Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

3 More about Polynomials


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Activity 4. ∵
f (1) = 13 − 2(1) 2 − 5(1) + 6
= 1− 2 − 5 + 6
Activity 3.1 (p. 143) =0
∴ x − 1 is a factor of f(x).
3 2
f (3) = 3 − 2(3) − 5(3) + 6 f ( −1) = ( −1) 3 − 2( −1) 2 − 5(−1) + 6
1. = 27 − 18 − 15 + 6 ∵ = −1 − 2 + 5 + 6
=0 =8
≠0
2. (a) Yes. Since f (3) = 0 , i.e. when f(x) is divided ∴ x + 1 is not a factor of f(x).
by x − 3 , the remainder is 0, it means that f(x) is f (2) = 2 3 − 2( 2) 2 − 5( 2) + 6
divisible by x − 3 , so x − 3 is a factor of ∵ = 8 − 8 − 10 + 6
x3 − 2 x 2 − 5 x + 6 . = −4
≠0
f (−2) = ( −2)3 − 2(−2) 2 − 5(−2) + 6 ∴ x − 2 is not a factor of f(x).
= −8 − 8 + 10 + 6 f (−2) = (−2) 3 − 2(−2) 2 − 5( −2) + 6

=0 = −8 − 8 + 10 + 6
(b)
f (−2) = ( −1)3 − 2(−1) 2 − 5(−1) + 6 =0
= −1 − 2 + 5 + 6 ∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x).
=8 f (3) = 33 − 2(3) 2 − 5(3) + 6

≠0 = 27 − 18 − 15 + 6
f (−2) = 0 , therefore x + 2 is a factor of =0
x 3 − 2 x 2 − 5 x + 6 ; f (−1) = 8 , therefore x + 1 is ∴ x − 3 is a factor of f(x).
not a factor of x 3 − 2 x 2 − 5 x + 6 . f (−3) = ( −3)3 − 2( −3) 2 − 5( −3) + 6
∵ = −27 − 18 + 15 + 6
= −24
Activity 3.2 (p. 149)
≠0
∴ x + 3 is not a factor of f(x).
f ( x ) = ( x + a )( x 2 + bx + c)
1. f (6) = 63 − 2(6) 2 − 5(6) + 6
= x 2 + ax 2 + bx 2 + abx + cx + ac
∵ = 216 − 72 − 30 + 6
= x 3 + ( a + b) x 2 + ( ab + c) x + ac
= 120
By comparing the coefficients, ≠0
ac = 6 ∴ x − 6 is not a factor of f(x).
∴ The product of a and c is 6. f (−6) = ( −6)3 − 2(−6) 2 − 5(−6) + 6
∵ = −216 − 72 + 30 + 6
2. The possible values of a are ±1, ±2, ±3, ±6. a is a = −252
factor of the constant term of f(x).
≠0
3. ∴ x + 6 is not a factor of f(x).
∴ One of the factors of f(x) is x − 3 , x − 1 or x + 2
√ x −1 √ x +1
.
√ x−2 √ x+2
5. ∵ The factor of f(x) are x − 3 , x − 1 and x + 2 .
√ x−3 √ x+3
∴ f ( x ) = ( x − 3)( x − 1)( x + 2)
x−4 x+4
x−5 x+5
√ x−6 √ x+6

59
4 More about Polynomials

Follow-up Exercise p. 132

(5 x 3 + 4 x ) ÷ x
p.130
5x3 + 4 x
=
(5 − x − 4 x 2 ) + (7 x 3 − x + 1) 1. (a) x
= 5 − x − 4x + 7 x − x + 12 3 5x3 4 x
1. = +
x x
= 7 x3 − 4 x 2 − x − x + 5 + 1
= 5x2 + 4
= 7 x3 − 4 x 2 − 2 x + 6

(8 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x) ÷ 2 x
Alternative Solution
8 x3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x
− 4x2 − x + 5 =
(b) 2x
+) 7 x3 + 0 x 2 − x + 1
8 x3 4 x 2 4 x
= + +
7 x3 − 4 x 2 − 2 x + 6 2x 2x 2x
= 4x2 + 2x + 2
(3 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1) − ( x 3 − 2 x − 5)
= 3x3 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1 − x3 + 2 x + 5 3x − 2
2.
= 3x − x + 7 x − 2 x + 2 x + 1 + 5
3 3 2
x 3x 2 − 2 x
2. (a)
= 2x + 7 x + 6
3 2
3x
− 2x
Alternative Solution − 2x
3x 3 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1
3x 2 + 4 x + 3
−) x 3 + 0 x 2 − 2 x − 5
2 x 6 x3 + 8 x 2 + 6 x − 1
2 x3 + 7 x 2 + 0 x + 6
6 x3
∴ The answer is 2x3 + 7x2 + 6.
(b) 8x 2
( 2 x 3 + 4 x − 1)(2 − 3 x) 8x 2
= (2 x 3 − 4 x − 1)(−3 x + 2) 6x
= (2 x 3 + 4 x − 1)(−3 x) + (2 x 2 + 4 x − 1)(2) 6x
3.
−1
= −6 x 4 − 12 x 2 + 3 x + 4 x 3 + 8 x − 2
= −6 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 12 x 2 + 3 x + 8 x − 2 p.135
4 3 2
= − 6 x + 4 x − 12 x + 11x − 2
x−1

Alternative Solution x − 1 x2 − 2x + 3
2x3 + 0x 2 + 4x −1 1. x2 − x
×) − 3x + 2 −x+3
4
− 6 x + 0 x − 12 x 3 2
+ 3x − x +1
3 2 2
+) 4x + 0x + 8x − 2
∴ The quotient is x − 1 and the remainder is 2.
− 6 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 12 x 2 + 11x − 2
3x + 2
( 4 x − x 2 ) + x( x + 1)( x − 1) − ( x 3 − 2)
2x + 1 6x 2 + 7 x − 5
= ( 4 x − x ) + [ x( x) + x(1)]( x − 1) − ( x − 2)
2 3

2. 6 x 2 + 3x
= ( 4 x − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + x)( x − 1) − ( x 3 − 2)
4x − 5
= ( 4 x − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + x)( x) + ( x 2 + x)(−1) − ( x 3 − 2)
4. 4x + 2
= ( 4 x − x 2 ) + x 3 + x 2 − x 2 − x − ( x 3 − 2)
−7
= 4 x − x 2 + x3 − x − x3 + 2
∴ The quotient is 3 x + 2 and the remainder is -7.
= x3 − x3 − x 2 + 4 x − x + 2
= − x 2 + 3x + 2

60
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

x 2 − 7 x + 23
(c) Let f ( x ) = 27 x 3 − 18 x 2 + 3 x − 5 .
x + 3 x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 x + 1
1
x3 + 3x 2 = f 
3
3. − 7 x2 + 2x 3 2
Remainder = 27 1  − 18 1  + 3 1  − 5
− 7 x − 21x
2
 3  3  3
23 x + 1 = 1− 2 +1− 5
23 x + 69 = −5
− 68
∴ The quotient is x 2 − 7 x + 23 and the remainder (d) Let f ( x ) = x 4 + x 2 + 3 .
is −68.  1
= f − 
2x − 5  2
4 2
 1  1
2 x + x + 1 4 x3 − 8 x 2 + 0 x + 7
2
= −  + −  + 3
Remainder  2   2 
4. 4 x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x
1 1
− 10 x 2 − 2 x + 7 = + +3
16 4
− 10 x 2 − 5 x − 5 53
=
3 x + 12 16
∴ The quotient is 2 x − 5 and the remainder is
3 x + 12 . 3. Let f ( x ) = 3 x 3 + 4 x 2 + ax + b .
When f(x) is divided by x + 1 ,
f (−1) = 4
p.141
3( −1)3 + 4( −1) 2 + a ( −1) + b = 4
1. (a) Remainder = f (1) − a + b = 3 …… (1)

(b) Remainder = f (−2)


When f(x) is divided by ,
x−2
1 f ( 2) = 28
(c) Remainder = f  
5 3( 2)3 + 4(2) 2 + a (2) + b = 28
2a + b = −12 …… (2)
 3 (2) − (1), 3a = −15
(d) Remainder = f  − 
 2 a = −5

(e) Remainder = f (0) By substituting a = −5 into (1), we have


−( −5) + b = 3
(f) Remainder = f (2) .
b = −2

2. (a) Let f ( x ) = x 3 − 4 .
= f (1)
p.146
Remainder = 13 − 4
= −3 1. Let f ( x ) = x 3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 .
f (1) = 13 − 4(1) 2 − 7(1) + 10
(a)
(b) Let f ( x ) = 2 x − 3 x + x + 1 .
3 2
= 1 − 4 − 7 + 10
= f (−2) =0
Remainder = 2(−2) − 3(−2) + (−2) + 1
3 2
∴ x − 1 is a factor of x 3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 .
= −16 − 12 − 2 + 1
= − 29 f (2) = 23 − 4( 2) 2 − 7(2) + 10
(b) = 8 − 16 − 14 + 10
= −12
≠0
∴ x − 2 is not a factor of x 3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10
.

61
4 More about Polynomials

f (3) = 33 − 5(3) 2 + 8(3) − 6


4. (a) ∵
f (−1) = ( −1) − 4(−1) − 7( −1) + 10
3 2
= 27 − 45 + 24 − 6
(c) = −1 − 4 + 7 + 10 =0
= 12 ∴ x − 3 is a factor of f(x).
≠0
∴ x + 1 is not a factor of x 3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 . (b) By long division,
x2 − 2x + 2
f (−2) = ( −2)3 − 4(−2) 2 − 7(−2) + 10 x − 3 x3 − 5x 2 + 8 x − 6
(d)
= −8 − 16 + 14 + 10 x3 − 3x 2
=0 − 2x2 + 8x
∴ x + 2 is a factor of x 3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 .
− 2x2 + 6x

2. Let f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 − x + 1 . 2x − 6
2x − 6
f (3) = 2(3) 3 − 5(3) 2 − 3 + 1
Hence, f ( x ) = ( x − 3)( x − 2 x + 2)
2
(a) = 54 − 45 − 3 + 1
=7
≠0
p.152
∴ x − 3 is not a factor of 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − x + 1 .

1. Let f ( x ) = x 3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 .
f (−4) = 2(−4)3 − 5( −4) 2 − (−4) + 1
(b) = −128 − 80 + 4 + 1 ∵ f (1) = 13 + 2(1) 2 − 1 − 2 = 0
= −203 ∴ x − 1 is a factor of f(x).
≠0
By long division,
∴ x + 4 is not a factor of 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − x + 1 .
x 2 + 3x + 2
3 2 x − 1 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2
 1  1  1  1
f  −  = 2 −  − 5 −  −  −  + 1
 2   2   2  2 x3 − x 2
(c)
1 5 1 3x 2 − x
= − − + +1
4 4 2 3x 2 − 3 x
=0
2x − 2
∴ 2 x + 1 is a factor of 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − x + 1 .
2x − 2
3 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 3 x + 2)
1 1 1 1 ∴
f   = 2  − 5  −   + 1 = ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x + 2)
2  2 2 2
1 5 1
(d) = − − +1
4 4 2 2. Let f ( x ) = x 3 + 2 x 2 − 15 x − 36 .
1 f (1) = 13 + 2(1) 2 − 15(1) − 36 = −48 ≠ 0
=−
2
≠0 f ( −1) = (−1) 3 + 2(−1) 2 − 15( −1) − 36 = −20 ≠ 0
∴ 2 x − 1 is a factor of 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − x + 1 . ∵ f (2) = 2 3 + 2(2) 2 − 15(2) − 36 = −50 ≠ 0
f (−2) = (−2) 3 + 2(−2) 2 − 15(−2) − 36 = −6 ≠ 0
3. Let f ( x ) = 4 x − kx + 9 x − 2 .
3 2
f (3) = 33 + 2(3) 2 − 15(3) − 36 = −36 ≠ 0
∵ 4 x − kx + 9 x − 2 is divisible by 4 x − 1 .
3 2
f ( −3) = (−3) 3 + 2(−3) 2 − 15( −3) − 36 = 0
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
∴ x + 3 is a factor of f(x).
1
f =0
2 By long division,
3 2
1 1 1
4  − k   + 9  − 2 = 0
4 4 4
1 k 9 .
− + −2 =0
16 16 4
k 5
=
16 16
k =5

62
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

x 2 − x − 12 f (1) = 13 + 12 − 8(1) − 12 = −18 ≠ 0


x + 3 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 15 x − 36 ∵ f (−1) = ( −1) 3 + ( −1) 2 − 8( −1) − 12 = −4 ≠ 0
x3 + 3 x 2 f (2) = 23 + 2 2 − 8( 2) − 12 = −16 ≠ 0
− x 2 − 15 x f (−2) = ( −2) 3 + ( −2) 2 − 8( −2) − 12 = 0
− x2 − 3x ∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x).
− 12 x − 36
By long division,
− 12 x − 36
x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 12 = ( x + 2)( x 2 − x − 6)
∴ x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 12 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) 2
x 3 + 2 x 2 − 15 x − 36 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − x − 12)

= ( x − 4)( x + 3) 2 ∴ 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 16 x − 24 = 2( x − 3)( x + 2) 2

x 3 + 2 x 2 − 15 x − 36 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − x − 12)
∴ 6. Let f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 7 x 2 − 44 x + 35 .
= ( x − 4)( x + 3) 2
∴ f (1) = 2(1) 3 + 7(1) 2 − 44(1) + 35 = 0
∴ x − 1 is a factor of f(x).
3. Let f ( x ) = x 3 − 7 x + 6 .
∵ f (1) = 13 − 7(1) + 6 = 0 By long division,
∴ x − 1 is a factor of f(x). 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 44 x + 35 = ( x − 1)(2 x 2 + 9 x − 35)
= ( x − 1)(2 x − 5)( x + 7)
By long division,
x2 + x − 6
x − 1 x3 + 0 x 2 − 7 x + 6
x3 − x 2 Exercise
x −7x
2

Exercise 3A (p.130)
x2 − x
− 6x + 6 Level 1
− 6x + 6
( x 3 − 5 x + 4) + ( x 3 + 2 x 2 − 5)
x 3 − 7 x 2 + 6 = ( x − 1)( x 2 + x − 6) 1. = x 3 − 5 x + 4 + x3 + 2 x 2 − 5

= ( x − 2)( x − 1)( x + 3) = x 3 + x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 4 − 5
= 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 5x − 1
4. Let f ( x) = x3 + 3 x 2 − x − 3 .
∵ f (1) = 13 + 3(1) 2 − 1 − 3 = 0 (6 x 3 − 3x + 2) + ( −2 x 3 − 4 x 2 + 2 x − 1)
∴ x − 1 is a factor of f(x). 2. = 6 x3 − 3x + 2 − 2 x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 x − 1
= 6 x 3 − 2 x3 − 4 x 2 − 3 x + 2 x + 2 − 1
By long division,
= 4 x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 1
x2 + 4x + 3
x − 1 x3 + 3x 2 − x−3
(2 x − 3 x 2 + 1) − (3 x 2 − 4 x + 1)
x −x
3 2

3. = 2 x − 3x 2 + 1 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 1
4x − 2
x
= −3 x 2 − 3 x 2 + 2 x + 4 x + 1 − 1
4x − 4x
2
= − 6x 2 + 6x
3x − 3
3x − 3
(3 x 2 − 2 x 3 − 7 x − 4) − ( 4 x 2 − 6 x − 5)

4. = 3x 2 − 2 x 3 − 7 x − 4 − 4 x 2 + 6 x + 5
x 3 + 3 x 2 − x − 3 = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 3)

= ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x + 3) = −2 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 6 x − 4 + 5
= − 2x3 − x 2 − x + 1
5. 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 16 x − 24 = 2( x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 12)
Let f ( x ) = x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 12 .

63
4 More about Polynomials

( 4 x 2 + 3 x + 1)( x + 1) ( x 2 + 2 x − 1)(3 x 2 − 5 x − 2)
= ( 4 x 2 + 3 x + 1)( x) + ( 4 x 2 + 3 x + 1)(1) = ( x 2 + 2 x − 1)(3 x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 2 x − 1)(−5 x) +
5. = 4 x3 + 3x 2 + x + 4 x 2 + 3x + 1 ( x 2 + 2 x − 1)(−2)
12.
= 4 x + 3x + 4 x + x + 3x + 1
3 2 2
= 3 x 4 + 6 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 5 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 5 x − 2 x 2 − 4 x + 2
= 4 x3 + 7 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = 3 x 4 + 6 x 3 − 5 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 10 x 2 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 4 x + 2
= 3 x 4 + x 3 − 15 x 2 + x + 2
( x + 3)( x − 2 x )
2

= ( x + 3)( x 2 ) + ( x + 3)(−2 x ) 5 P − ( x − 1)Q


6.
= x + 3x − 2 x − 6 x
3 2 2 = 5( x 2 − 3 x − 5) − ( x − 1)(3 x 2 − 5)
= x3 + x 2 − 6 x = 5 x 2 − 15 x − 25 − ( x − 1)(3 x 2 ) − ( x − 1)(−5)
13.
= 5 x 2 − 15 x − 25 − 3 x3 + 3 x 2 + 5 x − 5
(3 x − 2)(2 x 2 − 4 x − 1) = −3 x3 + 5 x 2 + 3 x 2 − 15 x + 5 x − 25 − 5

7. = (3 x − 2)(2 x 2 ) + (3 x − 2)(−4 x) + (3 x − 2)(−1) = − 3 x 3 + 8 x 2 − 10 x − 30


= 6 x − 4 x − 12 x + 8 x − 3 x + 2
3 2 2

= 6 x 3 − 16 x 2 + 5 x + 2 (3 − x )(Q − P )
= (3 − x )[(3 x 2 − 5) − ( x 2 − 3x − 5)]
( 2 x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) + (2 x + 1) 2 = ( − x + 3)(3x 2 − 5 − x 2 + 3 x + 5)
= ( 2 x + 1)( x 2 ) + ( 2 x + 1)(− x) + ( 2 x + 1)(1) + = ( − x + 3)(3x 2 − x 2 + 3 x − 5 + 5)
14.
(4 x 2 + 4 x + 1) = ( − x + 3)(2 x 2 + 3 x)
8.
= 2 x3 + x 2 − 2 x 2 − x + 2 x + 1 + 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = ( − x + 3)(2 x 2 ) + (− x + 3)(3 x)
= 2 x3 + x 2 − 2 x 2 + 4 x 2 − x + 2 x + 4 x + 1 + 1 = −2 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 3 x 2 + 9 x
= 2 x3 + 3x 2 + 5 x + 2 = − 2 x3 + 3x 2 + 9 x

Q 2 − PQ
= (3 x 2 − 5) 2 − ( x 2 − 3 x − 5)(3 x 2 − 5)
Level 2
= 9 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 25 − ( x 2 − 3 x − 5)(3 x 2 ) −
( 4 x − 3 x − 7) − (2 x − 4 x − 7 x) − (6 x − 5 x − 5)
3 3 2 2
( x 2 − 3 x − 5)(−5)
= 4 x − 3x − 7 − 2 x + 4 x + 7 x − 6 x + 5 x + 5
3 3 2 2 15.
9. = 9 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 25 − 3x 4 + 9 x 3 + 15 x 2 + 5 x 2 −
= 4 x − 2 x + 4 x − 6 x − 3x + 7 x + 5 x − 7 + 5
3 3 2 2
15 x − 25
= 2 x3 − 2 x 2 + 9 x − 2 = 9 x 4 − 3 x 4 + 9 x 3 − 30 x 2 + 15 x 2 + 5 x 2 − 15 x +
25 − 25
(5 x 3 − 6 x 2 − x + 3) + (7 x 3 − 5 x 2 − x + 3) − = 6 x 4 + 9 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 15 x
( x − 2 x + 2 x − 5)
3 2

= 5x3 − 6 x 2 − x + 3 + 7 x3 − 5x 2 − x + 3 −
10. Exercise 3B (p.136)
x3 + 2 x 2 − 2 x + 5
= 5x3 + 7 x3 − x3 − 6 x 2 − 5x 2 + 2 x 2 − x − x − Level 1
2x + 3 + 3 + 5
x+ 3
= 11x3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 11
7 x 7 x 2 + 21x
1.
( 2 x 2 − 3 x − 5)( x 2 − 2) 7 x2
= ( 2 x 2 − 3 x − 5)( x 2 ) + (2 x 2 − 3 x − 5)(−2) 21x
11.
= 2 x − 3 x − 5 x − 4 x + 6 x + 10
4 3 2 2 21x

= 2 x 4 − 3 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 6 x + 10
∴ The quotient is x + 3 and the remainder is 0.

64
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

5x 2 − 3 x 2d − 1

3 x 15 x 3 − 9 x 2 2d − 1 4d 2 − 4d + 1
8.
2. 4d 2 − 2d
15 x 3
− 2d + 1
− 9x2
− 2d + 1
− 9x2
∴ The quotient is 2d − 1 and the remainder is 0.
∴ The quotient is 5 x 2 − 3x and the remainder is 0.
3x + 8
a+ 3 2x − 3 6x2 + 7 x + 2
a a 2 + 3a + 2 9. 6x2 − 9x
2
3. a 16 x + 2
3a 16 x − 24
3a 26
2
∴ The quotient is 3 x + 8 and the remainder is 26.
∴ The quotient is a + 3 and the remainder is 2.
4a − 1
x− 2 4a + 1 16a 2 + 0a − 4
2x 2x − 4x + 3
2
10. 16a 2 + 4a
2
4. 2x − 4a − 4
− 4x − 4a − 1
− 4x −3
3
∴ The quotient is 4a − 1 and the remainder is −3.
∴ The quotient is x − 2 and the remainder is 3.
s 2 − 4 s + 11
p+ 2
s + 2 s 3 − 2 s 2 + 3s + 2
p + 1 p + 3p + 52
s 3 + 2s 2
5. p + p2
11. − 4 s 2 + 3s
2p + 5 − 4 s 2 − 8s
2p + 2 11s + 2
3 11s + 22
− 20
∴ The quotient is p + 2 and the remainder is 3.
∴ The quotient is s 2 − 4 s + 11 and the remainder is
z−8
−20.
z + 3 z 2 − 5z + 6
6. z 2 + 3z 2h 2 + 3h + 10
− 8z + 6 h − 3 2h3 − 3h 2 + h − 5
− 8 z − 24 2 h 3 − 6h 2
30 12. 3h 2 + h

∴ The quotient is z − 8 and the remainder is 30. 3h 2 − 9h


10h − 5
2r 10h − 30
7. r − 2 2 r 2 − 4r + 1 25
2 r − 4r
2

∴ The quotient is 2h 2 + 3h + 10 and the remainder


1
is 25.
∴ The quotient is 2r and the remainder is 1.

65
4 More about Polynomials

2x2 − 4x + 2 x−2

2x + 1 4x − 6x + 0x − 7
3 2 x + x + 3 x3 − x 2 + 3 x − 3
2

4 x3 + 2 x 2 17. x3 + x 2 + 3 x
13. − 8x2 + 0 x − 2x2 + 0x − 3
− 8x2 − 4 x − 2x2 − 2x − 6
4x − 7 2x + 3
4x + 2
∴ The quotient is x − 2 and the remainder is 2 x + 3 .
−9
p
∴ The quotient is 2 x 2 − 4 x + 2 and the remainder is
18. p + 2 p − 1 p3 + 2 p2 − 5 p + 1
2
−9.
p3 + 2 p2 − p
3m + 2m + 1
2
− 4 p +1
3m + 2 9m + 12m + 7 m − 5
3 2

∴ The quotient is p and the remainder is −4 p + 1 .


9 m3 + 6m 2
14. 6m 2 + 7 m 2z + 3
6m + 4m
2
z 2 − 3z − 2 2 z 3 − 3z 2 − z + 4
3m − 5
19. 2z3 − 6z 2 − 4z
3m + 2
3z 2 + 3z + 4
−7
3z 2 − 9 z − 6
∴ The quotient is 3m 2 + 2m + 1 and the remainder 12 z + 10
is −7.
∴ The quotient is 2 z + 3 and the remainder is
12 z + 10 .
3w − 2 w + 1
2

4 w + 3 12 w3 + w2 − 2 w + 3 2d + 5
12 w + 9 w3 2
d − 3d − 4 2d 3 − d 2 − 24d − 18
2
15.
− 8w − 2w2
20. 2d 3 − 6d 2 − 8d
− 8w − 6 w
2
5d 2 − 16d − 18
4w + 3 5d 2 − 15d − 20
4w + 3 −d + 2

∴ The quotient is 3w2 − 2 w + 1 and the remainder is ∴ The quotient is 2d + 5 and the remainder is
0. −d + 2 .

3q − 4
Level 2
2q + 5q − 2 6q 3 + 7q 2 − 23q + 2
2

x+6 6q 3 + 15q 2 − 6q
21.
x 2 − x + 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x + 3 − 8q 2 − 17 q + 2
16. x − x + 2x
3 2
− 8q 2 − 20q + 8
6x − 4x + 3
2
3q − 6
6 x 2 − 6 x + 12
2x − 9 ∴ The quotient is 3q − 4 and the remainder is
3q − 6 .
∴ The quotient is x + 6 and the remainder is 2 x − 9
.

66
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

3s + 5 x+3
3s − 2s − 1 9 s + 9 s − 16 s − 4
2 3 2
x − 3x − 2 x 3 + 0 x 2 + 2 x − 5
2

22. 9 s 3 − 6 s 2 − 3s 26. x3 − 3x 2 − 2 x
15s 2 − 13s − 4 3x 2 + 4 x − 5
15s − 10s − 5
2
3x 2 − 9 x − 6
− 3s + 1 13 x + 1

∴ The quotient is 3s + 5 and the remainder is ∴ The quotient is x + 3 and the remainder is
−3s + 1 . 13 x + 1 .

2x2 + 2x − 1 x −1

2 x 2 − x + 2 4 x 4 + 2 x3 + 0 x 2 + 6 x − 3 x + x + 1 x3 + 0 x 2 + 0 x + 1
2

4 x 4 − 2 x3 + 4 x 2 27. x3 + x 2 + x
23. 4 x3 − 4 x 2 + 6 x − x2 − x + 1
4 x3 − 2 x 2 + 4 x − x2 − x −1
− 2x + 2x − 3
2
2
− 2x + x − 2
2

x −1 ∴ The quotient is x − 1 and the remainder is 2.

x 2 − 5 x + 20
∴ The quotient is 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 and the remainder is
x −1 . x 2 + 3 x − 1 x 4 − 2 x3 + 4 x 2 − 3x − 5
x 4 + 3x3 − x 2
2w − 3
28. − 5 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3x
4 w2 + w − 2 8w3 − 10 w2 − 9 w + 1
− 5 x 3 − 15 x 2 + 5 x
24. 8 w3 + 2 w 2 − 4 w
20 x 2 − 8 x − 5
− 12 w2 − 5w + 1
20 x 2 + 60 x − 20
− 12 w2 − 3w + 6
− 68 x + 15
− 2w − 5
∴ The quotient is x 2 − 5 x + 20 and the remainder is
∴ The quotient is 2 w − 3 and the remainder is
−68 x + 15 .
−2 w − 5 .
5
3e − [(3x 3 + 2 x − 3) − ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + 4)] ÷ ( x 2 − 3 x + 5)
2
29. = (3 x 3 + 2 x − 3 − x 3 + 4 x 2 − 4) ÷ ( x 2 − 3 x + 5)
2e 2 + 1 6e3 − 5e 2 + 7e + 1
= (3 x 3 − x 3 + 4 x 2 + 2 x − 3 − 4) ÷ ( x 2 − 3 x + 5)
6e 3 + 3e
25. = ( 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 2 x − 7) ÷ ( x 2 − 3 x + 5)
− 5e 2 + 4e + 1
5 By long division,
− 5e 2 −
2
7 2 x + 10
4e +
2 x − 3x + 5 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 2 x − 7
2

2 x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x
5
∴ The quotient is 3e − and the remainder is
2 10 x 2 − 8 x − 7
7 10 x 2 − 30 x + 50
4e + .
2 22 x − 57

∴ The quotient is 2 x + 10 and the remainder is


22 x − 57 .

67
4 More about Polynomials

[(2t − 1)(t 2 + 1)] ÷ (t 2 + 2t + 1) 6. Let f ( x ) = x 3 + 4 x 2 − x − 3 .


30. = f (5)
= [(2t − 1)(t 2 ) + (2t − 1)(1)] ÷ (t 2 + 2t + 1)
3 2
= ( 2t 3 − t 2 + 2t − 1) ÷ (t 2 + 2t + 1) Remainder = 5 + 4(5) − 5 − 3
= 125 + 100 − 5 − 3
By long division, = 217

2t − 5
7. Let f ( x ) = 27 x 3 − 6 x + 2 .
t + 2t + 1 2t − t + 2t − 1
2 2 2
 1
= f − 
2t 3 + 4t 2 + 2t  3
− 5t 2 + 0t − 1 3
Remainder = 27  − 1  − 6 − 1  + 2
   
− 5t − 10t − 5
2
 3  3
10t + 4 = −1 + 2 + 2
=3
∴ The quotient is 2t − 5 and the remainder is
10t + 4 .
8. Let f ( x ) = 4 x3 − x 2 + 8 x − 11 .
1
= f 
Exercise 3C (p.142) 4
3 2
Level 1 1 1 1
Remainder = 4  −   + 8  − 11
4
   4 4
1. Let f ( x ) = x 3 − 8 x − 7 . 1 1
= − + 2 − 11
= f (3) 16 16
3 = −9
Remainder = 3 − 8(3) − 7
= 27 − 24 − 7
= −4 9. Let f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 2 x + 1 .
1
= f 
2. Let f ( x ) = x + x + 2 x + 1 .
3 2
2
= f (1) 3
Remainder = 8  1  − 2 1  + 1
3 2
Remainder = 1 + 1 + 2(1) + 1 2 2
= 1+1+ 2 +1 = 1 −1 +1
=5 =1

3. Let f ( x ) = 2 x3 − x 2 + 7 x + 1 . 10. Let f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x + 7 .


= f (−1) 3
= f 
Remainder = 2(−1) − (−1) + 7( −1) + 1
3 2
2
3 2
= −2 − 1 − 7 + 1  3 3 3
= 2   + 2  − 4   + 7
= −9 Remainder  2 2 2
27 9
= + −6+7
4. Let f ( x ) = x 3 + 7 x 2 − 5 x + 1 . 4 2
= f ( 2) 49
=
3 2 4
Remainder = 2 + 7( 2) − 5( 2) + 1
= 8 + 28 − 10 + 1
= 27 11. Let f ( x ) = 3 x 3 + 7 x 2 + kx − 5 .
By the remainder theorem, we have
f (−3) = 4
5. Let f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 3 x 2 − 4 x + 5 .
3( −3)3 + 7( −3) 2 + k ( −3) − 5 = 4
= f (−3)
− 81 + 63 − 3k − 5 = 4
Remainder = 2(−3) − 3(−3) − 4(−3) + 5
3 2
3k = −27
= −54 − 27 + 12 − 5
k = −9
= − 64

68
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

12. Let f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + kx 2 + 5 x + 4 . 18. Let f ( x ) = x 3 + 2ax − b .


By the remainder theorem, we have ∵When f(x) is divided by x − 3 , the remainder is
f ( 2) = 6 1.
2(2) 3 + k (2) 2 + 5(2) + 4 = 6 ∴ When f(x) − 1 is divided by x − 3 , the remainder
is 0.
16 + 4k + 10 + 4 = 6 ∴ When f(x) − 1 + b is divided by x − 3 , the
4k = −24 remainder is b, and when f(x) −1 + b+ x2 − 9 is
k = −6 divided by x − 3, the remainder is also b (since x2
− 9 = 0 when x = 3).
13. Let f ( x ) = x 2 − kx − 2 . ∴ The required polynomial is x 3 + 2ax − 1 or
By the remainder theorem, we have x 3 + x 2 + 2ax − 10 . (or any other reasonable
f (k ) = k answers)
k 2 − k (k ) − 2 = k
19. By the remainder theorem, we have
k2 −k2 −2 = k f ( −1) = 3
k = −2 ( −1)3 + 2( −1) 2 + k ( −1) + c = 3
−1+ 2 − k + c = 3
14. Let f ( x ) = kx 4 + 30 x 3 + 18 x + 20 . k = c−2
By the remainder theorem, we have
 1 ∴ k = 1, c = 3 or k = −1, c = 1 or k = −3, c = −1
f  −  = 13
 3 (or any other reasonable answers)
4 3
 1  1  1
4 −  + 30 −  + 18 −  + 20 = 13
 3   3   3 Level 2
k 10
− − 6 + 20 = 13
81 9 20. Let f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 x + 3 .
k 1 By the remainder theorem, we have
=
81 9 k
f   = 11
k =9 2
2
k k
  + 2   + 3 = 11
15. Let f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4kx − 7 . 2 2
By the remainder theorem, we have k 2

1 + k + 3 = 11
f   = −6 4
2 k 2 + 4k − 32 = 0
3 2
1 1 1 (k + 8)(k − 4) = 0
2  − 5  + 4k   − 7 = −6
2 2 2 k +8 = 0 or k − 4 = 0
1 5 k = − 8 or k=4
− + 2k − 7 = −6
4 4
2k = 2 21. Let f ( x ) = x 3 + (k + 4) x 2 − 2 x − 1 .
k =1 By the remainder theorem, we have
f (−k ) = k 2
16. Let f ( x ) = x1997 − 1 .
( −k ) 3 + (k + 4)(−k ) 2 − 2( −k ) − 1 = k 2
= f (−1)
− k 3 + k 3 + 4k 2 + 2 k − 1 = k 2
Remainder = ( −1) − 1
1997

= −1 − 1 3k 2 + 2k − 1 = 0
= −2 (k + 1)( 3k − 1) = 0
k +1 = 0 or 3k − 1 = 0
1
17. Let f ( x ) = x100 − 1 . k = −1 or k=
3
= f (1)
100
Remainder = 1 − 1 22. Let f ( x ) = x 2 − 4 x − 3 .
= 1−1 By the remainder theorem, we have
=0

69
4 More about Polynomials

f (− k ) = −6 f (n) = 11
( −k ) 2 − 4( −k ) − 3 = −6 2
n − mn + 3 = 11
k 2 + 4k + 3 = 0 ……(1)
n 2 − mn − 8 = 0
(k + 3)(k + 1) = 0
k +3 = 0 or k + 1 = 0
k = − 3 or k = −1
When g(x) is divided by x − n ,
g ( n) = 0
23. Let f ( x ) = 4 x 2 − 2 x + 1 . 2m − n = 0
By the remainder theorem, we have n = 2m ……(2)
 k
f  −  = 3k
 2
2 By substituting (2) into (1), we have
 k  k
4 −  − 2 −  + 1 = 3k ( 2m) 2 − m( 2m) − 8 = 0
 2  2
2m 2 − 8 = 0
k 2 + k + 1 = 3k
m = ±2
k 2 − 2k + 1 = 0 When m = 2, n = 4
(k − 1) 2 = 0 When m = −2, n = −4
k =1 ∴ The values of m and n are
m = 2 m = −2
24. When f(x) is divided by x − 1 ,  or  .
n=4  n = −4
f (1) = −1
2(1) 3 − 12 + p(1) + q = −1
p + q = −2 ……(1) 27. (a) ∵The degree of ( x − 1)( x + 2) is 2,
∴ The highest possible degree of the
When f(x) is divided by x + 2 , remainder when P(x) is divided by
( x − 1)( x + 2) is 1.
f ( −2) = −31
2(−2)3 − ( −2) 2 + p ( −2) + q = −31 (b) Let Q(x) and ax + b be the quotient and the
− 2 p + q = −11 ……(2)
remainder respectively when P(x) is divided by
(1) – (2), 3 p = 9 ( x − 1)( x + 2) .
p=3 ∴ P ( x) = ( x − 1)( x + 2)Q ( x ) + ax + b
By substituting p = 3 into (1), we have By the remainder theorem, we have
P(1) = −4
3 + q = −2
(1 − 1)(1 + 2)Q(1) + a (1) + b = −4
q = −5
a + b = −4 ……(1)

25. When f(x) is divided by x − 2 , P (−2) = −28


f (2) = −5
(−2 − 1)(−2 + 2)Q(−2) + a(−2) + b = −28
2 3 − p (2) 2 + 2(2) + q = −5 − 2a + b = −28
− 4 p + q = −17 ……(1)
……(2)
When f(x) is divided by x − 3 , 3a = 24
(1) – (2),
f (3) = −4 a =8
33 − p (3) 2 + 2(3) + q = −4 By substituting a = 8 into (1), we have
……(2) 8 + b = −4
− 9 p + q = −37
b = −12
(1) – (2), 5 p = 20 ∴ The remainder when P(x) is divided by
p=4
( x − 1)( x + 2) is 8 x − 12 .
By substituting p = 4 into (1), we have
−4(4) + q = −17 28. (a) By the remainder theorem, we have
q = −1 f ( −1) = 1
( −1)99 + k = 1
26. Let f ( x ) = x 2 − mx + 3 and g ( x) = 2m − x . −1 + k = 1
When f(x) is divided by x − n , k=2

70
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

(b) Let Q(x) be the quotient when f(x) is divided by ∴ x - 4 is a factor of 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 5 x − 4 .


x +1 .
f ( x) = ( x + 1)Q ( x ) + 1
5. Let f ( x ) = x3 − a 3 .
∴ 99
x + 2 = ( x + 1)Q ( x ) + 1
∵ f (a ) = a − a
3 3

x 99
= ( x + 1)Q ( x ) − 1 ……(1) 
=0
∴ x3 – a3 is divisible by x – a.

By substituting x = 9 into (1), we have


6. Let f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + kx 2 − x − 6 .
9 99 = (9 + 1)Q (9) − 1
∵ 2 x 3 + kx 2 − x − 6 is divisible by x + 2.
= 10Q(9) − 1 ∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
= 10[Q (9) − 1] + 9 f (−2) = 0
∴ The remainder when 999 is divided by 10 is 2(−2)3 + k (−2) 2 − (−2) − 6 = 0
9.
− 16 + 4k + 2 − 6 = 0
4k = 20
Exercise 3D (p. 147) k =5
Level 1 7. Let f ( x ) = x3 − 2ax + 15 .
∵x + 5 is a factor of x3 – 2ax + 15.
f (1) = 13 − 12 − 3(1) + 3 ∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
1. (a)
= 1 −1 − 3 + 3 f ( −5) = 0
=0 ( −5) 3 − 2a( −5) + 15 = 0
∴ x − 1 is a factor of f(x). − 125 + 10a + 15 = 0
f (−1) = (−1)3 − (−1) 2 − 3( −1) + 3
10a = 110
(b) = −1 − 1 + 3 + 3
a = 11
=4
≠0
8. Let f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + x 2 − mx + 12 .
∴ x + 1 is not a factor of f(x).
∵x + 3 is a factor of 2x3 + x2 – mx + 12.
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
f (2) = 2 3 + 2(2) 2 − 5(2) − 6
2. (a) f (3) = 0
= 8 + 8 − 10 − 6
2(3) 3 + 32 − m(3) + 12 = 0
=0
∴ x - 2 is a factor of f(x). 54 + 9 − 3m + 12 = 0
3m = 75
f (3) = 33 + 2(3) 2 − 5(3) − 6 m = 25
(b) = 27 + 18 − 15 − 6
9. Let P(x) be the polynomial of degree 3 with 2x + 3 as
= 24
one of its factors.
≠0 ∵P(x) = (ax2 + bx + c)(2x + 3) where a, b and c are
∴ x - 3 is not a factor of f(x). integers.
By substituting a = 1, b = 0 and c = -1 into P(x), we
f (−4) = (−4)3 + 5(−4) 2 + 3(−4) + 15 have
3. (a) = −64 + 80 − 12 + 15 P ( x) = ( x 2 − 1)(2 x + 3)
= 19 = 2 x3 + 3x 2 − 2 x − 3
≠0 or by substituting a = 1, b = 1 and c = −2 into P(x), we
∴ x + 4 is not a factor of f(x). have
P ( x) = ( x 2 + x − 2)(2 x + 3)
3 2
f (−5) = ( −5) + 5( −5) + 3( −5) + 15 = 2 x 3 + 3x 2 + 2 x 2 + 3x − 4 x − 6
(b)
= −125 + 125 − 15 + 15
= 2x3 + 5x 2 − x − 6
=0 ∴ The required polynomial is 2x3 + 3x2 – 2x – 3 or
∴ x + 5 is a factor of f(x). 2x3 + 5x2 – x – 6. (or any other reasonable
answers)
4. Let f ( x ) = 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 5 x − 4 .
f (4) = 2( 4)3 − 9(4) 2 + 5( 4) − 4 10. ∵x3 + mx2 + nx + 5 is divisible by x – 1.
∵ ∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
= 128 − 144 + 20 − 4
=0

71
4 More about Polynomials

f (1) = 0
3 2
3 2
1 + m(1) + n(1) + 5 = 0  3  3  3  3
f −  = 4 −  − 8 −  − 15 − +9
1+ m + n + 5 = 0  2  2   2   2
15. (a) ∵
n = −6 − m 27 45
=− − 18 + +9
∴ m = –3, n = –3 or m = –1, n = –5 or m = 2, n = –8. 2 2
(or any other reasonable answers) =0
∴ 2x + 3 is a factor of f(x).

11. Let f(x) = x3 + ax2 – x – b. (b) By long division,


∵x + 2 is a factor of x3 + ax2 – x – b. 2x2 − 7x + 3
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
f ( −2) = 0 2 x + 3 4 x 3 − 8 x 2 − 15 x + 9
( −2)3 + a (−2) 2 − ( −2) − b = 0 4x3 + 6x 2
− 8 + 4a + 2 − b = 0 − 14 x 2 − 15 x
b = 4a − 6 − 14 x 2 − 21x
∴ a = –3, b = –18 or a = –1, b = –10 or a =1, b = –2
(or any other reasonable answers) 6x + 9
6x + 9

Level 2 Hence, f(x) = (2x + 3)(2x2 – 7x + 3)


By the cross method,
12. Let f(x) = 2x3 – x2 – 7x + 6. 2x2 – 7x + 3 = (2x – 1)(x – 3)
∴ f ( x ) = (2 x + 3)(2 x − 1)( x − 3)
3 2
3 3 3 3
f   = 2  −   − 7  + 6
 2  2 2 2
∵
27 9 21  4  4  4
3
 4
2
= − − +6 h −  = 3 −  + 4 −  − 75 −  − 100
4 4 2 3 3 3  3
=0 16. (a) ∵      
64 64
∴ 2x – 3 is a factor of 2x3 – x2 – 7x + 6. =− + + 100 − 100
9 9
=0
13. Let f(x) = 8x3 – 14x2 + 7x – 1.
3 2 ∴ 3x + 4 is a factor of h(x).
1 1 1 1
f   = 8  − 14  + 7  − 1
4 4 4 4 (b) By long division,
∵      
1 7 7 x2 − 25
= − + −1
8 8 4 3 x + 4 3x 3 + 4 x 2 − 75 x − 100
=0
∴ 8x3 – 14x2 + 7x –1 is divisible by 4x – 1. 3x 3 + 4 x 2
− 75 x − 100
g (−5) = ( −5) + 12(−5) + 41(−5) + 30
3 2
− 75 x − 100
14. (a) ∵
= −125 + 300 − 205 + 30 2
Hence, h( x) = (3 x + 4)( x − 25)
=0 = (3 x + 4)( x + 5)( x − 5)
∴ x + 5 is a factor of g(x).

(b) By long division, 17. (a) Let f(x) = x3 – 4x2 + kx + 6.


∵x3 – 4x2 + kx + 6 is divisible by x – 3.
x2 + 7 x + 6
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
x + 5 x3 + 12 x 2 + 41x + 30 f (3) = 0
x3 + 5 x 2 33 − 4(3) 2 + k (3) + 6 = 0
7 x 2 + 41x 27 − 36 + 3k + 6 = 0
7 x 2 + 35 x 3k = 3
6 x + 30 k =1
6 x + 30
(b) By long division,
2
Hence, g(x) = (x + 5)(x + 7x + 6)
By the cross method,
x2 + 7x + 6 = (x + 1)(x + 6)
∴ g ( x) = ( x + 5)( x + 1)( x + 6)

72
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

x2 − x − 2 2(−2q − 1) + q = −5
3q = 3
x − 3 x3 − 4 x 2 + x + 6
q =1
x3 − 3x 2
By substituting q = 1 into (2), we have
− x2 + x p = −2(1) − 1
− x 2 + 3x = −3
− 2x + 6
− 2x + 6 20. (a) ∵When f(x) is divided by x + 1, the remainder is
10.
∴ By the remainder theorem, we have
Hence, f(x) = (x – 3)(x2 – x – 2)
By the cross method, f (−1) = 10
x2 – x – 2 = (x – 2)(x + 1) 2(−1) 3 − (−1) 2 + a ( −1) + b = 10
∴ x − 4 x + x + 6 = ( x − 3)( x − 2)( x + 1)
3 2
− 2 − 1 − a + b = 10 …… (1)
a − b = −13
18. (a) Let f(x) = 8x3 + mx2 – 25x + 6. ∵x – 1 is a factor of f(x).
∵8x3 + mx2 – 25x + 6 is divisible by 4x – 1. ∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem, f (1) = 0
1 2(1) 3 − 12 + a (1) + b = 0
f =0
4 a + b = −1 …… (2)
1
3
1 1
2
(1) + (2), 2 a = − 14
8  + m  − 25  + 6 = 0
4 4 4 a = −7
1 m 25
+ − +6=0 By substituting a = –7 into (2), we have
8 16 4
−7 + b = −1
m 1
= b=6
16 8
m=2
(b) By long division,
(b) By long division, 2x 2 + x − 6
2x 2 + x − 6 x − 1 2x3 − x 2 − 7 x + 6
4 x − 1 8 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 25 x + 6 2x3 − 2x 2
8x3 − 2 x 2 x2 − 7x
4 x 2 − 25 x x2 − x
4x 2 − x − 6x + 6
− 24 x + 6 − 6x + 6
− 24 x + 6
Hence, f(x) = (x – 1)(2x2 + x – 6)
By the cross method,
Hence, f(x) = (4x – 1)(2x2 + x – 6) 2x2 + x – 6 = (2x – 3)(x + 2)
By the cross method,
2x2 + x – 6 = (2x – 3)(x + 2) ∴ f ( x ) = ( x − 1)(2 x − 3)( x + 2)
∴ 8 x + 2 x − 25 x + 6 = ( 4 x − 1)(2 x − 3)( x + 2)
3 2

21. (a) ∵When g(x) is divided by x + 1, the


3 2 3 2
remainder
19. Let f(x) = x + px + qx + 2 and g(x) = x + qx + px – is 8.
6. ∴ By the remainder theorem, we have
∵x – 2 is a common factor of x3 + px2 + qx + 2
g (−1) = 8
and
x3 + qx2 + px – 6. s (−1) 3 + 9(−1) 2 − t (−1) − 5 = 8
f ( 2) = 0 t = s + 4 …… (1)
∴ 3 2 ∵x + 5 is a factor of g(x).
2 + p (2) + q (2) + 2 = 0
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
2 p + q = −5 …… (1) g (−5) = 0
g ( 2) = 0
3 2
s (−5) 3 + 9(−5) 2 − t ( −5) − 5 = 0
2 + q (2) + p( 2) − 6 = 0
− 25s + t = −44 …… (2)
p = −2q − 1 …… (2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
By substituting (2) into (1), we have

73
4 More about Polynomials

−25s + s + 4 = −44 f (1) = 13 + 8(1) 2 + 21(1) + 18 = 48


24 s = 48
∵ f ( −1) = (−1) 3 + 8( −1) 2 + 21( −1) + 18 = 4
s=2
 f (2) = 2 3 + 8( 2) 2 + 21( 2) + 18 = 100
By substituting s = 2 into (1), we have
t = 2+4 f (−2) = (−2) 3 + 8(−2) 2 + 21( −2) + 18 = 0
=6 ∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x).
By long division,
x3 + 8x2 + 21x + 18 = (x + 2)(x2 + 6x + 9)
3 2 2
∴ x + 8 x + 21x + 18 = ( x + 2)( x + 3)

(b) By long division,


2x 2 − x − 1 5. Let f(x) = x3 + 3x2 – 4x – 12.
x + 5 2x + 9x − 6x − 5
3 2
f (1) = 13 + 3(1) 2 − 4(1) − 12 = −12
∵
2 x 3 + 10 x 2 f (−1) = ( −1) 3 + 3(−1) 2 − 4( −1) − 12 = −6
− x 2 − 6x f ( 2) = 23 + 3( 2) 2 − 4(2) − 12 = 0
− x 2 − 5x ∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).
By long division,
− x−5 x3 + 3x2 – 4x – 12 = (x – 2)(x2 + 5x + 6)
− x−5 3 2
∴ x + 3 x − 4 x − 12 = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 3)
Hence, g(x) = (x + 5)(2x2 – x – 1)
By the cross method, 6. Let f(x) = x3 – 4x2 + 5x – 2.
2x2 – x – 1 = (2x + 1)(x – 1) ∵f(1) = 13 – 4(1)2 + 5(1) – 2 = 0
∴ g ( x) = ( x − 1) ( x + 5)(2 x + 1) ∴ x – 1 is a factor of f(x).
By long division,
x3 – 4x2 + 5x – 2 = (x –1)(x2 – 3x + 2)
∴ x − 4 x + 5 x − 2 = ( x − 2 ) ( x − 1)
3 3 2
Exercise 3E (p. 152)

Level 1 7. Let f(x) = x3 + x2 – 8x – 12.


f (1) = 13 + 12 − 8(1) − 12 = −18
1. Let f(x) = x3 – 3x2 – 6x + 8.
3 2
∵f(1) = 13 – 3(1)2 – 6(1) + 8 = 0 ∵ f (−1) = ( −1) + ( −1) − 8( −1) − 12 = −4
∴ x – 1 is a factor of f(x). f (2) = 23 + 2 2 − 8( 2) − 12 = −16
By long division,
x3 – 3x2 – 6x + 8 = (x – 1)(x2 – 2x – 8) f (−2) = ( −2) 3 + ( −2) 2 − 8( −2) − 12 = 0
3 2 ∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x).
∴ x − 3 x − 6 x + 8 = ( x − 4)( x − 1)( x + 2)
By long division,
x3 + x2 – 8x – 12 = (x + 2)(x2 – x – 6)
2. Let f(x) = x3 – 7x – 6.
∴ x + x − 8 x − 12 = ( x − 3) ( x + 2)
3 2 2
3
∵ f (1) = 1 − 7(1) − 6 = −12
f (−1) = (−1) 3 − 7(−1) − 6 = 0 8. Let f(x) = x3 + 3x2 – 25x – 75.
∴ x + 1 is a factor of f(x). f (1) = 13 + 3(1) 2 − 25(1) − 75 = −96
By long division, 3 2
x3 – 7x – 6 = (x + 1)(x2 – x – 6) ∵ f (−1) = ( −1) + 3( −1) − 25(−1) − 75 = −48
3
∴ x − 7 x − 6 = ( x − 3)( x + 1)( x + 2) f (3) = 33 + 3(3) 2 − 25(3) − 75 = −96
f (−3) = ( −3) 3 + 3( −3) 2 − 25(−3) − 75 = 0
3 2
3. Let f(x) = x + x – 10x + 8. ∴ x + 3 is a factor of f(x).
∵f(1) = 13 + 12 – 10(1) + 8 = 0 By long division,
∴ x – 1 is a factor of f(x). x3 + 3x2 – 25x – 75 = (x + 3)(x2 – 25)
By long division, 3 2
∴ x + 3 x − 25 x − 75 = ( x − 5)( x + 3)( x + 5)
x3 + x2 – 10x + 8 = (x – 1)(x2 + 2x – 8)
3 2
∴ x + x − 10 x + 8 = ( x − 2)( x − 1)( x + 4) 9. Let f(x) = x3 + 4x2 – 11x – 30.

4. Let f(x) = x3 + 8x2 + 21x + 18.

74
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

f (1) = 13 + 4(1) 2 − 11(1) − 30 = −36 f (1) = 13 + 10(1) 2 + 33(1) + 36 = 80


∵ f (−1) = ( −1) 3 + 4( −1) 2 − 11(1) − 30 = −16 f (−1) = ( −1) 3 + 10( −1) 2 + 33(−1) + 36 = 12
 f (2) = 23 + 4(2) 2 − 11(2) − 30 = −28 ∵ f (2) = 2 3 + 10( 2) 2 + 33( 2) + 36 = 150
f (−2) = ( −2) 3 + 4(−2) 2 − 11(−2) − 30 = 0  f (−2) = ( −2) 3 + 10( −2) 2 + 33( −2) + 36 = 2
∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x). f (3) = 33 + 10(3) 2 + 33(3) + 36 = 252
By long division,
x3 + 4x2 – 11x – 30 = (x + 2)(x2 + 2x – 15) f (−3) = ( −3) 3 + 10(−3) 2 + 33(−3) + 36 = 0
∴ x + 3 is a factor of f(x).
∴ x + 4 x − 11x − 30 = ( x − 3)( x + 2)( x + 5)
3 2

By long division,
x3 + 10x2 + 33x + 36 = (x + 3)(x2 + 7x + 12)
10. 3x3 – 6x2 – 12x + 24 = 3(x3 – 2x2 – 4x + 8) 3 2 2
Let f(x) = x3 – 2x2 – 4x + 8. ∴ x + 10 x + 33 x + 36 = ( x + 3) ( x + 4)
∵ f (1) = 13 − 2(1) 2 − 4(1) + 8 = 3
f (−1) = ( −1) 3 − 2( −1) 2 − 4(−1) + 8 = 9
f ( 2) = 2 3 − 2( 2) 2 − 4(2) + 8 = 0
∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).
By long division,
x3 – 2x2 – 4x + 8 = (x – 2)(x2 – 4)
15. Let f(x) = x3 – 12x2 + 47x – 60.
∴ x3 – 2x2 – 4x + 8 = (x – 2)2(x + 2)
f (1) = 13 − 12(1) 2 + 47(1) − 60 = −24
∴ 3 x − 6 x − 12 x + 24 = 3( x − 2) ( x + 2)
3 2 2

f (−1) = ( −1) 3 − 12( −1) 2 + 47(−1) − 60 = −120


∵
11. 5x3 + 20x2 + 5x – 30 = 5(x3 + 4x2 + x – 6) f (2) = 2 3 − 12( 2) 2 + 47(2) − 60 = −6

Let f(x) = x3 + 4x2 + x – 6.
f (−2) = ( −2) 3 − 12( −2) 2 + 47(−2) − 60 = −210
∵f(1) = 13 + 4(1)2 + (1) – 6 = 0
∴ x – 1 is a factor of f(x). f (3) = 33 − 12(3) 2 + 47(3) − 60 = 0
By long division, ∴ x – 3 is a factor of f(x).
x3 + 4x2 + x – 6 = (x – 1)(x2 + 5x + 6) By long division,
∴ x3 + 4x2 + x – 6 = (x – 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) x3 – 12x2 + 47x – 60 = (x – 3)(x2 – 9x + 20)
∴ 5 x + 20 x + 5 x − 30 = 5( x − 1)( x + 2)( x + 3) 3 2
3 2
∴ x − 12 x + 47 x − 60 = ( x − 5)( x − 4)( x − 3)

12. 5x3 – 65x – 60 = 5(x3 – 13x – 12) 16. Let f(x) = x3 + 16x2 + 52x + 48.
Let f(x) = x3 – 13x – 12. f (1) = 13 + 16(1) 2 + 52(1) + 48 = 117
3
∵ f (1) = 1 − 13(1) − 12 = −24 3 2
3
∵ f (−1) = ( −1) + 16(−1) + 52( −1) + 48 = 11
f (−1) = ( −1) − 13(−1) − 12 = 0
f (2) = 23 + 16(2) 2 + 52( 2) + 48 = 224
∴ x + 1 is a factor of f(x).
By long division, f (−2) = ( −2) 3 + 16(−2) 2 + 52( −2) + 48 = 0
x3 – 13x – 12 = (x + 1)(x2 – x – 12) ∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x).
∴ x3 – 13x – 12 = (x + 1)(x – 4)(x + 3) By long division,
3
∴ 5 x − 65 x − 60 = 5( x − 4)( x + 1)( x + 3) x3 + 16x2 + 52x + 48 = (x + 2)(x2 + 14x + 24)
∴ x + 16 x + 52 x + 48 = ( x + 2) ( x + 12)
3 2 2

Level 2 17. Let f(x) = x3 + x2 – 24x + 36.


f (1) = 13 + 12 − 24(1) + 36 = 14
13. Let f(x) = x3 – 8x2 + 4x + 48. ∵
f (−1) = ( −1) 3 + (−1) 2 − 24( −1) + 36 = 60
f (1) = 13 − 8(1) 2 + 4(1) + 48 = 45
3 2 f ( 2) = 23 + 2 2 − 24( 2) + 36 = 0
∵ f (−1) = ( −1) − 8(−1) + 4(−1) + 48 = 35
∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).
f (2) = 2 3 − 8(2) 2 + 4( 2) + 48 = 32 By long division,
f (−2) = ( −2) 3 − 8(−2) 2 + 4( −2) + 48 = 0 x3 + x2 – 24x + 36 = (x – 2)(x2 + 3x – 18)
3 2
∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x). ∴ x + x − 24 x + 36 = ( x − 3)( x − 2)( x + 6)
By long division,
x3 – 8x2 + 4x + 48 = (x + 2)(x2 – 10x + 24) 18. Let f(x) = x3 – 4x2 – 20x + 48.
∴ x − 8 x + 4 x + 48 = ( x − 6)( x − 4)( x + 2 )
3 2
f (1) = 13 − 4(1) 2 − 20(1) + 48 = 25

f (−1) = ( −1) 3 − 4( −1) 2 − 20(−1) + 48 = 63
14. Let f(x) = x3 + 10x2 + 33x + 36.
f ( 2) = 2 3 − 4( 2) 2 − 20(2) + 48 = 0

75
4 More about Polynomials

∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).  2  2
3
 2
2
 2
By long division, f  −  = 3 −  + 8 −  − 68 −  − 48
 3  3  3  3
x3 – 4x2 – 20x + 48 = (x – 2)(x2 – 2x – 24) ∵
3 2 8 32 136
∴ x − 4 x − 20 x + 48 = ( x − 6)( x − 2)( x + 4) =− + + − 48
9 9 3
=0
19. Let f(x) = x3 + 11x2 + 4x – 60. ∴ 3x + 2 is a factor of f(x).
f (1) = 13 + 11(1) 2 + 4(1) − 60 = −44 By long division,
∵ 3x3 + 8x2 – 68x – 48 = (3x +2)(x2 + 2x – 24)
f (−1) = ( −1) 3 + 11(−1) 2 + 4( −1) − 60 = −54
∴ 3 x + 8 x − 68 x − 48 = ( x − 4)( x + 6)( 3 x + 2 )
3 2
f (2) = 23 + 11(2) 2 + 4(2) − 60 = 0
∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).
24. Let f(x) = 5x3 – 6x2 – 29x + 6.
By long division, 3 2
x3 + 11x2 +4x – 60 = (x – 2)(x2 + 13x + 30) 1 1 1 1
f   = 5  − 6  − 29  + 6
∴ x + 11x + 4 x − 60 = ( x − 2)( x + 3)( x + 10)
3 2
5
    5 5
  5

1 6 29
= − − +6
25 25 5
=0
∴ 5x – 1 is a factor of f(x).

20. Let f(x) = x3 – 27x – 54. By long division,


f (1) = 13 − 27(1) − 54 = −80 5x3 – 6x2 – 29x + 6 = (5x – 1)(x2 – x – 6)
∴ 5 x − 6 x − 29 x + 6 = (5 x − 1)( x − 3)( x + 2)
3 2
f (−1) = ( −1) 3 − 27(−1) − 54 = −28
∵ f (2) = 2 3 − 27(2) − 54 = −100
 f (−2) = ( −2) 3 − 27(−2) − 54 = −8
Revision Exercise 3 (p. 154)
f (3) = 33 − 27(3) − 54 = −108
f (−3) = ( −3) 3 − 27(−3) − 54 = 0 Level 1
∴ x + 3 is a factor of f(x).
By long division, ( x 2 − x 4 + 2 x 3 − 4 x + 5) + (−4 x 3 + x + 2 x 2 + 3 x 4 − 8)
x3 – 27x – 54 = (x + 3)(x2 – 3x – 18) 1. = x 2 − x 4 + 2 x 3 − 4 x + 5 − 4 x 3 + x + 2 x 2 + 3x 4 − 8
∴ x − 27 x − 54 = ( x − 6) ( x + 3)
3 2
= − x 4 + 3x 4 + 2 x 3 − 4 x 3 + x 2 + 2 x 2 − 4 x + x + 5 − 8
= 2 x 4 − 2 x 3 + 3x 2 − 3 x − 3
3 2
21. Let f(x) = x – 15x + 72x – 108.
f (1) = 13 − 15(1) 2 + 72(1) − 108 = −50 (3 x + 5 x 2 − 8 − 4 x 3 ) − (3 x 2 − 2 x + 2 x 3 − 2)
3 2
f (−1) = ( −1) − 15( −1) + 72( −1) − 108 = −196 = 3x + 5 x 2 − 8 − 4 x 3 − 3x 2 + 2 x − 2 x 3 + 2
∵ 2.
3 2
f (2) = 2 − 15( 2) + 72( 2) − 108 = −16 = −4 x 3 − 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 3 x 2 + 3x + 2 x − 8 + 2
3 2
f (−2) = ( −2) − 15(2) + 72( −2) − 108 = −320 = − 6 x3 + 2x 2 + 5x − 6
3 2
f (3) = 3 − 15(3) + 72(3) − 108 = 0
∴ x – 3 is a factor of f(x). ( 2 x 2 − x + 2)( x + 3)
By long division,
3. = (2 x 2 − x + 2)( x) + (2 x 2 − x + 2)(3)
x3 – 15x2 + 72x – 108 = (x – 3)(x2 – 12x + 36)
= 2 x 3 − x 2 + 2 x + 6 x 2 − 3x + 6
∴ x − 15 x + 72 x − 108 = ( x − 6) ( x − 3)
3 2 2

= 2 x 3 + 5x 2 − x + 6
22. Let f(x) = 2x3 – 25x2 + 67x + 40.
 1  1
3
 1
2
 1 ( x 3 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1)(2 x − 1)
f  −  = 2 −  − 25 −  + 67 −  + 40
 2   2   2   2 4. = ( x 3 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1)(2 x) + ( x 3 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1)(−1)

=− −
1 25 67
− + 40 = 2 x 4 + 6 x 3 − 4 x 2 + 2 x − x 3 − 3x 2 + 2 x − 1
4 4 2
= 2x 4 + 5x3 − 7 x 2 + 4 x − 1
=0
∴ 2x + 1 is a factor of f(x).
By long division,
2x3 – 25x2 + 67x + 40 = (2x + 1)(x2 – 13x + 40)
∴ 2 x − 25 x + 67 x + 40 = ( x − 8)( x − 5)( 2 x + 1)
3 2

23. Let f(x) = 3x3 + 8x2 – 68x – 48.

76
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

x(3 − 2 x)(4 − 3 x) + (5 − 2 x 2 + 4 x 3 ) − (8 − 5 x + 3 x 2 )
11. Let f(x) = x3 – 2x2 + 7x + 1.
= x( −2 x + 3)(−3x + 4) + (4 x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5) −
= f (−1)
(3 x 2 − 5 x + 8)
Remainder = ( −1) − 2(−1) + 7(−1) + 1
3 2
5. = ( −2 x 2 + 3 x)(−3 x + 4) + (4 x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5) −
= −1 − 2 − 7 + 1
(3 x 2 − 5 x + 8)
= −9
= 6 x 3 − 17 x 2 + 12 x + 4 x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5 − 3 x 2 + 5 x − 8
= 10 x 3 − 22 x 2 + 17 x − 3 12. Let f(x) = 16x3 – 2x + 1.
 1
= f − 
3y  2
3
6. 4 y 12 y 3 + 0 y 2 + 8 y
2
Remainder  1  1
= 16 −  − 2 −  + 1
12 y 3  2  2
= −2 + 1 + 1
8y
=0
∴ The quotient is 3y and the remainder is 8y.
13. Let f(x) = (x – 699)699 – (x – 701)701.
z 2 − 2z + 6
 1400 
= f 
z + 2 z 3 + 0z 2 + 2z − 3  2 
z 3 + 2z 2 = f (700)
7. − 2z 2 + 2z Remainder = (700 − 699) 699 − (700 − 701) 701
− 2z 2 − 4z = 1699 − ( −1) 701
6z − 3 = 1+1
6 z − 12 =2
− 15
f (1) = 14 + 29(1) + 6
∴ The quotient z2 – 2z + 6 and the remainder is –15.
14. (a) = 1 + 29 + 6
p3 − p2 = 36
≠0
p − 2 p4 − 3 p3 + 2 p2 + 0 p − 3
∴ x – 1 is not a factor of f(x).
8. p 4 − 2 p3
− p3 + 2 p2 f (−3) = ( −3) 4 + 29( −3) + 6
(b)
− p 3 + 2p 2 = 81 − 87 + 6
=0
−3
∴ x + 3 is a factor of f(x).
∴ The quotient is p3 – p2 and the remainder is –3.
f (−2) = (−2) 3 − 11( −2) 2 + 32( −2) − 28
2r 2 + 2r − 2 15. (a) = −8 − 44 − 64 − 28
= −144
2r + 1 4 r 3 + 6 r 2 − 2r + 1
≠0
4r 3 + 2r 2 ∴ x + 2 is not a factor of f(x).
9. 4r 2 − 2 r
f (2) = 2 3 − 11( 2) 2 + 32( 2) − 28
4r 2 + 2r (b)
= 8 − 44 + 64 − 28
− 4r + 1
=0
− 4r − 2
∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).
3
16. Let f(x) = x3 + kx2 – 5x + 6.
∴ The quotient 2r2 + 2r – 2 and the remainder is 3. ∵ x3 + kx2 – 5x + 6 is divisible by x – 2.
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem.
10. Let f(x) = 4x3 – 4x2 + x – 1.
= f (1)
Remainder = 4(1) 3 − 4(1) 2 + 1 − 1
=0

77
4 More about Polynomials

f (2) = 0 x−4
3 2
2 + k (2) − 5( 2) + 6 = 0 x − 2 x − 1 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 3x − 4
2

8 + 4k − 10 + 6 = 0
22. x3 − 2x 2 − x
k = −1
− 4x 2 + 4x − 4
17. Let f(x) = kx3 – 3x2 – 8kx + 9. − 4x 2 + 8x + 4
By the remainder theorem, we have − 4x − 8
f (−3) = 3
k (−3) 3 − 3( −3) 2 − 8k ( −3) + 9 = 3 ∴ The quotient is x – 4 and the remainder –4x – 8.
− 27 k − 27 + 24k + 9 = 3
2x2 − x + 4
3k = −21
k = −7 x 2 − 2 2x4 − x3 + 0x 2 + x − 4
2x4 − 4x2
18. Let f(x) = x3 – 2x2 – 7x – 4.
3 2 23. − x3 + 4x 2 + x
∵ f (1) = 1 − 2(1) − 7(1) − 4 = −12
− x3 + 2x
f (−1) = ( −1) 3 − 2( −1) 2 − 7(−1) − 4 = 0
2
∴ x + 1 is a factor of f(x). 4x − x − 4
By long division, 4x 2 −8
x3 – 2x2 – 7x – 4 = (x + 1)(x2 – 3x – 4)
− x+ 4
∴ x − 2 x − 7 x − 4 = ( x − 4 ) ( x + 1)
3 2 2

∴ The quotient is 2x2 – x + 4 and the remainder is


3 2 3
19. 2x + 14x + 32x + 24 = 2(x + 7x + 16x + 12)2 –x + 4.
Let f(x) = x3 + 7x2 + 16x + 12. − 3 x + 12
f (1) = 13 + 7(1) 2 + 16(1) + 12 = 36 − x 2 − 4 x + 5 3 x 3 + 0 x 2 − 15 x + 8
∵ f ( −1) = (−1) 3 + 7( −1) 2 + 16(−1) + 12 = 2 24. 3 x 3 + 12 x 2 − 15 x
f (2) = 2 3 + 7( 2) 2 + 16( 2) + 12 = 80 − 12 x 2 + 0 x + 8
f (−2) = (−2) 3 + 7( −2) 2 + 16( −2) + 12 = 0 − 12 x 2 − 48 x + 60
∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x). 48 x − 52
By long division,
x3 + 7x2 + 16x + 12 = (x + 2)(x2 + 5x + 6) ∴ The quotient is –3x + 12 and the remainder is
∴ x3 + 7x2 + 16x + 12 = (x + 2)2(x + 3) 48x – 52.
∴ 2 x + 14 x + 32 x + 24 = 2( x + 2) ( x + 3)
3 2 2

2x − 4

20. Let f(x) = x3 – kx2 + x + c. 2x 2 + x −1 4x3 − 6x 2 + 2x − 5


∵ x + k is factor of x3 – kx2 + x + c.
25. 4x3 + 2x 2 − 2x
∵ By the converse of the factor theorem,
f (−k ) = 0 − 8x 2 + 4 x − 5
(−k ) 3 − k (−k ) 2 + (−k ) + c = 0 − 8x 2 − 4 x + 4
c = 2k 3 + k 8x − 9

∴ k = 2, c = 18 or k = 1, c = 3 or k = −1, c = −3. (or ∴ The quotient is 2x – 4 and the remainder is


any other reasonable answers) 8x – 9.

21. (5x3 + ax + 1) + (bx2 + 7x + 3) 26. Let f(x) = 3x3 + 16x2 + x + c.


= 5 x 3 + ax + 1 + bx 2 + 7 x + 3 By the remainder theorem, we have
 1
= 5 x 3 + bx 2 + (a + 7) x + 4 f  −  = −5
 3
∵ The coefficient of x3 is 5. 3 2
∴ His answer is unreasonable.  1  1  1
3 −  + 16 −  +  −  + c = −5
 3  3  3
1 16 1
− + − + c = −5
Level 2 9 9 3
19
c=−
3

78
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

27. By the remainder theorem, we have 1


f (1) = g (1) k = −1 or k=
2
13 − 2(1) 2 + p(1) − 4 = 3(1) 3 − 12 + 1 + 1
1− 2 + p − 4 = 3 −1 + 1+ 1 32. Let f(x) = x3 – 2x2 + ax + b
When f(x) is divided by x + 1,
p =9
f (−1) = −8

28. (a) Let f(x) = x(x – 1)(x – 2) – (x – 3)(x + 20). ( −1) 3 − 2(−1) 2 + a ( −1) + b = −8
f (4) = 4(4 − 1)(4 − 2) − (4 − 3)(4 + 20) a − b = 5 …… (1)
∵ When f(x) is divided by x – 2,
= 4(3)(2) − 1(24)
f (2) = 4
=0
∴ x – 4 is a factor of x(x – 1)(x – 2) 2 3 − 2( 2) 2 + a (2) + b = 4
…… (2)
– (x – 3)(x + 20). 2a + b = 4
(1) + (2), 3a = 9
(b) x(x –1)(x – 2) – (x – 3)(x + 20) a=3
= ( x 2 − x )( x − 2) − ( x 2 + 17 x − 60)
By substituting a = 3 into (1), we have
= x 3 − 3 x 2 + 2 x − x 2 − 17 x + 60 3−b = 5
= x 3 − 4 x 2 − 15 x + 60 b= −2
By long division,
x3 – 4x2 – 15x + 60 = (x – 4)(x2 – 15) 33. (a) Let f(x) = 2x3 – 9x2 + px – 6.
x( x − 1)( x − 2) − ( x − 3)( x + 20) ∵ 2x – 3 is factor of 2x3 – 9x2 + px – 6.

= ( x − 4)( x 2 − 15) ∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
3
f  =0
29. Let f(x) = x3 + 5x2 – 2x – 24. 2
f (1) = 13 + 5(1) 2 − 2(1) − 24 = −20 3
3
3 3
2

∵ 2  − 9  + p  − 6 = 0
f (−1) = ( −1) 3 + 5(−1) 2 − 2( −1) − 24 = −18 2 2 2
f (2) = 23 + 5(2) 2 − 2( 2) − 24 = 0 27 81 3 p
− + −6 = 0
∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x). 4 4 2
By long division, 3 p 39
=
x3 + 5x2 – 2x – 24 = (x – 2)(x2 + 7x + 12) 2 2
p = 13
∴ x + 5 x − 2 x − 24 = ( x − 2)( x + 3)( x + 4)
3 2

(b) By long division,


30. Let f(x) = x3 – 7x2 – 6x + 72.
2x3 – 9x2 + 13x – 6 = (2x – 3)(x2 – 3x + 2)
f (1) = 13 − 7(1) 2 − 6(1) + 72 = 60 ∴
f (−1) = (−1) 3 − 7(−1) 2 − 6( −1) + 72 = 70 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 13 x − 6 = ( x − 2)( x − 1)( 2 x − 3)
∵ f (2) = 2 3 − 7(2) 2 − 6( 2) + 72 = 40
f (−2) = (−2) 3 − 7( −2) 2 − 6( −2) + 72 = 48 34. Let f(x) = 2x3 – x2 – ax + b and
g(x) = bx3 – 2x2 – x + a.
f (3) = 3 3 − 7(3) 2 − 6(3) + 72 = 18 ∵ x – 1 is a common factor of 2x3 – x2 – ax + b and
f (−3) = (−3) 3 − 7(−3) 2 − 6( −3) + 72 = 0 bx3 – 2x2 – x + a.
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
∴ x + 3 is a factor of f(x).
f (1) = 0
By long division,
x3 – 7x2 – 6x + 72 = (x + 3)(x2 – 10x + 24) 2(1) 3 − 12 − a(1) + b = 0
∴ x − 7 x − 6 x + 72 = ( x − 6)( x − 4)( x + 3) a − b = 1 …… (1)
3 2

g (1) = 0
31. Let f(x) = 8x2 + 2x – 1.
∵ 8x2 + 2x – 1 is divisible by 2x – k. b(1) 3 − 2(1) 2 − 1 + a = 0
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem, a + b = 3 …… (2)
k
f =0 (1) + (2), 2a = 4
2 a=2
2 By substituting a = 2 into (1), we have
k k
8  + 2  − 1 = 0 2 −b =1
2 2
b =1
2k 2 + k − 1 = 0
( k + 1)(2k − 1) = 0 35. (a) By the remainder theorem, we have
k+1=0 or 2k – 1 = 0

79
4 More about Polynomials

f (3) = g (3) h ( − 2) = 0
4(3) 3 + 3(3) 2 + 5k (3) + 15 = −(3) 3 + k (3) 2 (−2) + ( a + 2)(−2) + 1 + a + b = 0
2

+ 46(3) − 21 1− a + b = 0
…… (2)
15k + 150 = 9k + 90 b = a −1
6k = −60
k = − 10 2b = 2
(c) (1) + (2),
b =1
f ( x ) − g ( x) = 4 x 3 + 3x 2 + 5( −10) x + 15 −
(b) By substituting b = 1 into (1), we have
(− x 3 − 10 x 2 + 46 x − 21)
1= 3−a
= 5 x 3 + 13 x 2 − 96 x + 36 a=2
Let h(x) = 5x3 + 13x2 – 96x + 36.
3 2
2 2 2 2 38. Let f(x) = x99 + 1.
∵ h  = 5  + 13  − 96  + 36 = 0
5 5 5 5 (a) By the remainder theorem,
∴ 5x – 2 is a factor of h(x). = f (−1)
By long division,
remainder = ( −1) + 1
99

5 x 3 + 13 x 2 − 96 x + 36 = −1 + 1
= (5 x − 2)( x 2 + 3 x − 18) =0
f ( x) − g ( x) = ( x − 3) (5 x − 2)( x + 6)

(b) Let Q(x) be the quotient when f(x) is divided by
x + 1.
f ( x) = ( x + 1)Q( x) (By (a))

36. (a) f ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) 3 + k x99 + 1 = ( x + 1)Q( x)


= ( x + 1)( x + 1) 2 + k x 99 = ( x + 1)Q( x) − 1  (1)
∴ When f(x + 1) is divided by x + 1, the By substituting x = 6 into (1), we have
remainder is k. 6 99 = (6 + 1)Q (6) − 1
∴ =1
k = 7Q(6) − 1
∴ If today is Monday, the day after 699 days is
(b) f (2 x) = (2 x) 3 + 1 Sunday.
= 8x 3 + 1
Let g(x) = 8x3 + 1. 39. (a) By the remainder theorem,
By the remainder theorem, remainder
= f ( −1)
= g (2)
remainder = 8( 2) 3 + 1 = ( −1) n + 2( −1) + 3
= 65 = −1 − 2 + 3 ( n is a positive odd integer )
=0
f ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) 2 + a ( x − 1) + b
37. (a)
= x 2 − 2 x + 1 + ax − a + b (b) By the remainder theorem, when f(x) is divided
= x 2 + (a − 2) x + 1 − a + b by x – 1,
Let g(x) = x2 + (a – 2)x + 1 – a + b. = f (1)
By the remainder theorem, we have remainder n
= 1 + 2(1) + 3
g (2) = 4
=6
2 2 + (a − 2)(2) + 1 − a + b = 4
1+ a + b = 4 Let Q(x) and ax + b the quotient and the
…… (1) remainder respectively when f(x) is divided by x2
b = 3−a
– 1.
f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 1)Q ( x) + ( ax + b)
f ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) 2 + a ( x + 1) + b = ( x + 1)( x − 1)Q( x) + (ax + b)
(b) …… (1)
= x 2 + 2 x + 1 + ax + a + b By substituting x = 1 into (1), we have
= x 2 + (a + 2) x + 1 + a + b f (1) = (1 + 1)(1 − 1)Q(1) + [a (1) + b]
Let h(x) = x2 + (a + 2)x + 1 + a + b. 6 = a +b …… (2)
∵ x2 + (a + 2)x + 1 + a + b is divisible by x + 2. By substituting x = –1 into (1), we have
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem, f (−1) = (−1 + 1)(−1 − 1)Q(−1) + [ a(−1) + b]
0 = −a + b ……(3)

80
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

∴ By the factor theorem, x – 1 and 3x + 4 are factors


(2) + (3), 2b = 6
of f(x).
b=3 (x – 1)(3x + 4) = 3x2 + x – 4
By substituting b = 3 into (3), we have By long division,
0 = −a + 3 3 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 2 x − 8 = (3 x 2 + x − 4)( x + 2)
a=3 = (3 x + 4)( x − 1)( x + 2)
∴ The remainder when f(x) is divided by x2 – 1
f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x + 2)(3 x + 4)
is 3x + 3. ∴

40. (a) Let f(x) = 2x2 + px + q and g(x) = 2x2 + qx + p. 5. Answer: C


∵ x – r is a common factor of f(x) and g(x). By the remainder theorem, we have
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem, f (−k ) = k
f ( r ) = g (r ) ( −k + 2)(−k − 3) + 2 = k
2r 2 + pr + q = 2r 2 + qr + p k2 + k −6+ 2 = k
( p − q) r = p − q k 2 = 4 or –2 (rejected)
r = 1 ( p and p are distinct real k =2
numbers)
6. Answer: A
(b) By (a), put p = 3, q = –5 and r = 1. Let Q(x) be the quotient when P(x) is divided by
The required polynomial is 2x2 – 5x + 3 or 4x – 1.
(x – 1)(x + 5), i.e. x2 + 4x – 5. (or any other ∴ P ( x) = (4 x − 1)Q( x) + R
reasonable answers) = (1 − 4 x)[−Q ( x)] + R
∴ When P(x) is divided by 1 – 4x, the remainder is
R.
7. Answer: B
Multiple Choice Questions (p. 156) ∵ Q(x) is divisible by x + 1.
∴ Q(x – 1) is divisible by (x – 1) + 1 = x.
1. Answer: A
Let f(x) = x3 – x2 + 2x + 1. 8. Answer: A
By the remainder theorem, Let f(x) = 2x3 – ax2 + bx + 3.
= f (2) ∵ x + 3 is factor of 2x3 – ax2 + bx + 3.
3 2 ∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,
remainder = 2 − 2 + 2(2) + 1
= 8 − 4 + 4 −1 f (−3) = 0
=9 2(−3) 3 − a ( −3) 2 + b( −3) + 3 = 0
− 54 − 9a − 3b + 3 = 0
2. Answer: C − 3a − b = 17
∵ f(x) is divisible by x + 1.
∴ By the converse of the factor theorem, 9. Answer: B
f ( −1) = 0 Let Q(x) and ax + b be the quotient and the remainder
( −1) 2005 − (−1) + k = 0 respectively when P(x) is divided by x2 – 1.
∴ P ( x) = ( x − 1)Q( x) + ( ax + b)
2
−1 +1 + k = 0
k =0 = ( x + 1)( x − 1)Q ( x) + (ax + b) …… (1)
By substituting x = 1 into (1), we have
P (1) = (1 + 1)(1 − 1)Q (1) + [a (1) + b]
3. Answer: D 1= a+b …… (2)
∵ f (−1) = 0 By substituting x = –1 into (1), we have
3( −1) 2 − p (−1) + 1 = 0 P (−1) = ( −1 + 1)(−1 − 1)Q (−1) + [ a( −1) + b]
∴ 3 = −a + b ……(3)
3 + p +1 = 0
p = −4 (2) + (3), 4 = 2b
b=2
f ( x) = 3x 2 + 4 x + 1
∴ f (1) = 3(1) + 4(1) + 1
2
By substituting b = 2 into (2), we have
= 3 + 4 +1 1= a + 2
=8 a = −1
∴ The remainder when P(x) is divided by x2 – 1 is
–x + 2.
4. Answer: A
 4 10. Answer: D
∵ f(1) = 0 and f  −  = 0
 3 ∵ f(x) is divisible by x + 2 and 2x – 1.

81
4 More about Polynomials

∴ By the converse of the factor theorem,


f (−2) = 0
2(−2) 3 + a( −2) 2 + b( −2) + 4 = 0
2a − b = 6 …… (1)
1
f =0
2
3 2
1 1 1
2  + a  + b  + 4 = 0 …… (2)
2
  2
  2
a = −2b − 17
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
2(−2b − 17) − b = 6
5b = −40
b = −8
By substituting b = –8 into (1), we have
2a − ( −8) = 6
a = −1

HKMO (p. 157)

Let f(x) = x3 + kx2 + 3.


By the remainder theorem, we have
f (−3) = f (−1) − 2
( −3) 3 + k ( −3) 2 + 3 = ( −1) 3 + k ( −1) 2 + 3 − 2
9k − 24 = k
8k = 24
k =3

82