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Melbourne School of Engineering Engineering Mechanics Tutorial Six (T06)

Mechanics of Solids - Flexure Stresses and Deection

Part A (Section Properties)


A genuine attempt at completing question 1 must be shown to gain permission to enter the tutorial. Otherwise, you will be denied entry until you attempt it yourself. Note that Second Moment of Area and Moment of Inertia are equivalent Simple cross sections Centroid of rectangle or circle: Center of the area 3 Second Moment of Area for Rectangle with width b, depth d: I = bd 12 4 Second Moment of Area for Circle with diameter D: I = D 64 Cross section of total area A, made up of smaller simple pieces Ay Centroid: y = i A i i Second Moment of Area: I = i Ii + i Ai (yi y )2 where Ai and yi are the area and centroid of the smaller piece i respectively, and Ii is the second moment of area of the smaller piece about its own centroid 1. (Problems 6-17 and 6-68 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials)

Figure 1: Welded Section For the cross section shown in Fig. 1 1

(a) Determine the location y of the centroidal axis x (Ans: 154.4mm) (b) Determine the moment of inertia of the beams cross-sectional area about the x axis (Ans: 95.9 106 mm4 ) Neglect the size of the corner welds at A. 2. (Problems 6-20 and 6-78 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials)

Figure 2: Channel For the channel shown in Fig. 2 (a) Locate the centroid y (Ans: 2.00 cm) (b) Determine the moment of inertia with respect to the x axis passing through the centroid (Ans: 128 cm4 ) 3. (Problems 6-63 and 6-64 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials)

Figure 3: Unequal Angle For the angle shown in Fig. 3 (a) Locate the centroid y then nd the moment of inertia Ix , about the x centroidal axis (Ans: 2.00 cm, 64.0 cm4 ) (b) Locate the centroid x then nd the moment of inertia Iy , about the y centroidal axis (Ans: 3.00 cm, 136 cm4 )

Figure 4: C section 4. (Problems 6-65 and 6-66 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials) For the C section shown in Fig. 4 (a) Find the moment of inertia Ix , about the x centroidal axis (Ans: 49.5 106 mm4 ) (b) Locate the centroid x then nd the moment of inertia Iy , about the y centroidal axis (Ans: 3.00cm, 136cm4 )

Part B (Bending Stresses)


=
My I

5. (Problems 12-1 and 12-2 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials)

Figure 5: Wooden Beam The beam in Fig. 5 is subjected to a moment M . (a) Determine the percentage of this moment that is resisted by the stresses acting on both the top and bottom boards, A and B, of the beam. (Ans: 84.6 %)

(b) Determine the moment M that should be applied to the beam in order to create a compressive stress at point D of D = 30MPa. Also sketch the stress distribution acting over the cross section and compute the maximum stress developed in the beam. (Ans: 36.5 kNm, 40.0 MPa) 6. (Problem 12-3 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials)

Figure 6: I cross-sections The two considerations shown in Fig. 6 have been proposed for the design of a beam. Determine which one will support a moment of M = 150 kNm with the least amount of bending stress. What is that stress? By what percentage is it more eective? (Ans: 74.7 MPa, 53.0 %) 7. (Problem 12-13 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials) The two considerations shown in Fig. 7 have been proposed for the design of a beam. Determine which one will support a moment of M = 150 kNm with the least amount of bending stress. What is that stress? By what percentage is it more eective? (Ans: 95.0 MPa, 38.4 %) 8. (Problem 12-15 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials) If the beam shown in Fig. 8 has a square cross section of 100 mm on each side, determine the absolute maximum bending stress in the beam. (Ans: 26.88 MPa) 9. (Problems 12-18 and 12-19 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials) The beam shown in Fig. 9 has a rectangular cross section. (a) Determine the largest load P that can be supported on its overhanging ends so that the bending stress in the beam does not exceed max = 10 MPa. (Ans: 1.67 kN) (b) If P = 15 kN, determine the maximum bending stress in the beam. Sketch the stress distribution acting over the cross section. (Ans: 9.00MPa) 10. (Problems 12-20 and 12-21 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials) The sleeve bearings of the shaft shown in Fig. 10 at A and B support only vertical forces. (a) Determine the absolute maximum bending stress in the 1.5-cm-diameter shaft which is subjected to the concentrated forces. (Ans: 136 MPa) 4

Figure 7: C cross-sections (b) Determine the smallest allowable diameter of the shaft which is subjected to the concentrated forces. The allowable bending stress is allow = 154 MPa. (Ans: 14.38 mm) 11. (Problem 12-23 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials) Determine the magnitude of the maximum load P that can be applied to the beam in Fig. 11 if the beam is made of a material having an allowable bending stress of (allow )c = 112 MPa in compression and (allow )t = 125 MPa in tension (Ans: 401.1 kN)

Figure 8: Cantilever beam 5

Figure 9: Wooden Beam

Figure 10: Shaft

Figure 11: T beam

Part C (Deection of Beams)


For uniform E and I along the beam, 1 M (x)dxdx v(x) = EI with Boundary Conditions at reactions of: Roller/Pin at x0 : v(x0 ) = 0 Fixed End at x0 : v(x0 ) = 0 and v (x0 ) = 0 Useful standard deections Simply Supported midspan load P, midspan deection : = 3 Cantilever tip load P, tip deection : = P L 3EI 12. (Problem 16-26 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials)

P L3 48EI

Figure 12: Pole vault The picture in Fig. 12 is taken of a man performing a pole vault, and the minimum radius of curvature of the pole is estimated by measurement to be 4.5 m. If the pole is 40 mm in diameter and it is made of a glass-reinforced plastic for which Eg = 131 GPa, determine the maximum bending stress in the pole. (Ans: 582 MPa) 13. (Problem 16-35 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials)

Figure 13: Cantilever The A-36 steel beam in Fig. 13 has a depth of 250 mm and is subjected to a constant moment M0 , which causes the stress at the outer bers to become Y = 250 MPa. Determine the radius of curvature of the beam and the maximum slope and deection. E = 200 GPa. (Ans: 100 m, 2 M0 L , M0 L ) EI 2EI 7

14. (Problem 16-43 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials)

Figure 14: Wooden retaining wall Wooden posts used for the retaining wall shown in Fig. 14 have a diameter of 75 mm. If the soil pressure along a post varies uniformly from zero at the top A to a maximum of 4 kN/m at the bottom B, determine the slope and deection at the top of the post. Ew = 10 GPa. (Ans: -137.3 mm) 15. (Problem 16-32 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials)

Figure 15: Fence board The fence board in Fig. 15 weaves between the three smooth xed posts. If the posts remain along the same line, determine the maximum bending stress in the board. The board has a width of 150 mm and a thickness of 12 mm. Ew = 10 GPa. Assume the displacement of each end of the board relative to its center is 75 mm. (Ans: 3.375 MPa) 16. (Problem 16-27 from Hibbeler - Mechanics of Materials)

Figure 16: Simply supported beam with a point load Determine the equations of the elastic curve using the x1 and x2 coordinates (see Fig. 16). EI Pb Pa is constant. (Ans: v1 = 6EIL (x3 (L2 b2 )x1 ) and v2 = 6EIL (3x2 L x3 (2L2 + a2 )x2 + a2 L)) 1 2 2 8