lay the transparency on the glass, it does the work. There are
however a few functions which will help you to get the best possible quality
performance and image. These are shown on the table below.

Chapter
5
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Table 4.1: Control features of the Overhead projector

ControI

Function

Lamp change Iever

Used to change the lamp. Most OHPs have two lamps, so that if one lamp
fails during a lesson you can quickly connect the spare lamp by simply
moving the lever.
Focus controI

This allows you to obtain the sharpest possible image when you adjust it
properly. t is usually located on the 'head' of the OHP. Focusing is done by
moving the head up and down the track on the vertical stem of the OHP.
Mirror ControI

This used to set the projection angle. The angle of projection is determined
by the angle at which the mirror lid is lifted. Note that the straighter the image
is projected, the better it will look. t is also very important to make sure the
mirror lid is kept open at all times, because operating the OHP with the mirror
lid closed will cause it to overheat and can cause the lens holder to melt!
Fringe ControI

This is used to remove the blue or orange tinge that appears at the edges of
the projected image. The control is adjusted until there are no visible orange
or blue edges to ensure the best projection possible.
Setting up the projector
One of the most common difficulties of using the OHP is that, unless it is
correctly set-up, distractions can be created which can destroy a well-prepared
lesson. First of all check if the power lead is correctly connected to OHP and if it
correctly is connected, you can then plug in and switch it on. As with any projection
equipment, you should ensure that the projector does not obstruct the students' line of
sight and always keep the screen in full view of the participants. This can be assured
if you set your screen above the heads of your students. The projector usually works
Figure 4 Parts of the Overheao Projector
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better on a low stand, chair, or table. You should adjust the projection angle to
eliminate the keystone effect.
n order to set up the projector correctly the following conditions should met:
O The projector should be placed at an appropriate distance from the screen,
if the projector is set up at 2-3 meters from viewing screen, the resulting
image will be about 2 meters by 2 meters
O The image should be high enough so that all students can see it. For best
results, keep the screen bottom about 2 meters from the floor to ensure the
students at the back of the classroom can see.
O The projector should be low enough so that it is easily accessible by the
teacher.
O The image should not be distorted by "keystone". For best results, slant the
screen forward slightly so it meets at a 90-degree angle with the projected
image light beam.
O Place the screen so that there is no direct sunlight upon it. For best results,
use an opaque white matte screen which has no-glare reflection.
O One general rule about projected image size is that you judge the distance
between screen and farthest viewer, divide by six and use this number to
figure image width.
O A brownish border around picture is indication image is not in focus.
A perfect set-up may be impossible to achieve, but being aware of the perfect
situation, and doing all in one's power to approximate it, will ensure that students are
faced with as few distractions as possible.
The eystone effect
Keystone is the distortion of the image caused by improper alignment of the
screen and overhead projector. Keystone effect results where the projected image is
taller on top or on the sides; in other words, the projected image is a parallelogram,
not a square. This is caused by the fact that the image on the screen is wider at the
top than at the bottom of the screen.
f no adjustment is made to the angle of the screen when the projection head
is tilted, the image will appear like this: shown in figure 4.2.









To correct this problem, slightly tilt the top of the screen toward the projector
so that the image falls on the screen at a 90-degree angle.










Figure 4.2: The eystone effect

Figure 4.2: The keystone effect and how it is corrected
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Precaution
O Make sure the plug reaches the socket, it is a good idea to carry an extension cord
O Put the projector at a height that is comfortable for you.
O Make sure the lens is dust free.
O Put the projector on a vibration free base.
O Arrange the electric cord so that no one will trip over it.
O Always switch off during lesson if your explanations are not directed at the what is on the
screen
O Cap your writing pen when not using it , it dries quickly
O Don't touch lamp with bare hands.
O Don't touch lamp when hot; allow equipment to cool down before moving
O To clean lens, use an anti-static cloth or soft brush, like a photo lens brush
O Don't carry the OHP by its pillar or post as it can pull the pillar and projection head out of
alignment.
Another way to overcome keystoning, is by placing the OHP at low table or
possibly on a chair. Most commercial stands that are provided for OHP's are too high.
The screen must be high and placed at an angle so that it is at the same angle as the
projector head. The best position for the screen is in a corner of the room, preferably
in the left corner, when one is looking towards the board, as this will suit right-handed
teachers.
Overhead projector maintenance
Most equipment come with a plastic cover that is good for keeping dust off. You are
advised to keep your projector in this plastic cover. The most vulnerable part of your
projector is the lamp, especially to humidity. t is important for you to avoid the
following things to increase the life span of your bulb.
O Do not touch the lamp with bare hands.
O Do not touch lamp when hot; allow equipment to cool down before moving
O To clean lens, use an anti-static cloth or soft brush, like a photo lens brush

When moving the equipment, do not carry the OHP by its pillar or post as it can pull
the pillar and projection head out of alignment.


To Replace a Bulb:
O Always switch off and unplug the OHP before attempting cleaning or
maintenance work.
O Open projector lid.
O Open bulb cover.
O To remove the blown bulb, gently sway bulb from side to side (never sway
buIb up and down) and simultaneously gently pull bulb outward.
O Check the type of bulb that the projector takes, specifications are written
inside each unit. Select appropriate bulb.
O Open the end of the bulb wrapper but do not remove as this decreases the
bulb's lighting life by up to 5%.
O Swaying bulb gently from side to side as before, insert new bulb.
O Pull off bulb wrapper.
O Close OHP. Check that it is now working and readjust focus as necessary.




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Table 4.2: Some common problems in using the overhead projector
FauIt PossibIe causes SoIution
No power to projector Not plugged in, loose power
cable or not switched on
Check that equipment power cable is
connected, check if it is plugged in, and
on/off switch is turned to on.
Sound of fan running
but no light
Mirror lid closed Open mirror lid.
Smoke coming from
mirror lid
Mirror lid closed and melting
with heat.
Switch off and unplug. Open mirror and
allow it to cool completely.
No sound, projector
keeps turning itself off
Fan not working so machine
overheating
Remove for repair.
Fan working but
projector keeps turning
off
Thermostat faulty. Remove for repair.
Fan working but no light Bulb blown. Switch off. Set into spare bulb setting and
switch back on. Replace blown bulb as
soon as possible.
quipment set to in between
two bulb settings.
Switch off. Set fully into either bulb setting
and switch back on.
"Keystone" effect Projector too close or at
wrong angle to screen
Adjust position of projector.
Circle of light Fresnel up-side-down Switch off and unplug. Turn fresnel to right-
side-up.
Colours around image
edge
Fringing incorrect Adjust fringing
mage too pale to read Room too bright Switch from low-power to high-power, turn
off lights, pull blinds.
Poor image quality Poor focus Adjust focus so concentric rings visible on
screen.
Overhead Transparencies
Overhead transparencies (OHTs) are only piece of hardware required for an overhead
transparency projector to function. The standard transparency size is 8" x 11''. t is not
always possible that we are able to obtain commercially produced transparencies.
Nonetheless, with acetate or plastic, you can easily create your own overhead
transparencies.
Creating transparencies for overheads
There are a number of ways to create transparencies for the overhead projector, a
few of these methods are described below.
Handmade MateriaIs
Overhead transparencies can be developed during a presentation by marking
on the transparency sheet with water-soluble or permanent transparency pens. n this
case you simply write using freehand on the transparency before class. You can also
write on a blank transparency as the lesson progresses, much like a chalk. To do this,
you need the appropriate pen to write on the transparencies, preferably the visual aid
pens, wax markers or any other water soluble markers. You also need a damp tissue
to wipe off information on transparency that has been marked with water-soluble ink. f
a permanent ink has been used you may need spirit to wipe off the information from
the transparencies.
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Tips for deveIoping Overhead Transparencies

O Limit each transparency to a single concept or idea. Do not try to cover too
many points on one transparency.
O Use a maximum of six words per line and six lines per visual to ensure
legibility.
O Use horizontal rather than vertical image because most screens are
designed for images that proceed from left to right, rather than top to bottom.
O Do not number items unless ranking is germane to what is being presented
rather use bullets, checks or arrows to separate ideas.
O Use a simple sans-serif type style for lettering, preferably use boId typing
elements and capitalize.
O Do not use fancy letter styles since they are difficult to read.
O Use colour to emphasize or differentiate areas of content. Colour guides the
viewers' attention and helps comprehension.
O Use overlays to build complex ideas. Use cellophane or masking tape to
attach them to the frame or mask and position each overlay so that it lines up
properly with the one beneath.
O Mount transparencies in frames for filing.
O Use handouts to accompany transparencies and when necessary, provide
students with handouts of key information to take with them for study and to
reduce note taking.
O Outline what you are going to say about each transparency, you can make
notes about content on the transparency frames if necessary to help ensure
a smooth presentation.
O f type-written pages are used, duplicate them for individual handouts.

Using a printer
Quality transparencies can be produced by a laser printer. The printer allows
us to come up with good quality transparencies in a variety of bold font styles. The
quality and variety of font styles makes this method of producing transparencies a
superior option when compared with transparencies done by hand. f resources
permit, colour printers can be used to enhance the appearance of the transparency.
Computer program such as PowerPoint can help you to give your transparencies a
professional look. PowerPoint slides can be printed on transparency plastic using
either a laser or inkjet printer.
Using a photocopier
Any camera-ready artwork, whether word charts, illustrations, or diagrams
can be made into transparencies using a standard office paper copier. Most
manufacturers of paper copiers sell clear and coloured acetate sheets that run
through copying machines just like bond paper, copying a black image onto it for use
as overhead transparencies.
This method of producing transparencies results in black-and-white
transparencies. However some photocopiers can produce full-colour transparencies
from coloured originals, but they tend to be so expensive that they we may not be able
to afford them many of our schools.
The use of thermal copy machine to produce transparencies is common
because they produce darker images and there is a wider selection of coloured
acetate. Transparency plastic may be obtained in many bookshops for the specific
type of copier you have.
A photocopier can also be used to enlarge images from books onto the
transparencies for use in class. Text from textbooks can also be copied on to
transparencies for classroom projection.












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Procedure for making transparencies using a photocopier
You must have the hardcopy of document you wish to transfer onto a
transparency and enough laser jet transparency (heat resistant), paperback
transparencies are not recommended.
Instructions
O Place the hardcopy document face down on the copier glass.
O Manually feed the transparency into the copier from the side tray.
O Press the green "start" button on the keypad.
Make sure that you have adjusted the size and contrast accordingly. You are
advised to manually feed up to 10 transparency sheets at a time.
Using the Overhead Projector for cIassroom teaching
Besides the chalkboard, the overhead projector is one of the more convenient
and cost effective instructional technologies. The overhead projector is used almost as
often as the chalkboard. n many cases, it is used as a substitute for the blackboard, when
teachers use it for writing and drawing on transparencies using colured pens. However the
medium is superior to the chalkboard because it offers a wider scope for innovation.
Using the Projector as a ChaIkboard
The overhead projector can substitute for a blackboard very easily. You can
place a blank transparency or a clear plastic paper and write on it using water soluble
markers, visual aid pens or wax markers as you would write on the board. You should
avoid using the regular felt tip pens because the ink beads up instead of adhering to
the plastic. When finished with a point, you can erase the writing with a damp tissue or
if to maintain a record of what you have written you can put on a fresh sheet.
Using the projector as a demonstration stage
The overhead projector can be used to project opaque object or clear devices
such as rulers or protractors as well as transparent liquids such as those in chemical
reactions involving colour changes. For example an experiment involving acid- base
reaction can be projected for all students to see the colour change of the indicator
when the acid is neutralised.
Demonstrations involving movements such as in mechanisms and models
can also be easily carried out using the overhead projector. Another interesting
demonstration in Science is the demonstration of the magnetic field.
The OHP as an enIarger
The OHP is a useful device for enlarging a projected image. Since few of us
have a flair for graphics, the overhead projector can help us to overcome the lack of
skill. First of all you have to create a transparency or outline of the information you
wish to enlarge. Project the image onto a sheet of paper and move the projector
forward or back to create the desired size. Trace the image and add colour as
needed. When the projector is removed you will be left with a map or illustration which
is virtually an enlarged replica of the original. This technique can also be used with
other projection such as slide or filmstrip projections.
Using the projector with prepared transparencies
Many of us are familiar with using the overhead projector to show prepared
transparencies. One advantage of prepared transparencies is that they are set up
before class, saving valuable writing time in class. They can also help the teacher to
organise the lesson more effectively since they are planned and prepared beforehand.
Transparencies excel at projecting graphics. With a little effort, spatial, statistical, and
structural relationships can all be visualized on an overhead.
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Tips for using the overhead projector

O Place the transparency on the overhead projector before turning on the lamp, a lighted
screen with nothing on it is annoying to the learners
O Turn off the projector between transparencies to direct attention to yourself.
O Never turn your back to the class, always point to information by pointing to the
transparency, not the screen.
O Never write or mark directly on the overhead projector, only write on the transparency.
O Avoid keystoning by slightly tilting the top of the screen toward the projector so that the
image falls on the screen at a 90 degree angle.
O Use a sheet of paper to cover and reveal areas of the transparency if you wish to reveal
information in a step-by-step fashion.
O The most common problem with using overhead projectors is changing burned-out lamps,
you should therefore practice changing the lamp. Be careful, however, since the lamp
may be quite hot.
O Keep the lights on in the viewing area. The overhead projector produces a very bright
image so there is no need to darken the room. However, if any direct room light on the
screen can be reduced, it will enhance visibility.
O Give students sufficient time to copy the information on the transparencies

Strategies for showing transparencies
You can use the following techniques to direct your student attention to parts
of the transparency:
O ReveIation of information.
This is giving information step by step while covering the rest, thus exposing
information as needed.
O Using overIays.
Overlays allow additional transparencies to be overlaid onto the original to
show development or buildup of an event. Overlays can also be cut into
various shapes and moved about in relation to the base transparency. This is
a useful technique for displaying fitting several parts of a component together
so that relative motion can be simulated.

You can place your notes or keywords that you may use to expand the key
points on the frame of the transparency. You are however warned against reading
your transparencies to your students. Numbering you your transparencies in
accordance with your lesson progression will help you to go through them smoothly.
Avoid pointing to the screen on the wall. When pointing to a specific section of
the transparency, lay a pencil on the overhead projector stage. Circle or underline
specific items on the transparency. Make sure you use water-soluble overhead
transparency pens.
Just like in the case of the chalkboard, when using prepared transparencies,
you should make sure that you give your students sufficient time to analyse and copy
the images in their notebooks. Where possible you should provide them with paper
copies of the transparencies to speed up this process. Mounting your transparencies
in cardboard frames will make them easier to handle, and you can write short notes
on the frames which you can use to guide yourself during your lesson presentation.










Some aspects to consider during a presentation
More often teachers are tempted to explain and emphasise points when they
themselves are looking the screen. This is not a good practice; you should always
face your audience. When you need to emphasise a point, use a pointer to point on
the transparency and not to point on to the screen.
Always turn the screen off between transparencies if you are not making
reference to it for more than two minutes. This will shift the students' attention back to
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you. Note that the on-off switch can be an effective device for changing the focus of
your students' attention from the screen to you the teacher and then back to the
screen, as you present your lessons.
You can add meaningful details to the transparency as needed during the
presentation. This will help your students to follow your presentation. You are advised
to reveal information one line at a time to control pace of the lesson and class
attention by placing a sheet over the transparency or by taping flaps of paper to the
frame of the transparency.
As has been suggested above switch the projector on and off to shift the
focus of the audience from the image back to the speaker. This has an added
advantage in that it also saves the lamp.
Strength of the OHP
The OHP has many advantages over the traditional blackboard.
O Transparencies can be prepared ahead of time to present more complex and polished
images than are possible if drawn on the chalkboard.
O transparencies can be made more permanent so that they can be used again and
again
O Transparencies allow for effective use of colour
O Transparencies can be duplicated on handouts to insure that students get complete
and accurate images.
O The overhead projector can be placed at the front of the room, allowing the teacher to
maintain eye contact with students. This arrangement gives the teacher full control of
the class all the time
O By turning the projector on and off during the presentation, the teacher can focus the
attention of the students on him/herself or the materials thus helping to control the
pace of the presentation.
O There is no need of darkening the classroom; the brilliant light source concentrated at
a short distance makes it possible to use the projector in lighted areas.
Limitations of the OHP
O Most projectors are bulky to handle and store, and the fan used for cooling
the projector may be noisy
O The projected image size is sometimes too small to be seen from the back of
a large room.
O Often, the image does not sit square on the screen, as the head of the
projector is tilted to increase the size of the image.
O t is difficult to write on the transparency while it is on the projector.
O Sometimes the projector head gets in the audience's way.
SIides
Slides are single frames of 35mm photographic film mounted in cardboard,
plastic or metal binders, often between twin sheets of glass. There are a collection of
slides that cover specific topics in the subject available at the educational Technology
Centre. However we can also make our own slides of pictures in books, magazines,
or photo albums using a special type of a copier. Note that already made commercial
slides may not have been designed for your teaching purposes, so you must be
prepared to make the necessary adaptations for such materials to suit your needs.
Slides are projected using a slide projector. Although there are a variety of
makes and models of slide projectors, all units work on the same principles. Slide
projectors have five components, namely: a projection unit, a carousel which holds the
slides, a remote control, an infra-red detector to pick up signals from the remote
control, and a power lead which plugs into the projection unit to power the machine.

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Caution

O Arrange your slides beIore the lesson and arrive at the classroom early to give yourselI
enough time for inserting the slides into the projector's slide tray;
O Make sure that the slides are inserted correctly. Remember that there are eight ways of
inserting a slide, and only one of them is correct!
O Adjust the distance between the projector and the screen so as to maximise the size of the
projected image. As mentioned in the section for overhead projector, remember that the
image is enlarged by moving the projector away from the screen, not towards it!
O Make sure that the projected image is in focus; due to the expansion of the celluloid under
high temperature, you may need to adjust the focus from time to time even for an autofocus
projector!


Figure 4.3: The SIide Projector
Setting up a SIide Projector
O nsure all components are present.
O f there is a remote control, plug in infra-red detector for remote control.
O Place carousel on top and swivel until it clicks into place at slide number
zero.
O Plug into power source and switch on.
O Test that the equipment is fully functional and adjust height and focus as
necessary

SIide Projector Maintenance
To Replace a Bulb:
O nsure machine is plugged out, switched off and cool.
O Open door to bulb area.
O Pull out bulb handle to expose both bulbs.
O Remove the blown bulb by swaying side to side gently (never forward to
backward) and pulling forward.
O Check the type of bulb the projector takes and select appropriate
replacement bulb.
O Open end of bulb wrapper but do not remove as this reduces the bulb's
lighting life by up to 5%.
O nsert new bulb by swaying side-to-side and pushing gently.
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O Replace bulb handle and close door.
O Test equipment to ensure it is fully functional and readjust focus as
necessary.
TroubIeshooting
When a slide projector does not operate:
O Make sure the projector and/or the extension is plugged into the power
socket.
O f the projector is turned on and only the fan comes on, the bulb may be out.
Switch to the high or low bulb setting.
O f the projector will not focus, the projector may be too far from or too close
to the lens may not be properly installed. Turn off the "auto focus" and try to
focus manually.
O Always allow this equipment to cool down before moving.
TabIe 4:3 Common ProbIems
FauIt PossibIe causes Remedy
Fan running but no
picture
Bulb blown


Switch stuck in between bulb
settings
Switch off machine. Turn to spare bulb
setting. Switch back on. Replace blown
bulb as soon as possible.
Switch off, reset fully into either bulb
setting and switch back on
Projector keeps
turning itself off
Overheating due to fan failure
Remove for repair and offer alternative
projector
Remote control not
working
nfra-red detector not plugged in;
detector not in line with remote
control; or batteries dead
nsure infra-red detector is plugged in
and detector is facing the operator.
Replace batteries if dead.
Projector won't
move on / Jammed
Slide
Old cardboard slides most likely to
cause jams
Switch off machine. Pull silver latch
inside carousel to release. Remove
carousel. Pull out jammed slide. Reset
the slide and replace carousel. Switch
back on.
Projector keeps
flipping forward /
backward between
slides by itself
Timer control switch on projector set
to move forwards / backwards
automatically
Reset to "0"
No power to
projector
Not plugged in, power cable loose or
equipment not switched on

Check connections. nsure equipment
is plugged in and switched on.


Making sIides
When making your own slides remember that legibility is the prime
requirement for slides; if the audience cannot read or see the material clearly, the
slide does not accomplish the desired goals. You should avoid large tables of data on
slides. f the slide contains a lot of data, none of it can really be deciphered. n many
cases, you will find out that you really do not refer to all the detailed information, so
reduce the data to the most essential data or plot the data and present it graphically.
However if you think that it is important to show the data you may then use more than
one slide. Several simple slides are better than one complicated slide.
Letter size is another important aspect to be considered when you are
addressing issues of legibility. Letters are easier to read if they are 1/15 the height of
the slide, or larger. On graphics and diagrams, never use any letter or symbol smaller
in height than 1/25 of the height of the layout.
Avoid copying illustration from books. They usually carry too much detail and
copying them on slides often results in a less satisfactory projection. t is often better
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to redraw the illustration, using fewer and simpler captions and larger lettering. Colour
can also be used to highlight details and boundaries of regions on the drawing.
Colour slides are more effective when you consider darkroom requirement for
slide use.. You are generally advised to use light colours, most preferably yellow,
when making slides. Other easily perceived colours include orange, pink, light blue
and light green. You can use colour film for black and white slides Avoid dark blue and
dark red. n terms of background, dark-colours are better than either black or white.
Using SIide for cIassroom presentation
Slides provide realistic details of subjects under study and are particularly
suited for demonstrating processes that do not involve motion. Slides are also one of
the most powerful methods of displaying photographic or graphic images to a class or
individual student using a suitable projector. The slides can be projected singly or in
linked sequences. Sound can be added through some external source, such as a live
narrator or an audiotape player. The resultant slide/tape program can be used by
students in the same way they might view a videotape.
Since random access to slides in a carousel tray is often very difficult, it is
wise for you to plan the sequence of slides so that you do not have to search or use a
slide out of order. f you need to refer to a slide more than once during a lesson
presentation, you are encouraged to have duplicates made so that you can insert
them in the appropriate places.
Some slide projectors will not automatically go to blank when there is no slide
in the slot. So if for any reason you intend to interrupt the slide sequence, insert a
plastic slug or a black slide at that point in the sequence. Just like we said about the
overhead projector, when the screen goes black, students will immediately shift their
attention back to the teacher.
Please note that the 35 mm slide projector should be used only when you
need to present very high quality pictures; otherwise we should scan the pictures into
the computer and incorporate them into a computer slide show (the one drawback of a
35mm slide show is the total black-out that is required to bring out the best effect;
people tend to fall asleep in such black-out environments).
Advantages
O Slides are popular because they are relatively easy to produce, use, store,
and modify.
O Slide sets can also be easily revised by rearranging, deleting or adding to
the set.
O We can make slides on field trips to illustrate phenomena or show places
that are otherwise inaccessible to students.
O Supplies are not too expensive.
O The projector is easily transportable
O Can show colour and graphics very well.
O Slide-tape presentations can be developed.
Disadvantages
O Slides require a fairly dark room, this in some cases means that there will be
insufficient light for note taking by the students.
O The distance between the projector and screen often make it difficult for the
teacher to control the projector and point out important elements on the screen.
O quipment is not available at many schools
O Bulbs may burn out.
O Takes time to prepare the slides: the process involves taking pictures and having
them developed.


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Tips for using sIides

O Make sure the room is appropriately set up for viewing slides. Will everyone be able to
see your presentation? Can the room be darkened sufficiently? Are there outlets
available? Does the projector work to your satisfaction?
O Number each slide in case they are dropped.
O Stand facing an audience and use a remote control to advance the slides.
O Use Universal 80 Slide Tray (the one with the largest slots) instead of standard 80 or 140
slide trays which have a very high probability of jamming.
O When using slides and overhead transparencies simultaneously, darken your
transparency with a color overlay sheet.
O Leave an empty slot after every few slides. The projector will shut off automatically when
a blank slot is left between slides, allowing for discussion. At that point, stop and have
students discuss or write a brief analysis of what they have been viewing. For example,
tell them to discuss with their neighbor or take two minutes to write, "How does the idea of
beauty in these two slides compare with current conceptions of beauty?"
O Don't leave a slide on the screen after you've discussed it. nsert a "blind" slide, or turn
the projector off.
O Though the room must be fairly dark while slides are being used, don't make it so dark
that the students cannot see to write down notes (if possible).

















Opaque Projector
The opaque projector, which is also known as the epidiascope, epidiascope
or episcope is a predecessor to the overhead projector. Opaque proctors are used to
project images of opaque objects, such as text, graphics and pictures from textbooks,
small real objects and models, on a screen.. The opaque projector that is used to
project both slides and opaque objects is called the epidiascope.
Although the opaque projector is different from other projection equipment in
many ways, the projector reflects light from the surface of the picture or three-
dimensional object onto a regular projection screen. t displays opaque materials by
shining a bright lamp onto the object from above. A system of mirrors, prisms or
imaging lenses is used to focus an image of the material onto a screen. Since they
project the reflected light, opaque projectors require brighter bulbs and larger lenses
than overhead projectors.



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Instructions for operating the opaque projector
O Start by plugging in the projector.
O Place object to be shown, on staging area, use
adjustment arm to raise and lower staging area.
O Turn on projector with ON/OFF switch and open
the lens cover.
O Focus image with control on projector.
O To enlarge image, move projector away from
screen, to make it smaller, move projector closer
to the screen.
O Some projectors have a pointer arrow that can
be used to point on the projected image, which
is controlled with a handle on the side of the projector.
Due to the heat generated by the bulb in this projector, please do not leave
photos or other paper material on staging area for too long.
Using the opaque projector
As discussed above the opaque projector is mainly used to project images of
textbook illustrations, drawings, three-dimensional objects such as real objects,
models and specimens. While this projector is rarely used during a classroom
presentation, it can be useful for preparing visual aids. By projecting and thereby
enlarging items, you can then draw, trace, or examine the images more closely. The
opaque projector has been in Art as an enlargement tool to allow images to be
transferred to surfaces such as prepared canvas. For the teacher, this equipment is
especially adapted to enlarging diagrams, photographs, maps and small charts for
display purposes.
Strengths of the opaque projector
Many of the strengths of the overhead projector apply to the opaque projector.
O Since the material projected requires no special preparation, the cost is very low.
Limitations of the opaque projector
Many of the limitations of the overhead projector are also true of the opaque
projector.
O The height of usable objects is limited to the space between the top of the
lowered projection plate and the body of the projector, which usually only a few
centimetres.
O Materials may be damaged by the heat generated by the light source.
FiImstrips
Filmstrips are simply strips of 35mm film carrying linked sequences of
photographic images, each usually half the size of a standard 35mm frame (single-
frame filmstrips) but sometimes can be the full size (double-frame filmstrips). When
purchased commercially, they are a comparatively cheap alternative to slide
sequences. Film strips can be shown using a suitable filmstrip projector or viewers.
Using FiIms
The most important aspect in the use of films for teaching purposes is the
necessity of careful planning. The teacher must select the film thoughtfully,
considering exactly how it will enhance the students' understanding of the material
being studied. n addition, the teacher must be thoroughly prepared to use it. The
following utilisation pattern may assist you in your planning:

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O Determine your purpose for using the fiIm.
Film can be used for the following purposes:
i. to arouse students' interest in the topic being studied
ii. to demonstrate examples for the concepts they have just learned
iii. to demonstrate skills to be learned
iv. to stimulate discussion.
O Prepare yourseIf to show it by becoming thoroughIy acquainted with its
content
The following activities can help the teacher to familiarise with the film:
i. View the film, taking notes as you go.
ii. Read the film guide; check its sample discussion questions.
iii. Plan activities and, if needed, develop a test covering the film content.
iv. Arrange for a projector and screen so that all you students can see the
projected image.
O Prepare the students to be ready to view the fiIm and to profit from it
The teacher should make it clear to the students why they are seeing the film and
what they are expected to learn from it.
i. Plan appropriate ways to involve students actively in learning from the
film.
ii. Discuss what is already known about the subject of the film to lead
students into what might be expected from its showing.
iii. ntroduce key words by listing them on the board and discuss their
meanings in the context of the film to be shown.
iv. Develop a list of questions, based on the video, for students to answer
using information contained in the film. These questions could be listed
on the chalkboard or in a handout as a guide to the viewing.
O PIan student activities as foIIow-ups to the showing.
Followup activities help students to consolidate what they have learnt during the
viewing exercise. One activity involves dividing the class into small groups and
ask each group to propose a solution to a problem or issues raised in the film. The
class can then be asked to re-group to compare results and to reach a consensus
where possible. You can also administer a written or oral check test covering
major points treated in the film and asking the class to obtain more detailed
information about main ideas. Other activities could be taking a field trip to the
place shown in the film for students to practice the skills taught in the film.
Strengths of using fiIm strips
O The projected image usually is very interesting and will help retention.
O Can show colours clearly.
O Can present concepts of abstract ideas.
O Can be used to stimulate discussion.
O Can be used to introduce or conclude a unit of study.
Liquid CrystaI DispIay LCD) Projection PaneI
The LCD projects the image of an active computer screen onto an overhead
for a large group to see. t is used with a computer to do the same things we could do
with the overhead projector, that is, to project an image onto a screen or blank wall,
but they have many advantages, including providing more instructional flexibility. t
allows you, among other things, to demonstrate key procedures to the entire class,
and to do live modelling and simulations.
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Figure 4.4: An exampIe of the LCD projection paneI
LCD equipment can be very expensive depending on the features and options
of the projector. They require the support of a computer and appropriate technical
software interfaces to work. n addition, significant preparation is required to ensure
that you are thoroughly familiar with the system and that everything is working
properly.
Maintaining the muItimedia projector
Maintenance for all projection equipment is important. For LCD it is critical.
Clean or replace the filter regularly according to the manufacturer's instructions, as
the screen filter can quickly become dirty. A clogged filter will cause your projector to
overheat, shut down, and can shorten lamp life. ven worse, the dust that collects on
your filter will eventually make its way into your projector and deposit itself on the LCD
panels. Once this happens, you will have coloured spots in your image, and your
projector will require professional cleaning.
Using the LCD for cIassroom teaching
The LCD Panel is a useful resource. The LCD can be used as an interactive
whole class teaching resource, with the help of a graphics tablet or infra-red keyboard
to allow the teacher and students interact and make their contributions without having
to go in front. Modern LCDs installations include connections to videocassette players
and document cameras to the computer to allow teachers to project videos or images
directly from a book to the screen.
Advantages of LCD's
O Since slides are stored in files on the computer, they can be made accessible
to students or other instructors.
O Presentations are easily made using PowerPoint or other software
applications. PowerPoint can also be used to prepare handouts and content
outlines.
O Some instructors post their PowerPoint slides to the Web so that students
may download them for study purposes.
MuItimedia Projection
Multimedia projector, which is also known as Data projector or the "hibeam
projector, is a new technology that is finding its way into the classroom. A multimedia
projector consists of a projector unit and its control mechanism, which are usually a
remote control or touch screen. t is used in conjunction with a data source, such as a
PC, laptop, document camera, DVD or video. The multimedia projector displays the


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information for example, a PowerPoint presentation, video clip, sent from the data
source onto a screen.
There are different types of models available and are therefore subject to
variations. As a result, there are many things you should consider when buying a
multimedia projector. Considering the following aspects can help you to select the
projector you would need for your teaching.
O The type of computers available.
O Determine whether the projector will be moved away from one classroom to
the other.
O The need for additional features like a remote control and networking abilities







Connecting MuItimedia Projectors to a Laptop
Before connecting your multimedia projector you must make sure that the
projector and the laptop are turned off. Start by connecting either end of the cable to
the projector's Computer n port and then you can go on to connect the other end of
the video cable to the laptop's monitor port. Make sure you tighten the screws on both
connectors so that they are they are fastened securely.


Figure 4.6: How to connect a muItimedia projector to a Iaptop computer
Note that it matters whether you turn on your projector or your computer first.
Always turn on the projector before turning on your computer. Generally, the computer
will detect the projector as an external monitor and will set itself up automatically. f
you turn on the computer first, you will need to know the proper keystroke sequence
to get things working.
Setting up projectors and determining correct image size
n many cases we have set-up our projector and discover that we are either
too far or too close to the screen to get the image size we want. The size of the
projected image is determined by the distance between the projector and the screen

gure 45: The Multmeda projector
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or whatever surface the image is projected on to. The steps suggested below can
help you to set up a projector to get the desired image size.
O Place the projector on a robust, level surface which is a few meters away from
the computer.
O Place the projector at the appropriate distance from the screen (refer to Table
4.4 below). The distance between the projector and the screen determines the
actual image size. The distance may vary slightly depending upon the projector.
Table: 4.4: Guide for setting up the projector
Screen Size Minimum Distance Maximum Distance
300 895 1109
200 596 738
100 297 367
80 237 293
60 117 219
40 117 145
30 87 108

The image size reflects the diagonal measurement.
O Make sure the projector is at a right angle to the screen. This ensures the
image is not distorted.
O Connect one end of the power cord to the projector's power connector.
Connect the other end to the grounded outlet.
O Turn on the projector to make sure the power connection works and to
determine correct image size. Once you have adjusted the image size, turn
off the projector so that you can connect the input device, which is the
computer, in this case.


Figure 4.7: IIIustration of the image size





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Table 4.5: Function Keys to change display settings on Data Projector
with a Laptop

Laptop Make Function eys
DLL Fn + F8
Toshiba Fn + F5
Panasonic Fn + F3
BM Fn + F7
SONY Fn + F7
Gateway Fn + F3
Fujitsu Fn + F10

Some Data projector troubIeshooting
t is especially important to remember that changing projectors or computers
results in an entirely different system. Just because your presentation worked on one
computer does not necessarily mean it will work on a different system. f you find out
that things are not working try some troubleshooting procedure shown in table 4.6
below.
Table 4.6: Some Data Projector troubleshooting produces

Data Projector TroubIeshooting
FauIt PossibIe causes SoIution
Touch screen not working
Power at source is
switched off or plugged
out
Check connections
Remote control not
working
Battery dead
Battery needs to be
replaced. Contact
Services
No picture
Wrong data source
selected
Select correct data source
Laptop displaying on
screen only / laptop only
Laptop configuration
Reconfigure laptop using
Fn key
SeIecting a screen
The proper screen and seating arrangement are important to any
presentation. There are many questions associated with screen choice. They include
the following:
O What is the standard viewing arrangement?
O Will the screen be mounted?
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O Will it be fixed?
O Does it need to retract?
O What type of fabric is best?
They are in three basic screen types:
O Matte white.
This should be used when projection light is strong, such as with an overhead
projector. This screen has a smooth non-gloss surface and will diffuse light
evenly over a large area.
O GIass beaded.
This has a rough, beaded surface and gives excellent picture sharpness and
good colour rendition. However, the room should be darkened for good
reproduction and must be viewed head-on, not at an angle, for best results.
O SiIver IenticuIar.
This should be used when you need to control horizontal light reflections.
These screens produce sharp, brilliant images but must be used in a partially
darkened room.
The projector and the screen have some influence on each other, so you
have to determine how the two work together to produce a desired projection. There
are two major issues you should consider in relation to how the multimedia projector
and the screen work together. These are the screen size and throw distance.



















Screen Size
Screen size is the size of the projector screen. t is directly related to the
viewing distance. There are various formulas for determining the correct screen size
in relation to viewing distance, but the most commonly used formula suggests that the
ideal viewing distance is 1.5 times the width of the screen. We should however take
this as a general rule, which is not completely accurate. Screen size is also related to
the type of material that is projected. For example, if we are projecting very fine text
as opposed to simple graphic images we may want to consider a larger screen size.
Many of us make the mistake of trying to achieve results by trying to create
the largest possible screen size. This is not the best idea. No matter what projector we
use, the smaller the screen size (image size) or the closer the projector is placed to


Figure 4.8: Types of projection screens
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the screen, the brighter the picture. When we create a large screen, the projector's
light is spread over a larger area, and the picture will look less bright than it does
when focused on a smaller area.




Once you have determined the screen size, this information can help you
determine where to position the projector to adequately fill the screen. f the viewing
audience is no more than 3 meters away, a screen can be as small as one meter
wide. However, for best viewing, the furthest seat from the screen should not be more
than six times the screen width.
Throw Distance
The throw distance is the distance between the projector and the screen that
is the distance the image is thrown. This is the foundation for determining the screen
size, and it also helps determine if you need to use an additional lens. n normal
circumstances, you do not need to use an additional lens, but depending upon the
throw distance of the projector configuration, you may need a long or short throw lens.
f you do not have flexibility in positioning the projector, you may have problems
adjusting the throw distance. f the projector is positioned at the back of the classroom
you may use a long throw lens to reduce the image size to fit the screen. A short
throw lens is used when the projector is positioned very close to the screen.
Using MuItimedia Projector
f your presentation is brought along in a diskette, upload it to the hard disk of
the classroom computer first this will lead to efficient control of the slideshow. f you
have 6-in-1 PowerPoint print-outs of the slides, which you intend to give out as
handout, you are advised to hand them out at the end of the show instead of at the
beginning; otherwise the participants will be reading the print-outs instead of listening
to you. However, you can distribute the 3-in -1 handouts beforehand, so that students
can add their own notes during the presentation.
Much of the advice for using OHP is relevant for computer computer
multimedia usage. These include the following:
O use large font size and bold colours
O use bullet points instead of full sentences;
O call up the bullet points one by one rather than showing them all in one go add
graphics to enhance attractiveness.
O Avoid using annoying slide change sound effects
O nclude hyperlinks to relevant web sites if you are working in a connected
classroom
Note that a multimedia slide show should not be over-done, too many
graphics, animations and sound effects may distract students from paying attention to
what they are meant to learn.
Figure 4.7; Diagram showing projection on to a screen
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Due to the availability of a variety of presentation software and the vast
resources of the nternet, computer projected images have become popular in the
classroom. Since there are literally thousands of laptop configurations, models, and
resolutions, we cannot address how each computer works with each projector. f you
choose to use a multimedia projector, remember there is no substitute for reading
instruction manuals, testing, and a great deal of hands-on practice.
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A00l0 M0lA
Introduction
One of the primary ways in which teaching takes place is by using sound or
audio. As communication plays a fundamental role in teaching, it is not surprising that
audio is a key component of many teaching and learning activities. For example,
group activities, debate and lectures all make use of this medium. This chapter
discusses the different forms of audio technologies and how they can be used to
enhance the teaching and learning process in the classroom.
What is audio media?
Audio media technologies are teaching and learning media that convey
information through sound. Audio instructional technologies for teaching and learning
include various systems whereby sound can be played to a class or an individual.
ducational audio can take the form of music, talk radio, documentary, panel
discussion, news, current affairs, debate, drama and many other formats. n all these
instances audio resources, especially when transmitted via radio broadcasts, are
transitory.
Generally, audio resources are effective for supporting communication skills
and for explanation of concepts. They can be used in combination with other media
such as text, graphics, or video, to provide multi-sensory input, and are important for
teaching of language skills. For example audio media can be used to support
pronunciation and music skills. Audio can also be used to create a specific mood or
atmosphere. To be effective audio media demand high levels of listening skills from
the learner. This phenomenon is explored in the following section.
Why use audio instructionaI technoIogy
Audio based instructional technologies are most preferred perhaps because they
are readily accessible, cheap, easy to use and generally educationally effective. Teachers
capitalize on these advantages and use auditory-oral instruction as the primary approach in
the majority of classrooms teaching and learning activities.
n summary audio instructional technologies can be used to do one or more of the
following;
O To provide aural source for the learner to analyse or react to.
O To breathe life into ideas presented in other teaching and learning
technologies such as text based technologies.
O To help the learners practice communication skills.
O To say things that are not so easily expressed in print.
O To influence the learners' feelings and attitudes
O To get worthwhile contributions to the teaching from people who would be
unlikely to contribute in writing.
O To let learners hear the voices of experts and other learners.
O To present new ideas to learners who might be having problems with reading
or whose circumstances prevent them from reading.
O To initiate group discussion and sharing of ideas and experience
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Hearing and Listening
Hearing and listening are the vehicles for auditory learning. ffective hearing
depends on listening. Since the use of audio media technology depends on hearing
and listening from the part of the learner, let us take some time to explain these two
concepts.
There is a very big difference between hearing and listening. According to
Heicnh at el (1996) hearing is simply the act of perceiving sound by the ear. t is a
physiological process in which sound waves entering the outer ear are transmitted to
the eardrum, converted into mechanical vibrations in the middle ear and changed in
the inner ear into electrical impulses that travel to the brain. f one is not hearing-
impaired, hearing simply happens.
Whereas hearing is an involuntary thing, listening is something you
consciously choose to do. t is a psychological process which begins with someone's
awareness of and attention to sound or speech, and proceeds through the
identification and recognition of specific auditory signals and ends in comprehension.
Lets us explain these three important concepts, that is, awareness, recognition and
comprehension. Awareness is the ability to detect the presence of sound and
identification is the learner's ability to respond appropriately to a word after hearing.
Comprehension entails the ability to process and use auditory information to make
meaning. Listening, therefore, requires some degree of concentration so that your
brain processes meaning from words and sentences. t is this kind of listening which
leads to learning. Put simply we use our ears to hear and our brains to listen.
Listening entails complex interpretive processes between the speaker
(teacher) and the listener (learner). The massage encoded by the teacher is decoded
by the learner. The quality of the encoded message is affected by the ability of the
teacher to express the message clearly and logically. The understandability of the
send message is affected by the learner's ability to comprehend the message. The
vocabulary level of the message must be within the vocabulary level of the learner.
Using real words coupled with visuals or actions allows the teacher to target
comprehension and vocabulary development. For example, when teaching infant
classes, the teacher should always associate the sound with an object, action or the
instrument that makes the sound.
DeveIoping Iistening skiIIs
We have seen from the arguments put above that listening is a vital tool for
learning. A large percentage of pupils' classroom time is spent listening to the teacher,
other pupils or audio media. The ability to absorb, sift and respond to spoken text is
an essential element in the achievement of learning objectives. t is therefore
important for you to support your students in listening well, to increase participation
and raise achievement in learning. This implies that as the teacher you should ensure
that listening has been planned for, taught, developed and assessed.
You should analyse your learners to establish that all the students can hear
normally. There are standardized tests that can be used to test the learner's ability to
hear and listen. You can check the availability of such a facility through your local
Schools Psychological Services offices.
The importance of ensuring that pupils are ready to listen must be stressed
because learners must be clear about the purpose for listening. There are a number
of strategies that can be employed to improve students' listening ability. We discuss a
few of the strategies below.
O Guide Iistening Activities
As a way of guiding student's listening, the teacher should give the learners
the objectives or questions to be answered during the listening process.
O Provide students with some direction
Give direction on how the students are expected to follow for them to listen
to the audio.
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O Focusing Iistening
The teacher can ask students to listen for main ideas or details in the
messages. Focus listening can also be supported by activities such as note
taking.
O HoIistic Iistening
Ask students to listen to the whole message and summarise the message in
a few sentences or paragraphs.
Listening Activity
Here is an activity that may help you to think seriously about developing
listening skills in your learners
1) Stop and listen to any recorded voice. mmediately after finishing listening,
discuss with someone close to you briefly the following questions:
a) What did you find yourself doing as a listener?
b) What challenges does the extract present for listening?
You might have found that lack of a purpose makes it hard to concentrate.
O This is a 'cold' listening in that participants are not unprepared to listen for any
specific purpose.
O Listening concentration is affected by degree of prior knowledge and interest
in the topic.
The nature of the text itself for example specialist vocabulary, sentence
structure, could be both a barrier to effective listening, but other features such as
concrete examples, effective and evocative images can aid listening.
An initial unstructured listening experience can help the listener to get the
'gist' and develop an understanding of the bigger picture before having to focus on
specific listening for a purpose.

2. Now listen with a focus. Replay the same voice, to demonstrate a way of
promoting focused listening and recall, and to prepare listeners to answer
questions and use supporting evidence.
Use the following questions to focus your listening
a) What key facts do you learn from the message?
b) Write down some thing new every time you hear it from the audio.
By going through the activity above you might have learnt that for effective
listening to take place you as a teacher must:
a) Provide a clear focus or hook to structure listening.
b) Use clear strategies for reporting back, such as jigsaw groups
c) Use listening strategies to focus on and reinforce literacy objectives in all
subject areas.
3. The following are some more techniques you may use to develop listening skills in
your learners.
a) Ask pupils to respond physically by either raising hands or stand up every
time they hear relevant items of information, or specific term.
b) Make note-taking collaborative by numbering pupils 1 to 4 for example. Ask
all the number 1s to listen for and record certain items of information, number
2s another focus, etc. Groups then jigsaw to collate and present their
information in desired format, oral or written.
c) Ask pupils to listen to a passage and respond to/record either verifiable facts
or matters of opinion. They should justify their decisions and discuss any
tricky points.
d) Ask pupils to identify and jot down a limited number of key words or phrases
in a piece of information.
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e) Ask pupils to record information using a specific device such as a chart, grid,
spider diagram, pictorial diagram with labels, a table, etc
Types of audio based instructionaI technoIogies
Technologies for audio delivery in classroom teaching include a number of
extremely useful, but often neglected, instructional aids, such as phonograph records,
radio broadcast, audiotapes/cassettes and audio compact discs, or computer
applications. Some teachers create audiotapes of lectures and their students'
presentations, for use with other classes. n Zimbabwe the Zim-Sci kits included some
audiotape which were used to explain some complex topics and Radio 4, now
National FM, used to broadcast radio lesson for primary school pupils. n this chapter
we explore the most commonly used audio instructional technologies.
Radio broadcasts
Radio is the one most accessible technology in terms of cost and
comprehension; it has been used in education ever since it became available. Radio
has been used in conjunction with other instructional materials, to teach a wide range
of subjects at all levels of education in Zimbabwe. Many distance-teaching universities
around the world have at one point used radio as a medium of instruction to deliver
content in many of their distance education courses. n Zimbabwe Radio 4, now
National FM has been used for school broadcasts, in-service teacher support and the
Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU), for delivering lectures.
n radio broadcast involve information that is conveyed aurally to a listener.
Much of radio broadcasting is pre-recorded, in a radio studio at a different time and
replayed on cue, using broadcasting equipment. Although radio broadcasts are often
difficult to incorporate into the timetable if listened to at the time they are actually
transmitted, this problem can easily be overcome by recording them for later
playback. Now that audiocassette recorders are more widely available, you can more
easily compensate for the ephemeral nature of radio broadcasts and its fixed
transmission times.
f the radio broadcast is live student phone-in discussion programmes can
help to overcome the one-way nature of radio broadcasting.
Audiotapes and Audiocassettes
Audio material recorded on audiocassettes or audiotapes constitutes one of
the most useful resources at your disposal. Audiocassettes provide a cheap, efficient,
and easy distribution of audio resources and are one way of encouraging
asynchronous use of audio resources. Since audiocassette recorders provide
teachers and learners the power to record audio resources for asynchronous use they
possess significant educational advantages
over radio. Professionally produced
audiotapes can be purchased, which would
have the added advantages of being clear
and well organized. Use of recorded audio
resources allows learners greater control
over the duration of the listening-learning
process as well as the frequency and
quantity of materials they would want to
listen to.
Another important feature of modern
audiocassette resources and associated
technologies is they provide students with
stop-start and review facilities. The stop start facility gives you control over what the
student would listen to and how they would listen to it. The replay and pause facilities
for example are effective especially for analysis or revision-type learning activities.
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Tips for using Audiotapes
O Be sure the tape is rewound and at its starting point.
O Adjust the volume so all participants can hear.
O Use a high quality recorder to prevent distortion.
O f the recorder is portable, position it at table level of the participants.
O xplain the purpose of the tape and identify the speaker before playing.
O Always carry a backup tape!

Using of Audiocassettes
Audiotapes can be used in a wide range of instructional situations, either on
their own or in conjunction with other instructional materials. Audio resources are
effective for supporting communication skills. For example, a tape teacher can help
students to practice pronunciation and grammar. This supports communication and
language skill development. f professionally designed for instructional purposes,
audiocassette can encourage students to summarise in written form what they have
heard, thereby reinforcing mastery of oral and written literacy skills. f an
audiocassette include a commentary about an event or experience, it can be useful to
motivate students and give them an opportunity to experience an unfamiliar event
emotionally.
As is the case with all instructional media and technology, effective use of
audiotapes is best when it is combined with other instructional materials. For example,
audiotapes can be used in conjunction with print materials (diagrams, illustrations,
photographs) to provide 'audiovision,' with the teacher providing commentary and
guidance as the student views the material. When used together with print materials,
audiotapes can help the learner to personalise the learning materials. This will enable
the student to hear the writer's voice as he or she explains concepts developed in the
print materials.
Strengths of Audiotapes
O Audiocassettes are cheap to produce and distribute and can be listened to
almost anywhere.
O Audiotape players are simple to operate and are highly portable
O Audiotapes can be played repeatedly without changing the intonation and
content of the speech easily re-used.
O They enable students to obtain mastery in learning certain skills or techniques
through repetition,
O They can help students to analyse and critically review complex arguments.














Audio Discs
Recordings of music, plays, and other forms of audio on compact discs or,
vinyl discs, where they can still be obtained, constitute a relatively inexpensive and
readily-available instructional resource in certain subject areas. They are suitable both
for playing to a class and for private listening by individuals. Audio discs are now
being replaced by compact Disc- Read Only Memory (CD-ROM). CD-ROMs can store
larger amount of audio materials and can enable sound to be used in a more
interactive way. ncreasing amounts of material are available on CD-ROM, enabling
sound to be used interactively by individual students.
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Summary
Audio resources have real potential to assist children with developing
communication and language skills through practice. There is, however, some
concern about whether or not these resources can do anything more than simulate a
conversation between 'tape teacher' and 'tape student', and whether or not
synchronous use of radio broadcasts promotes active learning by the student.
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M0Il0N M0lA
Introduction
Motion media store and display moving images which are accompanied by
sound. Over the years motion media has developed from film, television and
videotapes and now we have the least DVD technology. n this chapter we consider
video and television as teaching and learning resources.
Video is a media format that employs the television screen to present motion
pictures and sound. t is a combination of multiple symbol systems including spoken
language, text, moving pictures and sometimes still pictures. This combination yields
greater learning gains than media that rely primarily on one symbol system.
Videotapes are now common teaching aids available in many schools, especially
those located in urban areas. The Discovery Channel Global ducation Fund
(DCGF) has established some video learning centers at some schools in rural areas.
However before we explore ways through which video can be used as a teaching and
learning let us start by explaining why video is a powerful and effective teaching and
learning tool in many subject areas.
Why Use Video
Seeing is believing! Research in learning suggests that a person remembers
about twice as much when they see and hear something as when they only see or hear it.
The combination of motion pictures and sound, gives video the potential to be an influential
aid in the learning process. Video can transform subject content into an engaging learning
environment of pictures and sound that students can actively explore. Video can thus
present abstract ideas in a realistic context, which helps students to grasp the abstract
ideas more easily and to retain the material longer.
Video can be particularly for showing processes that involve movement or
procedures in stages. For example, video can be used to show stages in the production of
ron and steel at ZSCO steel works with accuracy. Video is able to show what is being
explained, as it happens in the 'real world'. t is a good medium for providing students with
an opportunity to view what they would not usually experience. Video can help you to bring
an expert in your classroom to present a lesson, a phenomenon often referred to as 'talking
head'
The multimedia character of video can be instrumental in supporting Howard
Gardener's learning theory of multiple intelligences. Video's multiple modes can
portray content through a variety of approaches, such as linguistic, aesthetic, logical
and naturalistic intelligence. These multiple entry points into content are especially
valuable as they offer greater access to the individual learners' various intelligence
preferences.
Video can be a good medium for actualisation, visualization, and story telling.
A good story can be presented without interruption to present a set sequence of
events in an appealing and entertaining manner. When used on videocassette or
computer, video can be interrupted and reviewed at will. Students can learn by going
back to view previous videotapes to answer questions they may have. Video is highly
effective in conveying information, arousing interest and emotions as well as
promoting attitudes. motional learning and attitude change are very important
aspects in areas such as HV and ADS and Guidance and Counselling. Another
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important feature of video is that it is fun. Students usually enjoy watching video
because it is stimulating.
To summarise, using video teachers can:
O Provide a common experience for all students.
O Generate interest and stimulate imagination.
O Offer a different perspective on or another approach to a topic.
O Connect students with faraway place.
O Demonstrate abstract ideas.
O Stimulate the development of critical thinking skills.
O qualize educational opportunities.
O nhance self-respect and break down social stereotypes.
O Promote critical viewing skills and media awareness.
However, as teachers we should take note that students' expectations about
video have been shaped by its use as an entertainment. Consequently it is important
for us to take note of the students' attitudes about the medium
TechnoIogies for DeIivering Video
There are many technologies in which video content resides; these include
live television broadcast, videotapes and video discs. A video cassette recorder (VCR)
is required for you to view video cassettes on a television monitor. New technologies
which can be used for recording and playing video on television sets have emerged,
these include personal computers, DVDs and special cable TV series and video
conferencing on the nternet.
n this section are discuss the features of the television monitor, video
cassette recorder (VCR), videotapes and video discs.
TeIevision
Most video equipment
in schools is linked to TV sets
or monitors that use aerial
sockets. t is however common
that video material can be
recorded on electromagnetic
tapes, and replayed using
videocassette players.



















gure 71 Televson montor



gure 72: Vdeo Cassette Player (VC#)

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For easy mobility as you set up the video equipment in your classroom, the television and
the VCR can be placed of a troy, which can accommodate the two gadgets.





















Figure 7.3: A troy carrying the teIevision and VCR.

TabIe 7.1 Some usefuI Features of Video Equipment

ControI SymboI Function
PIay > This control button plays the videotape.

Stop
u
This control button stops the videotape. t is advised that leave the
TV set on a blank channel or on a video channel if there is a
separate button. Locate the minor control on the TV or video
which switches between the video only and tuner which tunes in
the TV channels, if you select video only the TV should display a
blank screen when you press stop.

Pause / StiII /
Freeze Frame
ii
This control feature pauses or freeze frames the video tape. On
some machines you press play to release pause. On others you
press pause again. All VCR's are designed to release the freeze
frame automatically before any damage can be done

Rewind / Fast
Forward
/ >>
The rewind tool moves the tape back and the fast forward. There
are two types of rewind (<< ) and fast forward (>>) on most
machines. The ones labelled rewind/fast forward will normally
blank out the picture. The ones labelled cue/review or picture
search will enable the picture to be seen at speed during
rewinding and fast forward operation.

StiII Advance


Still Advance allows you to move the video one frame at a time.
This is vastly more accurate than simply pushing pause. Note:
You may find that several frames have almost no movement,
while others are dramatic changes of picture

Jog/ShuttIe


This is an editing facility which can be found on more
sophisticated videos and it is a rotary control which enables you to
move the picture forwards or backwards as if by hand at various
speeds.

Mute



This control is situated on most TV remote controls (not video
control). t removes or mutes the soundtrack. By pressing it again,
you restore the sound at the preset level. Because its effect is
instant, it is much easier to use in the classroom than the volume
control for the TV.

Most of the control features described in table 7.1 are obtained through the
remote control. Make sure that the remote control has batteries.

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Precaution

O You should always pay attention to sight lines in the classroom and ensure that
7everyone can see the screen well. This may seem stupidly obvious, but the authors
have done video demonstrations where someone has complained (always afterwards)
that their view was obscured! n many classrooms, reflected sunlight can cause
problems.
O Video equipment should be positioned so as not to expose it to chalk dust. The ink dust
from marker pens is less intrusive, but still harmful if the board is right above the video
machine.
O Video tapes store their signal magnetically. They can be damaged by exposure to
extremes of temperature (such as being left on a radiator, sunny windowsill or in a hot
car) and by magnets and electric fields. The speakers in TV sets contain magnets, and
the tubes generate an electric field. The video may be damaged by leaving it on top of a
TV set or external speaker.
Most modern machines, that is post 1989, have near perfect freeze frame, so
look out for names like supper still, or perfect still on recorders. f there is picture
wobble, the still picture quality can be changed by adjusting the tracking control on the
video player. Older machines have pictures which may wobble when paused and
have white lines. The irritation of these can be alleviated by pressing the freeze frame
control once or twice, moving the white line to a less important part of the picture. A
few light taps on the machine will often move the white line on older machines.
Videotapes
Videotapes have replaced films in the classroom because they are so much
easier to use, and, with video beam projectors, the video image can be quite large.
For example, the Ministry of ducation, Sport and Culture's ducational Technology
Centre, formally Audiovisual Services (AVS) center, has converted most of its films to
videotapes.
Videodiscs
Although videodiscs have many advantages over videotape, for example,
they offer instant random access to any part of the disc; they have not yet been widely
used in instruction because of their expense and lack of software.
SeIecting a video for teaching
When deciding to use video in a lesson, like in the use of any other
technology careful planning is very important. You are encouraged to first think about
what you are trying to accomplish by the video. You can make use of the teacher's
guide if it is available to help you to plan how you could incorporate the video in your
lesson.
Select a video program that uses language and provide settings and events
that are familiar to your students.
Using Video for cIassroom teaching
There is no rule that requires you to use an entire program-even a few
seconds of video can be very powerful. You should determine whether you would use
the entire video or only relevant segments to illustrate a particular section of your
lesson.
Just like any other instructional technology, we need to follow some basic
guidelines when using video. ffective video requires teachers to plan and prepare
students for video viewing. Prior planning and rehearsal will help you determine the
important points and concepts that you should stress on, either during the
presentation or as part of a summary. You should also prepare students for viewing
video programs by telling them what to watch carefully or what is important. Getting
ready to watch video increases and directs what learners learn while watching the video. n
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addition, you should provide a summary of the presentation and answer any questions
students may have regarding content.
As the teacher you must be familiar with the features on your television and video
player. The educational impact of video resources depends, at least in part, on the extent to
which the teacher includes interactive learning activities for students. You should maximise
learning opportunities by encouraging your students to become active viewers. Doing
something while watching video helps students to focus and note ideas as they observe.
You should prepare activities that students would do before viewing the video (see pre-
viewing activities in the next section) to prepare the students to learn fro m the video. There
should also be activities that students should be doing while viewing the video (while
viewing activities) as well as activities to be done after viewing the video (post viewing
activities).
The classroom has to be prepared in advance. You should choose lighting
that will enhance the learning experience. Low light increases the dramatic effect
while brighter light may be helpful in eliminating distractions. You should position
yourself to maximise your role as a facilitator. Close proximity to the television monitor
makes it easier to point to the screen and explain unfamiliar sounds. You may,
however prefer to move freely among students and control the video image with the
remote.
Here are some suggestions to ensure that can help you to administer an
effective video lesson.
O Preview the video to see if its contents are appropriate for your lesson
objectives
O Preview related materials, use the teacher' guide that accompany the video
O Decide whether you will need to use the entire tape or only some relevant
segments.
O Prepare the classroom environment and video equipment
O ncrease your students' observation and listening skills through repeated
viewing and showing similar segments from different sources where they are
available
O Make use of video control tools such as pause, freeze etc to allow your
students to analyse and discuss the video thoroughly.
Video Iearning activities
You should use video to initiate active learning. Active learning can be achieved by
planning for learning activities at the different stages of the lesson, that is activities to
be done just before students view the video (pre-viewing activities), activities to be
done during viewing (while-viewing activities) and follow-up actives at the end of the
viewing session (post viewing activities). These are discussed in detail below.
Pre-Viewing Activities
These are activities main to stimulate students' pre-existing knowledge. You can ask
your students to write down what they are sure they know about the subject and what
they think they know. After viewing the video, students can then revise their lists
based on what they have learnt. You can divide your students into small groups and
ask each group summarize what they know about the subject and identify questions
they may have. Do not forget to ask the students to answer the questions soon after
viewing the video.
WhiIe Viewing Activities
These activities give students a focused viewing assignment. Focused viewing
activities can make viewing more meaningful by encouraging active viewing and
evaluation of content. Give students a task, something they are responsible for
remembering or writing down, such as interesting facts or personal responses. For
you the teacher, while-viewing activities help you to control the pace of the viewing
experience and the amount of information that can be taught using the video. You can
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stop the video to allow students to analyse and discuss each segment thoroughly.
You can also increase students' observation and listening skills through repeated
viewing of the same segment.
Post-Viewing Activities
Post viewing activities help you to consolidate your students' understanding of
the learnt concept as well as allowing continued learning outside the classroom. To
make video a starting point for active learning outside the classroom, consider how
the video will tie in to extension activities, including discussion. The following
techniques can be used to achieve active learning after video viewing.
i.) Turn to Your Neighbour
After viewing a video program, have your students "turn to their neighbour"
and ask them to explain something about the program.
ii.) Tea Party
While viewing a video, have students record the most interesting fact they
learnt from the program. After the video, have a "tea party" during which they
walk around the room, greeting each other and exchanging their interesting
facts. You can give your students a "Did you know.?" form to complete by
either drawing a picture or noting some key words. Although each student is
responsible for only one fact, he or she will be reminded of many additional
facts through this process.
iii.) Quick write
n this activity you can ask your students to quickly write in a few minutes any
thought and ideas that come to their mind after viewing a video. This activity
is especially effective to record personal thoughts following emotionally
stimulating video program.
iv.) Four corners
n this activity, you choose four main concepts or topics presented in the
video and label each corner of the room with one of the concepts. Then ask
your students to choose a corner of the room that matches the concept they
wish to explore. Ask each group of students to answer a few questions on the
concept or topic. When the groups come together, ask each group to share
their findings with the rest of the class members. This technique can be very
effective for initiating class discussions on different concepts in one segment.
(v.) Think-Pair-share
n this activity you can ask your students to pair up with the person next to
them to discuss and answer question, which you can give as a follow-up to a
video program. Time permitting, you should also invite some students to
share their responses with the whole class.
(vi.) RoundtabIe/Round-robin
To initiate roundtable discussions after viewing a video program, you may ask
follow-up questions that have several possible responses. You can then give
students an opportunity to come up with a list of possible responses on one piece
of paper circulated among them. To have a round-robin, give your students the
opportunity to share their responses orally.
Strategies for using video
The following are some of the techniques you could use to achieve active
viewing.
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i.) SiIent Viewing Activities
Silent viewing means turning off the sound on the TV or monitor and making use
of the visuals on their own. This is most easily accomplished with the mute control
(see the table 5.1). Silent viewing will be a prediction activity when students are
viewing for the first time and a reproduction activity when they have already seen
and heard the section being used for silent viewing.

n a prediction activity, students can try to predict what is happening on the
screen by answering the question: What is happening on the screen? They
can also be involved in a dialogue, when the teacher asks them: What are
they saying? n a reproduction activity students can be asked to reproduce (or
'retelling') the story being shown on the screen. By so doing students will be
able to reproduce dialogue, that is reproduce what people are saying.

Reproduction of dialogue might be most effective where there are useful
formulae, fixed expressions and points of intonation or pronunciation.
Reproduction of events tends to focus on narrative tenses, and on
sequences.
ii.) Random sound down CIose Iistening)
This may be done at any time, but is particularly suitable when viewing the
whole episode again. The teacher can turn the sound down or mute the
sound at random intervals and ask students to fill in the missing dialogue.
iii.) Sound onIy activities
You can play a section of one of the video with the picture turned off so that
students hear the dialogue but are unable to see the action. This can be done
by using the brightness controls on the television, by unplugging the picture
connectors or most simply by placing something in front of the screen, such
as a sheet of cardboard. You can ask your students either to predict what is
happening visually, or to use dialogue as a memory spur to recall what
happened visually.
iv.) Freeze framing stiII picture) activities
Freeze framing means stopping the picture, using the freeze frame, still or pause
control buttons. Frame advance or still advance is a very useful control found on
some modern machines. This control moves the still picture forward one frame at
a time. t can be used to explore the nuances of an event or of a facial reaction. f
used for the initial viewing freeze framing can be used to allow students to predict
the next event. You can freeze frame and ask about the next event: hat's going
to happen? , hat are they saying? , hat are they going to say next?

When students have already seen a section, they can be asked to use
memory to reproduce either what is being said, or to describe what is
happening, or what has just happened.
v.) Using the background
The effective use of video designed for classroom use depends on the teacher's
ability to use freeze frame to explore and exploit background detail. The
background gives the cultural context and other relevant background information
that help viewers to understand the video better. Freeze frame can be used to
single out and use full information in the background. Video can contain as much
as 25 pictures per second and there is a wealth of detail in the background of the
pictures which can be exploited using freeze framing. You can always find
something new even when you have viewed the video many times.
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Tips for using Video
O Don't show the entire tape if there is no need to do so. Think about why you are
using the video and show only the applicable portions.
O Prepare a set of questions taken from the video that students might discuss or
answer. Prepare students by providing an outline of the video's main points on the
overhead projector, chalkboard, or handout so that students know what to look for
as they watch.
O Since video only presents a one-way flow of information, compensate for this lack
of involvement by encouraging dialogues in other areas of the class such as group
discussion.
O Check lighting, seating, and volume to be sure that everyone can see and hear.
Close the blinds. With videotape, use a medium light. With film, use a dim light or
turn off the lights.
O List on chalkboard or overhead the main points to be covered in the presentation.
Review these points with the audience before showing the material.
O Stop the film or video at appropriate points to discuss key ideas and to reinforce
student learning.
O You need not use all of a film or video, just the most relevant parts. t is very easy
to cue videotapes to the portion desired.
O Follow-up a video/film with an activity that allows students to respond to or extend
ideas presented. Discussions, short writing assignments, or application exercises,
for example, will reinforce the concepts and increase learning from classroom
audio-visuals.
vi.) Thoughts and Emotions
Video gives us an additional dimension of information about characters' body
language, facial expressions, gesture, stance, reaction and response. This
information can be exploited in the classroom to give students a deeper
understanding of the events being shown. The teacher can freeze-frame and
ask students to discuss their feelings and emotions. n some activities,
students can deduce further information about the characters, based on what
they have picked up from the video, as well as using their own imagination.
vii.) Paired Viewing Activities
Paired viewing activities can involve one of the two students describing, narrating,
or doing both activities. n a description activity one student in each pair turns their
back to the screen, and the other faces the screen while the video is played
silently. The student who is facing the screen describes what he/she sees to their
partner. The passive student, that is the one who was not facing the screen, will be
motivated to see what he/she missed. t is worth making sure that the partners
swap roles, or that the activity is done twice, with different sections so that each
partner gets a chance to perform the 'active' role.

n a narration activity half of the class is send out of the room while the
remaining half watches a section of the video. When they return those who
saw it tell them about the video in pairs. n a school situation, this can be done
by team teaching, and working with two parallel classes at the same time.

A split class activity includes both description and narration. This is every
difficulty to organise but if done properly it is the most interesting activity. Half
the class is sent out. The remainder watches a section silently. Then the two
halves swap places. The ones that were outside will listen to the same section
with the picture covered. The students are then paired off. One student in
each pair has seen the video, but hasn't heard the dialogue and the other
student has only heard the dialogue. They work together to piece the story.
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Advantages of Video
O Can present movement and colour changes vividly.
O Videotapes are easy to make for yourself, they can be produced especially for
your class.
O Videotapes can be shown many times to whole class or individually.
Limitations of Video
O t may be difficult to find relevant videos from the shops.
O Purchasing ready-made tapes can be expensive.
O Takes quite a bit of time to produce your own tapes.
O Students are not used to viewing TV critically and may not take it seriously at
first.
O f controls are not used video can move at a steady pace giving students no
time for assimilation of information and concepts presented
O Video is not suited for the presentation of large amounts of specific facts and
data.
Live TeIevision
Live television may be either passive or interactive. Passive live television
usually involves pre-produced programs which can be distributed by video cassette or
by video-based technologies such as broadcast, cable, or satellite. n contrast,
interactive live television provides opportunities for viewer interaction, either with a live
instructor or a participating student site. For example, two-way television with two-way
audio allows all students to view and interact with the teacher. At the same time,
cameras at remote sites allow the teacher to view all participating students. t is also
possible to configure the system so that student at different sites may view one
another.
Live television is an effective lesson delivery mode especially for distance
education. Live television can be integrated into the teaching at three basic levels:
O Single lesson
A television programs can be used to address a specific topic or concept, to
provide a lesson introduction, overview, or summary.
O Selected unit
A television series can be used to provide the content for a selected unit or
topic in a course.
O Full Course
Programs from one or more live television series may be integrated into a full
year course usually in conjunction with other instructional materials such as
print materials.
Designing Instruction for Live
n designing instruction for live television, the challenge is to think in visual
terms. Taking advantage of the visual imagery of live television can counter an over-
reliance on lecturing. Take advantage of television's ability to show movement to:
O Demonstrate the operation of tools and equipment as well as skills that
learners are expected to emulate.
O Conduct experiments in which the processes must be observed.
O Analyse change over time using animation, slow motion, or time lapse
photography.
O Reveal the spatial, three-dimensional qualities of an object or structure.
O Transport learners to places or situations not otherwise in their experience.
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A good television program makes use of:
O Pictures to show what things look like.
O Diagrams to illustrate conceptual relationships, organizations, and structure
of content material.
O Maps to show spatial relationships.
O Graphs, tables, and charts to summarize information.
Television presents primary source materials, such as film of historical events or
naturally occurring situations for analysis.
You have to carefully plan ways to show instead of telling may improve the
instructional effectiveness of live television. t may be helpful to visually represent:
O Outlines or lists
O Key points
O Complex material in a step-by-step fashion
O Relationships
O nformation that needs to be summarised for retention and recall
Conducting Live TeIevision Lessons
Since the teacher and the students are physically separated by a distance,
the teacher's challenge is to psychologically reduce the gap not only through the
appropriate use of technology but also through the use of effective teaching practices.
Good teaching ensures that a rapport develops between students and teacher.
Remember that it takes longer to deliver instruction at a distance than in a traditional
face-to-face setting.
Once basic teaching methods are considered, try employing the following
three-step strategy for conducting TV lessons:
Set the stage Pre-viewing activities)
O Practice in front of a live camera prior to class. f possible, have a colleague or a
few target students view your presentation and on-camera presence, and allow
them to make suggestions for improvement.
O Organise all class materials and visuals before the start of the class.
O Prepare viewers for new terminology to be used in the program, and answer any
questions regarding the technical equipment being used, such as cameras,
television monitors and audio equipment
O Students should have the necessary background materials to make the best use
of televised lessons. Consider the use of study questions to assist in focusing
discussions.
O Consider team teaching to maintain viewer interest with a change of voice, image,
and presentation style. f using guest speakers, give students necessary
background information prior to the class.
During the Live TeIevision Session whiIe viewing activities)
O Present content in five to ten minute blocks interspersed with discussion
O Keep lecture sessions simple and clear to help focus viewing, indicate key
points to look for
O Do not digress, keep students on track
O Vary facial expressions, tone of voice, body movements, and eye contact with
the camera to enhance verbal communication
O ngage students by using humour, asking questions, and other ways of
involving students
O Maintain energy and dynamism to attract and hold the learners' attention.
Remember, enthusiasm is contagious.
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O nclude different kinds of student involvement-- watching, reading, writing, and
talking
O ncorporate timely breaks as a respite from the television monitor
O Motivate peer learning and support by encouraging students to work together
both in and out of class
O Review the concepts discussed in the program and clarify any
misunderstandings by asking focused questions
O ntegrate activities such as quizzes, worksheets, role plays and hands on
experiments to reinforce the content presentation
Opportunities to enhance students interaction
Below are some strategies you could use to promote students interaction
during a live television lesson.
O Let students know in advance that interaction is expected. nitiating an
interaction at early stages get students motivated to participate in learning
rather than just sitting still and just watching the television.
O Clearly define discussion topics or questions and then giving students to
prepare their responses. Giving discussion questions in advance of the
television session will help students prepare for the interaction. Have the
questions appear in writing on the screen so that students can see and hear
the questions.
O As the presenter you should function as content facilitator not just content
provider. Allow students to lead discussions and respond to other students'
questions.
FoIIowing the Session (Post-viewing activities)
O Review the taped recordings of the presentation, either with, a colleague, or
by yourself. Take notes for improving presentation style and delivery
methods.
O Seek student feedback on the strengths and weaknesses of the instructional
materials and the teaching strategies being used.
O Be open to new ideas and delivery techniques for improving instructional
effectiveness.
Advantages of InstructionaI TeIevision
O The medium is familiar because most people have watched television.
O Motion and visuals can be combined in a single format so that complex or
abstract concepts can be illustrated through visual simulation. The old clich
"a picture is worth a thousand words" becomes true.
O nstructional television can take students to new environments, for example to
the moon, a foreign country, or places afar off.
O Time and space can be collapsed, so that events can be captured and
relayed as they happen.
O Television is fascinating so it can be used as a motivational tool.
Limitations of InstructionaI TeIevision
From an educational perspective broadcast for immediate viewing is subject
to several limitations. The most notable of these are:
O Learners are required to gather at a certain place where there is a television
at a certain time
O Learners have no control over the pacing of the broadcast.
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O Broadcasts tend to encourage passivity amongst learners, and strategies
employed to overcome this problem are costly.
O ntegrating other media with video broadcast live is very difficult to achieve.
O Video production is time consuming and can demand high technical skill and
sophisticated production facilities and equipment.
O Most pre-packaged live television learning materials use a mass media
approach to instruction aimed at the average student, as a result, they can be
ineffective in serving students with special needs.
O Once completed, live television programs can be difficult to revise and
update.
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C0M!0IR M0LIlM0lA
INTRODUCTION
Not too long ago, the term educational technology was linked to instructional
technologies such as radio, television, filmstrips, overhead projectors, tape recorders
and videocassette recorders (VCRs). n recent years, we have witnessed a rapid
influx of computer technologies, into our schools. ducational technology has
advanced rapidly during the last few decades. Today, when we say educational
technology we are referring largely to a vast array of computer-based technologies
such as compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM), interactive audio, interactive
videodisc, local area networks, hypermedia, and telecommunications.
Computer technology that is finding its way into our schools can provide
students and teachers with unprecedented opportunities to transform the teaching and
learning process in our classrooms. Computers can enhance teaching in a number of
ways, and teachers are finding innovative applications for the technology every day.
This chapter provides a brief overview of computer hardware and software so that as
teachers we have a basic understanding of how computers operate and will recognise
some of the common computer terminology. The chapter goes to suggest some way
through which teachers can make use of the potential of computers to enhance their
teaching and their students' learning.
What is a Computer?
Basically a computer is an electronic device that is capable of executing
instructions, developed based on algorithms stored in its memory, to process data and
produce the required results faster than human beings. n addition a computer has
capacity to store the processed information for future use


Chapter
8
Figure 8 Diagram showing a computer system
System Unit
eyboard
Mouse
Monitor
Speakers
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However, a computer is not a very intelligent device, but it can handle
instructions flawlessly and fast. t is really nothing more than a very powerful
calculator with some powerful accessories.
A computer is basically responsible for carrying out the tasks of accepting
input, storing, processing, controlling and producing output. A familiar example of a
computer system is the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) that people use to withdraw
cash from their bank accounts. The input is the bankcard which is used to input the
PN number, and the keypad used to input the request for cash. The machine then
processes the input and issues the output, which is the cash and the bank statement
A computer system
As we have established above a computer exists as a system not a unit. Like
any other system a computer system has the three basic components of a system,
namely:
O input;
O process
O output
These subsystems are not complete in their own right, in the sense that they
are thinly connected through software
Components of a Computer
A computer is made up of both hardware and software. Computer hardware
refers to all the physical components of the computer, including input and output
devices as well as its internal components. Computer hardware devices that surround
the system unit, for example the keyboard, mouse, speakers and the monitor are
specifically known as peripheral hardware devices. Software is the invisible
instructions (programs) that control the hardware and make it to work. A computer
program is a set of instructions written in the language of a computer. When a person
is using a computer, for example when playing a game on a computer, the computer
will only be responding to programmed instructions that assist it in making the most
appropriate move.
Computer hardware
Computer hardware comprise of input devices, the system unit and output
devices. These are discussed in detail below.
Input devices
nput devices are computer hardware devices that allow the user to enter data
into the computer. These include for example keyboards, joystick, touch screen,
mouse, bar code readers etc. nput device convert or present data to the computer in
a machine-readable electronic or digital form (using a series of 1s and 0s to represent
numbers, letters and even voice and pictures). Hence the input unit is an interface
between the user and the computer. nput devices are often called peripheral devices
Other common forms of input are:
a) Optical character recognition translates code or marks on source documents
into digital forms that are understandable by the computer. OCR is used
mostly in some supermarkets, which have a hand held reader that scans a
commodity's barcode and can then be able to deduce that type of commodity
and its price.
b) Light pen, uses photoelectric circuitry to enter data through the video screen
c) Pointing devices are among others mouse and touch screens. The mouse
uses point and click options to select and run commands on Graphical User
nterface screens. Moving a mouse corresponds to the movement of the
mouse pointer on the screen and clicking an icon runs the program that is
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represented by that icon. Using a touch screen a user point on a sensitised
monitor to select commands or options other than pressing buttons on a
keyboard.
d) Scanners for reading pictures and sensors for reading analogue data like
temperature
Processing Unit
The processor is the heart of a computer. The processor is the part of the
computer that actually does the computations. This is sometimes called an MPU (for
main processor unit) or CPU (for central processing unit or central processor unit).
Processors are distinguished by their speed measured in hertz (Hz). The
higher the speed, the faster the PC will be. A faster processor is ideal for multimedia
presentation. A typical processor running at about 2 GHz delivers excellent
performance for most classroom presentations.
A processor typically contains an arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), control unit
(including processor flags, flag register, or status register), internal buses, and
sometimes special function units (the most common special function unit being a
floating point unit for floating point arithmetic). n this section we are going to describe
the control unit (CU) and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
The Control Unit
Control units are in charge of the computer. Control units fetch and decode
machine instructions. A computer's control unit is responsible for fetching instructions
from main storage, interprets them and then issues necessary signals to components
making up the computer system ordering them to perform required operations. Control
units may also control some external devices
The Arithmetic logic unit
An arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs integer arithmetic and logic
operations. The arithmetic logic unit of a computer is responsible for making
calculations required in computer processing. t makes comparison on data (logical
calculations like >, <, >= etc) at very high speeds as part of processing.
Output Devices
Output devices are devices that bring information out of a computer. n most
information systems output comes in the form of hard copies printed on paper or soft
copies in the form onscreen reports or audio. xamples of output devices are printer,
speakers and the monitor or video display unit (VDU).
Video display is the most common type of computer output. There are
basically two types of monitors, that is monochrome (black and white) and color
monitors. These differ in their resolution, which is a measure of their clarity (in terms
of smoothness of the pictures), expressed in terms of the number of pixels per inch.
For a multimedia display you need a colour monitor with a high resolution.
Printers produce what is commonly referred to as a hardcopy (print out).
There is a wide range of printers available on the market, but they can be put into
three basic types of printer, namely:
a) Impact printers, such as dot matrix printers, are now rarely used except for
special purposes such as for printing forms used with accounts packages.
mpact printers work like a typewriter by printing one character at a time by
hitting a ribbon on top of a paper, thus they are often referred to as character
printers. These printers are slower compared to other printers.
b) Inkjet printers are also known as line printers because they print one line at
a time and are faster than character printers. They are usually used for full
colour printing. Some inkjet printers can produce photographic quality images.
Although cheap to purchase, inkjet supplies, like paper and ink, make them
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expensive per page printed. They are also slower than comparable laser
printers.
c) Laser printers which are also known as page printers are heavy-duty fast
printers that are exploited for printing large volumes of work. Although many
laser printers you will find in schools can only print in black and white some
commercial laser printers can produce both colour and black and white pages
and are suitable for most visaul aids. Laser printers produce high quality
printouts. They also offer the best price to performance ratio if you have a
high volume of printing. They are more expensive than other types of printers,
but have the lowest running costs.
Printers can be directly connected to desktop PCs, or shared on a network.
Shared printers are preferable for classroom or laboratory computers, but as the
teacher you may need a personal printer in a secure location, for printing sensitive or
confidential information.
Output can also be in the form of voice or audio through speakers.
Computer storage
There are basically two types of computer storage, that is, primary storage
and secondary storage.
Primary storage
Primary store is also called main storage or simply memory or internal
memory, (to distinguish from external memory, such as hard drives. Another common
name, for primary storage, which older is working storage this is because all data
and instructions (programs) must be loaded into main storage for the computer
processor. Main storage contains the programs that are currently being run and the
data the programs are operating on. The arithmetic and logic unit can quickly transfer
information between a processor register and a location in main storage. n modern
computers, random access memory is used for main storage. When people refer to
computer memory, they usually mean main storage.
Random Access Memory RAM) is the basic kind of internal memory. RAM is
called "random access because the processor or computer can access any location
in memory (as contrasted with sequential access devices, which must be accessed in
order).
RAM is volatile, that is, the stored information being lost when power is turned
off.
Main storage is fast (at least a thousand times faster than external storage,
such as hard drives).
Another part of main storage is Read Only Memory (ROM). ROM is typically
used to store things that will never change for the life of the computer, such as low-
level portions of an operating system. ROM is also random access, but only for
reading its contents.
O Processor registers are internal to the central processing unit. Registers
contain information that the arithmetic and logic unit needs to carry out current
instruction.
O Processor cache is a special class of storage used by some central
processing units. Some of the information in the main storage is duplicated in
the processor cache, which is slightly slower but of much higher capacity than
processor registers, and significantly faster than main storage.
Secondary storage
Secondary storage requires the computer to use its input/output channels to
access the information, and is used for long-term storage of persistent information.
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Secondary storage is typically of higher capacity than primary storage, but it is usually
also much slower. n modern computers, hard disks are usually used for this purpose.
Software
Software refers to various programs and their associated documentation that
bring life into computer hardware by directing its use. Software can be subdivided into
system software and application software
System Software
System software contributes to control and performance of a computer
system. System software acts behind the scenes to manage resources and
operations of a computer system. t provides the interface between computer
hardware and the application software. System Software is usually supplied by the
manufacturer of a given computer component. When you buy a new computer of
other hardware such as a printer, the hardware is normally supplied with CD software
that enables it to work with other system components of a computer.
The greatest part of system software is the operating system. An operating
system (OS) is software, which controls the general operation of a computer. The
most commonly used operating system is Windows operating system, which has a
number of versions from Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP and
now Windows Vista. Other examples of operating systems include MS-DOS, UNX,
and Linux.
The operating system is responsible for user interface, that is, the ease of
communication with the computer user, resource management, file management and
task management in such a way that such programs allow sharing of processor time
and to allow for the running of many computing tasks at the same time.
The Windows operating system provide a graphical user interface (GU) or
gooey. This means you interact with the computer through visual objects like buttons,
list boxes, check boxes, and icons. cons are small images that represent a program
or program function. However, not all operating systems are GU. MS-DOS and UNX
traditionally use a command syntax user interface.

Once loaded, the operating system's tasks fall into six broad categories:
O Processor management by breaking the tasks down into manageable chunks
and prioritizing them before sending to the CPU
O Memory management by coordinating the flow of data in and out of RAM and
determining when virtual memory is necessary
O Device management through providing an interface between each device
connected to the computer, the CPU and applications
O Storage management by directing where data will be stored permanently on
hard drives and other forms of storage
O Providing application nterface by ensuring a standard communication and
data exchange between software programs and the computer
O Providing user interface for you to communicate and interact with the
computer
Part of the operating system is stored on a ROM chip. When the computer is
switched on, the first thing that happens is that part of the operating system is loaded
into memory. This process is called booting up.
AppIication software
Application software are programs that carry out specific tasks for the computer
user. n many cases application software programs are bundled together and sold as a unit
and are called suites. An example is Microsoft Office XP, which includes a variety of
individual software programs including Microsoft Word used for typing or word-processing,
Microsoft xcel used for creating spreadsheets, Microsoft PowerPoint used for creating
presentation and Microsoft Access is for databases. These are discussed in detail below.
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ExampIes of AppIication Software
i) Word-processing packages are responsible for creating, editing and printing
of documents. The extend their capabilities to include checking spelling and
grammar, drawing tables, mail merge, print many copies of one document,
typing in various font styles, colours, underlining, inserting pictures, plus
looking for words with a similar meaning to the one typed (thesaurus)
ii) Spreadsheet packages which are specifically for analysis, planning and
modeling. They are designed for working with numbers in terms of arithmetic
(addition, multiplication, subtraction, division), sorting from the highest to the
lowest or vice-versa, drawing tables, using mathematical functions such as
sine, cosine, average, randomize, to perform complex calculations such as
regression. Managers use spreadsheets in carrying what-if computations to
determine the impact a certain move or decision might have on the
profitability or future of the business.
iii) Presentation packages, for example Microsoft PowerPoint are used for
creating multimedia presentation. A PowerPoint projector or a liquid crystal
display (LCD) panel is need for the presentation to be projected so that the
whole class can view the presentation.
iv) Database Management Packages for example, Microsoft Access are
designed for handling and manipulation of large volumes of data. Consider
the example of a school that keeps each and every detail about every student
and should the data be required for example in terms of fees due, results
class or level, department, personal details such as guardian's name, home
address etc, it is instantly retrieved.
Computer software appIication in teaching and Iearning
n the ever-growing world of technology, the popularity of computers to
generate presentations is definitely growing. Today's personal computers and laptops,
coupled with common software packages, offer tremendous flexibility to the teacher. A
professional classroom presentation can be prepared ahead of time and displayed
using this exciting computer technology.
The application of computer software in teaching and learning fall into four
broad categories, namely computer assisted instruction (CA), computer managed
instruction (CM), computer mediated communication (CMC) and computer based
multimedia. These are explained in detail below.
O Computer Assisted Instruction CAI)
The computer is used as a self-contained teaching machine to present discrete
lessons to achieve specific but limited educational objectives. There are several
CA modes, including: drill and practice, tutorial, simulations and games, and
problem solving. These are discussed in detail in the next section.
O Computer Managed Instruction CMI)
Computer Managed nstruction (CM) refers to the use of relevant computer
software, by teachers to organise student data and make instructional decisions.
CM includes activities in which the computer is used to prepare lessons and
make presentations as well as the use of computers as an administrative
resource to organise student data and timetables. The computer's processing,
storage, and retrieval capabilities are used to organise instruction and track
student records and progress. For example, computer software with assessment
tools, grading tools and other classroom management utilities can be used to
keep track of the progress of each student in the class.
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O Computer Mediated Communication
Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) describes computer applications that
facilitate communication. xamples include electronic mail, computer
conferencing, and electronic bulletin boards
Types of EducationaI Software
ducational software is computer software, which has the primary purpose of
teaching and learning. There are many different types of computer software packages
available on the market today. The software is usually designed for teaching students
in user-friendly environment. There are different ways of classifying educational
software depending on the purpose it is designed to perform. For our purposes we are
going to classify educational software into three major categories, namely, generic
software, subject specific software and educational games.
Generic tooIs
Generic software refers to application packages such as word processors, database
managers, and graphics packages, which cut across many disciplines. Generic
software or productivity tools as it is sometimes called can be used in general to help
students through problem solving at any given education level and in any content
area. They are used to increase efficiency and productivity.
Some exampIes of appIications of generic software in teaching and Learning
n the context of teaching and learning generic software could be used to
enhance the teaching and learning process as explained below.
Word Processing
Microsoft Word is common and widely used word processing software for the
many purposes. For example word processing packages can be used for almost any
form of written work. The teacher can use a word processor to prepare schemes of
work, prepare of lesson plans, prepare handouts for students, writing corresponds to
other staff members, as well as keeping records of meetings among other things.
Students can use the word processor to write compositions, short stories or produce a
class newsletter.
Spreadsheets
Microsoft xcel is a common spreadsheet program. A spreadsheet can be
used for purposes of generating and keeping student records, such as, class list and
record of marks. More importantly, a spreadsheet can be used to do statistical
analysis of the student performance to review, modify and take corrective actions.

Students can use a spreadsheet to carry out statistical data analysis. They
can also use a spreadsheet to present data in various graphical presentation formats
such as bar graphs, line graphs, pie charts, etc.
Presentation Software
Microsoft PowerPoint is the commonly used presentation software. The
pedagogical use of presentation software should be to arouse interest, draw attention, clear
concept by visual representation and to supplement face-to-face presentation. Presentation
software can be programmed to show images in a straight sequence or in whatever order
the teacher desires, and the graphics and colour features of these programs make it easy
to create a polished presentation. Some presentation programs also enable you to show
animated sequences. You should always remember that that students need time to take
notes on the material you are showing, so reasonable pacing is very important.
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Databases
ducational use of databases includes managing and storing complex sets of
information, such as those for student records, curriculum information systems and
educational planning and management system. All information about students in a
school for example, name, address, courses and programs of study, grades and
certification received, can be stored and managed. To be more effective a database
requires computers, network connections software as well as programming expertise.
Subject-Specific Software
This is software that is designed for a particular academic discipline. Many
different disciplines have developed software specifically to meet the needs of
learners in their disciplines or subject areas in what is known as computer assisted
instruction (CA). n this section we discuss five types of CA, namely tutorials, drill
and practice, simulation, problem solving and educational games.
TutoriaI
n tutorials computers are used as delivery systems for self-study packages
that teach students new concepts and processes rather than simply providing
reinforcement of material learned earlier. The computer introduces concepts, defines
new terminology, and tutors the learner as he or she explores the new material. The
material is presented to the student in a structured format designed to facilitate
learning, and usually includes worked examples with questions, answers and
feedback.
A good tutorial is one which offers help screens to give further explanation or
further illustration. The tutorial should present information and interpret wrong
answers. When interpreting wrong answers the program should have the ability to
continue the lesson from that point by providing feedback on the misunderstood
information before continuing with new information.
More complicated tutorials offer analysis of the response to a question,
branching and parallel sequencing of text, supplementary and remedial work and
allow students to structure the work to meet their needs, rather than being specifically
sequenced.
Tutorials are ideal for use when learners have widely varying levels of
knowledge, because they allow progression at different rates. The one-to-one tutoring
and feedback provided by a tutorial can make it an excellent tool for improving student
knowledge. The ever increasing intelligent tutoring systems are always ever improving
the capability of tutorial programs to provide highly sophisticated corrective feedback,
and adapt their presentations to suit the individual learner. ncreasingly, multimedia is
now being used to enhance their impact.
DriII and Practice
Drill and practice programs are those that present material to be learned
through repetition. Although their level of complexity is changing with increased
technology and sophistication drill-and-practice programs are the most common and
simplest form of CA. n drill and practice the computer is used as delivery system for
self-study packages that offer structured reinforcement of previously-learned
concepts. Use of the computer in this way is a development of basic programmed
learning techniques that were first used in the late 1950's, albeit in rather more
sophisticated form.
Drill-and-practice programs work well in increasing student knowledge
through repetition, usually through questioning. This type of program is valuable when
teachers wish to engage students in an activity that will give immediate feedback.
They are particularly useful when you wish to avoid holding back the progress of the
class due to the slowness of a few individuals. Students can take as much time as
they need or repeat sections, helping to individualise instruction. Some programs are
designed to be randomly accessed and provide relevant feedback on the learner's
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progress. Most packages of this type are based on relatively simple question-and-
answer interactions, in which the students are given appropriate remedial feedback
where necessary. Many packages incorporate games of some sort in order to
increase motivation.
Drill and practice software is often used to enhance lessons in mathematics or
other factual material. However a drill-and-practice program really is not much
superior to traditional methods of instruction such as flashcards or examination review
texts. The advantage of drill-and-practice programs typically lies in the automatic
feedback they provide to learners, relieving them from having to look up the answers
at the back of the book
SimuIation
n simulation programs the computer is used to model a situation, based on
either a real-life situation or an imaginary scenario. Simulation software allows a
student to attempt a task without "experimenting on actual thing. The software can
provide an approximation of reality that does not require the expense of real life or its
risks. They provide the learner with an authentic environment in which the learner has
an opportunity to visualise a process and to explore the effects of changing
parameters on the operation of the system. Simulation software can compress time
and space to allow processes to be observed and analysed in the classroom. Good
simulation programs can provide an environment for practice situations that are not
possible in the classroom or may put the student at risk. t provides procedural
learning when it is either too dangerous or not possible to be in a true setting.
Most simulations combine text and graphics, using dialogue and inquiry to
guide the student through a situation. n addition to text-based simulations, the
potential is great for videodisc technology to provide more "realistic simulations.
Simulations can be used in a wide range of contexts. They are particularly
useful when it is impractical to encounter real-life situations. For example they are
successfully being used in demonstrating dangerous experiments such as radioactive
reaction or effects of toxins to body cells. The learner is protected from the hazards
associated with these activities. f you wish to present information using the computer
to a group, a display device called an LCD or multimedia projector should be
connected to the computer to project the materials. The image on the computer
screen can then be projected to a large screen at the front of the room.
ProbIem soIving
Problem solving software presents problems for students based on skills they
have previously acquired. They provide applications of basic problem solving
strategies, means-end analysis, and brainstorming.
Problem solving software will help students to create and improve their
problem solving strategies.
Computer Games
Game software creates a student contest to achieve the highest score and
either beat others or beat the computer or both. While educational purposes are often
stated as the reason for acquiring a computer in a school, the machine is also used
for entertainment purposes. However there is quite a bit of software that is designed
for a combination of entertainment and education. This is called dutainment
software. dutainment is game software packages that help learners to develop skills
in a gaming environment. The game is usually provided as a motivational tool
whereby the students go through elaborate game procedures to master a number of
skills. These two types of software are discussed in detail below.
O Pure entertainment software
These are programs which include a wide range of games that are not designed
to be educational. Some of these games can now be played online, that is on the
nternet with many thousands of people playing the same game at the same time.
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O Edutainment software
This is game software that has been designed to meet both entertainment and
educational purposes.
Games are usually ideal for teaching content, such as subject
terminology. They are also occasionally employed to support learning processes
such as decision-making and communication skills.
EducationaI CD-ROM materiaIs
n general, educational CD-ROMs fall into three categories, namely reference
materials, simulation and documentary materials
O Reference materiaIs
This is a self-explanatory category. A good example is encyclopedias such as
Encarta. Reference CDs are most useful in quickly locating information on a
particular topic. The amount of data that any CD-ROM can hold, however, is
limited, consequently, reference CDs do not contain enough information to be the
sole source for a course of study. Rather, they work well as a fast and easy way
to find out basic facts about a topic, concept or term.

A good reference CD should have a feature that at the very least allows users to
search by keyword. A CD with a lot of textual information and no real way to
quickly and easily locate specific things is not very useful. Reference CDs should
also allow users to print out or export text; pictures and other graphics.
O SimuIation
Simulation CDs usually focus on decision making, with students having to use
curriculum-related information to make their decisions. They offer the students an
opportunity to experience a model of a real life situation in a danger free
environment of the computer. Students can explore and manipulate variables
and observe the reactions of the system being studied.
O Documentary-styIe:
This category comprise of CDs that use video clips, narrated slide shows,
animations, and other similar features to create a computer experience
analogous to watching a filmed documentary.
Using Computer muItimedia
With the aid of data projectors attached to a computer, teachers can now
carry out multimedia presentations to the whole class of students. These multimedia
presentations can be used to display pre-prepared text, audio and video or other
materials that are generated during the interaction among students and the teacher.
For example, in a science class, the computer multimedia and projection system can
be used to present a live process on the screen. n geography, maps can be retrieved
from a CD-ROM and projected for whole class viewing. n this way the computer is
used like a class on TV monitor or overhead. The computer monitor can be used for
small group presentations.
Computer based multimedia has a number of advantages over other forms of
media presentations. n a computer-based multimedia, information access is
simplified. For example computerised databases can organise various amounts of
information which can be quickly sorted and cross-indexed to facilitate easy searching
and location of the information. Computer multimedia offers real interactivity which
makes the subject of study to become alive by fully engaging the student in some
meaningful activities. Furthermore, the student is able to control the pace of
instruction, review previous material, jump forward, and receive instant feedback. With
advanced tracking features, computer multimedia can be used to test the student's
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achievement, compare the results with past performance, and indicate the student's
weak or strong areas.
Some Teaching Strategies with the Computer
As a teaching and learning tool the computer can be used as an aid in
teaching and learning in many ways. A few of these are discussed in this section.
Using the computer for individuaI Iearning
As we have discussed in this chapter, there are many computer software that
can be used for individual learning. A student can use tutorial, drill and practice and
many other appropriate software to carryout individual study. A student can also use
generic software such as a word processor to check and correct grammatical and
spelling errors on a document.
Using a computer a coIIaborative Iearning tooI
A group of students can use the computer for writing, organising,
synthesising, brainstorming, comparing and contrasting their ideas. The following
activities can save as example:
O Group story writing
O Group editing
O Use authentic data to compare and contrast two sets of data
O Polling the class on a topic and make a graph and compare results
Using a computer as a tooI for individuaI input as part of a Iarger group or cIass
project
The computer can be used to encourage students to make their contributions
to a group activity. You can use the following techniques to encourage your students
to be active participants in a group/class project
O Give each student chance to add one item related to a topic that will be used
for discussion
O Have each student write on type of sentence, for example, a topic sentence,
and use this information for a class discussion on that type of sentence.
O nter personal information or opinions in a spreadsheet and then graph the
whole class responses
Advantages of Computers
There are numerous advantages of using computers over using the traditional
technologies for teaching and learning. The advantages include the following:
O Computers can facilitate self-paced learning. n the CA mode, for example,
computers individualise learning, while giving immediate reinforcement and
feedback.
O Computers are a multimedia tool. With integrated graphic, print, audio, and
video capabilities, computers can effectively link various technologies.
nteractive video and CD-ROM technologies can be incorporated into
computer-based instructional units, lessons, and learning environments.
O Computers are interactive. Microcomputer systems incorporating various
software packages are extremely flexible and maximise learner control.
O Computer technology is rapidly advancing. nnovations are constantly
emerging, while related costs drop. By understanding their present needs and
future technical requirements, the cost-conscious educator can effectively
navigate the volatile computer hardware and software market.
O Computers increase access. Local, regional, and national networks link
resources and individuals, wherever they might be. n fact, many institutions
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Tips for using the computer for whoIe cIass instruction

O Know the software; practice using it


O Use a well defined lesson plan
O Avoid complicated programs with many options
O Do not use software that demands all of your attention on the keyboard
O There will be a better interchange of ideas if students are grouped together
which results in less teacher-pupil domination and more pupil-pupil interaction.
O Time should be allowed to share ideas with neighbours before they are offered
to the class
O Students should take notes
O Presentations are best kept to short duration, around 15 minutes
O Keep a balance between teacher and students controlling the keyboard.

now offer complete undergraduate and graduate programs relying almost
exclusively on computer-based resources.
Limitations of Computers
O Computer networks are costly to develop. Although individual computers are
relatively inexpensive and the computer hardware and software market is very
competitive, it is still costly to develop instructional networks and purchase the
system software to run them.
O The technology is changing rapidly. Computer technology evolves so quickly
that the distant educator focused solely on innovation "not meeting tangible
needs" will constantly change equipment in an effort to keep pace with the
"latest" technical advancements.
O Widespread computer illiteracy still exists. While computers have been widely
used since the 1960's, there are many who do not have access to computers
or computer networks.
O Students must be highly motivated and proficient in computer operation
before they can successfully function in a computer-based distance learning
environment.








Software EvaIuation
Although there are many educational software on the market, many of them
are poorly designed or inappropriate for our students. t is therefore important that you
choose and test software carefully before using it in your classes. n this section we
explore the process of software evaluation by breaking the process down into smaller,
easily analysed components. The components we focus on are: educational value,
entertainment value, ease of use, design features, value, and packaging integrity.
EducationaI VaIue
When assessing the educational value of a software package, you need to
consider what the student can learn from the program and if the learning is meaningful
and in line with what you have set up as a goal to meet your curriculum objectives. To
be educationally sound the program must offer something for everyone by being free
of gender, ethnic, and religious biases.
The software package should offer good presentation in the topic or areas to
be taught. f there are any graphics and sound, they should not detract from the
program's educational intentions. Relevant feedback coupled with meaningful
graphics and sound should be given. The program should grow with the student and
offer a nice challenge range, as well as, provide strategies to extend the learning.

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Entertainment VaIue
ntertainment will provide a level of fun to the educational experience and will
motivate the students to use the software over and over again. ntertaining
educational software should include graphics, speech, and sounds that are
meaningful to students, as well as, provide an appeal to a wide audience. The
program should provide a fluid challenge level and allow the student to select from a
range of difficulty levels.
Ease of Use
The ideal software package should be easily used by a student with minimal
help or instruction. Students should be able to use the software independently after
the first use. t is important that the teachers can look at the software and
appropriately evaluate that the skills needed to operate the program are in the
developmental range of the student. To be easy to use, the software must provide
good navigation by implementing straightforward menus, large icons that are easy to
select, and the ability to quickly move in and out of activities at any part. Most
importantly, the software must be easy for the teacher to understand how to apply the
program in an effective manner.
VaIue
Unfortunately, many times our first question concerning software is "How
much is it?" t is important that the software creates educational value, therefore a
more appropriate question should be "What is it worth?" Considering the cost of a
software program, we need to rate the programs relative value considering the current
software market. Of course, we must also consider the hidden costs involved when
implementing new software. Consider the following questions:
O Will you need additional hardware to implement the software successfully?
O Will the software require significant teacher training?
O Can the software be applied to a wide range of topics or does is have a
narrow curricular relevance/use?
O Can the software be used over a network to benefit the whole school or only
on a single desktop computer?
Package integrity
Software companies spend millions of dollars each year to give their
packaging the 'eye catching' appeal that will make you want to make the purchase
without considering the technical issues or reading reviews. Before purchasing an
educational software package, be sure to look for the following information.
O The packaging should clearly state the educational objectives and age
appropriateness of the program.
O You should look for several 'true' screen shots to illustrate the content
features, as well as, the system requirements to use the software.
O Good educational software will always state the specific learning skills
addressed by the software and offer a thirty-day money back guarantee for
unsatisfied customers. f a company truly creates great educational software
they will have no reason to hide these features from consumers. They will
proudly display all the information needed to help you make an educated
decision on your purchase. They will be so confident that you will find a
benefit of their product that a money back guarantee is not a big deal. When
software companies do not provide this information on their packaging it is
like trying to guess what a novel is about by looking at its cover. So, 'Buyer
Beware'.
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Activities
1. Name the productivity tools used in the school and explain how they are used.
2. List any five major pedagogical uses of productivity tools.
3. Suggest how you would use the following educational software;
a. Tutorials
b. Drill and practice
c. Games
d. Simulation

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