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Vehicle Networks Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Thomas Strang, Dipl.-Inform. Matthias Rckl

Outline

Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Wireless LAN Overview History IEEE 802.11-1997 MAC implementations PHY implementations IEEE 802.11 b/g/n IEEE 802.11 a PHY implementation IEEE 802.11 e MAC implementation

No. of layer 7 6 5 4 3 2

ISO/OSI ref model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link

WLAN protocol specification

Not specified in the WLAN standards

IEEE 802.11e IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.11a IEEE 802.11b IEEE 802.11g IEEE 802.11n IEEE 802.11p

Physical

Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Wireless Local Area Network IEEE 802.11

Wireless LAN WLAN standards


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

WLAN PHY/MAC standards IEEE 802.11 base standard IEEE 802.11a HDR: 5 GHz, OFDM IEEE 802.11b HDR: 2.4 GHz, CCK IEEE 802.11g HDR: 2.4 GHz, OFDM IEEE 802.11n HDR: MIMO IEEE 802.11p Wireless Access for Vehicular Environments WLAN MAC extensions IEEE 802.11e QoS WLAN security extensions IEEE 802.11i WPA2 Additional standards IEEE 802.11h European 5 GHz amendment

No. of layer 7 6 5 4 3

ISO/OSI ref model Application Presentation Session Transport Network

WLAN protocol specification

Not specified in the WLAN standards

(IEEE 802.2)

Data Link

IEEE 802.11e IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.11a IEEE 802.11b IEEE 802.11g IEEE 802.11n IEEE 802.11p

Physical

HDR = Higher Data Rate Extension MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output QoS = Quality of Service

Wireless LAN History


1987:
Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

first standardization activities under IEEE 802.4L (Token Ring) Project Authorization Request (PAR) under IEEE 802.11 first WLAN standard IEEE 802.11-1997 Finalization of Higher Data Rate extensions IEEE 802.11a (54Mbps@5GHz) and IEEE 802.11b (11Mbps@2.4GHz) Extension of IEEE 802.11a for 5Ghz frequency usage in Europe (IEEE 802.11h) Finalization of HDR extension IEEE 802.11g (54Mbps@2.4GHz) Finalization of security extension WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i) QoS extension (IEEE 802.11e)

1990: 1997: 2000: 2003: 2003: 2004: 2005:

~2009/10: MIMO extension IEEE 802.11n ~2009/10: Extension for V2X communication IEEE 802.11p

Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

IEEE 802.11-1997

IEEE 802.11-1997 Operating Modes


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Infrastructure-based networks: Requires central Access Point (AP) AP may be connected to other APs or to the Internet via a Distribution System (DS), e.g. Ethernet Stations (STA) communicating with an AP set up a Basic Service Set (BSS) STAs of different BSSs communicating via inter-connected APs set up an Extended Basic Service Set (EBSS) Ad-hoc networks: No central infrastructure required Stations (STAs) communicate directly to each other STAs set up a Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) IBSS requires authentication and association procedures

IEEE 802.11-1997 Layers


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Logical Link Control (LLC): based on IEEE 802.2 (identical for the whole 802.x family) Medium Access Control (MAC): common basic MAC for all IEEE 802.11 WLAN systems Physical Layer Convergence Protocol (PLCP): unique access point to PHY layer (PHY-SAP) independent of transmission medium Physical Medium Dependent (PMD): PHY layer implementation dependent on transmission medium Management Plane: Layer management functions

Multiple Access Prioritization

No. of ISO/OSI layer ref model 2b 2a 1b

Data Plane

Management Plane

1a

Logical Link Control (LLC) Data Link Medium Access Control MAC (MAC) Management Physical Layer Convergence Protocol (PLCP) PHY Physical Management Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) Channel Coding Analog & Digital Modulation

MAC-PHY mapping Synchronization Carrier sense signaling


Clear Channel Assessment (CCA)

Station Management

Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

IEEE 802.11-1997 MAC

IEEE 802.11-1997 Medium Access Control


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Distributed Foundation Wireless Medium Access Control (DFWMAC) Distributed Coordination Function (DCF): CSMA (mandatory) CSMA/CA with RTS/CTS (optional) Point Coordination Function (PCF): Polling (optional) DFWMAC
Point Coordination Function (PCF) Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) CSMA RTS/CTS

IEEE 802.11-1997 Medium Access Control


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

DFWMAC uses time delays to prioritize messages and avoid collisions Every message is deferred according to a distributed time delay scheme Two types of delays: Fixed delay time: Prioritization of more important messages Fixed Inter-Frame Spaces (IFS) according to message type High priority messages have short delay times Low priority messages have longer delay times Random delay time: Collision avoidance Based on traffic adaptive backoff mechanism In high traffic conditions delay time tend to be longer In low traffic conditions delay time tend to be shorter Random delay times are zero in case of only one node being allowed to send (e.g. the recipient of the last message)

IEEE 802.11-1997 MAC: CSMA


Data to transmit

1.
Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

If a node wants to access the medium, it listens on the channel at least for the DCF Inter-Frame Space (DIFS) If the channel remains idle for the whole DIFS, the node immediately accesses the channel short waiting times in low traffic conditions If the channel gets busy, the node defers its operation until the channel gets idle and again listens on the channel for DIFS If the channel remains idle, it starts its backoff counter and decrements it with every empty slot If the channel gets busy, its freezes the backoff algorithm for the channel busy time If the backoff counter eventually reaches zero the node accesses the channel
Channel busy

Channel idle for DIFS yes

no

Wait until channel becomes idle Channel idle for DIFS yes (Re)start Backoff no

Transmit

yes

Ch. idle for Backoff time

no

Sender A Sender B Sender C

DIFS
Channel busy

Channel busy

DIFS

DIFS

7 6 5 DIFS

DIFS

4 3 2 1

IEEE 802.11-1997 MAC: CSMA


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Acknowledgements (ACKs) are used to detect collisions in unicast communication ACKs require a timely delivery In order to prioritize ACKs, nodes that compete for the channel to send an ACK only have to wait for a shorter duration, the Short Inter-Frame Space (SIFS) < DIFS

Sender A Sender B Sender C

DIFS

Data to B
SIFS DIFS ACK

DIFS

DIFS

2 1

IEEE 802.11-1997 MAC: CSMA/CA


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Avoidance of Hidden-Terminal-Problem (HTP) and Exposed-Terminal-Problem (ETP) by explicit channel reservation with RTS/CTS messages RTS and CTS include channel reservation time Every node stores the channel reservation time in its Network Allocation Vector (NAV)
1. 2. 3.

B A C

To send an RTS message, initiator has to use CSMA with DIFS Responder acknowledges the RTS with a CTS after SIFS Initiator is allowed to transmit after waiting another SIFS
SIFS

Sender A Sender B NAV of sender C NAV of sender D

DIFS

RTS SIFS CTS

Data to B
SIFS ACK

Channel reserved
Channel Reserved

Avoids HTP Avoids ETP

Free to transmit

IEEE 802.11-1997 MAC: Point Coordination Function


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Applicable in infrastructure-based mode only Central coordinated MAC: Polling by access point acting as Point Coordinator (PC) Periodic super frames consisting of a Contention Free Period (CFP) and a Contention Period (CP) CFP is introduced by the PC at the beginning of each super frame with a PCF Inter-Frame Space (PIFS) SIFS < PIFS < DIFS ( PCF has higher priority than DCF) If a polled station does not reply, the PC polls the next station after waiting PIFS
Super frame Contention Free Period Contention Period Super frame

Point Coordinator PIFS Poll A


SIFS

SIFS

Poll B PIFS Poll C


SIFS

Station A Station C

Data

Data

IEEE 802.11-1997 Backoff algorithm


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Contention Window (CW) is exponentially increased in case of collisions CW = x2 1, x=x+1 in case of collision CW Backoff time = Random(CW) * SlotTime CWmax Random(CW): Random number 1023 from the interval [0;CW] SlotTime = PHY layer dependent FHSS: 50 s DSSS: 20 s CW is reset in case of successful 48 transmission (detected by ACKs) 35 Upper bounds (CWmax) and lower CWmin 24 . bounds (CWmin) for CW 15 depend on PHY layer: Third Retransmit Second Retransmit FHSS: CWmin = 15, CWmax = 1023 First Retransmit DSSS: CWmin = 31, CWmax = 1023 Initial Attempt (no backoff)

IEEE 802.11-1997 MAC frame structure


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Byte

Frame Control 2

Payload Sequence Frame Duration Address 1 Address 2 Address 3 Address 4 Control Body 2 6 6 6 2 6 0-2312 To From More Pwr More OrRetry WEP der DS DS Frag. Mgmt Data 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Header

Trailer FCS 4

Prot. SubType Vers. type Bit 2 2 4

To DS 0 0 1 1

From Addr. 1 Addr. 2 Addr. 3 Addr. 4 DS 0 1 0 1


physical physical BSSID Recv. Sender physical logical BSSID Recv. Sender physical logical BSSID Sender Recv. physical physical logical Recv. Sender Recv. logical Sender 1 2 3 4

Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

IEEE 802.11-1997 PHY

IEEE 802.11-1997 Physical Layer


3 basic implementations:
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Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) 2.4 GHz ISM band (EU: 100mW EIRP, US: 1W EIRP) Frequency Spreading Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) 2.4 GHz ISM band (EU: 100mW EIRP, US: 1W EIRP) Code Spreading Diffused Infrared (DFIR) Infrared: 850nm 900nm Not used in practice

IEEE 802.11-1997 FHSS: PMD


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Frequency spreading ISM band is separated in 79 non-overlapping channels with bandwidth of 1 MHz

Channel Frequency

77

78

79

f
c1 c7 c25 c37 c55 c61 c79

Channel is changed with 2.5 Hz ( channel dwell period = 400 ms) according to a pseudo-random hopping sequence (e.g. c1,c7,c25,c55,c37,c61, c1,c7,c25) Next channel has to be at least 6 MHz apart Channel width = 1 MHz Symbol rate = 1 Msps (million symbols per second) Modulation: 2-Level Gaussian FSK 1 Mbps data rate 4-Level Gaussian FSK 2 Mbps data rate

IEEE 802.11-1997 FHSS: PLCP frame


Preamble
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Header PLW PSF CRC 16

Data MAC-PDU <=4095 Byte 1-2 Mbps

SYNC Bit 80

SFD

16 12 4 Data rate = 1 Mbps

Preamble (1 Mbps): SYNC (Synchronisation): alternating 0 and 1 SFD (Start of Frame Delimiter): 0000 1100 1011 1101 Header (1 Mbps): PLW (Packet Length Width): Length of SDU in bits PSF (Packet Signaling Field): Data rate in 0.5 Mbps steps starting with 1 Mbps Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC): G(x) = x16 + x12 + x5 + 1 Data (1-2 Mbps)

IEEE 802.11-1997 DSSS: PMD


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Code spreading 11-bit chipping sequence (Barker code) : 10110111000 Barker code has a very good autocorrelation good separation of superimposed signals in multipath situations ISM band is separated into 11 partially overlapping channels Channel width = 22 MHz Channel spacing = 5 MHz Symbol rate = 1 Msps Modulation: Differential BPSK 1 Mbps data rate Differential QPSK 2 Mbps data rate

Transmitter

Data to transmit
XOR

Chip Sequence

Spreaded data

Non-overlapping channels 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

22 MHz 5 MHz

IEEE 802.11-1997 DSSS: PLCP frame


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Preamble SYNC Bit 128 SFD Signal 16 8 8 Data rate = 1 Mbps

Header Service Length 16 CRC 16

Data MAC-PDU <=4095 Byte 1-2 Mbps

Preamble (1 Mbps): SYNC (Synchronisation): alternating 0 and 1 SFD (Start of Frame Delimiter): 1111 0011 1010 0000 Header (1 Mbps): Signal: Data rate in 0.1 Mbps steps Service: reserved Length: Length of SDU in microseconds Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC): G(x) = x16 + x12 + x5 + 1 Data (1-2 Mbps)

IEEE 802.11-1997 Comparison FHSS vs. DSSS


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

FHSS
Spreading Modulation Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Frequency band Bandwidth Data rates Slot time SIFS Preamble length Header length Frequency FSK 18 dB 2.402 2.480 GHz 79 MHz
(Short term: 1 MHz for a single hop)

DSSS
Code PSK 12 dB 2.401 2.483 GHz 22 MHz
(for a single sub-band)

1 Mbps (mandatory) 2 Mbps (optional) 50 s 28 s 96 bits (96 s) 32 bits (32 s)

1 Mbps (mandatory) 2 Mbps (optional) 20 s 10 s 144 bits (144 s) 48 bits (48 s)

Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

IEEE 802.11b/g/n

IEEE 802.11b/g/n IEEE 802.11b


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

IEEE 802.11b extends IEEE 802.11 DSSS with two additional PMDs: 5.5 Mbps: QPSK symbols spread by 8-chip Complementary Code Keying (CCK) encoding 2 bits 11 Mbps: QPSK symbols spread by 8-chip Complementary Code Keying (CCK) encoding 6 bits
Data rate
1 Mbps 2 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 11 Mbps

Code length Modu- Symbol Bits/ lation rate Symbol


11 (Barker-Code) 11 (Barker-Code) 8 (CCK) 8 (CCK) BPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK 1 Msps 1 Msps 1.375 Msps 1.375 Msps 1 2 4 (2+2) 8 (2+6)

IEEE 802.11b/g/n IEEE 802.11g


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

2.4 GHz ISM band Modulation: OFDM (similar to IEEE 802.11a) Data rates: 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 Mbps (OFDM) + 1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps (CCK) Backward compatible to IEEE 802.11b

IEEE 802.11b/g/n IEEE 802.11n


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Designed for applications with very high data rate requirements (e.g. home entertainment, harddisk streaming, gaming) Several antennas used for parallel transmission: Multiple Input / Multiple Output (MIMO) e.g. 2x2 (= 2 transmitting antennas, 2 receiving antennas) Max. data rate: ~600 Mbps Frequency band: 2.4 GHz / 5 GHz OFDM modulation with 20/40 MHz channels and 4 spatial streams (4x4) Additional MAC enhancements for faster transmission

Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

IEEE 802.11a

IEEE 802.11a PHY: OFDM


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Orthogonal sub-carriers f

Each sub-carrier can have an individual modulation (e.g. QPSK or QAM) Guardband (aka Guardinterval) per symbol reduce Inter-Symbol Interference Synchronization by pilot signals in specific sub-carriers Channel estimation with training symbols Advantages of OFDM: High spectrum efficiency Resistance against narrow-band interferers and signal distortions Resistance against multipath errors RECAP

IEEE 802.11a PHY


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

IEEE 802.11a uses OFDM with 64 sub-carriers: 48 data sub-carriers 4 pilot sub-carriers 12 guard sub-carriers (at spectrum edges) Channel coding: Scrambling w/ LFSR and its G(x) = x7 + x4 + 1 Forward Error Correction: Convolution Coder (2,1,7), (4,3,7), (3,2,7) Inter-carrier interleaving: Block interleaver (12x16) or (18x16) Data rates: 6-54 Mbps Symbol rate: 250 ksps Channel bandwidth: 20 MHz Sub-carrier spacing: 312.5 kHz (= 20 MHz/64) Symbol duration: 4 s Guard period between symbols: 0.8 s

250 ksps * 48 sub-carriers * 6 coded bits/sub-carrier * coding rate = 54 Mbps

IEEE 802.11a Physical Layer Convergence Protocol (PLCP) frame


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10

T1

T2

Preamble: 10 short training symbols t1-t10: used for timing and coarse frequency synchronization 2 long training symbols T1-T2: used for channel estimation and fine frequency acquisition

IEEE 802.11a Frequency band


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IEEE 802.11a is designed for the 5 GHz band Higher frequency higher signal attenuation (see unit wireless communication basics) IEEE 802.11a needs higher power output to achieve the same range as in the 2.4 GHz band Advantages of 5 GHz: Less crowded less co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference Higher bandwidth more channels available (19 ch. in Europe) High power usage allowed in certain areas and frequencies

IEEE 802.11a European regulation


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

In Europe the 5 GHz band was exclusively assigned to HIPERLAN/2, satellite and radar systems IEEE 802.11a was not allowed in Europe till 2005 Additional functionality required to use IEEE 802.11a in Europe is defined in IEEE 802.11h: Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) Avoidance of interference with radar systems Station has to switch the channel, if it detects an active radar system In infrastructure-based mode, AP decides on the channel switch Transmit Power Control (TPC) Reduction of interference with satellite systems (and possibly other systems in the same frequency band) Station has to reduce the transmit power, if it detects an active satellite communication

IEEE 802.11a Frequency bands


Regulatory domain
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DFS Dynamic Frequency Selection TPC Transmit Power Control

Frequency Band
U-NII lower band 5.150-5.250 GHz U-NII middle band 5.250-5.350 GHz

Channel Frequency Number


36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 100 104 108 112 116 120 124 128 132 136 140 5.180 GHz 5.200 GHz 5.220 GHz 5.240 GHz 5.260 GHz 5.280 GHz 5.300 GHz 5.320 GHz 5.500 GHz 5.520 GHz 5.540 GHz 5.560 GHz 5.580 GHz 5.600 GHz 5.620 GHz 5.640 GHz 5.660 GHz 5.680 GHz 5.700 GHz

Max. output power (CEPT)


DFS No DFS TPC No TPC 200 mW (23 dBm) 60 mW 30 mW (18 dBm) (15 dBm)

Indoor/ Outdoor
Only Indoor

United States (FCC) Europe (CEPT)

United States (FCC) Europe (CEPT)

With TPC: 200 mW (23 dBm) Without TPC: 100 mW (20 dBm)

Only Indoor

Europe (CEPT)

5.470-5.725 GHz

With TPC: 1 W (30 dBm) Without TPC: 500 W (27 dBm)

Indoor & Outdoor

WLAN IEEE 802.11 Summary of basic standards


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Standard
IEEE 801.11 IEEE 801.11a IEEE 801.11b IEEE 801.11g IEEE 801.11n IEEE 801.11p

Standard approved
1997 1999 1999 2003 ~2009/2010 ~2009/2010

Spectrum
2.4 GHz
+ 850 nm

Max. data rate


2 Mbps 54 Mbps 11 Mbps 54 Mbps ~600 Mbps 27 Mbps

Modulation
FHSS/DSSS OFDM DSSS (CCK) OFDM+CCK OFDM + MIMO OFDM

5 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4/5 GHz 5.9 GHz

Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

IEEE 802.11e

IEEE 802.11e Quality of Service (QoS)


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

Standard IEEE 802.11 does not allow to prioritize different kinds of data packets IEEE 802.11e defines a MAC enhancement to support QoS Standard IEEE 802.11 DCF/PCF extended by Hybrid Coordination Function (HCF): Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) DCF with additional priority classes HCF Controlled Channel Access (HCCA) PCF with additional priority classes
Point Coordination Function (PCF)

HCF
HCCA EDCA

CSMA

Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)

RTS/CTS

IEEE 802.11e Access Categories


Lecture Vehicle Networks, Thomas Strang and Matthias Rckl, WS 2008/2009

4 different traffic categories (Access Categories): AC0: Background traffic AC1: Best-Effort traffic AC2: Video traffic AC3: Voice traffic Two control mechanisms: IFS: Arbitrate Inter-Frame Space (AIFS) with different lengths instead of a fixed-length DIFS Contention Window: Different values for CWmin and CWmax High priority traffic has a higher probability to get access to the medium first

AC0

AC1

AC2

AC3

Backoff AIFS[1] CW[1]

Backoff AIFS[2] CW[2]

Backoff AIFS[3] CW[3]

Backoff AIFS[0] CW[0]

Virtual Collision Handler

Transmission Attempt