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DOSAGE CALCULATIONS

I. Systems of Measurement with Conversion

A. Metric System
B. Apothecary System
C. Household System
D. Avoirdupois System

Commonly accepted conversions:


_______________________________________________________________________
Metric Apothecary Household ______________
Solid measures:
1 kg 2.2 lb
454 g 1.0 lb
1 g = 1000 mg 15 gr (gr xv)
60 mg 1 gr (gr i )
30 mg ½ gr (gr ss)

Liquid measures:
1 L = 1000 mL about 1 quart
240 mL 8 f oz (f oz viii) 1c
30 mL 1 f oz ( f oz i) 2 tbsp
15 – 16 mL 4 f dr (f dr iv) 1 tbsp = 3 tsp
8 mL 2 f dr ( f dr ii) 2 tsp
4 – 5 mL 1 f dr (f dr ii) 1 tsp = 60 gtt
1 mL 15 -16 min
0.0 6 mL 1 min ( min i)

II. Calculating Dosage:

I. Oral Drugs
A. Basic formula:
Desired dose ( D) X V = Amount to be given (A)
On- hand dose (H)

Ex. Order: amoxicillin 100mg PO qid


Available: amoxicillin 250 mg / 5 mL

D x V = A 100 mg x 5 mL = 2 mL
H 250 mg

B. Ratio & Proportion


H : V= D :x

250 mg : 5 mL = 100 mg : x
250 x = 500
x = 2 mL
C. Fractional Equation (FE)
H= D
V x

250 mg = 100 mg
5 mL x

250 mg x = 500 mg/mL


X = 2 mL

2. Parenteral Drugs

Same with oral liquids

Ex. Order: oxacillin 250 mg IM q 6H


Available: oxacillin 500 mg vial to be reconstituted with 2.7 mL sterile
water.
D x V = A
H

250 mg x 3 mL = 750 mL = 1.5 mL


500 mg 500

3. Intravenous fluids:

Method II: Two - step

1. Amount of solution = mL
Hours to administer

2. mL per hour X drop factor ( gtt/ mL) = drops/ minute (gtt/ min)
60 minutes

Ex. Order: 1000 mL of D5LR to infuse over 12 hours


Available: macrodrip set with 10 gtt/ mL & microdrip set with 60 gtt/ mL

1. 1000 mL = 83.33 mL/h


12 h

2. 83.33 mL/ h X 60 gtt/mL = 83 gtt/ min


60 minutes

 10% solution = __________grams per mL


5% dextrose in water =
Practice Problems:
1. Ordered: 250 mg tablet Available: 100 mg scored tablet:

2. Ordered: 6.5 mg Available : 10 mg / mL

3. Ordered:.2 g Available: 3 gr capsule

4. Ordered: Robitussin cough syrup 225 mg PO Available: 600 mg/ 1 f oz

5 Ordered: Penicillin G 400,000 U IM Available: Penicillin G 1, 000,000 U in 5 mL

6 You want to administer 0.8 grams of a 10% solution. How many mL should the client
receive?

7. Ordered: 500 mL of D5 water in 5 hours. Macrodrip set.

Practice Problems:

1. Ordered:Morphine 10 mg
Available Morphine 16 mg/mL

2 Ordered: 150,000 U Available: 400,000 U / 5 mL

3. Ordered: 2 g Available: 1 gr capsule

4. Ordered: Infuse 1000ml in 5 hours.

5. Ordered 1500 mL of D5LR in 24 hours.

6. Ordered: 250 mL of D5W to KVO.