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James Hutton & Charles Lyell Both stated that the earth was formed over a long period

d of geological changes opposing the common belief of earth being formed quickly Lamarcks theory of Evolution Stated that the trait was acquired through the animals lifetime based on actions. (Giraffes have long necks because they had to stretch to reach their food) Malthus theory of Population Growth - He believed that if the population kept growing the way it was at the time, we would run out of resources and go extinct Charles Darwin - Established all species evolve over time from a common ancestor. Published On the Origin of Species, which stated his theory of evolution and natural selection, or survival of the fittest. Artificial Selection Intentional human intervention with breeding to obtain certain traits in a species Directional Selection Occurs when natural selection favors a single phenotype and therefore allele frequency continuously shifts in one direction. Stabilizing Selection Occurs when genetic diversity decreases as the population stabilizes on a particular trait value. Disruptive Selection Describes a change in population genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values. Genetic Drift The change in the frequency of an allele in a population due to random sampling. Founder Effect The loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population. Genetic Equilibrium Conditions No gene mutation, large population size and mating is random. Temporal isolation Individuals do not mate because they are active at different times. Geographic isolation Individuals only mate in preferred habitats. Behavioral isolation Individuals of a different species may meet but dont recognize sexual traits on one another. Speciation Evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. Fossil Record Collection of accumulation artifacts that have been fossilized all over the world. Half-Life The period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by exactly half. Basic Divisions of the Geological time scale Eon, Era, Period, Epoch, Age, Chron. Miller-Urey Experiment Simulated hypothetical conditions thought at the time to be present on the early earth, and tested for the occurrence of chemical origins of life.

Adaptive Radiation The evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity with a rapidly multiplying lineage. Binomial Nomenclature The scientific system of naming things. Linnaeus System of Classification Taxonomy: kingdom, Phylum, Class, order, Family, Genus, Species. Evolutionary Classification: Organisms are classified by their evolutionary history unlike Linnaeus system in which organisms were classified by how they looked. Cladistic Analysis A system of taxonomy based on analysis of comparative data and used to reconstruct cladograms. Three Domain System Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya Members of Kingdom Archaebacteria Methanogens: Anerobic Methane producers, Halophiles: Survive in environments with high salt concentration. Shapes of Prokaryotes Each one has an exoskeleton and a flagella. How Prokaryotes Obtain Energy Photosynthesis and organic compounds. Gram-Straining System of dividing bacterial species into two main groups, gram-positive or gramnegative, based on the chemical and physical properties of their cell walls. Pathogens Infectious agents such as a virus. Basic structures of a Virus Head, DNA/RNA inside, Tail and Base. Lytic Viruses One that is replicated in the host cell and causes lysis of the cell and death. Lysogenic Viruses One which inserts its DNA into the genome of the host for a long time allowing it to replicate and activate whenever it wants. Diseases caused by Protists Example: Malaria. Characteristics Common to both Green Plants and Green Algae Cell Wall Composition, Multicellularity and Photosynthetic Pigments. Alternations of Generations A diploid alternates with a haploid in as plant cell. Human uses of Algae Fertilization, Food and Pollution Control Main groups in Fungus-like Protists Animal-like, Protists with Psuedopods, Amoebas. Mycelium The vegetation part of a fungus consisting of a mass of hyphae. Reproduction in Fungi BOTH Asexual and Sexual are possible.

Classification of Mushrooms Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreceae, Hypomycese Saprobes Recycling Fungi in nature. Lichens - Composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of fungus with a photosynthetic partner. Mycorrhizae symbiotic association between a fungus and the vascular roots of a plant. Mutualism The way two organisms interact in their environment to benefit one another.