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CNG TY K THUT IN SNG

TRUNG TM TH NGHIM IN
*************

TAI LIU AO TAO


NGH TH NGHIM IN
NGANH CAO TH-HOA
DU

2004

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

MUC LUC
1 TNG QUAN V CNG TAC TH NGHIM THIT B NHT TH .........................................5
1.1 KHAI QUAT V CNG TAC TH NGHIM CAC THIT B NHT TH .............................................................................................5
1.2 CAC PHNG PHAP ANH GIA VA TH NGHIM THIT B IN ...............................................................................................13
1.3 CAC QUY NH CHUNG V CNG TAC TH NGHIM IN I VI THIT B NHT TH ..........................................................16
1.4 TRNH T T CHC THC HIN CNG TAC TH NGHIM NHT TH .....................................................................................18
1.5 AN TOAN TRONG TH NGHIM THIT B IN TRN H THNG IN ....................................................................................21
2 TH NGHIM IN TR CACH IN CUA CAC THIT B IN......................................29
2.1 CAC CH TIU ANH GIA C TNH CACH IN CUA CACH IN RN.....................................................................................29
2.2 CAC YU T ANH HNG N CACH IN CUA THIT B VA CACH KHC PHUC.................................................................31
2.3 CAC H S HIU CHNH V NHIT KHI O IN TR CACH IN:.................................................................................36
2.4 QUY TRNH THC HIN CAC PHEP O VA GHI S LIU:...........................................................................................................37
2.5 VIC ANH GIA KT QUA O VA TIU CHUN AP DUNG:........................................................................................................38
2.6 S U NI KHI O VI CAC THIT B IN C TRNG:................................................................................................43
2.7 GII THIU MT S LOAI CU O IN TR CACH IN (MGMMET) THNG DUNG:..........................................................44
3 HNG DN TH NGHIM O IN TR MT CHIU CUN DY MAY BIN AP49
3.1 Y NGHA CUA PHEP O IN TR MT CHIU I VI CAC MAY BIN AP:...........................................................................49
3.2 CAC PHNG PHAP O IN TR MT CHIU...........................................................................................................................49
3.3 NHNG YU CU KHI THC HIN PHEP O..............................................................................................................................49
3.4 CAC LU Y V SAI S TRONG QUA TRNH O............................................................................................................................50
3.5 CAC LU Y V AN TOAN TRONG QUA TRNH O.........................................................................................................................50
3.6 O IN TR MT CHIU BNG PHNG PHAP VN-AMPE........................................................................................................51
3.7 O IN TR MT CHIU BNG THIT B O CHUYN DUNG..................................................................................................51
3.8 TIU CHUN AP DUNG.............................................................................................................................................................52
4 KY THUT TH NGHIM O IN TR TIP A.......................................................................54
4.1 KHAI NIM V H THNG NI T VA CAC PHN T LIN QUAN:......................................................................................54
4.2 LA CHON THIT B O VA DUNG CU O:.............................................................................................................................56
4.3 MT S PHNG PHAP O IN TR NI T IN HNH:...................................................................................................57
4.4 CAC NGUYN NHN ANH HNG N KT QUA O VA BIN PHAP KHC PHUC:......................................................................72
4.5 CAC BC TIN HANH O IN TR NI T:......................................................................................................................74
4.6 O IN TR SUT CUA T:................................................................................................................................................75
5 KY THUT TH NGHIM CAO AP MT CHIU:............................................................................79
5.1 Y NGHA CUA TH NGHIM CAO AP MT CHIU I VI CACH IN CUA CAC THIT B IN.............................................79
5.2 YU CU KY THUT CUA TH NGHIM CAO AP MT CHIU...................................................................................................79
5.3 LA CHON PHNG PHAP VA S TH NGHIM:.................................................................................................................80
5.4 LA CHON THIT B VA DUNG CU TH NGHIM:.................................................................................................................82
5.5 THU TUC TIN HANH PHEP TH NGHIM CAO AP MT CHIU VA GHI S LIU......................................................................82
5.6 MT S LU Y TRONG QUA TRNH TH NGHIM CAO AP MT CHIU:....................................................................................86
6 KY THUT TH NGHIM CAO AP XOAY CHIU TN S CNG NGHIP ...................87
6.1 Y NGHA CUA TH NGHIM CAO AP XOAY CHIU TN S CNG NGHIP:................................................................................87
6.2 YU CU KY THUT CUA TH NGHIM CAO AP XOAY CHIU...................................................................................................87
6.3 LA CHON PHNG PHAP VA S TH NGHIM:.................................................................................................................87
6.4 LA CHON THIT B VA DUNG CU TH NGHIM:.................................................................................................................87
6.5 THU TUC TIN HANH PHEP TH NGHIM CAO AP XOAY CHIU VA GHI S LIU......................................................................88
6.6 MT S LU Y TRONG QUA TRNH TH NGHIM CAO AP XOAY CHIU......................................................................................90
6.7 GII THIU MT S THIT B TH NGHIM CAO AP XOAY CHIU..........................................................................................91
7 TH NGHIM MAY BIN AP IN LC .........................................................................................92
7.1 KHAI NIM V TH NGHIM MAY BIN AP.............................................................................................................................92
7.2 CAC HANG MUC TH NGHIM MAY BIN AP...........................................................................................................................92
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7.3 TH NGHIM LP MI .............................................................................................................................................................93


7.4 TH NGHIM NH KY ..............................................................................................................................................................94
7.5 GII THIU CAC TIU CHUN TH NGHIM MBA.....................................................................................................................95
8 TH NGHIM DU CACH IN:..............................................................................................................97
8.1 C TNH CUA DU CACH IN VA KHI LNG TIU CHUN TH NGHIM DU CACH IN TRONG LP MI VA NH KY
CUA CAC THIT B IN:...............................................................................................................................................................97
8.2 TH NGHIM IN AP PHONG CUA MU DU:.....................................................................................................................106
8.3 GII THIU V CAC THIT B TH NGHIM IN AP PHONG CUA DU:..............................................................................112
8.4 CAC YU T ANH HNG N CHT LNG DU MAY BIN AP TRONG VN HANH:.........................................................115
9 HNG DN TH NGHIM KIM TRA IU KIN HOA SONG SONG HAI MAY BIN
AP:.............................................................................................................................................................................................119
9.1 Y NGHA CUA TH NGHIM:...................................................................................................................................................119
9.2 CAC BC TIN HANH TH NGHIM:......................................................................................................................................119
10 CNG TAC NAP KH SF6:............................................................................................................................123
10.1 C IM TNH CHT CUA KH SF6:.................................................................................................................................123
10.2 CAC AI LNG AP LC THNG DUNG TRONG TNH TOAN AP LC KH SF6:....................................................................124
10.3 CAC LU Y V AN TOAN TRONG QUA TRNH S DUNG VA NAP KH SF6:.............................................................................124
10.4 TNH TOAN VA HIU CHNH AP LC KH TRC KHI NAP:...................................................................................................126
10.5 QUI TRNH NAP KH SF6 VI B NAP KH A NNG:............................................................................................................127
10.6 KHI LNG KIM TRA SF6 I VI CAC MAY CT TRONG LP MI VA NH KY:...........................................................130
11 TH NGHIM CHNG SET VAN..............................................................................................................133
11.1 GII THIU CAC LOAI CHNG SET VAN C BAN C LP VA S DUNG TRN LI IN VA CAC THNG S KY THUT LIN
QUAN: 133
11.2 HNG DN TNH TOAN, LA CHON CHNG SET VAN:........................................................................................................136
11.3 KHI LNG TH NGHIM CHNG SET VAN:......................................................................................................................140
12 TU ONG CT TRUNG AP.........................................................................................................................145
12.1 KHAI NIM CHUNG................................................................................................................................................................145
12.2 PHN LOAI MAY CT TU HP B.......................................................................................................................................145
12.3 B TRUYN NG.............................................................................................................................................................148
12.4 AN TOAN KHI LAM VIC VI TU HP B.............................................................................................................................149
12.5 TH NGHIM THIT B ONG CT TU HP B....................................................................................................................150
13 BAO DNG VA TH NGHIM CAP.................................................................................................164
13.1 CU TAO CAP: 164
13.2 KHI LNG VA HANG MUC TH NGHIM TH NGHIM CAP LC CAO AP........................................................................164
13.3 HNG DN TH NGHIM CAO AP MT CHIU CAP LC. .................................................................................................165
13.4 CNG TAC CHUN B............................................................................................................................................................166
13.5 PHNG PHAP TH NGHIM..................................................................................................................................................167
14 MAY CT CAO AP.........................................................................................................................................175
14.1 KHAI NIM CHUNG................................................................................................................................................................175
14.2 PHN LOAI MAY CT CAO AP...............................................................................................................................................175
14.3 TH NGHIM THIT B ONG CT .......................................................................................................................................178
14.4 O IN TR TIP XUC.......................................................................................................................................................189
14.5 PHN TCH THI GIAN CHUYN NG CUA MAY CT............................................................................................................195

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

1 TNG QUAN V CNG TAC TH NGHIM THIT B NHT


TH
1.1 Khai quat v cng tac th nghim cac thit b nht th
1.1.1

Muc ch, y ngha cng tac bao dng, th nghim

thit b in.
a. Muc ch cua cng tac bao dng, th nghim thit
b in:
S vn hanh an toan cua h thng in phu thuc rt
nhiu vao cht lng vn hanh cua cac phn t thit b trong h
thng in. Cht lng vn hanh cua thit b lai c quyt
nh bi cht lng, cac c tnh c, in, nhit, hoa va tui tho
cua cac vt liu s dung lam kt cu cach in cua thit b
in. at c yu cu v s vn hanh tin cy cua thit b
in, cung nh cua h thng in, cn phai phi hp ap dung
nhiu giai phap khac nhau t khu nghin cu ch tao cac vt liu
cach in n khu chon la vt liu cach in phu hp sau o
la khu thit k cach in va sau cung la khu ch tao san phm
hoan thin.
Tuy nhin, cac giai phap trn cha u am bao an toan cach
in theo yu cu. Trong qua trnh san xut va s dung hang loat,
trang thit b in ap cao kho tranh khoi xut hin nhng khuyt
tt trong cach in, vi mt xac sut nht nh nao o, do nhng
sai sot trong ch tao, vn chuyn, lp rap hoc trong thi gian vn
hanh cung nh do nhng tac nhn bn ngoai cha lng trc c.
giam thp mt cach ang k xac sut s c do h hong cach
in, cn phai ap dung mt h thng kim tra, th nghim cht
lng kt cu cach in bng nhiu cng oan vi nhiu th
nghim khac nhau trong qua trnh ch tao, kim tra xut xng,
ong in nghim thu sau khi lp t cung nh nh ky th nghim
trong qua trnh vn hanh am bao s lam vic tin cy cua
thit b.
b.Y ngha cua cng tac th nghim in:
Vic ap dung h thng kim tra th nghim in co nhiu
y ngha tch cc trong cng tac quan ly va vn hanh h thng
in, cu th la:
Nm 2004
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Xet v mt kinh t th y la bin phap hp ly nng cao


s an toan cua cach in v trong phn ln cac trng hp tng
chi ph thc hin bin phap nay cng vi cac chi ph cho s
sa cha hay thay th nhng kt cu cach in khng at yu
cu phat hin c sau khi kim tra th nghim nho hn nhiu cac
tn tht do cac s c gy nn bi s h hong cach in, dn
n h hong thit b lam gian oan vn hanh h thng in.
Xet ring re tng thit b, bin phap kim tra, th nghim
phat hin cac khuyt tt (khng th chp nhn c) co th
kp thi bao dng, sa cha, thay th cung em lai hiu qua trong
vn hanh. Tuy nhin, hiu qua kinh t cua h thng kim tra, th
nghim nay ch co c khi s cac chi tit b loai bo qua qua trnh
kim tra, th nghim khng nhiu, chim t l nho trong gia thanh
thit b. Trong trng hp ngc lai, vic thay th thit b mi,
loai bo cac thit b cu se em lai hiu qua kinh t hn.
ng v goc ky thut th vic t chc thc hin tt
cng tac th nghim i i vi bao dng se gop phn nng cao tui
tho lam vic cua thit b va giam thiu n mc thp nht cac
s s xay ra trn thit b, am bao s vn hanh tin cy va nng
cao n nh cua h thng in. Ngay nay vi s hnh thanh va
phat trin cua cac h thng kim tra giam sat cht lng trc
tuyn a phn nao giup cho cac nha quan ly h thng va cac nhn
vin quan ly vn hanh nm bt c kp thi cac thng tin lin quan
n tnh trang cua cac thit b chnh trong tram, nha may t o
ra nhng hoat ng kim tra b sung hoc khc phuc phong
nga hp ly
S ap dung h thng kim tra khng giam thp yu cu i
vi cht lng ch tao. Ngc lai, qua kim tra th nghim, cho
phep phat hin nhng ch cha hp ly trong thit k va trong cng
ngh ch tao, co hng sa i cac san phm thit b ngay
cang thch hp va hoan thin hn.
1.1.2

Cac loai th nghim thit b in:

H thng cac cng oan th nghim kim tra i vi cac


thit b c ap dung trong thc t hin nay bao gm cac bc
sau:
a. Cac th nghim tai nha ch tao:
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Th nghim thit b in tai nha ch tao la cng oan quan


trong nht trong h thng cac cng oan th nghim thit b
in. Nhiu hang muc th nghim thit b in thng yu cu
tao ra cac in ap cao, cac dong in ln, cung nh cac yu cu
nghim ngt khac v thi gian, dang song... nn chi ph cho vic u
t cho thit b th rt ln va ch co cac nha ch tao mi co kha
nng thc hin. Ngoai ra, nhiu hang muc th nghim pha hong
mu th nn phat sinh chi ph san xut ang k cho cng tac th
nghim nay.
Th nghim thit b tai nha ch tao bao gm cac th
nghim:
Th nghim chung loai (Type tests) hay con co tn goi th
nghim thit k (Design Tests).
Th nghim thng l (Routine Tests) hay con co tn goi th
nghim xut xng (Production Tests).
Ngoai ra, trong mt s trng hp theo yu cu c bit cua
khach hang, nha ch tao con thc hin cac th nghim goi la
th nghim c bit (Special Test).
Cng tac th nghim cua nha san xut bao gm th nghim
cac chi tit, cac phn t cu thanh va th nghim tng th thit
b. Cac chi tit, cac phn t cu thanh va thit b tng th u
c tin hanh qua cac bc th nghim chung loai, th nghim
xut xng.
b.Cac th nghim sau khi lp t:
Cac thit b sau khi c lp t tai hin trng phai c
th nghim nghim thu trc khi ong in a vao vn hanh trong
h thng. Cac th nghim nay c goi la cac th nghim tai
hin trng (Site tests). i vi cac nha may, cac h thng ln, se
thc hin th nghim nghim thu chay th tng hp toan h
thng (Commisioning tests).
Muc ch cua cac th nghim nay nhm loai tr cac sai sot
khng c phat hin trong qua trnh ch tao i vi tng san
phm ring re, loai bo cac sai sot trong qua trnh vn chuyn, lp
t. Ngoai ra, khi 1 thit b mi a vao vn hanh trn li se co
anh hng n s vn chung cua toan li, nn cac thit b nay
phai c th nghim kim tra nghim ngt nhm han ch thp
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

nht vic h hong thit b, gy anh hng n s vn hanh


chung cua h thng.
Muc ch cua th nghim trc khi ong in thit b in
a vao vn hanh con nhm anh gia chnh xac tnh nng cua
thit b sau khi lp t so vi gia tr nh mc va anh gia kt qua
cua cng tac lp t toan h thng. Vic th nghim thit b
in thng c tin hanh tai ch ngay sau khi lp t, hiu
chnh thit b, Th nghim nghim thu c thc hin i vi
thit b mi lp t trc khi ong in.
Khi lng, tiu chun th nghim cua cac th nghim tai
hin trng phu thuc vao tiu chun cu th cua tng Quc gia,
tng Cng ty in lc. Tuy vy, cac Quc gia, hay cac Cng ty in
lc cung tham khao theo cac h thng tiu chun chung, cac
khuyn cao, t vn cua nha san xut khi qui nh khi lng, tiu
chun th nghim cua cac th nghim tai hin trng cua mnh.
c. Cac th nghim nh ky trong vn hanh:
Trong qua trnh vn hanh, tnh trang cua cach in phai c
nh ky kim tra bng cac th nghim phong nga va th nghim
sau sa cha.
Nh th nghim phong nga, tin hanh nh ky, co th phat
hin c nhng khuyt tt v cach in (m, nt, boc kh),
v c kh (long mi ni, nt, gay, n mon..), v phn dn in va
phn h thng t xut hin trong vn hanh do nhiu nguyn nhn,
k ca nhng nhn t ngu nhin cha lng trc c va nhng
khuyt tt do cach in gia ci t nhin trong qua trnh lam vic
lu dai.
Nu phat hin kp thi nhng khuyt tt th trong nhiu
trng hp co th phuc hi lai tnh trang ban u (trong iu
kin co th) ngn nga s c, bao am s lam vic an toan
va lin tuc cua trang thit b in.
Th nghim bao dng d phong c tin hanh u n
trong sut thi han s dung cua thit b. Cac th nghim nay
c chia thanh hai loai: th nghim trc khi bao dng va th
nghim sau khi bao dng nhm so sanh anh gia kt qua cua cng
tac bao dng.
Nhim vu cua kim tra phong nga cung con bao gm ca cac
bin phap sa cha, phuc hi cach in co du hiu suy giam
tnh nng, nhm nng cao thi gian phuc vu cua trang thit b in
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

va giam thp nhng kha nng co th gy nn s c (nh sy, lam


sach...)
Khi lng, phng phap va tiu chun kim tra th nghim
c qui nh bi cac tiu chun nha nc, cac iu kin ky thut,
kinh t ni vn hanh va cac qui trnh ky thut vn hanh cac trang
thit b tng ng. Bi v hiu qua th nghim, hay la xac sut
phat hin ung n cach in b khuyt tt phu thuc vao
phng phap th nghim, phm cht cua dung cu o, cung nh
cac tiu chun nh trc, c trng cho cach in bnh thng va
cach in khuyt tt.
Hin nay, khi lng th nghim, chu ky tin hanh va cac tiu
chun chp nhn hoc loai bo c xac nh bng thc nghim
va khng ngng c nghin cu ngay cang hoan thin.
1.1.3

Cac ch bao dng thit b in.

a. nh ngha:
Cng tac bao dng d phong va th nghim thit b in la
h thng cac quy trnh, quy pham, thu tuc quan ly, vn hanh, giam
sat s hoat ng, bao dng cac chi tit cua thit b, d bao
cac h hong co th xay ra, ra bin phap thay th, sa cha cac
chi tit co nguy c b h hong, th nghim cac c tnh lam vic
cua thit b.
b. Chc nng va muc ch cua cng tac bao dng d
phong:
Cac chc nng va muc ch chnh bao gm:
1. Duy tr tt iu kin vn hanh cua cac thit b nhm am
bao s ap ng cua thit b o theo cac mc yu cu trong vn
hanh
2. am bao duy tr cac tnh nng ky thut cua cac thit b in
cua nha may, h thng truyn tai, phn phi... ap ng yu cu
vn hanh lin tuc, an toan, tin cy.
3. Phuc hi thit b v trang thai ban u va qua o thit b
co th phuc hi lai tui tho vn hanh nh khi nghim thu co
cht lng tt ban u.
4. Tit giam chi ph mang lai hiu qua san xut kinh doanh.
5. Tao nim tin cho cng nhn trong mi trng lam vic an toan.

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10

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

6. V mt an toan: han ch rui ro do hong hoc, chay n thit


b...
Co th noi cng tac bao dng d phong va th nghim thit
b in cung ging nh vic chm soc y t, kham bnh thng
xuyn vi con ngi. Phng chm chin lc thc hin y la
phong bnh hn cha bnh, cac thit b in cung nh cac b
phn c th con ngi phai c theo doi thng xuyn va x ly
kp thi, d oan trc cac din bin co th xay ra.
Trong cng tac bao dng d phong va th nghim thit b
in, yu t con ngi bao gi cung ong vai tro quyt nh. V
vy, cng tac bao dng d phong va th nghim thit b in
cn quan tm vic ao tao toan din cho i ngu can b ky thut
vn hanh s dung, cung nh bao dng, th nghim, hiu chnh.
Cac quy tc c ban cua hoat ng bao dng co th tom tt
4 yu cu sau y: Bao quan thit b ni kh rao, bao quan thit
b ni mat me, gi cho thit b lun sach se, gi cho thit b lun
kn...
Cht lng vn hanh thit b, tin cy lam vic, xac sut
h hong... quyt nh phng phap tin hanh kim tra va ch
hoat ng bao dng thit b in.
Cac ch kim tra, bao dng co th chia thanh cac nhom
chnh sau:
c. Ch bao dng cho ti khi h hong
Vi ch bao dng nay, ngi ta khng cn quan tm ti
vic bao dng. Thit b lam vic lin tuc. Cac b phn b xung
cp ch c sa cha hay thay th khi anh hng xung cp
khng th chp nhn c, iu nay ng ngha vi h hong
thit b. Vi hnh thc hoat ng nay, thit b khng c d
kin ch bao va ngn chn s xung cp, nhng hu qua cua s
c co th chp nhn c, hoc co thit b hoat ng ch
d phong sn sang thay th.
Nhn chung, cac thit b in co tin cy cao va c b tr
bao v co chon loc nn khi mt b phn b h hong khng lam ly
lan sang cac b phn khac. Nu thit b hay chi tit cua no b h
hong se c thay th kp thi.
d. Ch kim tra, bao dng khi cn
Vic kim tra va bao dng thit b c tin hanh
khng thng xuyn hoc nh ky theo lch trnh. Cac nguy c h hong
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

11

thng c phat hin sm va c sa cha kp thi. Tuy vy,


khng co quy nh cht che cac khu cn bao dng hay k hoach
bao dng mt cach chi tit.
Hnh thc hoat ng nay thng c ap dung cho cac thit
b t quan trong v kinh t va ky thut, s dung trong cac c s,
h thng san xut nho.
e. Ch bao dng d phong theo k hoach
Hoat ng bao dng thit b cn c tin hanh thng
xuyn theo lch trnh cht che sau mt khoang thi gian vn hanh
hoc sau mt s chu trnh lam vic cua thit b. Quy trnh va trnh
t bao dng da trn cac ch dn cua nha ch tao hoc cac
tiu chun ky thut cng ngh. Cng tac bao dng hoan toan co
tnh cht chu ky, tuy vy khng co u tin i vi mt thit b hay
mt b phn nao.
Hnh thc bao dng nay thng c ap dung cho cac thit
b quan trong v kinh t va ky thut trong cac c s, h thng san
xut ln.
f. Ch bao dng nng cao tin cy vn hanh cua
thit b.
y la hnh thc bao dng tch cc nht va khoa hoc nht.
Quy trnh va thu tuc bao dng d phong c xy dng mt
cach chi tit cn c vao cac d liu v xac sut h hong va tui
tho cua thit b nhm duy tr hoat ng thng xuyn va am bao
nng sut hoat ng cao cua thit b. Trong qua trnh lam vic lin
tuc cp nht cac thng tin mi nht v i tng cn bao dng
cung nh cac thu tuc va quy trnh, quy pham mi nhm phan anh
kinh nghim vn hanh va bao dng cua thit b va tin b cua
khoa hoc cng ngh.
y cung la hnh thc hoat ng bao dng tin tin nht v
no cai thin s lam vic an toan, tin cy, nng cao nng sut hoat
ng, giam chi ph vn hanh, bao dng v no chu trong n cac
chi tit, b phn quan trong nht, co xac sut h hong nhiu
nht ma khng thc hin bao dng, kim tra chay th tran lan.
Chng trnh bao dng va th nghim d phong t trong tm
vao vic nng cao tin cy cua thit b cung nh a ra cac d
bao v tnh trang thit b va hng dn cac bin phap x ly cac
tnh hung.
Nm 2004
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Vi s phat trin va hoan thin cua cac thit b o lng,


giam sat, iu khin, cac h thng chng trnh phn mm tin hoc
cng nghip, cng tac bao dng va th nghim c phat hin va
quyt nh x ly kp thi am bao cht lng vn hanh cua thit
b.
1.1.4

Chng trnh bao dng va th nghim thit b

in
khai thac ti u nhn lc, thit b va nng cao hiu qua
cng tac bao dng va th nghim thit b in, cng tac bao
dng va th nghim cn c thc hin theo cac chng trnh.
Chng trnh bao dng d phong va th nghim thit b in
phai thoa man cac tiu chun sau y:
- Phai phu hp vi iu kin thc t cua h thng hin tai.
- Phai c u tin ngun nhn lc, phng tin vt cht va
thit b sa cha, o lng, th nghim.
- Hoat ng bao dng co u tin cho cac h thng va thit
b quan trong, co cng sut ln, co anh hng quyt nh n toan
h thng.
- Chng trnh bao dng d phong va th nghim phai chu y
n c im cua thit b va c tnh cua mi trng.
- Chng trnh bao dng d phong phai tnh n c im
thc t cua nha may cung nh kinh nghim tch luy tai nha may
va cac c s khac, cac tai liu cm nang ky thut cua hang ch
tao.
- Phai lun lun cp nht cac thng tin mi nht v tnh hnh
san xut, lch s vn hanh.
- Chng trnh bao dng d phong va th nghim phai do cac
nhn vin ky thut co trnh cao am nhim. Can b ky thut
chuyn v cng tac bao dng d phong va th nghim phai c
trang b kin thc c ban v ky thut in, nm vng nguyn ly
hoat ng, tnh nng va cu truc cua thit b, ky thut bao dng
cac b phn, chi tit, ky thut an toan in, cac quy trnh bao
dng va th nghim thit b in.
- i vi nhim vu bao dng va th nghim cac chi tit quan
trong phai do nhn vin ky thut co kinh nghim, a tng x ly cac
chi tit, thit b cung loai tng t am nhim.
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- Phai phn tch s b nguyn nhn xung cp h hong thit b


va tm bin phap khc phuc
Vic nghin cu, phn tch nguyn nhn h hong la nhim vu
quan trong cua chng trnh bao dng thit b in. Cac bc
phn tch chnh nh sau:
- D oan s b nguyn nhn gy h hong cac chi tit sau khi a
xem xet, kim tra tng b phn.
- So sanh nguyn nhn h hong d oan vi cac h hong a
tng xay ra i vi chi tit tng t xet xem h hong co tnh
cht h thng hay ch co tnh ngu nhin, v du hoat tnh hoa hoc
cua mi trng co th la nguyn nhn chnh trong trng hp tip
im cua r le b n mon.
Nu nguyn nhn gy h hong khng co tnh h thng, tin
hanh sa cha, thay th.
Nu vn h hong co tnh cht hang loat cn tip xuc vi
hang cung cp thit b xac nh nguyn nhn va tm bin phap
khc phuc.
Nu vn h hong co lin quan n thit k h thng
hoc ng dung thit b, yu t mi trng cn hiu chnh hoc
thay th bng cac chi tit thch hp, kim tra toan h thng.
Nu vn h hong lin quan ti thao tac vn hanh cn nhn
dang ung nguyn nhn va sa i quy trnh vn hanh cho thch
hp.
- Xac nh chnh xac nguyn nhn h hong va ra cac bin
phap khc phuc, k ca vic giam sat theo doi thng xuyn.
- Thc hin th nghim va ch bao kt qua sau khi a tin
hanh bao dng, hiu chnh.
1.2 Cac phng phap anh gia va th nghim thit b in
1.2.1

Cac phng phap anh gia kha nng a cac thit b

mi vao lam vic bnh thng


Thit b in cua nha may in va tram bin ap mc du co
nhiu hnh, nhiu kiu nhng u bao gm nhng b phn co tn
goi chung. Nhng b phn kt cu co tn goi ging nhau cua cac
thit b in va nhng h hong ging nhau cua cac b phn o
quyt nh phng phap tin hanh kim tra va th nghim. Nhng
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

cng vic kim tra va th nghim o cung vi nhng cng vic


hiu chnh khac co th chia thanh nhng nhom sau:
- Xac nh tnh trang cac b phn c kh cua thit b in
- Xac nh tnh trang h thng t cua cac thit b in
- Xac nh tnh trang cac b phn dn in va cac ch ni
tip xuc cua thit b in
- Xac nh tnh trang cach in cua cac b phn dn in
trong thit b in
- Th nghim cac thit b in trong nhng iu kin nhn
tao nng n.
ng vi mi nhom cng vic th nghim, kim tra va hiu
chnh trn se s dung nhng phng phap va dung cu o chung cho
nhiu loai thit b khac nhau. i vi cac thit b mi, nhng cng
vic o thc hin theo tng giai oan phu thuc tin chung
khi thi cng va lp t. Nhng nhim vu chung a cac thit b
in vao lam vic bao gm nhng giai oan chu yu sau:
a. Quan sat kim tra bng mt cac thit b in
y la cng vic lam trc khi tin hanh moi cng tac th
nghim, kim tra va hiu chnh thit b va kt thuc bng ln xem
xet cn thn cui cung. Nh quan sat thit b se phat hin c
phn ln cac h hong v c va nhng ch mon g cua vo may, loi
thep, cac u dy ra, cac ch ni, cach in cua cac b phn dn
in, cach in gia cac vong dy cua cun dy. ng thi khi quan
sat se anh gia c tnh trang chung cua thit b, da vao ly lch
cua no xac nh thit b co phu hp vi thit k va vi cac yu
cu ky thut hay khng. Ngoai ra qua kim tra se co th phat hin
va loai tr nhng vt la con sot lai do s sut trong qua trnh lp
t hoc cua nha ch tao
b. o va th nghim cac thit b in trang thai tnh
y la mt trong nhng phng phap c ban phat hin
nhng h hong cua thit b in. Nhng vic o, kim tra va th
nghim nh th cho phep phat hin c nhng h hong n kn
bn trong ma khi quan sat b ngoai trong qua trnh lp rap khng phat
hin c, cho phep kp thi sa cha hoc thay th thit b
trc khi kt thuc moi cng tac lp t.
b. o va th nghim cac thit b in trang thai lam
vic:
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Nm 2004

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c tin hanh trong qua trnh chay th thit b vi muc


ch la thu thp cac thng s sau th nghim anh gia s
phu hp v tnh nng cua thit b so vi c tnh thit k cua nha
ch tao qua cac s liu xut xng. Ngoai ra qua qua trnh nay co
th phat hin thm tnh trang tt xu, cht lng lp rap cung
nh co th tin hanh thm cac cng vic iu chnh va hiu chnh
can thit cac h thng ng.
1.2.2

Cac th nghim anh gia v tnh trang cach in

cua cac thit b


Cac phng phap c ap dung tt ca cac loai th nghim
co th phn loai nh sau:
Th nghim bng in ap tng cao, co kha nng pha huy (xuyn
thung) cach in co khuyt tt: th nghim cao th mt chiu duy
tr, th nghim cao th xoay chiu tng cao tn s cng nghip.y
la loai th nghim co kha nng gy h hong cho thit b nu cach
in cua chung b suy giam hoc co khuyt tt bn trong.
Th nghim khng gy h hong, nh o h s tn hao va o
in tr ro, h s hp thu, o cac c tnh in dung in ap
thp va cac phng phap kim tra khng in khac. Ngoai ra con co
vic th nghim in ap lam vic hoc in ap tng cao nhng
vi xac sut xuyn thung be nh o tn hao in mi va c tnh
phong in cuc b in ap xp x in ap lam vic.
Thc ra, i vi phn ln cac kt cu cach in cao ap, gia
in ap xuyn thung va cac thng s c trng khac cua cach in
khng co quan h toan hoc ro rang va cht che. Tuy nhin, kinh
nghim vn hanh cho thy rng, cac thng s c trng cho cach
in ngay cang kem la mt biu hin cua s xut hin va tip
tuc phat trin cua cac loai khuyt tt trong cach in va do o
in ap phong in xuyn thung cung ngay cang giam. Do o, bng
cac th nghim khng h hong co th phat hin kp thi cac
khuyt tt va kp thi nh ch s lam vic cua no trc khi b
pha huy hay gy s c.
Cac phng phap kim tra, th nghim khac nhau nhm phat
hin nhng khuyt tt khac nhau v tnh cht cua kt cu cach
in. ng thi phai ap dung nhiu loai th nghim khac nhau,
trc ht la cac th nghim khng h hong va sau khi cach in a
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

c phuc hi, sa cha mi th nghim bng in ap tng cao


vi bin thp hn so vi th nghim xut xng.
1.3 Cac quy nh chung v cng tac th nghim in i vi
thit b nht th
Phng phap c ban anh gia tnh trang cac thit b in
mi va c lp t xong va chun b a vao vn hanh la
kim tra, o lng va so sanh cac kt qua nay vi nhng tr s cho
phep c qui nh thanh tiu chun. Nhng qui nh chung v cng
tac th nghim nh sau:
1. Cng tac th nghim, nghim thu ban giao cac thit b in
phai tun thu theo tiu chun nganh TCN-26-87 Khi lng va tiu
chun th nghim, nghim thu, ban giao cac thit b in ban
hanh kem quyt nh s 48 NL/KHKT ngay 14/03/87. Khi tin hanh th
nghim, nghim thu ban giao cac thit b in ma khi lng va
tiu chun khac vi nhng qui nh trong tiu chun nu trn th phai
theo hng dn ring cua nha ch tao.
2. Trong trng hp cu th i vi cac thit b nht th gn
y a co cac qui trnh chuyn bit do Tng Cng ty in lc Vit
nam ban hanh th cn phai tun thu trc tin khi tin hanh cng tac
th nghim nghim thu va th nghim nh ky.
3. Ngoai nhng th nghim, nghim thu ban giao v phn
in cua cac thit b in a qui nh trong cac tiu chun, tt ca
cac thit b in con phai kim tra s hoat ng cua phn c theo
hng dn cua nha may ch tao.
4. Vic kt lun v s hoan hao cua thit b khi a vao
vn hanh phai c da trn c s xem xet kt qua toan b cac
th nghim lin quan n thit b o.
5.Vic o lng, th nghim chay th theo cac tai liu hng
dn cua nha may ch tao, theo cac tiu chun, hng dn hin
hanh trc khi a thit b in vao vn hanh cn phai lp y
u cac bin ban theo qui nh.
6. Vic th nghim in ap tng cao la bt buc i vi cac
thit b in ap t cp 35kV tr xung. Khi co u thit b th
nghim th phai tin hanh ca i vi cac thit b in ap cao hn
35kV.

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Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

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7. i vi cac thit b co in ap danh nh cao hn in ap


vn hanh, chung co th c th nghim v in ap tng cao
theo tiu chun phu hp vi cp cach in in ap vn hanh.
8. Khi tin hanh th nghim cach in cua cac kh cu in
bng in ap tng cao tn s cng nghip ng thi vi vic th
nghim cach in thanh cai co lin quan n cac thit b phn phi
khac, in ap th nghim c phep ly theo tiu chun i vi
thit b co in ap th nghim nho nht.
9. Hang muc th nghim cao th xoay chiu tn s cng
nghip la hang muc th sau cung va ch tin hanh khi cac hang
muc kim tra anh gia trc o v trang thai cach in cho thy
khng co du hiu bt thng cua h thng cach in cua thit
b.
10. Vic th nghim cach in bng in ap 1000V (i vi
cac thit b ha th 220/380V) tn s cng nghip co th thay th
bng cach o gia tr cua in tr cach in trong mt phut bng
Mgmet 2500V.
11. Trong cac tiu chun th nghim, nghim thu ban giao thit
b in dung cac thut ng di y:
- in ap th nghim tn s cng nghip (tn s ngun): La
tr s hiu dung cua in ap xoay chiu hnh sin tn s 50Hz (tn
s ngun) ma cach in bn trong va bn ngoai cua thit b in
cn phai duy tr trong thi gian 1 phut (hoc 5 phut) trong iu kin
th nghim xac nh.
- Thit b in co cach in bnh thng: Thit b in co
cach in bnh thng la thit b t trong cac trang b in chu
tac ng cua qua in ap kh quyn vi nhng bin phap chng
set thng thng.
- Thit b in co cach in giam nhe: La thit b in ch
dung nhng trang b in khng chu tac ng cua qua in ap
kh quyn hoc phai co bin phap chng set c bit han
ch bin qua in ap kh quyn n tr s khng cao hn bin
cua in ap th nghim tn s ngun.
- Cac kh cu in: La cac may ct cac cp in ap, cu dao
cach ly, t cach ly, dao tao ngn mach, cu chay, cu ch t ri,
cac thit b chng set, cac cun khang han ch dong in in
dung, cac vt dn in c che chn tron b...
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

- ai lng o lng phi tiu chun: La ai lng ma gia tr


tuyt i cua no khng qui nh bng cac hng dn tiu chun.
Vic anh gia trang thai thit b trong trng hp nay c tin
hanh bng cach so sanh v cac s liu o lng tng t cung
mt loat thit b co c tnh tt hoc vi nhng kt qua th
nghim khac.
- Cp in ap cua thit b in: La in ap danh nh cua h
thng in ma trong o thit b in y lam vic.
Can b, cng nhn th nghim in la ngi trc tip s
dung cac phng tin, thit b, dung cu th nghim xac nh
chnh xac y u cac ch tiu ky thut cua thit b t o co
anh gia, kt lun ung v cht lng vn hanh cua thit b
am bao a thit b mi vao lam vic an toan chc chn, cung
nh nh ky kim tra, th nghim phat hin cac sai sot, s xung
cp cua thit b ang vn hanh co giai phap ngn nga, x ly
kp thi.
Can b, cng nhn th nghim in co cac nhim vu
chnh sau:
- Hiu bit va s dung chnh xac, thanh thao cac may moc,
thit b, dung cu o c trang b.
- Nm vng khi lng va tiu chun th nghim cua cac
i tng th nghim.
- Hiu va nm vng quy trnh ky thut an toan trong cng tac
th nghim in va cac quy nh an toan khac lin quan n thit
b, i tng th nghim.
- am bao s chnh xac cua kt qua th nghim, co kt lun
sau khi o ac va chu trach nhim v cac s liu va cac bin ban,
kt lun v kt qua th nghim do mnh thc hin.
1.4 Trnh t t chc thc hin cng tac th nghim nht
th
1.4.1

Cac yu cu thc hin cng tac th nghim

thit b nht th:


a.Yu cu v ngi th nghim:
Can b, cng nhn th nghim in la ngi trc tip s
dung cac phng tin, thit b, dung cu th nghim xac nh
chnh xac y u cac ch tiu ky thut cua thit b t o co
anh gia, kt lun ung v cht lng vn hanh cua thit b
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am bao a thit b mi vao lam vic an toan chc chn, cung


nh nh ky kim tra, th nghim phat hin cac sai sot, s xung
cp cua thit b ang vn hanh co giai phap ngn nga, x ly
kp thi.
thc hin cng tac th nghim hiu chnh cac can b, cng
nhn th nghim in phai la ngi:
- a c hun luyn, kim tra kin thc v quy trnh ky
thut an toan va a c cp the an toan.
- Hiu va nm vng quy trnh ky thut an toan trong cng tac
th nghim in va cac quy nh an toan khac lin quan n thit
b, i tng th nghim.
- a c ao tao, hiu bit va s dung chnh xac, thanh
thao cac may moc, thit b, dung cu o chuyn dung.
- Nm vng khi lng va tiu chun th nghim cua cac
i tng th nghim.
- a c ao tao at yu cu v cac hng dn phng
phap th nghim cac thit b nht th.
- am bao s chnh xac cua kt qua th nghim, co kt lun
sau khi o ac va chu trach nhim v cac s liu va cac bin ban,
kt lun v kt qua th nghim do mnh thc hin.
- a c kim tra sc khoe nh ky hang nm va u tiu
chun lam vic theo yu cu cng vic cua n v.
b.Yu cu v thit b th nghim:
- Cac thit b th nghim phai c kim nh, hiu chun
at yu cu ky thut va con hiu lc.
- Cac thit b phai co qui trnh vn hanh cu th kem theo (i
vi cac thit b o chuyn dung va a tnh nng) a c cp lanh
ao cua n v ph duyt
c.Yu cu v hang muc, tiu chun va phng phap th
nghim:
- Hang muc th nghim c la chon theo 2 tiu ch: phu
hp vi i tng c th nghim va loai hnh th nghim mi
hay nh ky. C s la chon hang muc th nghim: theo quy
nh cua Tng cng ty in lc Vit nam, Cng ty in lc 3 va
nha ch tao.
- Tiu chun th nghim c xac nh nh sau:
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

+ Thit b c cung cp theo n hang (hp ng kinh t,


h s thu) th th nghim theo nhng tiu chun a nu trong phn
c tnh ky thut yu cu cua n hang o.
+ Khi thit b mua le hoc trong n hang khng nu ro c tnh
ky thut cn thit, thit b a c ch tao theo tiu chun nao
(co ghi trong tai liu ky thut va/hoc bin ban xut xng cua
thit b) th phai c th nghim theo ung yu cu cua tiu chun
o, cac gia tr th nghim phai cn c theo tiu chun va tham khao
theo bin ban th nghim xut xng cua nha ch tao.
+ i vi cac vt t thit b khng ro xut x ch tao va
khng co tai liu ky thut, bin ban th nghim xut xng kem
theo th ngi th nghim yu cu khach hang chp nhn ap dung
Tiu chun Vit Nam (TCVN) th nghim. Trng hp khach hang
cha chp nhn th theo TCVN th phai co s trao i va thoa
thun gia i bn thng nht tng hang muc cu th trn
bin ban.
- Phng phap th nghim:
+ Thc hin theo ung cac phng phap th nghim a qui nh
trong cac hng dn th nghim. Trong mt s trng hp c thu
i vi mt s thit b c bit, khi co qui nh va hng dn cu
th cua nha ch tao san phm th phai tun thu theo phng phap
cua nha ch tao ra.
Trnh t t chc th nghim mi cac thit b in tai
mt cng trnh:
Cng tac t chc th nghim mi cac thit b in thng
c tin hanh theo trnh t sau:
1. Cng tac chun b ban u:
Bao gm nhng ni dung sau:
+ Thu thp tai liu: bao gm tai liu cua thit b va cac bin
ban th nghim xut xng
+ Nghin cu xem xet tai liu, nu thc hin theo phng
phap o mi phai lp hng dn th nghim cu th. Trong trng
hp cn thit phai t chc khao sat tai hin trng
+ Chun b thit b th nghim, phng tin lam vic va cac
vt t phuc vu cng tac th nghim.
+ Lp phng an thc hin bao gm:
Lp tin cng vic
Chun b ngun nhn lc
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Trnh t thc hin va phn cng thc hin.


2. Cng tac trin khai va tin hanh thc hin tai cng
trnh:
Bao gm nhng ni dung sau:
+ Lp cac thu tuc cng tac tai cng trnh va phn cng cng
vic
+ C lp thit b cn th nghim
+ Thc hin cac bin phap an toan trn thit b trc khi tin
hanh cng vic
+ Tin hanh thc hin va thu thp s liu
+ So sanh i chiu vi cac s liu xut xng hoc cac tiu
chun qui nh anh gia va ra quyt nh.
+ Hoan tra thit b v trang thai ban u va ban giao cho n
v quan ly thit b (nu co)
+ Lp bin ban th nghim theo biu mu a qui nh.
1.5 An toan trong th nghim thit b in trn h thng
in
Vn an toan trong h thng in co lin quan n ba lnh
vc: Trc tin la an toan cho ngi th nghim, sau o la an toan
cho tai san, thit b th nghim va sau cung la am bao cho cac thit
b in va h thng an toan va cung cp in lin tuc trong moi
tnh hung. Tai san va thit b h hong co th sa cha va thay
th c, nhng tnh mang con ngi la iu thing ling khng th
n bu c. am bao an toan cho ngi th nghim cn phai
phi hp hang loat cac yu t nh: trnh , tay ngh cua ngi
th nghim, vic tun thu nghim ngt cac bin phap an toan trong
vn hanh va s dung thit b th nghim, y thc chp hanh cac
qui pham an toan khi lam vic tai hin trng, co chng trnh
nghim hp ly va hiu qua, vic trang b cac phng tin bao v
ca nhn tt.
Hng dn chung:
Nhng vn v ky thut an toan c nu ra sau y dung
cho vic t chc th nghim cac thit b in va ch co tnh cht
hng dn. Cn phai nghim chnh tun theo cac qui chun Nha
nc v vn an toan. Cac qui chun nay da trn cac c s sau
y:
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

- Cn hiu ro muc ch va phng phap tin hanh cng vic.


- Xem xet cn thn ni lam vic
- i mu bao h va trang b ao qun bao h ung qui chun
- Cach ly (ct in) thit b va mach cn thao tac, th nghim
- Khoa cac ngun va mach dn n cung nh i t thit b
cn thao tac, th nghim.
- Dung but th in kim tra mach va thit b co in hay
khng trc khi tip a lam vic, luc nay phai eo gng tay bao v.
- Kim tra ky h thng ni t tai ni lam vic, nu khng
phai thc hin ni t t tao bng cac coc chuyn dung.
- Thc hin ni t vung lam vic, thit b o, i tng o.
- Treo bin bao va dung rao ngn cach ly khu vc ang th
nghim.
- Phn cng ngi giam sat tai ni co kha nng co ngi qua lai
An toan in tai ch:
Trc khi tin hanh cng vic mi nhn vin th nghim phai
c hng dn cac qui nh an toan va thc hin nghim chnh
cac vn sau:
-Bit ro ni dung, trnh t cng vic va c bit la cac bin
phap an toan
- Bit s dung cac dung cu, ngh phuc vu cho cng vic,
bit cach hiu chnh dung cu
Kim tra va xac nh cac thit b a ct khoi li trc khi
tin hanh cng vic
-Phn chia khu vc lam vic bng rao chn va dy ai nhm
ngn nga ngi khng co trach nhim n gn.
- am bao cac mach va thit b lin quan khac a ct in, khu
vc ln cn c cach ly va treo bin bao phong
- Khng c tin hanh cac cng vic ong, ct mach khi cha
c phep cua ngi phu trach. Khi c phep phai co trang b an
toan nh: gng cao su, giay cach in..
- Ngi phu trach phai thng bao cho tt ca nhn vin nhng
thay i v iu kin lao ng. Cac nhn vin phai nhc lai nhng
dn docua ngi phu trach am bao ghi nh va thuc long cac
quy trnh thao tac.
- Khng lam vic mt mnh, phai lun lam vic vi ng i.
- Khng i vao khu vc co in nu cha c phep cua ngi
phu trach.
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

23

- Thao lun vi ngi phu trach tng bc tin hanh cng


vic cua mnh.
- Khng tin hanh cng vic hoc tip tuc tin hanh bt c
vic g nu ban con nghi ng v tnh trang an toan, iu kin cua
thit b hoc co in ap nguy him. Ch thc hin cng vic theo
ch dn cua ngi phu trach.
Nhng lu y cu th v an toan khi th nghim trn cac thit
b in
1 ai cng
Moi thit b va mach in phai c coi nh ang co in cho
n khi thit b ch bao in ap phat hin khng co in va dy
t a c ni.
Thit b ch bao phat hin in ap phai phu hp vi mach va
thit b cn th. Ngi lam vic tai khu vc nay phai c thng
tin t nht bng 2 thit b ch bao in ap khac nhau va c
ngi phu trach th nghim am bao thit b b ch bao hoat
ng tt.
2 May bin ap, khang in:
+ Sau khi a tach khoi vn hanh va cach ly vi cac thit b ln
cn cn tin hanh u tt va u t toan b cac u ra cua
cac MBA va khang in trc khi tin hanh cng tac th nghim,
kim tra va bao dng.
+ Trong qua trnh loc sy tun hoan du MBA cn ni t vo,
cac cun dy c ni tt va ni t tranh nguy c xut hin
cac in tch t do vo va cun dy
+ Khng c cham vao cac u cc cua MBA, khang in
trong khi o in tr mt chiu cun dy va th nghim kim tra
t u dy bng phng phap xung mt chiu.
+ Khi tin hanh cac th nghim cao ap trn MBA, phai u tt
va ni t cun dy cha c th nghim, vo may va cac thit
b ln cn (cap lc cao ap, chng set van, tu in, cac bin dong
chn s) nhm tranh xut hin cac in ap cam ng gy h hong
v cach in cung nh gy tai nan v in do tip xuc vi cac i
tng nay.
+ Sau khi hoan tt phep th nghim cao ap mt chiu trn cac
cun dy hoc s u vao cua cac MBA lc cng sut ln va in
ap cao cn dung sao chuyn dung co b in tr xa phu hp
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

24

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

xa cac in tch trc khi u t chc chn chung. Thi gian tip
t khng c t hn 5 phut.
+ i vi cac MBA du khng c tin hanh cac th nghim
cao ap cac cun dy khi khng nap du, khi du nap cha n mc
qui nh va sau khi nap cha n 6 ting.
+ Tranh thc hin cac th nghim cao ap khi nhit may
ln hn 45oC
3 May bin in ap:
+ Trc khi thc hin cac u ni trn cun cao ap, cn phai
kim tra va cach ly hoan toan cac cun dy th cp vi cac mach
nh th lin quan am bao khng co s xm nhp in ap t
pha th cp gy nn in ap cao tai u s cp.
+ Trong qua trnh th nghim khng tai cn ni ng th cac
b phn c b tr trn u ra cao ap cua cun s cp, ni t
chc chn u ni t cua cun s cp am bao trang thai
lam vic bnh thng cua bin in ap.
+ Khi tin hanh kim tra cc tnh bng ngun DC phai cp
ngun xung cho pha s cp (cun cao ap) va b tr thit b o
pha th cp (cun ha ap) nhm tranh gy hong thit b o va
am bao an toan cho nhn vin th nghim.
4 May bin dong:
+ Tach ly hoan toan cac cun th cp khoi cac mach nh th
lin quan trong qua trnh th nghim dong t hoa am bao an
toan cho cac thit b bao v va o lng cung nhn vin th nghim
khac ang cng tac trn mach nh th.
+ Khi tin hanh kim tra cc tnh bng ngun DC phai cp
ngun xung cho cac cun dy pha th cp va b tr thit b o
pha cun s cp nhm tranh gy hong thit b o va am bao an
toan cho nhn vin th nghim.
+ Khi th nghim kim tra ty s bin bng phng phap cp
dong cho pha th cp phai am bao cac cun th cp phai c
kn mach. Tranh khng c h mach dong pha th cp khi
ang cp dong pha s cp v iu nay co th gy qua ap cun
th cp dn n hong cach in vong cua cun dy cung nh gy
mt an toan cho ngi th nghim khi tip xuc vi cun dy nay.
5 May ct:

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

25

- May ct chn khng: Mc du qui trnh th nghim cao ap i


vi may ct chn khng cung tng ng vi thit b khac nhng cn
c bit chu y hai vn quan trong sau y:
+ Trong khi th nghim cao ap vo pha trong cua may ct chnh
co th co in tch tn d sau khi a ct ngun cao ap. Vo nay
c gn vi vong gia cua vo cach in. Do vy cn dung sao
ni t phong in vong nay cung nh cac b phn kim loai
khac, trc khi s vao ch ni hoc thn may ct.
+ Cao ap t vao khe h trong bnh chn khng co th sinh ra tia
X nguy him nu in ap qua cac tip im vt qua mc cho
phep. Do vy khng tin hanh th nghim cao ap khi may ct v
tr ct in ap cao hn qui nh la 36kV xoay chiu qua mi tip
im. Trong khi th nghim cao ap, panel trc va panel bn canh
phai c lp vao may ct. Ngi ng trc may ct c man
chn panel bao v. Nu v tr nay khng thun tin cn han ch
ng gn may ct chn khng di 3 met. Khi lam vic bnh thng
khng phat sinh tia X v cac tip im khng v tr m.
- May ct SF6:
+ Cn tun thu cac qui nh khi lam vic trong mi trng co kh
SF6 (khi nap va khi ai tu sa cha) tranh tip xuc trc tip vi
kh va cac san phm phn huy cua no.
+ Kim tra ky cac v tr u ni cua h thng nap t bnh
cha kh SF6, van nap va cac ng ng nap n van u vao cua
may ct am bao rng chung a c u ni chc chn.
nh ky kim tra hoat ng cua van an toan va tnh nguyn ven cua
cac ng nap.
+ Tun thu ung cac qui nh va qui trnh nap kh. Khi cn co
th dung li bao che thn may ct trong ln nap u tin.
+ Nu ap lc kh bao dng khng con phai phat hin v tr
ro r va khc phuc, nu phat hin vt nt trn thn may ct phai
xem xet ky va khng c tin hanh nap kh nu cha lam ro
nguyn nhn va mc cua h hong nay.
+ Sau khi nap trong ln thao tac ong ct th u tin nn dung
ch th t xa tranh nguy c s b n v.
- Cac may ct hp b:
+ Khi lam vic trn cac thit b c khu vc pha sau tu
may ct hp b cn anh du va kim tra cn thn s b tr
Nm 2004
Hoa du

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26

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

cua tu, tranh m nhm tu ang mang in (trong trng hp th


nghim nh ky). Cn tng cng cng tac kim tra va th in
cung nh ngi giam sat khi lam vic khu vc sau tu
+ Khi lam vic gn khu vc b tr cac dao tip t cn co
bin phap khoa cn thao tac dao tip a, treo bin bao va c
ngi giam sat tranh gy tai nan do thao tac dao v y (ban thn cac
dao ni t cua cac tu hp b a phn thng co b phn tr
lc bng lo xo)
- Cac tu truyn ng cua may ct:
+ Khng c tin hanh bt ky cac cng vic nao bn trong tu
truyn ng khi cha ct ngun thao tac va giai tr hoan toan nng
lng a tch nng cho cac lo xo ong ct.
+ i vi may ct SF6 khi cha nap ap lc n nh mc,
cha c thao tac ong ct may ct.
+ Khi lp rap tu truyn ng vi thn may ct phai lam theo
ung hng dn cua nha ch tao va tuyt i khng c iu
chnh, tac ng cng bc ln cac chi tit c kh bn trong tu.
6 Tu in:
am bao an toan khi tin hanh thao tac th nghim tu in
phai tun theo qui trnh sau y:
+ Cach ly tu bng cach ct may ct, dao cach ly
+ Tu c xa in trong khoang 5 n 10 phut
+ Ngn mach cac in cc cua tu va ni t.
+ Nu co cac tu in cn th nghim nm gn k mt tu
in ang c th nghim cao ap th ta cn tin hanh tip t
va u tt toan b cac u cc ra cua chung tranh nguy c
xut hin in ap do tch in cam ng trn cac tu nay co th gy
mt an toan cho con ngi khi v tnh cham vao cac u cc.
7 Dao cach ly:
+ i vi cac dao cach ly co b truyn ng bng in, khi
tin hanh th nghim trong khu vc tram ang mang in cn phai
thc hin cac bin phap am bao an toan sau:
Ct cac ngun iu khin cp cho tu truyn ng cua dao
cach ly
Dung cac khoa lin ng bng c kh tranh khng cho ngi
vn hanh thao tac nhm cac dao tip t.

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

27

+ Kim tra ky tnh trang ni t cua cac dao tip a cua dao
cach ly va tnh trang cac ma dao tip a am bao a co s
thng mach tt troc khi tin hanh cng vic trn dao cach ly.
+ i vi cac dao cach ly ng dy, phai thc hin cng tac
tip a lu ng ung qui pham trc khi tin hanh lam vic trn
dao cach ly.
+ Khi tin hanh cac cng tac kim tra, bao dng va sa cha
cac chi tit bn trong tu truyn ng phai ct ngun cung cp n
tu.
8 Cap lc:
+ i vi cac cap lc trong th nghim trong vn hanh cn
phai c lp, kim tra bng but th in va thc hin tip t
toan b cac pha ca hai u cap trc va sau khi th nghim
loai tr in tch tnh in.
+ Trong qua trnh th nghim cao ap mt chiu (gm th
nghim o in tr cach in va o dong ro cn phai ni t cac
pha khng o ca hai u. Sau khi kt thuc th nghim phai ni t
ca hai u cua pha a th xong trong vong 1 gi loai bo toan b
cac in tch t do trc khi a vao u ni ong in tr lai.
+ Trong qua trnh nng in ap th mt chiu cn phai tin
hanh vi tc va phai tranh gy qua dong cho thit b th dn
n h hong.
+ S dung in tr xa thch hp xa in tch a nap
trong in mi cua cap sau khi kt thuc phep th cao ap mt chiu
trc khi dung dy ni t tip t chc chc cac u ra cua cap.
Tranh xa cap trc tip xung dy ni t khng gy anh hng
n cht lng cach in cua cap.
+ Ngoai ra trong qua trnh th nghim cao ap cac si cap lc
c b tr gn nhau, cn phai u t toan b cac u cap cua
cac si cap cha c th nghim tranh nguy c xut hin
in ap cao trn chung do cam ng t in trng cao ap cua phep
th.
9 Chng set van:
+ i vi cac chng set van a qua s dung nht la cac
chng set van nghi ng a b hong cn lu y la lun co nguy c co ap
lc phat sinh bn trong. Do vy cn phai cn thn trong qua trnh
thao lp chung va phai tin hanh xa ap lc trc khi xem xet cac
Nm 2004
Hoa du

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28

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

phn t bn trong chng set k ca cac chng set a loai ra khoi


vn hanh va a vao khu vc ch huy bo.
10 H thng ni t:
+ Lun kim tra in ap nhiu tai khu vc t cu o trc
khi u ni am bao an toan cho thit b o.
+ Vic u ni gia cu o va cac dy o c thc hin
sau cung sau khi a am bao rng khng co ngi cham vao h
thng dy va coc o. Sau khi kt thuc phep o phai tach cac dy o ra
khoi cu o trc khi thc hin cac phep chuyn i s va
tach u ni trn cac coc o.
+ Khi o tip a cua cac cng trnh a va ang vn hanh nhm
tranh nguy c xut hin in ap cao trn h thng ni t trong
qua trnh o do vic xut hin dong in cham t ln (do ngn
mach gn hoc do set anh vao khu vc tram, ng dy gn
tram) cn phai trang b cac phng tin an toan nh: gng tay, tham,
ung khi u ni cu o vi h thng tip a.
+ Khi o tip a cua cac ct ng dy ang vn hanh co nguy
c xut hin in ap trn dy ni t tai cac im u ni, do
vy cn s dung cac phng tin an toan a nu trn khi u
ni.
S lin h in t:
Khi co ngi dang lam vic trong khu vc a ct in, nhng
mach in ln cn vn con mang in cn am bao ni t chc
chn mach hoc thit b a ct in. Ly do la co th phat sinh
in ap cam ng do lin h in t gia hai mach. Trong trng
hp nay nu co in ap cam ng th dong cam ng se c ni
t do o ambao an toan cho ngi lam vic. in ap h thng
cang cao th kha nng xut hin va ln cua in ap cam ng
cang nhiu va ln. Ngoai tac ng ln c th ngi ang lam vic
th in ap nay con anh hng ln thit b o va kt qua o.

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

29

TH NGHIM IN TR CACH IN CUA CAC THIT B

IN
2.1 Cac ch tiu anh gia c tnh cach in cua cach in
rn
2.1.1

H s hp thu:

Hin tng: Khi t in ap mt chiu vao bt c vt liu


cach in nao ta cung thy:
+ thi im u: dong in tng vot mt tr s.
+ Sau o dong in giam t t.
+ Cui cung dong n nh mt tr s xac nh.
Giai thch: Dong in chay qua cach in c tnh theo cng
thc:

hh

I = Ihh + Iht + Ir
i
i
i
I x
r
ht
C r
r
ht
hh

ht

+ Kch thc hnh hoc nht nh cua cach in c xem nh


mt tu in Chh, t in ap vao cach in ng nhin khng co
in tr nap. Tu Chh c nap y rt nhanh va tiu thu mt
dong in Ihh ln, sau o tt ngay.
+ Tu Cht hnh thanh do s khng ng nht trong b day cua
vt liu cach in, co bot kh chui vao gia cac lp cach in, do
hi m xm nhp, do bui bn,tap cht ln vao trong vt liu khi
ch tao hoc nhng h hong khac (khng bao gi co mt cach
in nao la hoan toan ng nht cung mt vt liu du cho cng
ngh ch tao co hin ai n u chng na).
Khac vi Chh, in dung hp thu Cht khng xut hin ngay sau
khi t in ap vao cach in ma xut hin sau mt thi gian nao
o khi ma Chh a nap in xong do s phn b lai ln lt cac
in tch trong b day cach in va s tch luy cac in tch o
ranh gii nhng lp khng ng nht,tao thanh mt chui in
dung ni tip nhau. Rht la in tr mt chiu cua nhng oan cach
Nm 2004
Hoa du

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30

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

in u ni tip gia nhng in dung cua cac lp khac nhau. Tr


s in tr nay co anh hng n tr s cua dong in phn cc
va thi gian nap in cua toan b in dung hp thu.
Trong b day cach in co nhiu tap cht (nhiu Cht u ni
tip) th Rht cang nho do o dong in nap Iht cang ln va thi gian
nap in cang ngn ngha la dong Iht se tt nhanh. Ngc lai khi
trong b day cach in co t tap cht th Rht ln, do o Iht cang nho
va thi gian nap in cho in dung hp thu cang dai. Dong in
nap Iht cua in dung hp thu c xac nh theo cng thc: Iht =

(U / Rht) e- t / .
trong o: U: la in ap mt chiu th nghim.
t: la thi gian t in ap th nghim.
: la hng s thi gian ( = Cht. Rht)
e: la c s lgarit t nhin (e = 2,71828)
+ Sau khi kt thuc qua trnh phn cc ngha la in dung hp
thu ngng nap in, dong in Iht se bng khng nhng trong cach
in vn con co dong in dn Ir (con goi la dong in ro) chay
qua, dong in nay c xac nh bi in tr mt chiu tng Rc
cua cach in.
H s hp thu Kht la ty s gia Rc o bng Mgmmet sau
60 k t luc a in ap vao va Rc o sau 15: Kht = R60 / R15.
Nu cach in kh th Rht ln,dong in nap bin i chm,
thi gian nap in dai ngha la R60 va R15 khac nhau rt nhiu, do
o thng cach in kh th Kht 1,3.
Nu cach in m Rht nho,dong in nap bin i nhanh,
thi gian nap in ngn va ch 15 sau khi bt u o a at tr s
n nh ngha la R60 va R15 hu nh khng khac nhau my, do o
thng cach in m th Kht 1.
2.1.2

Ch s phn cc Kpc

Ch s phn cc Kpc la ty s gia Rc o bng Mgmmet sau


10 k t luc a in ap vao va Rc o sau 01: Kpc = R10 / R01.

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

31

2.2 Cac yu t anh hng n cach in cua thit b va


cach khc phuc
2.2.1

Ky nng yu cu khi thc hin phep o in tr

cach in va h s hp thu
Ngoai tr vic tin hanh phep o vi mt ky nng cp
cao, cac phep o v in tr cach in se lun cho cac kt qua o
dao ng do hang loat cac yu t se c noi n sau y, mi
yu t do o se anh hng mt t. Mi yu t gy ra cac sai s
ln trong phep o in tr cach in va cac sai s nay co th khng
b buc vao khng chnh xac cua thit b o. Cac thit b sau y
c u tin xem xet n cac yu t anh hng khi o in tr
cach in nh: Cach in cun dy stato may in quay, cap lc,
cac MBA va cac thit b khac ngoai tr cac cach in bng s
gm, cac chng set van va cac s u vao v trn cac thit b nay
mt gia tr o in tr cach in thun li co th khng c
chp thun nh la mt ch th v tnh trang tt cua chung.
Vic o dc tnh cach in R60 va tg

c tin hanh

khng t hn 12 ting sau khi nap du vao MBA va thit lp xong


mc du trong thung du phu nhit cua cach in khng nho
hn:
+ 283oK (10oC) -i vi cac MBA cp in ap 110 150kV
+ 293oK (20oC) -i vi cac MBA cp in ap 220 750kV
+ Gn khac nhau khng ln hn 50C vi nhit a cho trong ly
lch may i vi cac khang in cp in ap 500kV va ln hn.
Khi o phai u tt ca cac u ra co cung cp in ap cua
cun dy vi nhau, vo may c u t.
Trc khi bt u o cun dy ang c th nghim cn
phai c u t khng t hn 05 phut.
Nu nh kt qua o nhn c co thiu sot (s o thi gian
sai,vic t mach cp ngun cua mgmmet),cn tin hanh o lai
ln hai theo s nay. Khi o, tt ca cac cun dy phai c ni
t khng t hn 02 phut.
i vi may phat, tin hanh o cach in trang thai ngui
thc t cua may in hay trang thai nong khi nhit cun dy
xp x nhit cua ch lam vic danh nh.
Nm 2004
Hoa du

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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Khi o in tr cach in cn o nhit cun dy. Nhit


cun dy stato c ghi thng qua cac cam bin nhit hoc
ng h nhit tai tu o lng nhit hay thng qua h
thng may tnh giam sat; nhit cun dy rto ly bng nhit
cun dy stato. Trong trng hp o in tr cach in trang
thai ngui thc t cua may th co th xem nhit mi trng la
nhit cun dy.
Sau khi o xong cn phong in qua tip t cua may, thi gian
ni t phong in yu cu khng nho hn 3 phut (TCVN 3190-79).
2.2.2

Anh hng cua in tch co sn:

Mt yu t anh hng n cac phep o in tr cach in


va h s hp thu la s tn tai cua mt s tch in trc o
trong cach in. han ch anh hng nay ta thng tip t
cun dy may phat cho n khi tin hanh o cach in cun dy.
Vic nay cung c thc hin tng t nh i vi cac cach
in cua nhng thit b khac (c bit i vi cac thit b co
in dung cua cach in ln: MBA lc, tu in, cap lc cao ap v.v)
2.2.3

Anh hng cua nhit :

Hu ht cac phep o cach in phai c th hin da


trn nhit cua i tng th. in tr cach in cua hu ht
cac loai cach in u giam xung theo s tng v nhit .
Trong nhiu trng hp, nhng cach in b hong v anh hng
tch luy cua nhit , ngha la, mt s tng nhit gy ra mt
s tng v tn tht in mi ma iu nay lai gy nn mt s
tng nhit hn na v.v.
Nhit th nghim i vi cac thit b in chng han
cac s u vao d phong, cac s cach in, cac may ct loai
khng kh hay loai nap kh va cac chng set van thng c tha
nhn la co cung mt nhit vi nhit mi trng. i vi
cac may ct va cac may bin ap co du nhit th nghim
c tha nhn la ging nh nhit du. i vi cac s u
vao a lp t ni co mt u bn di c ngm trong du
th nhit th nghim nm u o gia nhit cua du va
nhit cua khng kh.
Trong thc t nhit th nghim c tha nhn la
ging nh nhit mi trng xung quanh i vi cac s u vao
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

33

a lp t trong cac may ct du va cung nh i vi nhng may


bin ap du a c a ra khoi tnh trang vn hanh khoang 12
gi. cac may bin ap c tach ra khoi trang thai vn hanh ch
trc khi th nghim th nhit cua du thng se ln hn nhit
mi trng xung quanh. Nhit th nghim cua s u vao
i vi trng hp nay co th c tha nhn v mt im
trung bnh nm gia nhit cua du va nhit cua mi trng
xung quanh.
Bt ky cac thay i t ngt v nhit mi trng se
lam tng sai s cua phep o v nhit cua cac trang thit b in
se thay i tr hn nhit mi trng.
2.2.4

Anh hng cua m:

Hi m, co th xm nhp vao cach in cun dy cua mt


may phat hay ng c t khng kh m hoc co th xm nhp vao
cun dy cua mt MBA t du m, se gy nn mt s sai lch ln
bt ng in tr cach in. Do vy vic in tr cach in thp
do tip xuc vi hi m khng co ngha la cach in la khng thch
hp cho vn hanh cua thit b, c bit nu gia tr in tr cach
in co th so sanh vi gia tr a thu c t cac th nghim
nh ky gn y. i vi cac cun dy cua may phat sau khi ngng
vn hanh mt khoang thi gian, kha nng giam thp cua in tr
cach in cun dy la iu d xay ra va do o vic sy cach in
cua cac cun dy i khi khng phai la mt yu t ln va i khi
khng cn lam ngoai tr nhm x ly cach in cua mach kch
t.
Co th di cac tnh trang m tng i bt li, b
mt phi trn cua cac s tao ra mt s lng tu cua hi m b
mt, ma iu nay co th co mt anh hng ang k trong cac
tn hao b mt va do o co anh hng ang k trong cac kt qua
cua phep th nghim v in tr cach in. iu nay tht s
ung nu nh b mt bng s cua mt s u vao co mt
nhit thp hn nhit xung quanh (di im sng), nh
vy hi m se co th ngng ong trn b mt bng s. Cac sai
s o nghim trong co th co ngay ca mt m tng i
nm di 50% khi ma hi m ngng tu trn mt b mt bng s

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

34

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

a nhim bn hoan toan cac cht cn v hoa cht trong cng


nghip.
Bt c s ro r nao qua cac b mt cach in cua i
tng th se lam tng thm cac tn hao trong khi cach in va co
th cho ta mt n tng sai lch v tnh trang cua i tng
th nghim.
Cac sai s cua ro r b mt co th c giam thiu nu nh
ta thc hin cac phep o in tr cach in trong iu kin thi
tit la quang ang, co nng va m tng i khng vt qua
80%. Nhn chung, ta se nhn c cac kt qua tt nht nu nh
thc hin cac phep o trong thi gian t cui bui sang n gia
bui chiu.
Phng phap loai tr dong ro r b mt khi o in tr cach
in:

Hnh 2-1: o in tr cach in khi khng dung mach bao v

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

35

Hnh 2-2: o in tr cach in co dung mach bao v loai


tr dong ro b mt.
hnh 2- 1, ta thy Ampemet A o ca dong in I1 va I2 trong
khi chung ta ch mun o dong I1.
hnh 2-2: bng cach dung mt s dy ng mm qun cht
vai vong quanh s va ni no vao u bao v (Guard), dong ro I2
c cp thng qua u bao v ch khng phai u ngun o
(Line) ngha la by gi chung ta ch o in tr cach in cua cun
dy ch khng phai o s kt hp song song in tr ro b mt
vi in tr cun dy.
2.2.5

Anh hng cua nhiu tnh in:

Khi tin hanh cac th nghim trong cac tram mang in, cac
gia tr o co th b anh hng bi cac dong nhiu tnh in do mi
ghep in dung gia cac ng dy va cac thanh gop mang in vi
i tng th gy ra.
ngn chn cac anh hng cua nhiu tnh in qua manh
ln phep o, cn phai tach i tng th nghim ra khoi cac dao
cach ly va cac thanh cai. Kinh nghim trong khi o se xac nh c
cac v tr cua thit b in ring bit ma ta cn ct i cac u ni.
Cac dao cach ly, dy dn, thanh cai lin quan, nu khng mang in,
phai c ni t chc chn giam thiu mi ghep v tnh
in vi hp b th nghim.
2.2.6

Anh hng cua thi gian vn hanh cua cach in:

Cach in co cha mt ban th cng, chng han nh


asphalt-mica, trai qua mt tin trnh t sy theo thi gian. Tin
trnh t sy nay lam tng dong in hp thu in mi trong cach
in va do vy cac gia tr o cua th nghim cao ap mt chiu
hoc trn mgm cho thy mt s suy giam v in tr cach in
theo s tng cua thi gian vn hanh. Anh hng ang chu y nht
cua thi gian vn hanh ln dong in ro chnh yu la do s hnh
thanh cua cac vt nt va s nhim m.
Cac cach in rn, nh la s gm, khng trai qua mt tin
trnh t sy va v vy thi gian vn hanh, v ban thn no, khng
thay i s hp thu in mi hoc cac thanh phn cua dong in
ro.
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

36

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

2.3 Cac h s hiu chnh v nhit khi o in tr cach


in:
Phng phap chung: Co th hiu chnh in tr cach in
mt nhit bt ky nao v in tr cach in tai bt ky nhit
c s nao ma khng cn phai xy dng c tuyn qua cac phep
o in tr cach in mt loat cac gia tr nhit a nu.
Phng phap nay ch mang tnh gn ung, bi v h s nhit
cua in tr cach in thay i kha ln theo cac vt liu va tnh
trang khac nhau cua chung va lun lun khng c nh vi cung mt
loai vt liu.
Cng thc xac nh gia tr in tr cach in (Rb) tai nhit
c s a nh (Tb) khi gia tr in tr a bit hoc a o (Ra) tai
nhit (Ta) la:
Rb = f x Ra
Trong o: - f: la h s hiu chnh v nhit , f = 10A (Tb - Ta)
- A: la h s nhit cua in tr cach in ly t bang 1
Bang 2-1
Gia tr trung bnh cua h s
Cac thit b hoc vt liu

nhit
in tr cach in A
0,0300
0,0173

Cac MBA du, cach in cp A


Du MBA
Cun dy xoay chiu, cach in

0,0330

cp A
Cun dy xoay chiu,cach in

0,0168

cp B
Cun dy mt chiu

0,0240

May bin ap, khang in cua Nga: nu nhit may bin


ap khi o cach in tai hin trng sai khac vi nhit o cua
nha ch tao hoc cua ln o trc o th cn phai qui i kt
qua v cung nhit theo h s K1:
Bang 2-2: H s quy i in tr cach in theo nhit
t (0C)
1
H s qui i
1,04
(K1)

10

15

20

25

30

1,08

1,13

1,17

1,22

1,50

1,84

2,25

2,75

3,40

Cach qui i: Rc ( nhit t1) = K1* Rc ( nhit t2).


Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

37

K1: la gia tr h s qui i tra bang vi t = t2 t1.


Trong trng hp chnh lch nhit khng co trong bang trn
th ta co th tnh theo h s cac h s a cho bng cach nhn cac
h s tng ng.
V du: do 90C = 40C + 50C nn ta tnh c:
K1(t = 90C) = K1(t = 40C) * K1(t = 50C) = 1,17*1,22 = 1,42
May phat in cua Nga: thng thng gia tr cho phep cua
in tr cach in c cho 300C. nhit ln hn 300C th gia
tr cho phep cua in tr cach in giam xung 2 ln cho mi 200C
khac nhau gia nhit khi o va 300C.
2.4 Quy trnh thc hin cac phep o va ghi s liu:
a/ Bin phap an toan:
Tt ca cac th nghim ch c tin hanh sau khi a ct
in va cach ly hoan toan i tng c o vi h thng in
ang vn hanh.
Lun lun ni u cc ni t cua mgmmet vi t.
Lu y rng in ap cao lun xut hin gia 2 u cao th
(

LINE va u t (EARTH) cua m gmmet khi n nut n th


)

nghim.
Sau khi o xong phai ni t i tng o trong vai phut
phong hoan toan cac in tch d xung t.
Trong qua trnh o cung nh khi cha xa ht in tch tan d,
tuyt i khng cham vao cac u ra cua i tng c o.
Phai lun lun t tra chuyn mach v v tr OFF sau khi hoan
tt 1 phep o bt ky tranh moi thao tac v y co th gy nguy
him cho ngi ang tin hanh chun b s o hoc khi thay th
pin lp trong mgmmet.
b/ Cac bc tin hanh o:
Ct in, thc hin cac bin phap an toan cach ly va
tach tt ca cac u dy cua i tng c o ang ni vao h
thng. Cac u ra cua mi cun dy (cung cp in ap) cn c
u tt vi nhau tranh gy ra sai s o. Vo thit b, te cap phai
c u t chc chn.
i vi MBA lc, khang in, may phat in, tu in, cap
(cac i tng co in dung cua cach in ln): Cac u ra cua
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

38

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

cac cun dy may in hoc cac u cc cua tu in, cap lc


phai c u tt va u t xa in tch tan d t nht 5
phut trc khi tin hanh o in tr cach in phep u tin. Gia
hai phep o in tr cach in, cac i tng o cn c u
tt va u t xa in tch tan d t nht 2 phut trc khi
tin hanh o phep tip theo.
Tin hanh u ni s o in tr cach in va thc
hin phep o theo quy trnh s dung cua mgmmet dung o.
Khi o in tr cach in, ta ng thi tin hanh xac nh gia
tr in tr cach in tai thi im 15 giy va 60 giy sau khi a
in ap vao. Tnh toan h s hp thu Kht = R60 / R15. i vi
cac MBA lc cp in ap 110KV tr ln va vi cac may phat in ta
co th ly thm gia tr o in tr cach in tai thi im 10 phut
sau khi t in ap vao va tnh toan h s phn cc Kpc = R10 /
R01.
Lu y: trong mt s tai liu ky thut bng ting Anh, gia tr
in tr cach in c vit tt la IR (Insulation Resistance) con h
s phn cc c vit tt la PI (Polarzation Index)
Sau khi o, nha nut n th nghim trn mgmmet va ch
vai giy xa cac in tch d cac i tng o co in dung
nho ri mi thao dy o.
i vi cac i tng o co in dung ln nh may bin ap,
may phat, cap, tu in..., am bao an toan cho mgmmet th khi
o xong nn thao dy o cao th khoi i tng o, tip n nha nut
n th nghim sau o dung dy tip a bn ngoai xa in
tch d i tng o.
Trong trng hp khi o cach in ma b mt i tng o
b m, bn th phai dung thm man chn bao v: ly dy dn trn
mm qun quanh b mt cach in vai vong va dung dy dn
GUARD ni no n u ra GUARD cua mgmmet, sau o mi tin
hanh o.
2.5 Vic anh gia kt qua o va tiu chun ap dung:
2.5.1

May bin ap lc, khang in:

Gia tr in tr cach in cun dy MBA khng co tiu chun


chung nhng cn phai thoa man cac iu kin sau: in tr cach
in o c sau khi qui i v cung mt nhit khng c
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

39

nho hn 30% gia tr in tr cach in cua nha ch tao hoc cua


ln th nghim trc o.
Trong trng hp khng co cac s liu so sanh, cho phep
tham khao gia tr in tr cho phep ti thiu theo Qui trnh vn
hanh va sa cha may bin ap do EVN ban hanh kem theo quyt
nh s 623 VN/KTN ngay 25/5/1997:

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

40

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Bang 2- 3: Gia tr ti thiu in tr cach in cun dy MBA


(R60; M ).
Nhit cun dy (0C)
10
20
30
40
50

60

70

450

300

200

130

90

60

40

- in ap 110KV tr ln khng phu 900

600

400

260

180

120

80

Cp in ap cun cao ap MBA


- in ap 35 KV tr xung,
cng sut < 10000KVA
- in ap 35 KV cng sut > 10 000KVA
thuc cng sut

Tnh Kht = R60 / R15. Trong khoang nhit t 100C n


300C, gia tr Kht cua cach in tt thng 1,3. Khi gia tr nhit
thay i (nhit cao), gia tr Kht co th tng hoc giam so vi tr
s 1,3. V vy, nhit cao, gia tr Kht ch mang tnh tham khao.
Tnh H s phn cc Kpc (vit tt PI):
PI 2
PI < 1,5

: Cach in tt.
: Cach in xu.

1,5 < PI<2 : Cn phai xem xet kt hp vi cac ch tiu khac.


Theo ly thuyt th ch s phn cc PI khng phu thuc vao
nhit .
in tr cach in cua cac may bin ap kh khi nhit
cun dy 200C 300C la: + MBA co in ap nh mc di 1kV :

100M .
+ MBA co in ap nh mc t 1kV n 6kV: 300M .
+ MBA co in ap nh mc trn 6kV
2.5.2

: 500M .

May phat in ng b (cua Nga):

Bang 2- 4: Gia tr in tr cho phep cua cach in va h s


hp thu nhit o t 100C n 300C.
Phn

th

nghim

Dan
g o

Gia

tr

in

in

tr

ap o

cach

(V)

cho

in Ghi chu
phep

(M )

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Cun
stato

dy Lp
mi

41

2500/

Khng di i vi mi pha hoc nhanh

/1000/

10 M

/500**

mt
in
nh

Lp

2500

mi

cho ring bit tng quan vi khung


kV vo va cac pha kia c tip
ap t. Gia tr R60/R15 khng
mc di 1,3.

ng dy
Theo
qui Khi nc chay qua cun dy
nh

Nha

ch tao
ai

2500/

R60 va R60/R15 khng qui

tu,

/1000/

nh

nh

/500**

quyt nh vn sy kh.

ky*

nhng

cn

lu

khi

V nguyn tc, khng c co


s sai lch gia tr in tr
cach in va h s hp thu
cua cac pha hoc cac nhanh
khac nhau, nu s sai lch
khng co trong nhng ln o
trc o, iu kin nhit
ging nhau.
nho Cho phep ln u tin a vao

2- Cun dy Lp

1000

Khng

rto

mi,

(cho

hn 0,5 (khi vn hanh may phat co cng

ai

phep

lam

tu,

500)

bng

mat sut trn 300 MW vi rto cc


n, khi lam mat gian tip

nh

nc-

co hoc

ky*,

sy

tiu

cun dy

trc

tip

cun

dy

kh bng khng kh hoc Hyr va

tu

cun dy co in tr cach
in khng di 2 k nhit
750C hoc 20 k nhit
200C. Nu cng sut ln
hn, vic a vao vnh hanh
may phat co in tr cach
in cun dy rto di 0,5M
( nhit 10-300C) ch cho
phep

Lp
mi,
ai
tu
Nm 2004
Hoa du

1000

Theo

qui

nh

nha

nu

thoa

thun cua Nha may ch tao.


Khi nc ct chay qua khe lam
mat cun dy

ch tao
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

42

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

3- Mach kch Lp

1000

Khng di

t may phat mi,

(cho

1,0

va may kch ai

phep

t kiu gop tu,

500)

vi

tt

ca nh

cac thit b ky**


u

ni ,tiu

(khng

co tu

cun dy r
to

va

may

kch t)
4- Cun dy Lp

1000

may kch t mi,

Khng di
0,5

kiu gop va ai
b kch t tu,
phu

nh

ky**
5- ai gng t Lp
va

1000

gop mi,

Khng di
1,0

cua may kch ai


t kiu gop tu
va b kch
t phu
6Bu

lng

cach

in

xit

cht

thep t stato
(co ch
o)
7- hng Lp

1000

Khng di i vi may phat thuy lc,

va m kn mi,

0,3 i vi tin hanh o nu c cu cua

truc

ai

may

phat may phat cho phep va trong qui

tu

thuy

lc nh Nha ch tao khng oi

va 1,0 i hoi cht che hn.


vi

may

phat tuabin
va may bu

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

8-

43

ng Lp

500-

Theo

yu

khuych tan, mi,

1000

cu

Nha

may

ch

tm

ngn ai

quat gio, cac tu

tao

cum c cu
khac

cua

stato

may

phat

*: in tr cach in cun dy rto, stato va h thng kch t


co lam mat trc tip bng nc c o khi sa cha nho nh
ky trong nhng trng hp khi khng yu cu phai thc hin cng
vic thao d may.
**: in tr cach in c o khi in ap nh mc cua cun
dy n 0,5 kV noi chung, o bng Mgmmet 500 V. Nu in ap
nh mc cun dy t 0,5 n 1 kV o bng Mgmmet 1000V. Khi
in ap nh mc cun dy trn 1 kV- o bng mgmmet 2500 V.
2.6 S u ni khi o vi cac thit b in c trng:
MBA lc: in tr cach in may bin ap c qui nh o
theo cac phep sau:
i vi MBA co hai cun dy:
Cac phep o chnh la:
1.

Cao - (Ha + Vo + t)

2.

Ha - (Cao + Vo + t)

Cac phep o phn tch va kim tra cheo kt qua (khng bt


buc):
1.

Cao - Ha

2.

Cao - (Vo + t)

3.

Ha - (Vo + t)

i vi MBA co ba cun dy:


Cac phep o chnh la:
1.

Cao - (Trung + Ha + Vo + t)

2.

Trung - (Cao + Ha + Vo + t)

3.

Ha - (Cao + Trung + Vo + t)

Cac phep o phn tch va kim tra cheo kt qua (khng bt


buc):
1.

Cao - (Vo + t)

2.

Trung - (Vo + t)

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

44

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

3.

Ha - (Vo + t)

4.

(Cao + Trung) - (Ha + Vo + t)

5.

(Cao + Ha) - (Trung + Vo + t)

6.

(Trung + Ha) - (Cao + Vo + t)

7.

(Cao + Trung + Ha) - (Vo + t)

May phat in: o in tr cach in cua tng pha cun dy


stato i vi t (vo may, cun dy rto va cun dy cac pha con lai
cua stato u c ni t), i vi cac may phat ln co cac
nhanh song song trong cung 1 cun dy stato th ta o ring re tng
nhanh i vi cac nhanh khac a c ni t. Cun dy rto
c o so vi t (khi tt ca cac cun dy khac u c ni
t).
May bin in ap (TU), may bin dong in(TI): s o ging
nh khi o MBA co 2 cun dy. Vi cac TU hoc TI co nhiu cun dy
nh th th ta phai o in tr cach in cua tng cun dy nh th
vi cac cun dy nh th con lai c ni t.
May ct in(MC): o in tr cach in 2 trang thai
MC trang thai ct (h mach): o tng cc MC mt i vi
cac cc con lai c ni vo va ni t.
MC trang thai ong: o tng pha cua MC i vi 2 pha kia
c u chung vi vo va vi t.
Cap lc:
i vi cap 1 pha: o in tr cach in cua loi cap vi vo cap
(te cap) c ni t.
i vi cap nhiu loi: o in tr cach in cua tng loi cap
i vi cac loi cap con lai c u chung vi vo va vi t.
Chng set van: o in tr cach in gia u cc chnh (ni
vi li) i vi (ni vi xa va ni t) cua chng set. i
vi b chng set van co nhiu tng th o in tr cach in cua
tng tng ring bit.
2.7 Gii thiu mt s loai cu o in tr cach in
(Mgmmet) thng dung:
a/ Mgmmet 3121- KYORITSU:
Thng s ky thut
in ap th
Pham vi o

Gia tr
2500VDC
(0 2.000M ) / (1000 100.000M )
t ng chuyn i pham vi o

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

45

* 230C 50C:
5% gia tr oc (t 100 50.000M )
Cp

10% gia tr oc hay 0,5% chiu dai thang ( dai

chnh

in tr

ln hn dai noi trn)

xac

cach in

* -100C + 400C:
10% gia tr oc (t 100 50.000M )
20% gia tr oc hay 1% chiu dai thang ( dai
ln hn dai noi trn)
ap 2500V 5% (100 50.000M )

in

u ra
Nhit va m - 100C + 400C m tng i cc ai 85%
lam vic
Nhit va m - 200C + 600C m tng i cc ai 90%
bao quan
in tr cach in
1000M max. / 1000V gia mach in va vo hp
bn in ap
5000VAC trong 1 phut gia mach in va vo hp
Ngun in
8 pin 1.5V SUM-3 hay tng ng

b/ Mgmmet 3131- KYORITSU:


in

ap

th 250 VDC

nghim
Dai o
0 100M
Gia tr gia thang 1M
o
in ap u ra 250 VDC +
khi h mach
in ap u ra

u ra
Dong u ra

1.000 VDC

0 200M
2M

0 400M
4M

10% 500

max
250VDCmin

VDC

max
500VDCmin

0,25M
Dong ngn mach

500 VDC

10% 1.000 VDC + 10%


max
1.000VDCmin

0,5M

1M

Xp x 1,3mA
1mADC

min

1mADC

min

1mADC min 1M

0,25M
0,5M
5% gia tr oc 5% gia tr oc 5% gia tr oc
Cp chnh xac

0,05

(t

0,1

(t

0,2

10M )
20M )
40M )
(
0,7% chiu dai thang o dai ln hn dai noi trn)

* in ap lam vic cua mach tn hiu en, coi khi ang o: 60V
AC/DC n 600V AC/DC
+ Dai o lin tuc:
Dai o
in ap u ra khi h mach
Dong in ngn mach u ra
Cp chnh xac
Nm 2004
Hoa du

0 2 0 20
4 9V
200 mA min.
3% chiu dai thang o

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

46

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

+ in ap ngun: 6 vin pin 1,5V kiu R-6, AA hay tng ng.


+ S ln th nghim: Xp x 2000 ln thang 250V
Xp x 1300 ln thang 500V
Xp x 350 ln thang 1000V
+ Nhit va m khi lam vic: 00C + 400C m
tng i cc ai 85%.
+ Nhit va m khi bao quan: -200C + 600C m
tng i cc ai 85%.
+ in ap chu ng: 6000VAC, 50Hz hay 60Hz trong 1 phut gia
mach in va vo thit b.
+ in tr cach in: 50M min. 500V gia mach in va vo
thit b.
+ Cu ch bao v (ch dai o lin tuc): cu ch gm
0,5A/250V (F) 5x20mm.
c/ Mgmmet ISOL 5003- Chauvin Arnoux (Phap):
- Pham vi o: co 3 thang o in tr cach in
+ Thang K : t 10 K n 30.000 K .
+ Thang M : t 3 M n 3.000 M .
+ Thang G : t 3 G n 3.000 G .
- Co 4 nc in ap o: 500V, 1000V, 2500V, 5000V i vi cac
thang M va G .
- 1 thang o dong in khng i: 33 A (1300V max.) i vi
thang K .
- Thit b co ng h Vn AC / DC (600V) kim tra s tn
tai in ap (cac in tch d) trc va sau khi o in tr cach
in.
- Thit b o c cp ngun nh mt pin Cadmium/ Nickel va
mt b nap in cho pin co 2 cp in ap (110/220 VAC). No co
th lam vic ngun cung cp bn ngoai va co th dung o
trong khi pin ang c nap (lu y rng thit b se khng lam vic
nu khng co pin ngun).
- c trng cua thang o:
in
Thang

Pham vi hay
o

ap
dong Cp

in
nghim

th xac

chnh

Thi gian nap Thi gian


in

tr.bnh xa cc

(90% in ap)

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

ai

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

10

30.000

1300Vmax

5%

gia

33 A

oc

khng i

(10%max

tr * < 0,5s / F cho 0,5s/ F


500V hay 1000V
)

hay 5K

K
3
M

47

+ 500V

+ 1000V

3.000 M
3
G

+ 2500V

(I< 6mA)

+ 5000V

1s/ F

R=100K

cho

2500V

(ly 1 gia * < 4s/ F cho


tr cao hn 5000V
trong 2 gia
tr trn)

3.000 G
- c tnh cua pin ngun: pin Cadmium/ Nickel 12V - 2,2 Ah; dai
in ap hoat ng 13,5 n 10,5V. Tuy theo in ap o co th o
t 500 n 2500 phep o (mi phep o thc hin trong 1 phut ). Trong
iu kin bnh thng, tui tho cua pin la ln hn 5 nm hoc 3000
gi o.
- Pham vi lam vic cua thit b:
+ Nhit t -100C n + 550C
+ m tng i t 20% n 80% ( 400C)
va t 20% n 80% ( 550C)
- Pham vi gii han trong bao quan va vn chuyn:
+ Vi pin lp trong: t -200 n + 550C
+ Khng co pin: t -200 n + 700C
- Thit b co in tr 100K t ng xa cac in tch d
(khi chuyn mach ON/OFF v tr OFF).
- in ap th nghim bn in mi:
+ u vao chnh: 2000Vrms.
+ Cac u cc: 4000Vrms.
f/ Mgmmet S1-5010- AVO (My):
- in ap o: co 4 thang 500V, 1000V, 2500V, 5000V.
- Cp chnh xac in ap o: 5% trn tai 10M hay ln hn.
- Gii han dong o: 2mA hay 5mA (la chon c)
- Dai o: + in tr: 10k n 50G 500V
10k n 1T 1000V
10k n 2,5T 2500V
10k n 5T 5000V
+ in ap: 50 n 1000V a.c/d.c (5000V khi th nghim)
Nm 2004
Hoa du

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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

+ Dong in: 0,01nA n 5mA.


- Cp chnh xac (0 300C):
+ in tr: 5% t 1M n 1T 5000V
5% t 1M n 100G 500V
5% t 1M n 10G 50V
+ in ap th nghim d.c: 2% 1V
+ Dong in: 5% 0,2A.
- in dung xa cc ai: 20 F 5kV, hoc 80 F 5kV.
- Thi gian xa: <100ms / F t 5kV n 50V.
- Ngun pin o: loai cquy ch kn 12V-7Ah lp trong, co th Sac
lai c.
- Ngun sac: 95 280V a.c / 12 15V a.c hay d.c
- Thi gian th nghim: 15giy n 90 phut.
- Dai nhit : + Lam vic: -200C +500C.
+ Bao quan: -250C + 650C.

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

49

3 HNG DN TH NGHIM O IN TR MT CHIU


CUN DY MAY BIN AP
3.1 Y ngha cua phep o in tr mt chiu i vi cac may
bin ap:
Nhm phat hin nhng khuyt tt trong qua trnh u ni
khi ch tao cac cun dy, ngn chn hin tng phat nong
khi mang tai cac u ni.
i vi cac MBA co b chuyn nc khng tai, phep o in
tr mt chiu co th phat hin tnh trang bt thng cua
cac b tip im cua chuyn nc (lc ep tip im khng
am bao, tnh trang b mt cua cac tip im b r, mon
v.v)
i vi cac MBA co b iu ap di tai, qua phep o in tr
mt chiu co th giup ta bit c tnh trang cua cac b
tip im dp h quang bn trong b cng tc K co bin
phap bao dng hoc thay th ung luc.
Phat hin s u ni sai cac nc phn ap bn trong MBA.
3.2 Cac phng phap o in tr mt chiu
o bng cac cu o chuyn dung: P333T (Nga), Multi-Amp
(My).v..v.
o bng phng phap Vn -Ampe.
Cac thit b khi o bng phng phap Vn - Ampe: Ngun mt
chiu (thng la Ac qui 12V, 100Ah). Bin tr 20, 30A. Aptomat
220V,100ADC. Nut n chuyn mach ap. Cac ng h VDC, mVDC,
ADC co gii han thang o phu hp sao cho gia tr o nm trong
khoang 2/3 thang o, cp chnh xac 0,5.
3.3 Nhng yu cu khi thc hin phep o
Nhm tranh hin tng phat nong co th lam anh hng n
s thay i cua in tr cun dy, dong o khng c vt qua
10% gia tr dong nh mc. Khi thi gian tin hanh phep o khng ln
hn 1 phut co th cho phep o dong o n 20% dong nh mc
cun dy.
Lam sach cac u cc cua cun dy trc khi o nht la khi
o cac cun dy co in tr be.
Nm 2004
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50

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Chu y: Khi ct mach in mt chiu qua cun dy may bin


ap (co in cam rt ln) se xut hin mt in ap cam ng co
tr s rt ln trn cac u cc cun dy. V vy trong sut qua
trnh o cn co cac bin phap an toan, cm cham vao cac u
cc trong sut qua trnh o, co bin phap chng sut dy o.
3.4 Cac lu y v sai s trong qua trnh o
Kt qua phep o phu thuc rt nhiu vao vic u ni s
o, dy o va im ni dy o vao i tng o. Co mt s hin
tng c trng cho vic ni dy o khng ung nh sau:
Kt qua khi o khng n nh. Nguyn nhn: do mach bm dong
khng tip xuc tt; nng lc ngun bm dong khng n nh; dy
bm dong b t ngm, tit din nho.
Kt qua o sai khac rt nhiu so vi cac s liu th nghim
trc va khng n nh gia cac ln o. Nguyn nhn: do dy o ap
u khng ung im cn o in ap ri trn i tng o, hoc
dy o ap tip xuc khng tt vi u cc o, mi tip xuc o ap
dung ca cho vic bm dong.
Nhit cun dy thay i ang k khi thi gian o in tr
cac cac cun dy keo dai (do in tr thay i)
3.5 Cac lu y v an toan trong qua trnh o
u ni chc chn cac dy o gia thit b o vi i tng
o, khng xay ra vic t mach dong trong khi o bng s 4
dy hoc theo phng phap V-A v iu nay co th gy nguy him cho
ngi o va gy hong thit b o.
Khng trc tip tip xuc vi cac cun dy con lai cua MBA
(TU,TI v.v) v co nguy c xut hin cac in ap cam ng kha ln
trong qua trnh o.
Cach ly tt ca cac mach (nht, nh th) lin quan ra khoi cac
u cc cua cac cun dy MBA (TU, TI v.v) tranh gy h hong cac
thit b u ni nm trong cac mach nay.
Khi dung ngun c qui ngoai o bng phng phap V-A cn
phai s dung mt ap t mat (ATM) trong thao tac ong ct ngun o.
am bao ct tt h quang mt chiu xut hin sau khi ct
ngun cp dong o, ta nn chon ATM co dong danh nh ti thiu
gp 5 ln dong o.

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Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

51

Bin tr dung iu chnh dong o cn phai am bao tip


xuc tt nhm tranh xay ra tnh trang gian oan dong o trong qua
trnh iu chnh.
am bao thc hin ung theo trnh t yu cu cua mach
dong in va mach in ap.
Khi tin hanh o tai khu vc ang mang in, cn ni tt tt
ca cac u cc cua cac cun dy vi nhau va vi t trc i o
3.6 o in tr mt chiu bng phng phap vn-ampe
Khi tin hanh o in tr mt chiu cun dy bng phng
phap Vn - Ampe, cn tin hanh theo trnh t sau:
ong ngun mt chiu, dung bin tr iu chnh cho dong
in o phu hp vi yu cu. Ch cho dong o n nh.
Nhn nut n o ap, trong cung mt thi im, oc tr s dong
in va in ap, ghi kt qua o.
Nha nut n o ap trc khi ct ngun mt chiu (hoc khi
thay i nc phn ap cua b iu ap di tai)
Tnh toan kt qua o, i chiu, so sanh vi cac tiu chun, qui
nh.
Hnh 3-1: S o in tr mt chiu bng phng phap vnampe

A a

UDC
-

B b

C c

3.7 o in tr mt chiu bng thit b o chuyn dung


Cac thit b o in tr mt chiu chuyn dung thng co 4
cc ni dy o la:
2 cc dong: bm dong mt chiu vao i tng o.
2 cc ap: ly in ap ri trn u cc i tng o.
thc hin phep o, cn tun theo cac ch dn cua nha ch
tao.
Cac lu y v sai s va bin phap an toan nu trn vn ap
dung ung trong trng hp o bng thit b o chuyn dung.
Nm 2004
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52

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

3.8 Tiu chun ap dung


Gia tr in tr mt chiu cn c so sanh gia cac pha vi
nhau, so sanh vi s liu xut xng cua nha ch tao, so sanh vi
s liu o cua ln th nghim trc:
Gia tr in tr mt chiu tai cac nc phn ap tng ng
gia cac pha vi nhau khng c sai lch qua 2% va khng c
qua lch mt nc phn ap (nu khng co cac ly do c bit
c ghi ro trong ly lch may).
Gia tr in tr mt chiu sau khi qui i v cung nhit
khng c sai lch qua 5% so vi gia tr xut xng cua nha ch
tao hoc s liu cua ln th nghim trc.
S O IN TR MT CHIU BNG THIT B O CHUYN DUNG

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Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

53

CHTH(LCD) DONG I
N VAI
N TRKNH A

S
O I
N TR
CU
N DY
B
NG C
U O
MULTI- AMP
KI
U 830280

CHTH(LCD) I
N TRKNH B

INPUT
(U)

OUTPU
T (I)

INPUT
(U)

DY C
P DONG O (DY DONG)

DY O AP (DY AP)

I T
NG O

Nm 2004
Hoa du

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54

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

4 KY THUT TH NGHIM O IN TR TIP A


4.1 Khai nim v h thng ni t va cac phn t lin
quan:
4.1.1

Khai nim v h thng ni t:

H thng ni t la mt tp hp bao gm cac coc, dy dn


lin kt vi nhau v in c chn su trong t va tip xuc trc
tip vi t. Tac dung cua h thng ni t la tan dong in i
vao trong t nhm gi in th thp trn cac vt cn ni t
du dong in nay sinh ra t bt c ngun gc nao chng han
nh cac dong xung do set tao ra hay cac dong in s c li
in ang vn hanh.Trong h thng in co ba loai ni t khac
nhau:
Ni t lam vic: co tac dung am bao s lam vic bnh
thng cua thit b hoc cua mt s b phn cua thit b theo
ch lam vic a c tnh trc. Loai ni t nay bao gm
ni t cua im trung tnh may bin ap, cua cac may bin ap o
lng, khang in bu ngang... trong h thng in. Tr s in tr
ni t cho phep phu thuc vao tnh trang lam vic cua tng
thit b cu th.
Ni t an toan: co tac dung am bao an toan cho con ngi khi
cach in thit b h hong. Loai ni t nay bao gm ni t cac
b phn kim loai bnh thng khng mang in nh vo may, thung
may bin ap, gia kim loai... cua cac thit b in. Tr s in
tr ni t nay c qui nh nh sau:
i vi trung tnh trc tip ni t th R 0,5 .
i vi trung tnh cach in:
+ Nu phn ni t ch dung cho thit b cao ap th R 250/I
( ).
+ Nu phn ni t dung cho ca thit b cao ap va ha ap th
R 125/I ( ) nhng khng qua 10 .
Trong o I la dong in cham t. Tr s dong in nay phu
thuc vao thng s cua li in thit k (in ap li, tng
chiu dai ng dy).
+ Cho phep tng gia tr in tr ln 0,002 ln nhng khng qua
10 ln ( tnh bng m) nu t co in tr sut ln hn 500 m
i vi cac thit b co in ap ln hn 1000V va thit b co in ap
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

55

n 1000V khi ma chi ph cho vic t cac coc ni t nhn tao co


chi ph qua cao. (Trch cng vn s 2413/CV-EVN-KTAT-KTL-QLXD cua
Tng Cng Ty in Lc Vit Nam - Ap dung theo TCVN 4756-1989).
Ni t chng set: co tac dung tan dong set trong t khi co
set anh vao ct thu set hay trn ng dy gi cho in th
moi im trn thn ct khng qua ln tranh gy phong in ngc
ti cng trnh c bao v. Thng ni t cua ct thu set va ct
in c b tr c lp.
Nh a nu trn mi loai ni t co yu cu v tr s in
tr ni t cho phep khac nhau, vic ni t ring re theo tng loai
va theo tng cp in ap co nhiu u im, tuy nhin vic thc
hin s cach ly nay i luc gp nhiu kho khn va co th khng
thc hin c. Do vy trn thc t thng ni thanh h thng
chung, khi o cn chu y rng h thng chung phai thoa man yu
cu cua loai ni t nao co tr s in tr ni t cho phep nho
nht.
4.1.2

Cac phn t lin quan n in tr cua h thng

ni t:
in tr cua vt liu va cac mi ni n no:
Nu coc tip a c ch tao t vt liu co dn
in cao, tit din u ln, cac mi ni c thc hin chc
chn, tip xuc tt th in tr ban thn cua no chim ty l khng
ln so vi gia tr in tr tan cua h thng ni t. Mt khi cac
vt liu lam coc khng ung quy cach theo thit k, dy ni qua
dai, cac mi ni tip xuc khng tt se co anh hng ln n gia
tr in tr ni t. Vic t mt dy dn duy nht tht dai
ni ti vung t co in tr sut tht thp giam in tr ni
t la iu khng nn lam bi v khi o i vi dong xung set dy
dn nay se co tr khang ang k lam giam hiu qua cua h thng
ni t.
in tr tip xuc cua t xung quanh vi coc ni t:
i vi cac coc ni t c ma am bao ky thut, khng r
ret va lp t xung quanh coc c chen cng th in tr tip
xuc gia coc va t co th bo qua. Trong thc th cht lng thi
cng h thng ni t lai khng nh mong mun.
in tr cua t xung quanh khi co dong in chay qua:
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

iu nay lin quan n in tr sut cua t, y la yu t


co y ngha nht i vi in tr cua h thng ni t. Co th
xem coc nh c bao quanh bi cac lp t ng tm, cang gn
coc b mt bao quanh cang nho do o in tr cua no cang ln coc
b mt bao quanh cang ln nn in tr cua no cang nho. Dn dn
n mt khoang cach nht nh nao o xem nh t bao quanh
khng con anh hng n in tr ni t. Vung anh hng nay
goi la vung tan cua in tr ni t.
4.2 La chon thit b o va dung cu o:
4.2.1

Chon thit b o:

Cac thit b o c dung o in tr ni t thng la


cac cu o chuyn dung c ch tao phu hp cho vic o in
tr ni t. c im cua cac cu o nay la ngun in ma chung
phat ra la ngun co tn s 128Hz vi muc ch la han ch anh
hng cua dong lam vic tn s 50Hz va cac thanh phn song hai
bc cao cua no n dong in th nghim. Mi loai cu o co
tnh nng khac nhau tuy theo nha san xut va trnh phat trin
cng ngh. Cac cu o thng dung la cac cu o: M416, ABB 5003,
TERCA, DET2/2.
4.2.2

Chon dung cu o:

Cac dung cu o dung o in tr ni t bao gm: Coc,


bua, dy.
Cac cu o chuyn dung thng i kem cac dung cu o nh a
nu trn thng thch hp cho vic o h thng ni t n nh
cac ct in n v coc o ngn, cun dy o ngn khng thch
hp vi vic o in tr ni t cua h thng ni t bao gm
nhiu coc b tr theo chu vi mach vong cac tram bin ap co
din tch mt bng ln. Do vy cn phai chon dung cu o phu
hp vi h thng ni t cn o.
Dung cu o cn quan tm y la coc va dy o:
Coc phai dung coc bng ng ma kem ng knh ti thiu
20mm, chiu dai coc khoang 1m am bao su ong coc vao
t khoang 0,8m.
Dy o co tit din ti thiu la 2,5mm2 va co chiu dai u ln
phu hp vi phep o.

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Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

57

4.3 Mt s phng phap o in tr ni t in hnh:


4.3.1

Phng phap ri in th:

Ly thuyt cua phng phap:


Xet h thng ni t X cn o.
o in tr ni t ta dung cac coc ni t phu Z(goi la
coc dong), coc do Y (goi la coc ap) dung o, iu quan trong
y lin quan n chnh xac cua phep o la coc dong phai u xa
h thng ni t cn o, coc ap Y phai nm ngoai vung chu anh
hng in tr cua h thng ni t va coc ni t phu Z. Nu
coc ap Y nm trong mt vung anh hng in tr hoc ca hai vung
nu chung giao nhau th khi thay i v tr coc ap Y tr s in tr R
bin i ro rt nh trn hnh 4-1. Trong iu kin nh vy khng
th xac nh c tr s chnh xac in tr cua h thng ni
t cn o. Ngc lai nu coc ap Y nm ngoai vung anh hng
in tr nh trn hnh 4-2 th khi di chuyn coc ap Y ta nhn thy
mc bin thin gia tr R rt nho, luc nay mi co th cho kt
qua o chnh xac.

Hnh 4-1: Anh hng cua cac vung in tr giao nhau

Hnh 4-2: Cac vung anh hng in tr khng giao nhau


Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Nh vy c s cua phng phap nay la xac lp phep o sao cho


coc ap Y nm ung oan phng ngang cua c tuyn in tr
ni t (tc la vung ma khi di chuyn coc ap Y mc bin thin
cua R rt nho) nh hnh 4-2. Phng phap nay c tnh toan cho
h thng ni t nho tc la h thng ni t gm mt hay hai
coc n c ong su trong t nh ni t cua cac tram bin
ap phu tai nho c lp cng sut nho.

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Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

59

S o:
C
u o i
n trn
i
t
1
C1

2
P1

3
P2

4
C2

15m
n 25m

15m
n 25m
3m
X

3m

Y1

Y2

Y3

Hnh 4-3: S o cua phng phap ri in th


Cac bc thc hin:
Coc dong Z c ong su vao t cach in cc cn o X
mt khoang t 30-50m. Khoang cach nay phai u xa cac vung anh
hng in tr khng b xp chng ln nhau va gy ra sai s phep
o. Coc ap Y c ong vao t im gia cua khoang cach
gia coc dong Z va in cc ni t X cn o theo hng thng
hang vi nhau.
Ni dy o t cac in cc vao cu o in tr ni t, u
cc C2 ni n coc dong Z, u cc P2 ni n coc ap Y va cac
u cc C1, P1 ni n in cc ni t X cn o(chu y phai
dung 2 dy loai tr anh hng cua dy ni vao tr s o). Kt
qua o se hin th trn cu o.
Tip tuc thc hin cac phep o th 2 va 3 tng ng vi v
tr cua coc ap nh trn hnh 4-3.
Ba gia tr va o c xac nh c oan c tuyn phng
nht cua ng c tuyn in tr ni t nh hnh 4-2. Nu
gia tr o phu hp vi chnh xac yu cu th tr s trung bnh cua
chung c xem la tr s in tr ni t thc.
Gia s 3 tr s o c la R1, R2, R3. Tr s trung bnh se la
Rtb=(R1+R2+R3)/3.
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Goi lch cc ai cua R1, R2, R3 so vi tr s trung bnh


cua chung la R, no co th biu th theo phn trm cua tr s trung
bnh la ( R/Rtb)x100%.
Nu tr s (1,2x R/Rtb)x100% nho hn chnh xac cua phep
o th tr s trung bnh c chp nhn la tr s in tr ni t
cua h thng cn o.
Nu tr s (1,2x R/Rtb)x100% khng nho hn chnh xac cua
phep o th co th do v tr ban u cua coc dong khng ung tao
nn hin tng nh a nu hnh 1. Luc nay cn phai a coc
dong Z ra v tr xa hn hoc chuyn sang hng khac va tin hanh o
lai cho n khi nao thoa iu kin yu cu chnh xac phep o.
Nhn xet:
y la ky thut o c ban nht trong cac ky thut o in tr
ni t, no co u im la thc hin n gian tnh toan t.
C s ly thuyt cua phng phap nay da trn tnh toan cho
cac h thng ni t n coc, n thanh nn i vi h thng ni
t phc tap phep o nay khng at chnh xac cao v trong
thc t t gp h thng ni t n.
4.3.2

Phng phap 61,8%:

Ly thuyt cua phng phap:


C s cua phng phap nay da vao s hiu bit v tm
im in cua h thng ni t va oi hoi mi trng t la
ng nht. Giai quyt c hai vn trn rt phc tap.
Moi mang li tip a co in tr tan R u co th xem
ging nh in cc ban cu co ban knh rh c chn trong vung
t ging nh nhau va co cung in tr tan R. a hnh ng
nht (vung t co in tr sut khng thay i trong toan vung) th
rh = /2 R. Tm im cua ban cu tng ng chnh la tm im
in cua h thng ni t.
Ly thuyt o cung oi hoi phai xem mi trng t c o la
ng nht, trn thc t t co c vi h thng ni t bao
gm nhiu coc va thanh ni vi nhau trong vung co din tch rng.
Phng phap 61,8% c phat trin nh la mt cai tin cua
phng phap ri in th nhm khc phuc cac vn v
vic ong coc th nghim v tr ung at c chnh xac
cua phep o.
S o:
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

61

dZ

dY =61,8% dZ

38,2% dZ

Hnh 4-4: S o cua phng phap 61,8%


Cac bc thc hin:
Coc dong Z c ong vao t cach tm im in cua h
thng cn o 1 khoang cach la dZ. i vi in cc n khoang
cach nay la 15m. i vi h thng ni t gm vai coc hay thanh
ni song song th khoang cach nay co th tng ln n 50 - 60m hoc
hn na. Noi chung khoang cach nay t nht phai bng 6 ln ng
knh ln nht cua cua mach vong tip a.
Coc ap c ong khoang cach 61,8% dZ tnh t tm im
in cua h thng X cn o, ta goi khoang cach nay la dY (dY =
61,8% dZ). V vy phng phap nay c goi la phng phap 61,8%.
Cac coc ap Y, coc dong Z va im ni dy o vao in cc ni
t X cn o phai nm trn mt ng thng. Sau khi ong coc
xong, ni dy o va tin hanh o th gia tr in tr o c co th
xem la tr s in tr ni t cua h thng.
Tuy nhin, ly thuyt nay gia nh mi trng t la ng nht
iu nay trn thc t t xay ra. Do vy co kt qua o tin cy,
phai x dch coc dong Z ra xa v tr ban u so vi in cc ni
t la 10m va x dch coc dong Z gn vi in cc ni t la
10m. Luc o tt nhin coc ap phai dch chuyn theo sao cho thoa man
qui tc 61,8%. T 3 kt qua o co th tnh toan c tr s trung
bnh.
co th khc phuc nhng khac bit trong s khng ng
nht cua t, co th chuyn sang cac hng o khac va thc hin
cac bc o trn.
Vn t ra la phai xac nh khoang cach dZ cn thit la
bao nhiu. Cn phai bit ng cheo ln nht cua mach vong tip
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

62

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

a. Cac kch thc dY va dZ n cac coc ap va dong c tham


khao theo bang 4-1 sau:
Bang 4-1: Bang ghi khoang cach coc dong va coc ap
Khoang cach ln nht
cua

ng

cheo

mach vong ni t,
m (xp x)

Khoang cach n coc Khoang cach n coc


ap dY o c t dong dZ o c t
tm im in cua tm im in cua
h thng ni t, m h thng ni t, m
(xp x)

(xp x)

16,3

27

1,5

20,1

33

23,3

38

2,5

26,1

42,5

28,6

46,5

33,2

53,8

37

60

41

66

44

71

47

76

50

81

10

53

85

15

65

105

20

76

120

30

94

149

40

109

172

50

122

193

60

135

212

70

146

230

80

157

246

90

167

262

100
178
279
Bang trn c lp ra vi gia thit rng tm im in cung
v tr vi tm im hnh hoc cua h thng ni t, mc du iu
nay khng phai luc nao cung xay ra.
Nhn xet:
y la phng phap thc hin n gian nht, tnh toan ti
thiu, s ln dch chuyn coc t nht.
Tr ngai cua phng phap nay la khoang cach coc dong va
chiu dai dy o ln khi ap dung o h thng ni t ln,
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

63

chiu dai dy o co th ln n 1000m hoc hn na va nh vy se


gp kho khn trong thc t trong vic xac nh ung khoang cach
dY, dZ khi phai i qua a hnh rng nui va vi chiu dai dy ln nh
vy th in khang cua no co th anh hng n kt qua o. Mt
tr ngai na la cn phai bit tm im in cung nh xem mi
trng t t h thng ni t la ng nht.
V vy phng phap nay co th ap dung o cac tram bin
ap cp 35KV cng sut khng ln ( 16MVA).
4.3.3

Phng phap dc:

Ly thuyt cua phng phap:


Ging nh phng phap va nu, phng phap nay khng phu
thuc vao s hiu bit tm im in cua h thng ni t va
cung khng oi hoi khoang cach qua ln cua coc dong. Trong ky
thut o nay khoang cach o c tnh t v tr t tuy y trong chu
vi mang ni t, co th ra h thng ni t X hoc v tr
thun tin nao o (ni t may o).
Muc ch cua phng phap nay la tm ra dc cua ng
c tuyn in tr ni t, t o xac nh oan phng nht cua
c tuyn va chon v tr ti u cua coc ap o in tr ni
t cua h thng.
T hnh 4-5 ta thy dc cua c tuyn in tr ni t
thay i lin tuc nn khng d g xac nh tr s tai mt im cu
th. Ngi ta chon 3 v tr cua coc ap va thc hin vic o in
tr ni t tng v tr, chu y rng ng ong coc ap vao vung
anh hng in tr.

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

64

Trung Tm Th Nghim in
R

dZ

dY
X

d(m)

Hnh 4-5: c tuyn in tr ni t theo khoang cach coc.

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

65

S o:
dZ

Y1

Y2

Y3

YT

dY 1=0,2dZ
dY 2=0,4dZ
dY 3=0,6dZ
dY T

Hnh 4-6: S o cua phng phap dc.


Cac bc thc hin:
Chon mt v tr coc dong Z nao o sao cho khoang cach dZ t
coc dong n h thng in cc ni t la 1,2 n 1,5 ln
ng knh ln nht mach vong tip a. Ba coc in ap ln lt
t 3 v tr vi khoang cach dY tng ng la 0,2dZ; 0,4dZ; 0,6dZ.
Tin hanh o va tm c cac tr s in tr ni t tng ng
la R1, R2, R3. T o tm ra h s dc thch ng vi oan
c tuyn:
=

(6)

Gia s tr s thc cua in tr ni t at c khi Y nm


v tr YT cach h thng ni t 1 khoang dYT. Qua ly thuyt va
kinh nghim thc tin, ngi ta a thit lp c mi quan h
gia dYT, dZ, va h s dc cho trong bang 4-2.
Do o khi tnh c h s dc theo cng thc (6) trn,
tra bang 4-2 se tm c h s ty l v khoang cach cua dYT/dZ
ng vi h s va tm c. Sau o nhn gia tr dYT/dZ vi dZ
c tr s dYT. ong coc ap Y tai v tr YT ng vi khoang
cach dYT va tin hanh o tm ra in tr ni t tht s cua
h thng.
Nu sau khi o va tnh toan cho ra tr s dc nm ngoai
cac gia tr cho trong bang 4-2, chng to v tr coc dong Z ban u
chon cha thch hp cn phai x dch coc dong ra xa hn na va
lam lai th nghim t u. Cn lu y rng vi khoang cach dZ

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

66

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

cang ln, gia tr in tr ni t tm c cang at tin cy


cao.
Nhn xet:
Noi chung phng phap nay d thc hin, khng oi hoi tnh
toan nhiu va phc tap nh phng phap cac c tuyn giao nhau
va cung khng cn bit tm im in cua h thng nh qui tc
61,8%. Phng phap nay con co u im la khi cac vung in tr tan
cua h thng ni t va coc dong anh hng ln nhau th se
phan anh qua h s nm ngoai bang 4-2.
Bang 4-2: Bang cac gia tr cua dYT/dZ theo cac gia tr cua .

0,40
0,41
0,42
0,43
0,44
0,45
0,46
0,47
0,48
0,49
0,50
0,51
0,52
0,53
0,54
0,55
0,56
0,57
0,58
0,59
0,60
0,61
0,62
0,63
0,64
0,65
0,66
0,67
0,68
0,69
0,70
0,71
0,72
0,73
0,74
0,75
0,76
0,77
0,78
0,79
0,80
0,81
0,82

0
0,6432
0,6418
0,6404
0,6390
0,6375
0,6361
0,6346
0,6332
0,6317
0,6303
0,6288
0,6273
0,6258
0,6243
0,6228
0,6213
0,6198
0,6182
0,6167
0,6151
0,6136
0,6120
0,6104
0,6088
0,6072
0,6056
0,6040
0,6024
0,6008
0,5991
0,5975
0,5958
0,5941
0,5924
0,5907
0,5890
0,5873
0,5856
0,5838
0,5821
0,5803
0,5785
0,5767

1
0,6431
0,6417
0,6403
0,6388
0,6374
0,6359
0,6345
0,6330
0,6316
0,6301
0,6286
0,6271
0,6257
0,6242
0,6226
0,6211
0,6196
0,6181
0,6165
0,6150
0,6134
0,6118
0,6103
0,6087
0,6071
0,6055
0,6039
0,6022
0,6006
0,5990
0,5973
0,5956
0,5940
0,5923
0,5906
0,5889
0,5871
0,5854
0,5836
0,5819
0,5801
0,5783
0,5765

2
0,6429
0,6415
0,6401
0,6387
0,6372
0,6358
0,6344
0,6329
0,6314
0,6300
0,6285
0,6270
0,6255
0,6240
0,6225
0,6210
0,6194
0,6179
0,6164
0,6148
0,6133
0,6117
0,6101
0,6085
0,6069
0,6053
0,6037
0,6021
0,6004
0,5988
0,5971
0,5955
0,5938
0,5921
0,5904
0,5887
0,5870
0,5852
0,5835
0,5817
0,5799
0,5781
0,5763

3
0,6428
0,6414
0,6400
0,6385
0,6371
0,6357
0,6342
0,6328
0,6313
0,6298
0,6283
0,6268
0,6254
0,6239
0,6223
0,6208
0,6193
0,6178
0,6162
0,6147
0,6131
0,6115
0,6099
0,6084
0,6068
0,6052
0,6035
0,6019
0,6003
0,5986
0,5970
0,5953
0,5936
0,5919
0,5902
0,5885
0,5868
0,5850
0,5833
0,5815
0,5797
0,5780
0,5762

4
0,6426
0,6412
0,6398
0,6384
0,6370
0,6355
0,6341
0,6326
0,6311
0,6297
0,6282
0,6267
0,6252
0,6237
0,6222
0,6207
0,6191
0,6176
0,6161
0,6145
0,6129
0,6114
0,6098
0,6082
0,6066
0,6050
0,6034
0,6017
0,6001
0,5985
0,5968
0,5951
0,5934
0,5918
0,5901
0,5883
0,5866
0,5849
0,5831
0,5813
0,5796
0,5778
0,5760

5
0,6425
0,6411
0,6397
0,6383
0,6368
0,6354
0,6339
0,6325
0,6310
0,6295
0,6280
0,6266
0,6251
0,6235
0,6220
0,6205
0,6190
0,6174
0,6159
0,6143
0,6128
0,6112
0,6096
0,6080
0,6064
0,6048
0,6032
0,6016
0,5999
0,5983
0,5966
0,5950
0,5933
0,5916
0,5899
0,5882
0,6864
0,5847
0,5829
0,5812
0,5794
0,5776
0,5758

6
0,6423
0,6410
0,6395
0,6381
0,6367
0,6352
0,6338
0,6323
0,6308
0,6294
0,6279
0,6264
0,6249
0,6234
0,6219
0,6204
0,6188
0,6173
0,6157
0,6142
0,6126
0,6111
0,6095
0,6079
0,6063
0,6047
0,6031
0,6014
0,5998
0,5981
0,5965
0,5948
0,5931
0,5914
0,5897
0,5880
0,5863
0,5845
0,5828
0,5810
0,5792
0,5774
0,5756

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

7
0,6422
0,6408
0,6394
0,6380
0,6365
0,6351
0,6336
0,6322
0,6307
0,6292
0,6277
0,6263
0,6248
0,6232
0,6217
0,6202
0,6187
0,6171
0,6156
0,6140
0,6125
0,6109
0,6093
0,6077
0,6061
0,6045
0,6029
0,6013
0,5996
0,5980
0,5963
0,5946
0,5929
0,5912
0,5895
0,5878
0,6861
0,5843
0,5826
0,5808
0,5790
0,5772
0,5754

8
0,6420
0,6407
0,6393
0,6378
0,6364
0,6349
0,6335
0,6320
0,6306
0,6291
0,6276
0,6161
0,6246
0,6231
0,6216
0,6201
0,6185
0,6170
0,6154
0,6139
0,6123
0,6107
0,6092
0,6076
0,6060
0,6043
0,6027
0,6011
0,5994
0,5978
0,5961
0,5945
0,5928
0,5911
0,5894
0,5876
0,5859
0,5842
0,5824
0,5806
0,5789
0,5771
0,5752

9
0,6420
0,6405
0,6391
0,6377
0,6362
0,6348
0,6333
0,6319
0,6304
0,6289
0,6274
0,6260
0,6245
0,6229
0,6214
0,6199
0,6184
0,6168
0,6153
0,6137
0,6122
0,6106
0,6090
0,6074
0,6058
0,6042
0,6026
0,6009
0,5993
0,5976
0,5960
0,5943
0,5926
0,5909
0,5892
0,5875
0,5857
0,5840
0,5822
0,5805
0,5787
0,5769
0,5751

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

0,83
0,84
0,85
0,86
0,87
0,88
0,89
0,90
0,91
0,92
0,93
0,94
0,95
0,96
0,97
0,98
0,99
1,00
1,01
1,02
1,03
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
1,25
1,26
1,27
1,28
1,29
1,30
1,31
1,32
1,33
1,34
1,35
1,36
1,37
1,38
1,39
1,40
1,41

0
0,5749
0,5731
0,5712
0,5694
0,5675
0,5656
0,5637
0,5618
0,5598
0,5579
0,5559
0,5539
0,5519
0,5499
0,5479
0,5458
0,5437
0,5416
0,5395
0,5373
0,5352
0,5330
0,5307
0,5285
0,5262
0,5239
0,5216
0,5193
0,5169
0,5145
0,5121
0,5096
0,5071
0,5046
0,5020
0,4994
0,4968
0,4941
0,4914
0,4887
0,4859
0,4831
0,4802
0,4773
0,4744
0,4714
0,4683
0,4652
0,4620
0,4588
0,4556
0,4522
0,4489
0,4454
0,4419
0,4383
0,4347
0,4309
0,4271

Nm 2004
Hoa du

1
0,5747
0,5729
0,5710
0,5692
0,5673
0,5654
0,5635
0,5616
0,5596
0,5577
0,5557
0,5537
0,5517
0,5497
0,5476
0,5456
0,5435
0,5414
0,5393
0,5371
0,5349
0,5327
0,5305
0,5283
0,5260
0,5237
0,5214
0,5190
0,5167
0,5143
0,5118
0,5094
0,5069
0,5043
0,5018
0,4992
0,4965
0,4939
0,4912
0,4884
0,4856
0,4828
0,4799
0,4770
0,4741
0,4711
0,4680
0,4649
0,4617
0,4585
0,4552
0,4519
0,4485
0,4451
0,4415
0,4379
0,4343
0,4306
0,4267

2
0,5745
0,5727
0,5708
0,5690
0,5671
0,5652
0,5633
0,5614
0,5595
0,5575
0,5555
0,5535
0,5515
0,5495
0,5474
0,5454
0,5433
0,5412
0,5390
0,5369
0,5347
0,5325
0,5303
0,5281
0,5258
0,5235
0,5212
0,5188
0,5164
0,5140
0,5116
0,5091
0,5066
0,5041
0,5015
0,4989
0,4963
0,4936
0,4909
0,4881
0,4854
0,4825
0,4796
0,4767
0,4738
0,4707
0,4677
0,4646
0,4614
0,4582
0,4549
0,4516
0,4482
0,4447
0,4412
0,4376
0,4339
0,4302
0,4264

67

3
0,5743
0,5725
0,5707
0,5688
0,5669
0,5650
0,5631
0,5612
0,5593
0,5573
0,5553
0,5533
0,5513
0,5493
0,5472
0,5452
0,5431
0,5410
0,5388
0,5367
0,5345
0,5323
0,5301
0,5278
0,5256
0,5233
0,5209
0,5186
0,5162
0,5138
0,5113
0,5089
0,5064
0,5038
0,5013
0,4987
0,4960
0,4933
0,4906
0,4879
0,5851
0,4822
0,4794
0,4764
0,4735
0,4704
0,4674
0,4643
0,4611
0,4579
0,4546
0,4512
0,4478
0,4444
0,4408
0,4372
0,4335
0,4298
0,4260

4
0,5742
0,5723
0,5705
0,5686
0,5667
0,5648
0,5629
0,5610
0,5591
0,5571
0,5551
0,5531
0,5511
0,5491
0,5470
0,5450
0,5429
0,5408
0,5386
0,5365
0,5343
0,5321
0,5298
0,5276
0,5253
0,5230
0,5207
0,5183
0,5159
0,5135
0,5111
0,5086
0,5061
0,5036
0,5010
0,4984
0,5957
0,4931
0,4903
0,4876
0,4848
0,4819
0,4791
0,4761
0,4732
0,4701
0,4671
0,4639
0,4608
0,4575
0,4542
0,4509
0,4475
0,4440
0,4405
0,4369
0,4332
0,4294
0,4256

5
0,5740
0,5721
0,5703
0,5684
0,5665
0,5646
0,5627
0,5608
0,5589
0,5569
0,5549
0,5529
0,5509
0,5489
0,5468
0,5447
0,5427
0,5405
0,5384
0,5362
0,5341
0,5319
0,5296
0,5274
0,5251
0,5228
0,5205
0,5181
0,5157
0,5133
0,5108
0,6084
0,5059
0,5033
0,5007
0,4981
0,4955
0,4928
0,4901
0,4873
0,5845
0,4817
0,4788
0,4758
0,4729
0,4698
0,4668
0,4636
0,4604
0,4572
0,4539
0,4506
0,4471
0,4437
0,4401
0,4365
0,4328
0,4290
0,4252

6
0,5738
0,5720
0,5701
0,5682
0,5664
0,5645
0,5625
0,5606
0,5587
0,5567
0,5547
0,5527
0,5507
0,5487
0,5466
0,5445
0,5424
0,5403
0,5382
0,5360
0,5338
0,5316
0,5294
0,5271
0,5249
0,5226
0,5202
0,5179
0,5155
0,5130
0,5106
0,5081
0,5056
0,5031
0,5005
0,4979
0,4952
0,4925
0,4898
0,4870
0,4842
0,4814
0,4785
0,4755
0,4726
0,4695
0,4664
0,4633
0,4601
0,4569
0,4536
0,4502
0,4468
0,4433
0,4398
0,4361
0,4324
0,4287
0,4248

7
0,5736
0,5718
0,5699
0,5680
0,5662
0,5643
0,5624
0,5604
0,5585
0,5565
0,5545
0,5525
0,5505
0,5485
0,5464
0,5443
0,5422
0,5401
0,5380
0,5358
0,5336
0,5314
0,5292
0,5269
0,5246
0,5223
0,5200
0,5176
0,5152
0,5128
0,5103
0,5079
0,5053
0,5028
0,5002
0,4976
0,4949
0,4923
0,4895
0,4868
0,4839
0,4811
0,4782
0,4752
0,4723
0,4692
0,4661
0,4630
0,4598
0,4566
0,4532
0,4499
0,4464
0,4430
0,4394
0,4358
0,4321
0,4283
0,4244

8
0,5734
0,5716
0,5697
0,5679
0,5660
0,5641
0,5622
0,5602
0,5583
0,5563
0,5543
0,5523
0,5503
0,5483
0,5462
0,5441
0,5420
0,5399
0,5378
0,5356
0,5334
0,5312
0,5290
0,5267
0,5244
0,5221
0,5197
0,5174
0,5150
0,5126
0,5101
0,5076
0,5051
0,5025
0,5000
0,4973
0,4947
0,4920
0,4892
0,4865
0,4837
0,4808
0,4779
0,4750
0,4720
0,4689
0,4658
0,4627
0,4595
0,4562
0,4529
0,4495
0,4461
0,4426
0,4390
0,4354
0,4317
0,4279
0,4240

9
0,5732
0,5714
0,5695
0,5677
0,5658
0,5639
0,5620
0,5600
0,5581
0,5561
0,5541
0,5521
0,5501
0,5481
0,5460
0,5439
0,5418
0,5397
0,5375
0,5354
0,5332
0,5310
0,5287
0,5265
0,5242
0,5219
0,5195
0,5171
0,5147
0,5123
0,5099
0,5074
0,5048
0,5023
0,4997
0,4971
0,4944
0,4917
0,4890
0,4862
0,4834
0,4805
0,4776
0,4747
0,4717
0,4686
0,4655
0,4624
0,4592
0,4559
0,4526
0,4492
0,4458
0,4422
0,4387
0,4350
0,4313
0,4275
0,4236

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

68

1,42
1,43
1,44
1,45
1,46
1,47
1,48
1,49
1,50
1,51
1,52
1,53
1,54
1,55
1,56
1,57
1,58
1,59

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

0
0,4232
0,4193
0,4152
0,4111
0,4068
0,4025
0,3980
0,3935
0,3888
0,3840
0,3791
0,3740
0,3688
0,3635
0,3580
0,3523
0,3465
0,3405

4.3.4

1
0,4228
0,4189
0,4148
0,4106
0,4064
0,4020
0,3976
0,3930
0,3883
0,3835
0,3786
0,3735
0,3683
0,3630
0,3574
0,3518
0,3459
0,3399

2
0,4225
0,4185
0,4144
0,4102
0,4060
0,4016
0,3971
0,3925
0,3878
0,3830
0,3781
0,3730
0,3678
0,3624
0,3569
0,3512
0,3453
0,3392

3
0,4221
0,4181
0,4140
0,4098
0,4055
0,4012
0,3967
0,3921
0,3874
0,3825
0,3776
0,3725
0,3673
0,3619
0,3563
0,3506
0,3447
0,3386

4
0,4217
0,4177
0,4136
0,4094
0,4051
0,4007
0,3962
0,3916
0,3869
0,3821
0,3771
0,3720
0,3667
0,3613
0,3558
0,3500
0,3441
0,3380

5
0,4213
0,4173
0,4131
0,4090
0,4047
0,4003
0,3958
0,3912
0,3864
0,3816
0,3766
0,3715
0,3662
0,3608
0,3552
0,3494
0,3435
0,3374

6
0,4209
0,4168
0,4127
0,4085
0,4042
0,3998
0,3953
0,3907
0,3859
0,3811
0,3761
0,3709
0,3657
0,3602
0,3546
0,3488
0,3429
0,3368

7
0,4205
0,4164
0,4123
0,5081
0,4038
0,3994
0,3949
0,3902
0,3855
0,3806
0,3756
0,3704
0,3651
0,3597
0,3540
0,3483
0,3423
0,3361

8
0,4201
0,4160
0,4119
0,4077
0,4034
0,3989
0,3944
0,3897
0,3850
0,3801
0,3751
0,3699
0,3646
0,3591
0,3535
0,3477
0,3417
0,3355

9
0,4197
0,4156
0,4115
0,4072
0,4029
0,3985
0,3939
0,3893
0,3845
0,3796
0,3745
0,3694
0,3640
0,3586
0,3529
0,3471
0,3411
0,3349

Phng phap sao-tam giac:

Ly thuyt cua phng phap:


i vi cac h thng ni t nho lp t cac vung thanh
th, t ai cht hep b han ch bi ng xa nha ca... hoc
vung t a cng, rt kho tm v tr ong coc th nghim, c
bit la b tr coc th nghim trn mt ng thng.
V vy, cn phai ap dung ky thut o thch hp, khc phuc
kho khn trn. Ly thuyt cua phng phap nay da trn c s cho
rng in tr lin kt gia 2 in tr ring bit nao o la in tr
tng cua chung(xem 2 in tr ring bit nay u ni tip nhau) va
dung phep chuyn i s sao-tam giac (Y- ) tnh toan in
tr ni t cua h thng.

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

69

S1
R1

Cac vung i
n tranh hng

Rx1

R13

R12
X
Rx

Rx3

Rx2
R2

S3

S2

R23

R3

Hnh 4-7: S m ta ly thuyt cua phng phap sao-tam giac.


S o:
C
u o i
n trn
i
t
1
C1

2
P1

3
P2

4
C2

Hnh 4-8: S o cua phng phap sao-tam giac.


Cac bc thc hin:
Gia s in tr ni t cua in cc ni t X la Rx, in
tr ni t cua coc phu S1, S2, S3 la R1, R2, R3. Nh trn a noi,
in tr o c qua 2 im X va S1 la (Rx + R1), tng t nh vy
cho h thng 2 im khac.
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

70

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Chun b mt khu vc xung quanh in cc ni t X


ong coc dong S1, S2, S3 sao cho cac vung in tr khng chng cheo
ln nhau. Mt cach ly tng, cac coc S1, S2, S3 b tr quanh in
cc ni t X theo goc lch 1200 vi khoang cach bng nhau. Tuy
nhin khi, khi ong cac coc th nghim, iu quan trong la phai am
bao cac vung anh hng in tr khng giao nhau, con cac khoang
cach va goc lch bng nhau la iu khng cn thit lm.
Tin hanh th nghim, u tin bng cac phep o gia coc X
vi coc dong S1, S2, S3 sau o gia cac coc dong vi nhau. Do vy
a ra c 6 gia tr in tr Rx1, Rx2, Rx3, R12, R13, R23.
in tr ni t cua h thng Rx c tnh toan t cac
phng trnh (7), (8), (9), (10):
Rx = [(Rx1+ Rx2+ Rx3) - ]

(7)

Rx = Rx1+ Rx2- R12)/2

(8)

Rx = Rx2+ Rx3- R23)/2

(9)

Rx = (Rx1+ Rx3- R13)/2

(10)

(
(

Nu kt qua tnh Rx t biu thc (7) phu hp ang k so vi


gia tr tnh c t 3 biu thc (8), (9), (10) th luc o cac phep o
va thc hin at yu cu.
Tuy nhin, nu mt trong cac coc o c ong v tr ma
vung in tr cua no xp chng vi vung anh hng in tr cua
h thng ni t X, th kt qua tnh toan trn se sai lch nhiu.
Vic hoan thanh cac phep tnh cac gia tr R1, R2, R3 se cho bit
sai lm cua vic ong cac coc phu S1, S2, S3 luc y cac gia tr R1,
R2, R3 cung chnh lch nhau nhiu.
R1 = (Rx1+ R12- Rx2)/2

(11)

R1 = Rx1+ R13- Rx3)/2

(12)

R1 = (R12+ R13- R23)/2

(13)

R2 = (Rx2+ R12- Rx1)/2

(14)

R2 = (Rx2+ R23- Rx3)/2

(15)

R2 = (R12+ R23- R13)/2

(16)

R3 = (Rx3+ R13- Rx1)/2

(17)

R3 = (Rx3+ R23- Rx2)/2

(18)

R3 = (R13+ R23- R12)/2

(19)

Mc du vy, vn con tr ngai la co phep o c thc


hin di iu kin thch hp v v tr cac coc nhng cac gia tr
R1, R2, R3 vn thay i ang k, o la do cac vung t ong coc la
t khng ng nht co in tr sut bin thin lin tuc.
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

71

Nu cac gia tr Rx tnh c sai lch ln, khng th chp


nhn th co th cho rng khoang cach gia cc ni t X va cac
coc phu S1, S2, S3 qua nho, cn phai tng khoang cach ln va tin
hanh o lai.
Nhn xet:
Khi thc hin phng phap nay, yu cu phai tn nhiu thi
gian tin hanh o ac va tnh toan, kha nng cac vung anh
hng xp chng ln nhau rt d xay ra.
4.3.5

Mt s s o theo phng phap Lin X:

Trong cac tai liu ch dn s dung cac cu o in tr ni


t M416, MCO8... cung nh hng dn phng phap o in tr ni
t c xut ban trc y Lin X a a ra nhiu s o
khac nhau cho cac h thng ni t n cung nh h thng phc
tap.
Cach b tr cac in cc va khoang cach ti thiu gia
chung khi o h thng ni t n (hnh 4-9 va hnh 4-10).
X

20m
30m

Hnh 4-9: B tr coc thng hang.


Y
25m

10m
30m

Hnh 4-10: B tr coc khng thng hang.


Cach b tr cac in cc va khoang cach ti thiu gia
chung khi o h thng ni t phc tap (hnh 4-11 va hnh 4-12)
X
d

Y
5d

Z
40m

5d+40m

Hnh 4-11: B tr coc thng hang.

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

72

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Y
X

5d
40m

5d
Z

Hnh 4-12: B tr coc khng thng hang.


i vi cac in cc ni t n, s nay cung tng t
nh cac ky thut o ri in th va 61,8% trn. Cac goc lch
gia coc ap Y va coc dong Z c s dung trong trng hp do
a hnh khng th ong coc thng hang vi nhau c.
Trong trng hp o in tr ni t cua cac h thng ln
phc tap, nhng s o trn vi khoang cach coc ap Y va coc
dong Z lun la 40m bt k khoang cach t coc dong n h thng
ni t la bao nhiu. iu nay se gy sai s cho phep o v co th
coc ap Y nm trong vung anh hng cua coc dong Z va theo ng
c tuyn in tr ni t th khi coc ap tin dn v coc dong Z
ng c tuyn co dc ln va gia tr in tr o c se
tng cao.
Do vy phai lu y va thn trong khi dung cac s trn.
4.4 Cac nguyn nhn anh hng n kt qua o va bin phap
khc phuc:
4.4.1

Cac nguyn nhn anh hng n kt qua o:

Hng o:
Co rt nhiu hng o mi hng o co th cho kt qua khac
nhau.
C ly ong coc:
Khoang cach coc ap va coc dong khng ung.
Coc th nghim:
Coc th nghim tip xuc khng tt vi t xung quanh lam
in tr tan cua coc tng. Nu in tr coc dong ln dong in th
nghim se nho lam tng sai s phep o v luc o dong in nhiu co
kha nng ang k so vi dong o. Nu in tr coc ap ln, in ap
o ma cu nhn c se khac i dn n sai lch kt qua o.
su coc khng am bao.
Dy o:
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

73

Dy o khng ung qui cach nh tit din qua nho va in tr


ban thn ln.
Dy o tip xuc khng tt vi cac coc th nghim va h thng
ni t cn o.
S o:
S dung s o khng hp ly vi h thng ni t cn o.
Anh hng nhiu:
Dong in th t khng chay trong t cac li in co
trung tnh trc tip ni t.
Dong in dung chay trong t cac li in trung tnh cach
in.
Dong in ro b mt cach in thit b xung t.
Dong in cam ng trong t do ging set.
Dong in mt chiu tan man trong t.
4.4.2

Bin phap khc phuc:

Nn chon hng o cac vung t m t, trung gn ngun


nc t nhin.
Khoang cach coc dong phai u ln coc ap khng nm
vung giao thoa.
S dung coc bng ng ma kem ng knh ti thiu
20mm, chiu dai coc khoang 1m am bao su ong coc vao
t khoang 0,8m. Nu vung t ni ong coc kh, in tr sut cua
t ln th phai lam m t quanh coc hay ong vai coc va ni vi
nhau thanh nhom coc lam in cc o. coc o tip xuc tt
vi t khi ong coc phai ong chc chn khng b lc, lung lay.
Dy o co tit din ti thiu la 2,5mm2 va co chiu dai u ln
phu hp vi phep o, cac ch ni dy phai chc chn va tip xuc
tt vi cac in cc.
Nn s dung s 4 dy thc hin theo nguyn tc: Dy ap
ni bn trong, dy dong ni bn ngoai.
Kim tra tng tr cua cac coc bng m met hoc bng chnh
cu o in tr ni t.
S dung cu o in tr ni t co kh nhiu han ch
c dong in tn s 50Hz va cac thanh phn song hai cua no,
chon tnh nng loc nhiu trang thai hoat ng. giam anh
hng nhiu cn ap dung cac bin phap sau:
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

74

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Thay i hng o khac.


Tranh ong coc khu vc giao cheo cua nhiu li in cac
cp in ap. Tranh b tr cac coc theo hng song vi cac ng
dy trn khng hay cap ngm.
Chon gia tr dong o ln nht han ch sai s.
Tam ngng trong giy lat nhiu thoang qua bin mt i ri
tin hanh o tr lai.
4.5 Cac bc tin hanh o in tr ni t:
4.5.1

i vi tip a cac ct cua ng dy trn khng:

a s h thng tip a ct cua ng dy trn khng la h


thng ni dt n gian, tuy nhin vn co h thng ni t phc
tap. Do vy phai lam theo cac bc sau:
Thc hin y u cac bin phap an toan trc khi trin khai
cng tac.
Trc khi tin hanh o tip a cho cac ct cn xem xet cac
yu t sau:
Da vao ban ve mt bng thi cng xac nh h thng
tip a cn o la loai h thng ni dt n hay phc tap.
Cn c vao tng a hnh cu th va c im cua h thng
tip a cn kim tra, d kin chon ra hng o kha thi.
Ct tip a cn o co lin h v in n cac ct khac
khng theo dy chng set doc theo ng dy. Nu co dy chng set
th khi o tip a tng ct phai tach ring h thng tip a ct
cn o vi dy chng set.
Sau khi tng hp cac yu t trn chon ra phng phap o cu
th cho h thng tip a cn kim tra.
Chon dung cu o bao gm: Cu o chuyn dung, dy, coc,
bua.....
u ni dy o phu hp theo phng phap o a chon va tin
hanh o.
4.5.2

i vi h thng ni t va va ln cua tram

bin ap va nha may in:


a s h thng ni t cua tram bin ap va nha may in
la h thng ni t phc tap c b tr trn mt din tch ka
rng ln. Do vy phai lam theo cac bc sau:

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

75

Thc hin y u cac bin phap an toan trc khi trin khai
cng tac.
Trc khi tin hanh o tip a cho cac tram bin ap va nha
may in cn xem xet cac yu t sau:
Da vao ban ve mt bng thi cng h thng ni t xac
nh dai ng knh ln nht mach vong h thng tip a
lam c s tnh toan la chon phng phap o phu hp.
Cn c vao tng a hnh cu th va c im cua h thng
tip a cn kim tra, d kin chon ra hng o kha thi.
Sau khi tng hp cac yu t trn chon ra phng phap o cu
th cho h thng tip a cn kim tra.
Chon dung cu o bao gm: Cu o chuyn dung, dy, coc,
bua...D tnh chiu dai dy o cn thit cho phng phap o a
chon.
u ni dy o phu hp theo phng phap o a chon va tin
hanh o.
4.6 o in tr sut cua t:
t la mi trng phc tap va khng ng nht v thanh
phn cung nh v cu tao. Cac thanh phn cua t bao gm cac
hat nho gc hu c hoc v c va nc. in dn cua t
trang thai kh cung nh cua nc nguyn cht khng ang k.
Nhng nu trong t co cac loai mui, axt chung se hoa tan thanh
dung dch in phn lam cho t tr thanh mi trng dn in. Nh
vy in tr sut cua t phu thuc nhiu vao thanh phn hoa
hoc, nhit va m cua t.
Sau y la bang tham khao in tr sut cac loai t khac
nhau:
Loai
t

Phu sa

t
set

t
mun

Cat
t

a vi,
soi
t

in
tr
30
50
100
200
500
sut
(m)
Co hai phng phap o in tr sut cua t.

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Granit
cat kh

Nn
a

1000

3000

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

76

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

77

Phng phap mt: o in tr sut cua t c tin hanh


tng t nh o in tr tip a, y cac cc 1 va 2 c ni
vi mt coc ni t b sung dang thanh hoc ng kim loai. Coc
RX

RP

5d +20m Min

RC

20m Min

Hnh 4-14
S bady o hth
ng
ti
p aco
ng knh ma
ch
vong ti
p aln

1 2 3 4
Ma
ch vong ti
p a

M416T

RX

RP

5d +20m Min

RC

20m Min

1 2 3 4
Ma
ch vong ti
p a

M416T

Hnh 4-16
S b
n dy o hth
ng
ti
p aco
ng knh ma
ch
vong ti
p aln

ni t phu va u do c b tri theo cac khoang cach c


ch ra trn hnh 4-13 n hnh 4-16.

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

M416T

M416T

RP
20m Min
RX

RC

RP

10m Min

20m Min

RC
10m Min

RX
Hnh 4-12
S o ba dy

Hnh 4-15
S o b
n dy

in tr sut cua t theo chiu su co th c tnh theo


cng thc sau:
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

78

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

= 2,73R

l
4l
lg
d

Trong o:
R

: in tr o c ( ).

: chiu su ong coc (m).

: ng knh coc (m).

Phng phap hai:


S dung s o vi bn coc c b tr theo khoang cach
va su nh hnh 6, chiu su ong coc khng ln hn 1/20 khoang
cach gia cac coc. Cc 1 va 4 ni vi cac coc bn ngoai. Cc 2,3
ni vi cac coc pha trong.
in tr sut cua t c tnh theo cng thc:
Trong o:
= 2aR

: in tr o c ( ).

: khoang cach gia cac coc (m).


a

Cn chu y rng gia tr in tr

1 2 3 4
M416T

a/20Max

sut trn la in tr sut trung


bnh cua t su tng
ng vi khoang cach a gia 2
coc.

Hnh 4-17
S o i
n trsu
t
cua
t dung b
n i
n c
c

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

79

5 KY THUT TH NGHIM CAO AP MT CHIU:


5.1 Y ngha cua th nghim cao ap mt chiu i vi cach
in cua cac thit b in.
Th nghim cao ap mt chiu nhm muc ch nghim thu va
bao dng thit b. Cac thng tin nhn c t th nghim nay
se cho cac kt lun v tnh trang cach in cua thit b in trong
vic lp t mi cung nh trong vn hanh, co th ong in an
toan hay cn bao dng, thay th cac phn t xung cp, nhm
keo dai tui tho thit b. Co trng hp no la thng s chnh
xac nh cht lng thit b (nh i vi mt s loai chng set
van).
5.2 Yu cu ky thut cua th nghim cao ap mt chiu.
Cac mc in ap va phng phap th nghim i vi thit b
tun thu theo cac tiu chun cng nghip va cac lu y cua Nha ch
tao. Khi khng th co cac thng tin v thit b th nn th nghim
in ap mt chiu da trn in ap nh mc xoay chiu
tranh h hong h thng cach in.
i vi in ap mt chiu, thi gian tac dung cua in ap tuy
thuc vao tng i tng va thanh phn cu tao cua cach in
thng thng hay quy nh la 5 phut hay 10 phut.
Th nghim bng in ap mt chiu thng c tin hanh
i vi cac kt cu cach in co in dung ln (cap, may in...)
v thit b th nghim cao ap mt chiu khng yu cu co cng
sut ln, d vn chuyn. Ngoai ra, in ap th nghim mt chiu
cho phep cao hn in ap th nghim xoay chiu 1,5 ln ma khng
s mt h hong nao i vi cach in hoan hao.
Th nghim in ap mt chiu khng thch hp vi th
nghim may ct xoay chiu bi v in ap mt chiu khng tao
nn ng sut tng t i vi h thng cach in khi vn hanh.
Cach in cua thit b c xem la at ky thut nu trong
thi gian th nghim khng co s tng t bin v dong ro, khng
b phong in choc thung hoc pha huy.

Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

5.3 La chon phng phap va s th nghim:


5.3.1

Phng phap th:

Tng dn in ap th nghim t vao i tng th, ly


dong in ro tng cp in ap th theo doi (thng thng 4-5
cp), ly c tuyn V-A vi cac loai cap lc hoc tnh Kphi tuyn
i vi may phat, ng c in cng sut ln.
5.3.2

S th nghim:

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Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

81

Hnh 5.1 S nguyn ly c ban cua phep th Cao th mt chiu


May bi
n ap
thnghi
m

i t
ng th
nghi
m

CX
Ngu
n 220VAC
f=50Hz

KV

mA

Mt s s in hnh ap dung cho cac i tng thng gp:


i tng th

HV

Cun dy stato may


phat (ng c in)

A1

A2

B1

B2

in hnh
C1

May bin ap lc 2
cun dy

HV

(Ap dung s tng


t cho may bin ap 3

cun dy).

C2

b
c

Cap lc
HV

Nm 2004
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82

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Mayc
t(Daocachly)

Thit b ong ct
(May ct - Dao cach ly)

i tng th

HV

A1

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

S
HV

Tu in cao th
Phep th: Cc - Cc
Phep th Cc - Vo

HV

5.4 La chon thit b va dung cu th nghim:


La chon thit b th nghim phu hp vi U th a chon.
Cac thit b th in ap cao co kem theo thit b o dong in
mt chiu (A-70, PGK-70, Xe cng trnh kiu 35-02), ng h o
nhit va m mi trng (nhit k - m k) phai c
hiu chun at yu cu ky thut va con hiu lc v thi gian
hiu chun.
5.5 Thu tuc tin hanh phep th nghim cao ap mt chiu
va ghi s liu.
5.5.1

Cac lu y v an toan trong qua trnh th nghim

Cac bc thc hin va s lng nhn vin tham gia ap ng


y u qui nh cua qui trnh ky thut an toan cua Tng cng ty in
lc Vit Nam.
Ngi th nghim kim tra i tng c th nghim a
c ct in, cach ly hoan toan vi cac ngun in ap, vo cua
cap phai c ni t.
Khu vc th nghim phai co rao chn, ngi khng co nhim
vu khng c vao va lun co ngi trng coi o. Nu dung dy
cng thay rao chn th trn dy phai treo bin Dng lai! Co in
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

83

nguy him cht ngi. Nu cac dy dn in i qua hanh lang, cu


thang, san nha, th phai co ngi ng gac cac v tr cn thit.
Trc khi a in vao th, tt ca cac nhn vin trong n v
cng tac phai rut ra v tr an toan theo s ch dn cua ngi ch
huy trc tip.
Trc khi ong in ngi ch huy trc tip phai t mnh
kim tra mach u ni dy th nghim va cac bin phap an toan.
Khi s dung cac thit b th nghim phai tun thu cht che qui
trnh hng dn s dung thit b va Qui trnh ky thut an toan
in (Tng cng ty in lc Vit Nam).
Ni t tam thi cac u cc cua i tng c th
nghim, sau o tach cac u cc cua i tng ni vao h
thng in.
5.5.2

Trnh t thc hin o va ly s liu th nghim:

1. o in tr cach in:
Sau khi gia tr o in tr cach in at yu cu (Yu cu qui
i nhit tai thi im o v nhit theo bang tiu chun).
Nhn vin th nghim tin hanh bc tip theo.
2. Th nghim cao ap mt chiu.
Chun b s th nghim cao ap mt chiu
La chon in ap th nghim, phu hp vi dang th nghim
va quy nh cua nganh in i vi tng i tng thit b c
th nghim (xem phn tiu chun th nghim i vi tng trng
hp cu th).
Trnh t th nghim nh sau:
i tng th phai c ct in, cach ly ca hai u va ni
t phong ht in tch d trong i tng.
in ap th nghim mt chiu c ni vi i tng cn
th nghim, cac phn khng th nghim con lai trong thit b
c ni t.
am bao thit b th nghim cao ap v tr tt ngun va bt
khoa (ON, OFF) v OFF a in ap iu khin v khng trc khi
bt u th nghim.
Ni t an toan cho thit b th nghim cao ap vi u ni
t chc chn, am bao ch ni tt. Khng bao gi c thao tac
th nghim cao ap mt chiu ma khng c ni t chc chn.
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Cung vy cn ni vo Thit b va u ni t cua thit b th


nghim.
Dy ni th nghim cao th phai am bao ni chc chn.
Cap dung ni thit b cao ap vi i tng th phai ngn
va ni trc tip trn sut chiu dai cua no khng b cham t
va bao am khoang cach.
Tao ngn mach nhn tao tai u ra cao th cua thit b th
kim tra hoat ng cua h thng bao v cua thit b th
nghim, nu h thng lam vic tt th mi tin hanh cac bc
tip theo.
Bt chuyn mach chon in ap th nghim trn thit b o
v v tr in ap thch hp.
Bt chuyn mach cp ngun th nghim trn thit b o v
v tr ON.
Tng dn in ap th n in ap a la chon. Tc tng
in ap 2.5KV/giy.
Lu y: Tc tng in ap co th chm hn, c bit i
vi cac i tng th co in dung ln v du cac cap, May phat co
in dung ln tranh h hong thit b th nghim.
Ghi nhn gia tr dong in ro thi im 60 giy sau khi in
ap th at n gia tr a la chon. Sau khi nng in ap th n
in ap th tiu chun duy tr ung thi gian a qui nh, theo doi
s bin thin dong ro.
i vi cac Thit b cn kim chng lai tr s in tr cach
in: ghi nhn cac gia tr dong in ro cac thi im 15 giy, 60
giy sau khi in ap th at n gia tr a la chon xac nh
in tr cach in va h s hp thu.
Khi gia tr o khng n nh th tam thi ngng o, u tt cac
u cc Thit b va u t t nht trong 5 phut xa hoan toan
cac in tch d, tm nguyn nhn.
Sau khi kt thuc th nghim, quay khoa chuyn mach cua thit
b th nghim v v tr OFF. Cho phep Thit b va c th
phong in qua mach phong cua thit b th nghim hoc qua ni
t bn ngoai. Khng s vao Thit b cho n khi a phong in ht.
Tin hanh kim tra lai gia tr in tr cach in.
Sau khi thc hin xong tt ca cac phep o trn mt i tng
thit b, ngi th nghim cn phai v sinh thit b o, don dep
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

85

va hoan tra s v ung s vn hanh nh khi a nhn ban


u.
5.5.3

anh gia kt qua o

i vi May phat (ng c in): Cn so sanh dong in


ro gia cac pha.
Nu dong in ro tng mt cach t ngt, dong in ro gia
cac pha khng bng nhau va vt qua ln o trc 30%, th xem
cach in la khng tt cn phai tm nguyn nhn. Tnh h s khng
ng thng Kkt = (Umin x IrUmax)/(Umax x IrUmin) vi Umin va Umax
la gia tr in ap th nghim nho nht va ln nht; Umax chnh la
in ap th nghim yu cu. Yu cu Kkt < 3.
Kt qua th nghim coi nh at yu cu nu trong thi gian
th nghim khng xay ra choc thung, khng co s tng dong in
ro, khng thy bc khoi,khng ngi thy mui khet, khng nghe thy
ting phong in. Dong in ro tng trong thi gian duy tr 01 phut
mt trong cac cp in ap th la biu hin du hiu khuyt tt
(cach in nhim m).
May bin ap lc cac cp in ap: chnh lch
dong in ro ng vi nhit o tham khao theo Quy pham B
cng nghip nng 1965. Dong in ro ti a cho phep:
UMax

UTN

(KVAC)

(KVDC)

6 - 15
20 - 44
60 - 220

10
20
40

Dong in ro ti a cho phep ( A)


200C
70
100
100

khi nhit cun dy


300C
400C
500C
110
175
300
160
250
400
160
250
400

600C
450
750
750

Cap lc: chnh lch dong in ro khng quy nh. Mc


chnh lch dong in ro ch la phan oan, khng co tnh cht
quyt nh cho vic a vao vn hanh hay khng. Nu h s chnh
lch gia cac pha qua 2 ln va dong in ro so vi ln trc
nhit tng t tng mt cach ro rt, Dong in ro khng n
nh, tng t bin, biu hin cach in cua cap co h hong,cn
phai nng cao in th th hoc keo dai thi gian lin tuc tm
ch h hong.

Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

May ct (Dao cach ly): Dong in ro tng chng to b


mt cach in bn. Cach in cua mt s chi tit cach in hoc
truyn ng bng vt liu hu c a suy giam.
5.6 Mt s lu y trong qua trnh th nghim cao ap mt
chiu:
Th nghim qua in ap mt chiu co th tin hanh bt c
luc nao sau khi thit b ngng hoat ng mt vai gi. Tuy nhin nn
tin hanh th nghim theo k hoach vi nh ky quan sat thit b.
iu nay cho phep tm nguyn nhn h hong va tin hanh sa cha
t tn kem nht a thit b vao lam vic bnh thng.
Thit b phai c ct khoi li trc khi th nghim
nhit giam di 400C.
Mi trng th nghim phai kh rao va sach se. B mt cach
in cua i tng th phai sach va kh.
i vi cac i tng co in dung ln, trong trong qua trnh
tng in ap th nghim, cn thn, yu cu tc nng in ap
nho hn 2,5 kV/giy, tranh dong nap qua ln gy h hong thit b th
nghim.
Trong sut qua trnh th nghim phai lin tuc theo doi dong
in ro, nu co hin tng dong tng vot phai lp tc giam in
ap v 0, thc hin cac bin phap an toan va tm hiu nguyn nhn.
Sau khi th nghim phai tip t chc chn cac u ra cua
i tng th t nht 15 phut am bao xa ht in tch d a
nap.

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

87

KY THUT TH NGHIM CAO AP XOAY CHIU TN S

CNG NGHIP
6.1 Y ngha cua th nghim cao ap xoay chiu tn s cng
nghip:
Hang muc kim tra chnh anh gia v tnh trang cach
in cua cac thit b in.
6.2 Yu cu ky thut cua th nghim cao ap xoay chiu
Cach in cua thit b c xem la at yu cu ky thut khi
khng b phong in choc thung hoc pha huy trong thi gian th
nghim.
6.3 La chon phng phap va s th nghim:
6.3.1

Phng phap th:

Tng dn in ap th n U th a chon, duy tr u thi gian


th sau o giam in ap th v 0.
S th nghim: Phu hp vi tng i tng th.
Hnh 6-1: S nguyn ly th nghim cao ap xoay chiu
May bi
n ap
thnghi
m

i t
ng th
nghi
m

CX
Ngu
n 220VAC
f=50Hz

KV

S th nghim i vi tng thit b in tng t nh


khi th nghm cao th mt chiu.
6.4 La chon thit b va dung cu th nghim:
La chon thit b th nghim phu hp vi U th a chon.
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Cac thit b th in ap cao (A-70, PGK-70, Xe cng trnh kiu


35-02), o nhit va m mi trng (nhit k - m k)
phai c hiu chun at yu cu ky thut va con hiu lc v
thi gian hiu chun.
6.5 Thu tuc tin hanh phep th nghim cao ap xoay chiu
va ghi s liu.
6.5.1

Cng tac chun b:

Nghin cu cac thng s, tnh trang ky thut cua i tng


th. S liu o in tr cach in va cac thng s khac nh Kht, PI
cua i tng th. La chon in ap th phu hp i vi cac
i tng thoa man cac iu kin th cao th.
Chun b sn bang ghi chep cac ni dung: Thng s nghit ,
m mi trng,nhit cua i tng th, thi gian, a
im, ho va tn nhn vin th nghim.
Chun b thit b th nghim phu hp vi i tng va tiu
chun th nghim.
Chun b y u cac dung cu - phu kin phuc vu th
nghim nh dy tip a lu ng, rao chn, bin bao an toan, dy
dn cao th, sao dy, cac dung cu c kh...; Cac dung cu
v sinh hoc sy nu cn. Thit b thng tin nu i tng th
co kch thc hoc pham vi th nghim ln khng th quan sat
c (V du: Cap lc).
Chun b thm cac thit b chiu sang cuc b am bao chiu
sang khu vc va i tng th nghim. Yu cu: Cac thit b
chiu sang nay phai co ngun c lp vi ngun th nghim, phai
am bao cac yu cu v an toan nh chng va p, chng nc.
Chun b ngun th nghim u cng sut co in ap va tn
s n nh at yu cu ky thut va b tr tai v tr ngi trc
tip tin hanh th nghim khi cn ngi nay hoc ngi phu
vic co th nhanh chong ct khn cp ngun th nghim am
bao an toan.
V sinh cac b mt cach in bn ngoai cua i tng c
th nghim.
Ghi nhn cac gia tr nhit mi trng t nhit k cua
ngi th nghim.
Khi th nghim may in: ghi thm nhit du, nhit
cun dy t cac ng h nhit lp trong i tng o.
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

6.5.2

89

Cac bin phap an toan:

Ngi th nghim nhn hin trng th nghim t b phn


vn hanh hoc sa cha theo cac quy nh cua nganh in.
Ngi th nghim kim tra i tng c th nghim a
c ct in, cach ly hoan toan vi cac ngun in ap, vo thit
b phai c ni t. Dung but th in kim tra i tng
th khng con in, sau o mi cho phep tin hanh tip a lu
ng cac phn dn in cua i tng th.
Ni t tam thi mt cach chc chn cac u cc cua i
tng c th nghim, sau o tach cac u cc cua i tng
ang ni vao h thng. anh du th t pha cac u dy ni
tranh nhm ln khi u ni lai s (iu nay cc ky quan
trong i vi cap lc, cac loai may phat in co u ra s dung
dy dn mm).
i vi cac loai may in: Thc hin vic ni tt cac u
dy ra cua mi cun dy c o. Ni tt va ni t cac u ra
cua cac cun dy khng c th nghim k ca cun dy rto
tranh cam ng.
B tr thit b th nghim v tr tt nht, am bao phn dy
dn t thit b n i tng th la ngn nht, ngi iu
khin co th quan sat c bng mt, d dang tip a lu ng
u ra cao ap cua thit b th khi cn.
Kim tra ngun, cac u ni va dy o cua thit b phai am
bao yu cu ky thut.
u ni s o phu hp quy trnh s dung thit b o.
Tin hanh lp rao chn, bin bao c lp khu vc th nghim.
B tr ngi canh gac tai cac khu vc khng quan sat c, kim
tra am bao thng tin lin lac thng sut vi b phn canh gac trong
sut qua trnh th nghim.
6.5.3

Tin hanh o va ly s liu:

Tao ngn mach nhn tao tai u ra cao th cua thit b th


kim tra hoat ng cua h thng bao v cua thit b th
nghim, nu h thng lam vic tt th mi tin hanh cac bc
tip theo.
Thao cac ni t tam thi ang ni trn cac u cc cua i
tng c th nghim.
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Bt chuyn mach chon in ap th nghim trn thit b o


v v tr in ap thch hp.
Bt chuyn mach cp ngun th nghim trn thit b o v
v tr ON.
Tng dn in ap th n in ap a la chon. Tc tng
in ap 2.5KV/giy.
Duy tr in ap th trong thi gian 1 phut, sau o giam in ap
v 0, ct ngun th nghim, dung sao tip a ni t cac
u cc i tng cn th nghim nhm am bao an toan.
Ghi chep ro rang va y u vao bin ban kt qua th nghim,
thi gian tin hanh, tn nhn vin th nghim.
Sau khi thc hin xong tt ca cac phep o trn mt i tng
thit b, ngi th nghim cn phai v sinh thit b o, don dep
va hoan tra s v trang thai nh khi a nhn ban u.
6.5.4

anh gia kt qua o va tiu chun ap dung

Cach in thit b c xem la at yu cu nu khng co


hin tng phong thung cach in, khngco hin tng chay xem
va co mui khet, gia tr in tr cach in o lai sau khi th khng b
suy giam.
6.6 Mt s lu y trong qua trnh th nghim cao ap xoay
chiu
Th nghim qua ap xoay chiu co tnh cht lam gia hoa hoc
pha huy cach in nn phai cc ky thn trong khi ap dung, c
bit i vi cac thit b quan trong va t tin nh may phat, may
bin ap. Chu y c bit i vi cac may a vn hanh qua mt
thi gian dai.
6.6.1

i vi may phat in va ng c cng sut ln:

+ Phai tnh toan cng sut cua may bin ap th nghim phu
hp vi in ap th nghim a la chon va in dung cua i
tng th.
+ La chon b mo phong bao v qua ap phu hp vi in
ap th va i tng th; va hiu chnh in ap lam vic trc
khi tin hanh th nghim Ulam vic= (1,05-1,1)U th
+ Dy dn cao th t thit b th n i tng th phai
co tit din u ln.
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

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91

6.7 Gii thiu mt s thit b th nghim cao ap xoay


chiu.
Hp b th cao th xoay chiu - mt chiu kiu A-70: a
cu, t s dung.
Hp b th cao th xoay chiu - mt chiu kiu A-70:
Thng dung.
Hp b th cao th xoay chiu - mt chiu kiu PGK-70(PGK150): mt s in lc a c trang b.
Bin ap th nghim HOM-100: mt s in lc a c trang
b.

Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

TH NGHIM MAY BIN AP IN LC

7.1 Khai nim v th nghim may bin ap


xac nh cht lng may bin ap in lc trong qua trnh
ch tao, khi xut xng, trong vn hanh hang nm nhm muc ch
giam sat cht lng, giam xac sut s c, ln k hoach d
phong, sa cha, thay th cac may bin ap in lc, trong cng
nghip in lc qui nh cac hang muc cu th cn tin hanh th
nghim i vi tng trng hp nu trn
7.2 Cac hang muc th nghim may bin ap
Phn loai theo y ngha:
1.

Th nghim giam sat cht lng trong san xut MBA.

2.

Th nghim xac nh cht lng loat san phm (cac th

nghim c bit ch tin hanh thm nh mt kiu thit k


MBA).
3.

Th nghim xut xng.

4.

Th nghim nghim thu trc khi a may bin ap vao

vn hanh.
5.

Th nghim nh ky.

6.

Th nghim kim tra sau s c bt thng.

Phn loai theo muc ch:


1.

Th nghim xac nh cht lng cach in.

2.

Th nghim xac nh thng s ky thut, thng s cu

3.

Th nghim xac nh cac thng s ky thut m rng.

truc.
7.2.1

Th nghim xac nh cht lng Cach in chnh

1.

o in tr cach in.

2.

Xac nh h s tn tht in mi.

3.

Th nghim chu in ap mt chiu tng cao va xac nh

dong in ro.
4.

Th nghim chu in ap xoay chiu tng cao tn s cng

nghip.
5.

Th nghim chu in ap xung thao tac.

6.

Th nghim chu in ap xung set tiu chun.

7.

Th nghim phong in cuc b.

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

7.2.2

93

Th nghim xac nh cht lng Cach in vong

1.

Th nghim chu in ap qua ap cam ng tn s cao.

2.

Th nghim o in ap phn b khi chu in ap xung set

tiu chun.
7.2.3
1.

Th nghim xac nh cht lng du cach in


Th nghim xac nh in ap choc thung tn s cng

nghip trong in trng cua in cc tiu chun.


2.

Th nghim xac nh h s tn tht in mi.

3.

Th nghim xac nh ham lng m.

4.

Th nghim xac nh nhit chp chay (trong cc kn).

5.

Th nghim xac nh tap cht c hoc.

6.

Th nghim xac nh ch s Axit.

7.

Th nghim phn tch ham lng kh hoa tan (sc ky kh).

7.2.4

Th nghim xac nh cac thng s ky thut va cu

truc
Cac thng s ky thut c ban:
1.

Th nghim xac nh t u dy.

2.

Th nghim xac nh t s bin ap.

3.

Th nghim khng tai.

4.

Th nghim ngn mach.

5.

Th nghim xac nh n nh nhit.

Cac thng s ky thut m rng:


1.

Th nghim hiu chnh th vong b chuyn nc phn

2.

Th nghim xac nh kha nng chu ap lc cua vo may.

3.

Th nghim xac nh kn cua vo may.

4.

Th nghim xac nh n.

5.

Th nghim xac nh n nh ng (th nghim ngn

ap.

mach trc tip in ap nh mc).


7.3 Th nghim lp mi
Th nghim lp mi may bin ap tin hanh tai v tr may
bin ap c lp t va a vao vn hanh. Cac hang muc th
nghim nghim thu may bin ap (th nghim lp mi may bin ap)
nhm muc ch kim tra cht lng may bin ap sau khi lp t
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

94

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

hoan chnh loai tr cac h hong do chuyn ch, lp t khng


ung qui nh gy ra.
Cac s liu th nghim nghim thu may bin ap cn c
lu lai trong ly lch may theo doi trong qua trnh vn hanh.
Khi lng cac hang muc th nghim lp mi may bin ap
c lit k sau y co tnh tng quat. Khi lng cac hang muc
nay thay i tuy theo c im cu th tng may va phu thuc
chu yu vao hai yu t:
- Cng sut va in ap nh mc.
- Nng lc thit b th nghim tai hin trng (k ca nng
lc cua ngun th nghim)
- Cac hang muc ap dung i vi tng trng hp cu th
c qui nh ro trong Qui trnh vn hanh va sa cha may bin ap
do EVN ban hanh ngay 23/5/1997.
7.3.1

Khi lng cac hang muc th nghim lp mi

1.

Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai

2.

o in tr cach in

3.

Th nghim kim tra t u dy

4.

Th nghim khng tai (hoc khng tai nho tai in ap qui

nh cua nha ch tao)


5.

Th nghim ngn mach

6.

Th nghim du

7.

Th nghim o h s tn tht in mi (Tg hay DF)

8.

Th nghim o t s bin ap

9.

Th nghim o in tr cun dy bng dong in mt

chiu (o in tr mt chiu)
10.

Th cao th mt chiu va o dong in ro

11.

Th cao th xoay chiu tng cao

12.

ong in xung kch may bin ap

13.

Th cach in vong dy bng in ap cam ng

7.4 Th nghim nh ky
Th nghim nh ky may bin ap tin hanh theo chu ky hang
nm. Cac hang muc th nghim nh ky may bin ap nhm muc
ch kim tra cht lng may bin ap sau mt nm vn hanh.
Cn c theo s liu th nghim, kt hp vi cac tiu chun ky
thut va nht ky vn hanh, Ky S Trng n v chu quan se
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

95

quyt nh cho may bin ap tip tuc vn hanh hoc a ra sa


cha.
Cac s liu th nghim nh ky may bin ap cn c lu
lai trong ly lch may theo doi trong qua trnh vn hanh. Khi
lng cac hang muc th nghim nh ky may bin ap c lit
k sau y co tnh tng quat. Cac hang muc ap dung i vi tng
trng hp cu th phu hp vi cng sut va in ap nh mc
tng may c qui nh ro trong Qui trnh vn hanh va sa cha
may bin ap do EVN ban hanh ngay 23/5/1997.
7.4.1

Khi lng cac hang muc th nghim nh ky:

1.

Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai

2.

o in tr cach in

3.

Th nghim khng tai (hoc khng tai nho)

4.

Th nghim du

5.

Th nghim o h s tn tht in mi (Tg hay DF)

6.

Th nghim o in tr cun dy bng dong mt chiu

(in tr mt chiu cun dy)


7.

Th cao th mt chiu va o dong in ro

8.

Th cao th xoay chiu tng cao

9.

ong in xung kch may bin ap

10.

Th cach in vong dy bng in ap cam ng

7.5 Gii thiu cac tiu chun th nghim MBA


May bin ap c thit k, ch tao va vn hanh trong mt
h thng in co cac c tnh v in a c tnh toan khi
thit k h thng.
Trn thc t cac tiu chun cua cac h thng in trn th
gii noi chung khng hoan toan ging nhau. Cac ch lam vic cua
h thng cn phai tnh toan xac nh. T o mi co cac iu kin
khung (tiu chun cua li; iu kin ky thut cua li) xac
nh cac tiu chun thit k ch tao, kem theo o la tiu chun th
nghim may bin ap trong lp mi va trong th nghim nh ky.
Cac h thng tiu chun
Tiu chun cua Hip Hi in Lc Quc T v May bin ap
(Tiu chun IEC - 76)
Tiu chun Vit Nam TCVN 1984-1994
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

96

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Tiu chun cua nganh in Vit Nam (Tiu chun nganh TCN 2687)
Tiu chun cua Qui trnh vn hanh va sa cha may bin ap
do EVN ban hanh theo quyt nh s 623 VN/KTN ngay 25/5/1997
(Hin hanh)
Cac Tiu chun cua cac nha ch tao (cn tham khao, xem xet
phu hp vi cac thng s ky thut cua li in hin hanh hay
khng)

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

97

8 TH NGHIM DU CACH IN:


8.1 c tnh cua du cach in va khi lng tiu chun
th nghim du cach in trong lp mi va nh ky cua
cac thit b in:
8.1.1

c tnh cua du cach in:

8.1.1.1

Ngun gc du cach in:

Du mo thin nhin ly t cac mo du di t, sau khi tinh


luyn bng cac phng phap tng i phc tap (v du phng
phap chng ct, phng phap x ly bng axt Sunfuric-kim) se
c nhiu loai du rt quan trong trong cng nghip. Du dung
trong May bin th, trong may ct in, du Tuc bin va cac loai
du nhn khac, thng dung trong h thng in u la mt
phn trong cac san phm o.
8.1.1.2

Tac dung cua du cach in trong thit b:

Du cach in dung trong thit b co 03 tac dung chnh. Bao


gm:
a) Tac dung cach in,
b) Tac dung tan nhit,
c) Tac dung dp h quang.
Tac dung cach in: H s in mi cua khng kh rt
thp so vi h s in mi cua du noi chung. Nu cun dy cua
bin th boc vai hay boc bng cac cht cach in khac va
trong khng kh th h s in mi rt nho nhng nu em t vao
du, dung du thay cho khng kh th h s in mi tng ln rt
nhiu. Khi s dung may bin th ma du trong y con t th
thng sinh ra hin tng phong in xuyn thung u dy va vo
may. Do o chng to du cach in rt quan trong trong thit b
in am bao vn hanh an toan.
Tac dung tan nhit: Khi may bin ap vn hanh, dong in
qua cun dy lam dy dn nong ln, nu khng kp thi lam ngui i,
nhit se tch dn trong cun dy. Khi nhit qua cao, cht cach
in cua cun dy se b hong, co khi dn n chay. Du cach in
co th lin tuc tai nhit lng sinh ra trong cun dy.

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

98

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Khi may bin ap lam vic, cun dy nong ln lam cho du


phn trn may bin ap co nhit cao hn du phn di. Da
vao nguyn ly, nhit du tng ln th ty trong giam, kt qua la
du phn trn chay vao b phn tan nhit chung quanh may
bin th va du t phn di cua b phn tan nhit chay vao
may bin th. Nh tac dung i lu do nhit trn di khng
u nhau gy ra va nh b phn tan nhit nn nhit lng cua
cun dy c tan ra ngoai, do o tranh c tn hai do nhit
lng tch luy trong cun dy gy ra, am bao vn hanh an toan cho
thit b.
Tac dung dp h quang: Khi may ct ngt in, gia u
tip xuc ng va tnh phat sinh h quang. Nhit h quang rt
cao nu khng co bin phap truyn nhit lng va lam ngui h
quang th sau khi phat sinh h quang rt nhiu ion va in t mi se
xut hin. Du cach in di tac dung cua h quang th bc hi,
trong hi cha 70% hyr. Hyr la mt loai kh tiu dit h quang
rt linh hoat, mt khac, trong qua trnh phn huy du mt phn
nhit lng h quang mt i, ng thi cht hi bay vao trong h
quang lam cho h quang ngui i, nh vy h quang khng phat sinh
c.
8.1.2

Khi lng tiu chun th nghim du cach in

trong lp mi va nh ky cua cac thit b in:


8.1.2.1

Mt s ch tiu anh gia cht lng du:

anh gia cht lng du ngi ta da vao nhiu ch tiu,


cac ch tiu nay c a ra qua qua trnh nghin cu, tnh toan
cung nh qua thc t lam vic cua thit b co cha du. Tuy
thuc vao c tnh lam vic, c tnh cu truc cua thit b ma
loai du c s dung cho thit b phai co ch tiu phu hp.
Ty trong
Ty trong cua du c nh ngha la ty s khi lng cua
mt n v th tch du trn khi lng cua cung mt th tch
nc nhit quy nh. Ty trong du c xac nh theo tiu
chun IEC 296.
nht ( nht qui c 0E hoc nht ng hoc
cSt):

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

99

nht cua du anh hng trc tip n kha nng tan


nhit cua du. Du co nht cang cao th kha nng tan nhit
cang kem va ngc lai.
nht ng hoc c xac nh theo tiu chun ASTM D445.
nht cua du chu anh hng rt ln bi nhit . Khi
nhit tng th nht giam va ngc lai. Do du c s
dung trong cac thit b co khoang nhit vn hanh thay i kha
ln cho nn yu cu du phai co nht tng i n nh trong
pham vi nhit o.
Nhit chp chay kn (0C):
Nhit chp chay kn cua du la nhit ma tai o hn
hp hi du va khng kh trn mt thoang du b bung chay khi co
mi la a vao.
Nhit chp chay c xac nh theo tiu chun ASTM D 93...
Trong cac thit b in ma du thng xuyn chu nhit
cao cuc b (may ct, b iu ap di tai cua may bin th...),
cac thanh phn cua du se b phn huy tao ra cac hyrcacbon co
im chay thp, dn n nhit chp chay cua du giam i va
d sinh ra chay n. Mt khac do s phn huy cac thanh phn cua
du cho nn cht lng du se b thay i do o y la mt ch
tiu c ban anh gia cht lng cua du may bin th.
Tap cht c hoc:
Tap cht c hoc trong du cach in thng c xac nh
theo phng phap trc quan. y la cac loai tap cht nh tro, x
si, kim loai,... ln vao trong du trong qua trnh vn chuyn, bao
quan va vn hanh. y la mt ch tiu rt quan trong anh gia cht
lng cua du cach in. No anh hng xu n h s in
mi, bn in, kha nng tan nhit cua du. Ngoai ra cac tap
cht nh kim loai, bui kim loai con lam cho du mau gia do b xy
hoa.
Theo qui nh i vi du trong cac may bin ap khng c co
tap cht c hoc nhn thy bng mt thng.
Ch s axt (mgKOH/g):
Ch s axt cua du la s mg KOH cn thit trung hoa
lng axt co trong 1g du.
Ch s axit c xac nh theo tiu chun IEC 296 hoc phng
phap t ng ASTM D 664...
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

100

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Ch s axt trong du cang cao chng to lng axt trong du


cang ln, luc o s n mon kim loai cua du cang nhanh ng thi
lam cho vt liu cach in xenlul b xung cp va tao ra cac san
phm d lam hong du. Gii han cua ch s axit trong du may
bin ap c cho bang di:
Tr s axt mgKOH/g
< 0,1
0,1 0,2
> 0,2

Cng vic phai thc hin


Khng cn x ly
Yu cu x ly
Co th yu cu thay th hoc tng cng

x ly du
Axt va kim hoa tan trong nc:
Cac Axt va kim hoa tan trong nc khi co mt trong du se
lam du mau gia ng thi chung n mon rt manh cac chi tit
bng kim loai, vt liu xenlul gy anh hng ln n cht lng
du va thit b. Do o yu cu khng c co mt cac axt va
kim hoa tan trong nc trong du mi.
axit va kim hoa tan trong nc c xac nh theo tiu
chun OCT 6307-75
n nh xy hoa:
n nh xy hoa c trng cho kha nng cua du chng lai
tac dung xy hoa cua xy trong khng kh trong qua trnh bao quan va
vn hanh.
Nu du co n nh xy hoa khng tt th trong vn hanh
se d b xy hoa va b bin cht di tac ng cua nhiu nhn t
bn ngoai nh khng kh, nc, nhit ,... lam san sinh ra nhiu axt
va cn du anh hng n cht lng thit b va tin cy
vn hanh.
n nh xy hoa c xac nh theo tiu chun IP335-89,
OCT 981-75...
Cng cach in (KV/2,5mm):
xac nh cng cach in cua du ngi ta tin hanh
th nghim in ap xuyn thung cua du trong cac thit b chuyn
dung nh AM 90, FOSTER,...
No c xac nh theo nhiu tiu chun khac nhau nh OCT
6581-75, IEC156...vi cac dang in cc khac nhau. Thng thng
dung in cc hnh nm vi ng knh 36mm, ban knh cu
R=25mm, khoang cach gia hai in cc 2,5 0,05mm.
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

101

Cng cach in cua du la mt ch tiu trong yu am


bao cho thit b vn hanh an toan. Nc, tap cht c hoc va nhiu
nhn t khac lam giam cng cach in cua du, do o khi th
nghim cng cach in ta co th anh gia c s nhim
m, nhim bn,... cua du.
Ham lng nc (ppm hoc gam/tn):
Vic xac nh ham lng nc cho phep ta anh gia v mc
ch luyn du va cht lng du. Du ch luyn cang tt,
cht lng du cang cao th nc hoa tan cang t, kha nng kt
hp vi nc cua loai du nay kem cho nn nc ln vao trong
du (nu co) se b tach ra va lng xung ay thit b.
Ham lng nc c xac nh bng phng phap chun
t ng Karl Fischer (theo tiu chun IEC 814).
S co mt cua nc trong du gy anh hng rt ln n
cht lng du nh:
- Lam giam h s in mi cua du.
- Lam m vt liu cach in trong thit b.
- Nu ham lng axt trong du tng i cao th di tac
dung xuc tac cua nc cac kim loai trong thit b se b n mon rt
nhanh, lam du mau gia va xut hin nhiu cn du.
H s tn tht in mi Tg (%):
y la mt ch tiu quan trong, thng qua gia tr cua no ta co
th anh gia c s nhim bn, s h hong cua mu du th
nghim ma bng cac th nghim khac ta khng anh gia c.
H s in mi c xac nh bng nhiu tiu chun khac
nhau, thng thng dung tiu chun IEC 247, OCT 6581-75...
Du nu c ch luyn tt th co gia tr Tg rt be. Trong
qua trnh bao quan va vn hanh, nu trong du xut hin cac san
phm nh nc, cac san phm cua s xy hoa du, cac hat keo
tch in, cac san phm hoa tan t vt liu cach in rn... th
gia tr Tg cua du tng cao.
Gia tr Tg cua du anh hng trc tip n Tg cua giy
tm, anh hng n tin cy vn hanh cua thit b in cao
th va ngc lai vt liu cach in trong ch tao may bin ap
anh hng rt ln n gia tr Tg cua du.

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

102

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Gia tr Tg bin i rt nhanh theo nhit cua du, nhit


du tng th gia tr Tg

tng va ngc lai, do o ngi ta

thng anh gia gia tr Tg nhit xac nh (900C) va khi xac


nh gia tr Tg cua du ngoai vic s dung loai a o tg chuyn
dung con phai s dung thm b n nh nhit .
8.1.2.2

Khi lng th nghim du trong lp mi va trong

nh ky:
Bang 8-1: Cac c tnh hoa, ly cua du MBA ABB mi cp t nha
phn phi
c tnh

n v

Tap cht c hoc


Ham lng noc
in ap phong
Ch s axt
Sc cng b mt
Ty trong 200C
nht 200C

mg/dm3
g/t
KV/2,5mm
mgKOH/g
10-3 N/m
g/cm
cSt

400C
Nhit chp chay
Ham lng cht c

cSt
0
C

Yu cu
ABB Power Oy
IEC 296
-- 5,0
50
( 30)
30
30
0,02
0,02
(
40
40)
0,895
0,895
-- 20,0
-- 140

%
0,3
ch *)
Ham lng cht thm
% CA
11
0
H s tn hao 90 C
0/00
5,0
*) Nu du co cht c ch c s dung.

11
130
---- 5,0

-Tuy nhin, du ap ng cac yu cu nu trn cha th s


dung c trong MBA. u tin du phai c loc va x ly chn
khng. iu nay cai thin cng cach in va ham lng nc,
tap cht trong du c giam thp. Du s dung trong cac MBA
ABB Power Oys sau khi x ly co cac gia tr tiu biu sau:
c tnh
Tap cht c hoc (> 7 m)
Ham lng noc
in ap phong
H s tn hao 900C

n v
N0 /l
g/t
KV/2,5mm
0/00

Gia tr
< 3000
2
> 80
< 2,0

-Trc khi vao MBA, du con c x ly tai tram nu


in ap phong thp hn 60 KV/ 2,5mm, ham lng nc ln hn
10mg/dm3 hoc mc tap cht (> 7 m) cao hn 15000 phn mi lt.
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

103

Chu y: Nu du MBA c vn chuyn bng cac phuy th phai


lun loc du trc khi nap vao MBA.
Bang 8-2: Cac gia tr gii han i vi MBA lc trong vn hanh.
Hang

muc

th

Tiu

nghim
in ap phong (KV)
Tg 900C (%)
axt (mgKOH/g)
- Du khng co cht
c ch
- Du co cht c ch
Sc cng b mt

chun
IEC 156
IEC 247
IEC 296

ISO 2049

in ap nh mc
< 36
37-170 170-300 >300
> 40
< 30

> 45
< 30

> 50
< 30

> 55
< 20

< 0,7

< 0,4

< 0,4

< 0,3

< 0,05
> 12

< 0,05
> 15

< 0,05
> 15

< 0,05
> 15

mN/m)
Ham lng nc (ppm)
(

IEC 814
< 40
< 40
< 20
< 20
IEC 733
Bang 8-3: Tiu chun du cach in gc khoang khng khang xy hoa
(296 IEC 1982)
CAC TR S GII HAN
Loai 1
Loai 2
Loai 3

TT

C TNH

2
3

nht ng hoc, mm2/s


400C
-150C
-300C
-400C
Nhit chp chay, 0C
Nhit ng c, 0C

Hnh thc

5
6
7

Ty trong 200C, Kg/dm3


Ch s axt, mgKOH/g
Lu huynh n mon

Ham lng nc, g/T

Phu gia chng xy hoa


n nh xy hoa:

10

Ch s axt, mgKOH/g

0,40

Cn, % khi lng


in ap anh thung, KV

0,10

Khi giao hang

30

Sau khi x ly

50

11

Nm 2004
Hoa du

16,5
800

11,0

3,5

1800
140
-30

130
-45

150
95
-60

trong, khng co cn va cac cht l


lng
0,895
0,03
Khng n mon
Khng t ra tiu chun khi giao
hang
Khng tm thy

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

104

12

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

H s tn tht in mi 900C
0,005

va 40-60 Hz

Bang 8-4: Tiu chun du cach in gc khoang khang xy hoa (296


IEC 1982)
TT

C TNH

CAC TR S GII HAN


Loai 1
Loai 2
Loai 3

nht ng hoc,

2
3
4

mm2/s
400C
-150C
-300C
-400C
Nhit chp chay, 0C
Nhit ng c, 0C
Hnh thc

150
140
130
95
-30
-45
-60
Trong, khng co cn va cac cht l

5
6
7
8
9

Ty trong 20 C, Kg/dm3
Ch s axt, mgKOH/g
Lu huynh n mon
Ham lng nc, g/T
Phu gia chng xy hoa

lng
0,895
0,03
Khng n mon
Khng t ra tiu chun khi giao hang
Loai va ham lng phu gia c

16,5
800

11,0

3,5

1800

qui nh gia nha cung cp va n v


10

n nh xy hoa:

s dung
n nay cha qui nh cac tr s gii
han

11

in ap anh thung, KV
Khi giao hang

12

30

Sau khi x ly
H s tn tht in

50

mi 900C va 40-60 Hz

0,005

Hin tai i vi cac thit b co hng dn s dung kem theo


th ap dung theo nha ch tao, i vi cac thit b khng co hng
dn th ap dung theo tiu chun vn hanh may bin ap do Tng
cng ty bin soan ( Quy trnh vn hanh va sa cha may bin ap
do EVN ban hanh kem theo Quyt nh s 623VN/KTN ngay
23/05/1997).
TIU CHUN DU MAY BIN AP
TT

HANG MUC TH NGHIM

DU MI TRONG

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Phu luc 1
DU TRONG VN
Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

105

MAY

in ap choc thung

KV/2,5mm
Di 15 KV
15 n 35 KV
Di 110 KV
110 n 220 KV
500 KV
Tg goc tn tht in mi

(%)
200C
900C
Tr s axt trong du

30
35
45
60
70

HANH

25
30
40
55
60

0,2
2,2
0,02

1
7
0,25

(mgKOH/g)
Axt va kim hoa tan trong

Khng co

0,1

nc mgKOH/g)
Tap cht c hoc (% khi

Khng co

Khng co

lng)
6
7

8
9

Nhit chp chay cc

Giam khng qua


135

50C so vi ln

0,01

phn tch trc


Khng th

Tr s Axt sau xy hoa

0,1

Khng th

(mgKOH/g)
Ch s Natri
nht ng (cSt)

0,4

Khng th

200C

28

Khng th

9
10

Khng th

(%)

1,0

2,0

220 n 330KV

0,5

2,0

kn (0C)
Khi lng cn (%)

500C
10 Ham lng nc (ppm)
11 Ham lng kh hoa tan

25

500KV
Ghi chu:
-Muc 11 ch tin hanh i vi cac may bin ap co bao v
bng mang cht deo hoc Nit. Trong trng hp co cac thit b
kh kh du at ti chn khng trn 759 mmHg trong khoang chn
khng th khng cn kim tra hang muc nay.
Muc 10 ch kim tra i vi cac may bin ap co bao v bng
mang cht deo. i vi cac may bin ap khng co bao v bng
Nm 2004
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106

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

mang cht deo, cp in ap t 100 - 150 KV cung nn kim tra ham


lng nc. i vi cac may loai nay ham lng nc cho phep
khng qua 20ppm.
-Muc 2 ch bt buc i vi cac may bin ap t 110KV tr ln.
-Vic kim tra gian n du cach in ch bao gm cac muc 1,
3, 4, 5 va 6.
-i vi du may bin ap Ty u khi a vao vn hanh: Tg goc
tn tht in mi 900C cho nh sau:
-in ap 110 KV: Tg 1,5 %
-in ap > 110 KV: Tg 1 %
8.2 Th nghim in ap phong cua mu du:
8.2.1

nh ngha: in ap phong cua mt mu du c xac

nh bng in ap phong in gia hai in cc nhung trong


mu du th nghim nh hnh ve (thng thng dung in
cc dang hnh nm ng knh 36mm, ban knh cong R =25mm
t cach nhau 2,5 0,05 mm)

Cc th du theo OCT 6581-75


8.2.2

Hng dn ly mu du th nghim:

Vic ly mu du co y ngha rt ln trong qua trnh th


nghim. Kt qua o phu thuc rt ln vao cng tac ly mu du,
nht la khi o gia tr in ap phong in cua du. im c ban
trong vic ly mu la mu du phai ai din cho cht lng vn
co cua du trong thit b in. Khi ly mu phai chu y bnh ly
mu phai sach, kh rao va phai chu y tnh hnh thit b, thi gian
ly mu va kh hu.
Bnh ng mu du: Bnh ng du trc khi s dung
phai c ra sach, sy kh, ngui va y kn n luc s
dung mi m np. Trn bnh phai c anh s, ghi ky hiu hoc
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

107

phai c gn nhan mu du tranh s nhm ln gia cac


mu khac nhau. Ngoai ra cac phn lin quan n vic ly mu (cac
ng ly mu, van ly du...) phai kh, sach se.
Ly mu du: Nhit cua bnh ly mu, nhit mi
trng ni ly mu va nhit mu du phai chnh lch nhau t
(

3 50C). iu nay nhm tranh hin tng nc ngng tu anh

hng n cht lng du.


- Ly mu du cac thit b ngoai tri th phai thc hin
trong nhng luc tri kh rao. Khi ly mu phai chu y n m
mi trng, tt nht nn ly mu khi m tng i cua mi
trng < 75%. Nu khng am bao c cac iu kin trn th phai
dung cac bin phap c bit nh: ly bat che khu vc ly mu,
ly bng phng phap chn khng, dung bnh kh kh...
- Trc khi ly mu phai xem xet mc sach cua bnh ly
mu, van ly mu, cn phai xa sach bui bn, nc van trc
khi cho du vao trang bnh ly mu.
- Khi trang bnh ly mu, cn phai cho dong du sach t van
ly mu vao bnh va trang u, nhe tay tranh tao bot kh bn
trong bnh ly mu. Cn phai trang bnh t nht la 2 ln trc khi
ly mu du th nghim.
- Trong qua trnh ly mu khng c lam chn ng du
trong thit b hay tec du, dong chay cua du t van ly mu vao
bnh cha mu du phai u va phai thc hin sao cho bot kh
tao ra trong bnh cha mu du cang t cang tt.
i vi cac thit b in c th nghim mi, thi gian cn
thit du n nh trc khi ly mu th nghim ong
in phu thuc vao cng sut, cp in ap cua thit b.
MBA cp in ap (KV)
>10KV
10KV
Thi gian n nh (gi)
5-6
12
Trong trng hp khn cp
3
Chu y:Trng hp khn cp ch thc hin khi thoa
man cac iu kin sau:MBA vn bnh thng, du nap vao
co x ly tao chn khng,sau 01 gi kt thuc nap du co xa
kh.
- Vic dung vai lam sach van ly mu la ht sc cn
thn v cac si t nho kho phat hin se d dang i vao mu du

Nm 2004
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108

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

va chnh no se la mt nguyn nhn lam cho in ap anh thung cua


mu du th nghim b giam thp.
- Nu dung ng dn du ly du t van ly mu th
phai ng dn du ngp hoan toan trong du tranh tao bot
kh.

1/Van

cua

4 tng ly mu.

2
3

2/Mt

bch

3/Bnh

cha

van.
du xa.
4/ng

ly

mu.
S ly

5/Lo mu.

mu
- Khi ly mu du t bnh vao bat th du, cn phai ht
sc cn thn tranh bot kh, nht la cac bot kh nho bam vao
b mt cac in cc th th rt kho tach ra va no se lam cho
in ap anh thung cua mu du th nghim b giam thp.
Nu ly mu du trong thung (phuy) th phai dung ng thuy
tinh sach, kh ng knh 1-1,5 cm va ly cach ay thung khoang 1025 cm. Hoc nn ly mu t np van nho han ch bot kh
trong qua trnh ly mu.
Cng tac chun b ban u trc khi th nghim:
Trc khi bt u cng vic vi thit b, cn phai ni t
tht tt bng 1 dy dn ng mm co tit din khng nho hn
4mm2.
NGHIM CM LAM VIC KHI THIT B CHA C TIP
T !
- Ch c t bat ng mu th vao thit b hoc ly ra
khoi thit b sau khi a kim tra chc chn vic ct ngun cua
thit b.
- Nghim cm bt in cao th, nu bat th cha co du cn
th nghim.
- Kim tra in ap ngun cua thit b th va cp ngun cho
thit b.
- Kim tra khe h gia cac in cc cua bat th du bng
c chun theo tiu chun cn th nghim (thng thng in cc
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

109

nm va khoang cach la 2,5mm). Chu y khng c s tay vao cac


in cc.
Chun b mu th va bat ng mu:
+ Trc khi th nghim, nu trc o bao quan bat th trong
du th tin hanh kim tra bat thng qua th in ap phong cua
mu bao quan. Nu in ap phong khoang >40V/2,5mm th khng
cn sy bat th. Nu in ap phong thp th cn phai sy bat
trc khi s dung.
in th anh thung cua mu cht long cach in cn th
nghim xac nh nhit 15-350C, khng khac vi bit vi nhit
ni t thit b.
+Trc khi th lo cha mu phai c y kn, tranh tac
ng cua anh sang va t ni tin hanh th khng t hn 30 phut.
Nhit mu th nghim khng c khac bit vi nhit ni
th nghim va phai trong pham vi 15 - 350C.
+Lo cha mu phai c ao ngc vai ln cn thn
nhng cht bn mu c trn u trong toan b th tch mu.
Khi lam iu nay tranh rung lc manh khng co bot kh i vao
mu. Sau o dung mt t cht long nay trang bat, lam sach
in cc (thc hin 2 ln), tip theo rot cn thn vao bat o
n mc quy nh sao cho dong cht long chay theo vach cua no va
khng tao bot kh. Nu co bot kh cn loai tr bng cach khuy
cn thn bng ua thuy tinh.
Trnh t tin hanh th nghim:
-M np thit b, t bat cha mu th vao va ong np
lai. yn khoang 10 phut.
-i vi mt mu th phai tin hanh 6 ln anh thung, theo
chu trnh: phong-khuy- yn 05 phut-phong lai. khuy dung
ua thuy tinh hoc que khuy bng vt liu khng hoa tan trong du
va khng tao x hoc khuy t t ng. Khi khuy tranh tao bot
kh trong mu th.
-Tin hanh x ly kt qua theo muc 8.2.4 nu at yu cu th
ly kt qua la gia tr trung bnh cua cac ln phong nh a nu.
anh gia va phn tch kt qua th nghim:
- Gia tr trung bnh cua in th anh thung:
_

U np =
Nm 2004
Hoa du

1 n
U ni
n i =1

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

110

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Vi Unpi Gia tr cac ln phong lin tip trn mt mu th, KV


n S ln anh thung.
- Dung sai bnh phng trung bnh cac gia tr in th anh
thung c tnh bng cng thc:
_

U Pi U P

i =1
n( n 1)
n

u =

- Cac gia tr in th anh thung phai tng ng vi cac gia tr


chun cua h s bin thin V c tnh nh sau:
V = u.100/

U np

Nu gia tr cua h s bin thin vt qua 20%, ngha la


trng hp o phai tin hanh thm 1 ln th na, cung tin hanh
6 ln anh thung sau o ly n=12.
Nu h s bin thin vn vt qua 20% th cht lng cua
in mi coi nh khng at yu cu.
Cac nguyn nhn anh hng n kt qua th nghim in ap
phong cua du cach in:
a- Nhit mu du: Du cach in sach th nhit
khng anh hng ln n kt qua in ap phong cua du. Nhng
khi du co cha cac tap cht nht la nc th in ap phong Uf
phu thuc rt nhiu vao nhit mu.
Giai thch: nhit thp (vao khoang 500C) nc ln
trong du phn nhiu dang l lng d dang phn cc tao cu
ni di tac dung cua in trng nn in ap phong in thp.
Khi nhit tng ln kha nng hoa tan cua nc vao trong du cung
tng ln, luc nay nc dang lin kt nn in ap phong cung tng
ln; Uf at gia tr cc
ai. Khi nhit tng
cao hn 800C nc b

0 1

U f

bc hi manh va si ln
tao thanh nhiu bot

02

kh trong du. Bot kh


d b ion hoa va phong
in nn in ap phong
cua

du

giam

thp.

C
0

40

80

S p h u t h u c i n a p p h o n g t h e o n h i t d u
-0 1 :D u s a c h
-0 2 :D u b n

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

111

ng cong biu din quan h gia in ap phong va nhit


du nh hnh ve trn.

Khc phuc: trong qua trnh loc du nn ly mu du hai


nhit 300C va 800C, nu in ap phong cua hai mu nay xp x
nhau la vic loc du at yu cu.
b- Tap cht c hoc: Cac si t nho thng tao thanh cu
ni gia 2 in cc d dang gy phong in lam cho Uf giam
thp.
Khc phuc: Han ch dung vai lau in cc va b
mt pha trong cua van ly mu nhm tranh cac si t trong vai
bam vao, ng thi dung du sach trang bat ly mu nhiu
ln. Nn dung giy khng x lau in cc va sau khi lau nn sy kh
in cc.
c- m mi trng: Khi mi trng bn ngoai m ngha la
hi nc trong khng kh nhiu th nc d xm nhp vao trong mu
du va lam m cac in cc nn Uf giam thp.
Khc phuc: khng ly mu khi tri ma gio hoc trc 8
gi sang (trong nhng trng hp nay thng m khng kh la
kha cao). Nn ly mu khi m mi trng 70% hoc dung
nhng bin phap che chn va dung cu ly mu c bit
tranh hi m xm nhp vao du. Khi khng di chuyn nn bao quan
bat va in cc trong du cach in tt.
d- Bot kh hoa tan trong du: Khi ly mu luc tri m,
khng kh m xm nhp vao se co ca nc ln khng kh hoc cac
loai du trong thit b khi ly ra co ln nhiu bot kh (nh du
cua may ct BMT cua Nga) th in ap phong se giam thp.

Khc phuc: khi ly mu va khi rot du vao bat th du


phai chu y khng cho dong du tao thanh bot kh; ly mu theo cac
iu kin muc (c) a noi trn. i vi loai du co nhiu bot
kh nh du May ct BMT th phai co u thi gian cho kh lng ht
mi thc hin th nghim.
e- Khoang cach in cc, dang in cc: Cac dang in
cc khac nhau vi cung khoang cach nh nhau th Uf se khac nhau;
khi khoang cach gia 2 in cc nho hn th Uf se giam thp (trong
thc t thng dung loai in cc dang nm vi khoang cach
tiu chun la 2,5mm). nhng im in cc khng phng, co vt
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

xc, g tao nn nhng nh nhon lam cho in trng khng u;


kt qua la Uf giam thp.

Khc phuc: thng xuyn bao quan tt bat th du, s


dung ung loai in cc, v sinh b mt in cc va kim tra
khoang cach gia 2 in cc trc khi th nghim, khng dung cac
vt cng co xat vao in cc.
f- Ch khuy mu du khi th nghim: Mi khi mu
du phong in se tao nn cac san phm phn huy nm gia 2
in cc lam cho cac ln phong in sau cho kt qua khng chnh
xac.
Khc phuc: Gia 2 ln phong nn khuy du (bng ua
thuy tinh hoc t ng) a cac san phm phu i vao vung
du khac tao nn s ng nht cua du trong bat th. ng thi
cn lun lun rot u lng du a qui nh trong bat th.
g- Tc tng in ap: Khi tc tng in ap ln qua th
du khng u thi gian tao cu ni gia 2 in cc nn Uf cao;
kt qua khng chnh xac.
Khc phuc: Phai t tc tng in ap ung vi phng
phap th nghim ap dung. Thng thng tc tng in ap la
2KV/s.
h- in ap th: Khi in ap th la in ap pha ly t h
thng 3 pha khng i xng co kha nng xut hin cac song hai
bc 3 lam giam Uf cua du.
Khc phuc: nu co iu kin nn dung in ap dy
th hoc ly ngun 1 pha li i xng.
8.3 Gii thiu v cac thit b th nghim in ap phong
cua du:
8.3.1

May th du AM-90:

a/ c tnh ky thut:
- Thit b AM-90 dung xac nh in ap phong cua du
bin ap va nhng cht in mi long khac.
- in ap xoay chiu cua ngun nui (V): 220 11.
- Tn s ngun (Hz): 50 1.
- in ap phong (KV): 90.
- Th tch bat th du (cm3): 400.
- Cng sut tiu thu (KVA): 0,5.
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

113

b/ Hng dn vn hanh:
Cac quy nh an toan khi s dung thit b: Trc khi bt u
cng vic vi thit b, cn phai ni t tht tt bng 1 dy dn
ng mm co tit din khng nho hn 4mm2.
NGHIM CM LAM VIC KHI THIT B CHA C TIP
T !
- Ch c t bat ng mu th vao thit b hoc ly ra
khoi thit b sau khi a kim tra chc chn vic ct ngun cua
thit b, ng h KV ang ch v tr 0.
- Cm lam vic trn thit b khi co en tn hiu sai va cac khoa
lin ng lam vic khng tt.
- Nghim cm ngt s tng in ap th trong khoang 60-90 KV
bng cach tt in ng c vi thi gian ln hn 20 giy, cung nh
cun dy s cp cua bin ap tng ap khng c tnh toan cho vic
co dong khng tai chay qua trong mt thi gian lu vi mt in ap
a nh.
- Nghim cm bt in cao th, nu cha t vao thit b rao
chn cach in va bat th co du cn th nghim.
- Khng cho phep lam vic trn thit b khi in ap ln hn 90KV.
Khi a at c in ap 90KV ma thit b khng t ng ngt th
phai ngt ngun vao thit b bng nut ngt mach (~).
- Khi thay cu ch trong mach b chay, phai am bao cu ch
thay th ung chung loai, ung dong nh mc. Tuyt i khng bao
gi dung cu ch tam hay lam ngn manh hp cu ch. Lu y
rng phai ct ngun cung cp cho thit b trc khi thay cu ch.
Chun b th nghim:
- Ni t thit b vi dy ni t.
- Ni vi mang 220V bng dy ly ngun cua thit b.
- Kim tra khe h gia cac in cc cua bat th du, ln
cua khe h bng 2,5 0,05mm. Nu b mt lam vic cua calip
chun t do lach qua khe va b mt HE khng lach qua
ngha la khoang cach khe h ung kch thc.
- Chun b mu th va bat ng mu:
in th anh thung cua mu cht long cach in cn th
nghim xac nh nhit 15-350C, khng khac vi bit vi nhit
ni t thit b.
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Trc khi th lo cha mu phai c y kn, tranh tac


ng cua anh sang va t ni tin hanh th khng t hn 30 phut.
Nhit mu th nghim khng c khac bit vi nhit ni
th nghim va phai trong pham vi 15 - 350C.
Lo cha mu phai c ao ngc vai ln cn thn
nhng cht bn mu c trn u trong toan b th tch mu.
Khi lam iu nay tranh rung lc manh khng co bot kh i vao
mu. Sau o dung mt t cht long nay trang bat, lam sach
in cc (thc hin 2 ln), tip theo rot cn thn vao bat o
n mc quy nh sao cho dong cht long chay theo vach cua no va
khng tao bot kh. Nu co bot kh cn loai tr bng cach khuy
cn thn bng ua thuy tinh.
Thc hin cac bc th nghim:
1. M np thit b, t bat cha mu th vao va ong np
lai. yn khoang 10 phut.
2. Bt nut mang xoay chiu (~), khi y en xanh phai sang va
kim cua ng h o co th cac v tr sau:
a) Kim cua ng h o v tr 0, en tn hiu mau vang sang.
b) Kim cua ng h o v tr ang chuyn ng v khng (nut
0 ang bt)
c) Kim v tr khac khng.
3. Bt nut (0 ) quay kim v v tr 0 nu khi bt nut (~) cua
thit b kim khng nm v tr 0.
4. Khi kim v tr 0, bt nut cp in cao th (), khi o en tn
hiu o se sang va en vang tt. in ap t vao 2 in cc se
tng dn cho n thi im xay ra hin tng phong gia 2 in
cc. Luc y kim ng h se hin th in ap anh thung cua
mu. Ghi lai gia tr nay.
6. Bt nut (0 ) hoc nut 0 cho kim tr lai v tr 0 (en
vang sang ln), bt nut (~) tt ngun xoay chiu, m np va
khuy cn thn phn cht long gia cac in cc loai bo
cac san phm phn huy do s phong tao ra. Sau o y np va
yn t nht la 5 phut trc khi thc hin ln th tip theo.
- i vi mt mu th phai tin hanh 6 ln anh thung va
tin hanh x ly kt qua theo muc 8.2.4. Nu at yu cu th ly
kt qua la gia tr trung bnh cua cac ln phong nh a nu muc
8.2.4.
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

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115

8.4 Cac yu t anh hng n cht lng du may bin


ap trong vn hanh:
8.4.1

S xy hoa trong du cach in:

-Du cach in sau khi a dung lu trong thit b, nhng tnh


cht ban u dn dn tr nn xu, hin tng nay goi la du
gia. Nguyn nhn cn ban lam du gia la do tac dung cua xy trong
khng kh vi du (hin tng du b xy hoa).
-Du co th hp thu va hoa tan rt nhiu cht kh, hp thu
va hoa tan nhiu hay t la tuy loai kh, ap lc va nhit cua kh.
Du may bin th nhit 250C co th hoa tan 15,92% th tch
xy hoc 10,0% th tch khng kh, hoc 8,56% th tch kh nit. V
co tnh cht nay nn du b xy hoa.
-Sau khi du hoa tan xy trong khng kh hay tip xuc vi xy,
du vi xy se kt hp hoa hoc lam cho hyrocacbon trong du b
xy hoa. Noi chung du co nhng tnh nng chng xy hoa khac nhau.
San phm cua du b xy hoa giai oan u co th hoa tan trong
du, mt b phn cac san phm nay co tnh axt lam tng tnh
axt trong du, lam cho du co mau thm hn va lam tng nht
cua du. Khi du b xy hoa ngay cang nhiu, san phm do du gia
sinh ra cung cang nhiu, khi san phm xy hoa nay nhiu n mt
mc nht nh th hnh thanh cht keo va cht hc n trong o ai
b phn hnh thanh cn du va lng xung.
-San phm oxyt hoa hoa tan trong du chu yu la axt. Khi ham
lng cao xut hin phan ng co tnh axit n mon kim loai. Cn
chu y rng cac cht co tnh axit hoa tan trong du khng nhng ch
n hong cht vai cach in ma con lam giam h in mi cua du
cach in, tt ca u rt nguy him. No lam du co mu thm
thm, tng nht cua du. nht cua du nu tng t th khng
hai g nhng nu tng qua nhiu th anh hng n tac dung tan
nhit.

Khc phuc: S dung du cach in co b sung cht c


ch xy hoa, hoc tranh du tip xuc nhiu vi khng kh bng cac
tui gian n cao su trn bnh du phu kt hp vi loc du ban u
tt kh khng kh co xy. Bn canh o thng xuyn theo doi
cht lng du cua cac may bin ap thng qua cac phep phn tch

Nm 2004
Hoa du

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116

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

co quyt nh kp thi nhm am bao vn hanh thit b an


toan.
Du cach in trong thit b thng b anh hng cua cac
nhn t bn ngoai nh nc, nhit , kim loai, cac tap cht c
hoc, do lau chui thit b khng sach, vv... Cn phai c bit chu y
rng nhng nhn t o la nhng nguyn nhn chu yu lam cho du
trong vn hanh chong hong va chong gia, anh hng n vn hanh
an toan thit b.
8.4.2

Anh hng cua nc:

Nguyn nhn co nc trong du may bin ap:


- Du kh trong khng kh co th hp thu nc.
- i vi cac may bin ap khng co tui cao su ngn cach, khi
cht kh m trong b phn hp thu cua may bin ap giam hiu
sut hoc v hiu th se co nc t khng kh ln vao.
- Thit b b tr khng tt hay kim tu khng tt, ch ghep
thit b khng tt b nc ro vao.
-Khi phn tch nhng nguyn nhn chu yu lam du gia va gy ra
s c trong h thng du cua tram bin in, xng phat in,
ta thy u do nc sinh ra.
-Trong du co hoa tan mt lng t nc, hoa tan nhiu hay t
tuy theo loai du, cht lng du, trnh ch luyn du va
nhit du. Co ngha la du ch luyn cang tt, cht lng
du cang cao, nc hoa tan cang t. Nu du a gia, ch luyn lai
khng tt, hoc nhit du cao th lng nc hoa tan cang
nhiu. Noi chung nc trong du ngoai lng nc hoa tan ra con
co phn nc trang thai keo l lng trong du. Du co cht
lng tt se khng kt hp vi nc, nc lng xung ay thung
du va co th tach nc ra rt nhanh. Nu du a gia nhiu th
nc va cac cht phn giai cua du khi tip xuc vi nhau se rt d
kt hp vi nhau, loai nc nay kho tach ra nn tng i nguy
him.
-Nc lam giam in ap phong in cua du rt nhiu. V du
du co ham lng m 10ppm co in ap phong n 90KV/2,5mm
se giam ch con 30KV/2,5mm khi du nhim m vi lng ch co
40ppm (40gam/tn)
-Nc khi ln vao du may bin th se lng xung di v
ty trong cua nc ln hn, khi lng xung nc gp cac vt tr
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117

ngai nh dy dn, cun dy v.v... Nc hoc b vt liu cach in


trong may bin th hp thu hoc b nhit cao bin thanh hi l
lng trong du, nh vy gia hai cc trong may bin th, nc
xp dai theo chiu cua in trng thanh hnh cu ni phong in
gy phong in xuyn thung. Khi trong du cach in ng thi co ca
nc va tap cht la vt rn (nh cac th si) th h s in mi
b pha hoai rt nhiu, ly do chu yu la do tac dung cua sut dn
in va in trng cac th si tp trung gn cac in cc,
cac th si nay sau khi hut nc co th lam thanh cu ni gia
cac in cc, do o pha hoai cach in.
-Khi trong du co nc, s tip xuc gia du va st se tng
lam du mau gia, th du khi du loi st may bin ap co nc,
cn du se tng ln rt nhanh so vi khi trong du khng co nc.
Nu trong du co axt thp phn t lai co nc, kim loai cang mau
b n mon.

Khc phuc: Chon kiu may bin ap co mang cao su trong


thung gian n. Thng xuyn kim tra nh ky du trong vn hanh,
xem trong du co nc hay khng la iu rt quan trong. Khi phat
hin trong du co nc phai kp thi dung phng phap loc, phn ly
loai nc i. Thng xuyn kim tra s hoat ng cua cac b
th silicagen, kn cua may bin ap...i vi may bin ap mi
cn kim tra in ap anh thung tt trc khi a vao vn hanh.
8.4.3

Anh hng cua nhit :

-Nhit tng lam du mau gia. Nhit du trong vn hanh


tng chu yu la do thit b vn hanh khng bnh thng hoc do
du gia. Khi nhit tng, du hp thu nhiu khng kh, tac dung
xy hoa do o cung tng thm va du cang gia nhanh.

Khc phuc: Thng xuyn theo doi nhit du cua may


bin ap, kim tra cac mi ni dn in, s lam vic bnh thng
cua cac h thng lam mat.
8.4.4

Anh hng cua khng kh:

Tr trng hp dung bin phap c bit, trong vn hanh,


du kho ma tranh c tip xuc vi khng kh. xy trong khng kh
xy hoa du. Tng b mt tip xuc cua du vi khng kh th co
th tng tc xy hoa du ngha la lam du mau gia. Bot kh
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lam giam cht lng vn hanh cua may bin ap (tao ra cac phong
in cuc b..).

Khc phuc: giam bt va ngn nga s tip xuc cua


xy trong khng kh vi may bin th, mt s nc dung khng
kh a kh xy cho vao may bin ap hoc dung phng phap cho kh
nit vao y khng gian pha trn cua du trong may bin ap. Hoc
dung loai may bin ap co tui cao su nhm cach ly tip xuc du may
bin ap vi khng kh.
8.4.5

Anh hng cua vic b sung du:

Vic b sung du khng ung qui trnh lam cho cht lng du
trong may bin ap giam i (du b sung kem phm cht, trong qua
trnh b sung lam cho khng kh va hi m hp thu vao trong may
bin ap..). Hin nay cac loai du cua cac hang khac nhau co th
pha trn c v vy ch con lai vn kim tra du trc khi
pha trn va b sung ung qui trnh.

Khc phuc: B sung du cht lng tt, thc hin


ung qui trnh b sung du.
8.4.6

Anh hng cua vt liu cach in rn:

Vt liu cach in rn co loai khng anh hng g i vi


du, co loai anh hng vi mc khac nhau i vi du. Kt
qua thc nghim chng minh rng anh hng rt ln i vi du
la cht cach in loai sn, ri n vt liu xenlulo, cho nn phai
chu y chon vt liu cach in.

Khc phuc: Cm khng c dung cac san phm co anh


hng n cht lng du nh cac loai sn xyt v c nh sn
trng (oxit ch), sn nhu...dung lam vt liu trong ch tao va sa
cha may bin ap.
8.4.7

Anh hng cua ch vn hanh may bin ap:

Cac trng hp khng bnh thng nh khi thit b vn hanh


qua tai, qua nhit cuc b, ngn mach cun dy v.v..Co th lam
giam im chp chay cua du, tng axt, tach ra cac san phm
lam cht lng du giam i nhiu. Cho nn khi thit b phat sinh
s c, phai th nghim cht lng du.

Khc phuc: Thc hin ung qui trnh vn hanh may bin
ap, tranh vn hanh qua tai.
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119

9 HNG DN TH NGHIM KIM TRA IU KIN HOA


SONG SONG HAI MAY BIN AP:
9.1 Y ngha cua th nghim:
Th nghim kim tra iu kin hoa hai may bin ap vn hanh
song song nhm xac nh cac thng s ky thut va s u dy
vn hanh cua hai may bin ap trn thc t phai thoa man iu
kin vn hanh song song c qui nh trong Quy trnh vn hanh,
sa cha may bin ap cua Tng cng ty in lc Vit Nam ban
hanh kem theo Quyt nh s 623 VN/KTN, ngay 23-5-1997 nh sau:
iu 52: May bin ap c phep lam vic song song vi cac
iu kin sau:
1. T u dy ging nhau.
2. T s bin ap bng nhau hoc chnh lch khng qua 0,5%.
3. in ap ngn mach chnh lch khng qua 10%.
4. Hoan toan ng v pha.
Cac iu kin ky thut nu trn nhm thoa man yu cu v ky
thut va kinh t cua hai may bin ap vn hanh song song. Khi cac
iu kin nay thoa man, hiu qua kinh t cua cac may bin ap
vn hanh song song trong tram la cao nht.
9.2 Cac bc tin hanh th nghim:
9.2.1

Cng tac chun b:

Ngi th nghim nhn hin trng th nghim, kim tra i


tng c th nghim a c ct in, cach ly hoan
toan vi cac ngun in ap, vo thit b phai c ni t.
Ni t tam thi cac u cc cua i tng c th
nghim, sau o thao cac ni t tam thi ang ni trn cac
u cc cua i tng c th nghim.
Xac nh t u dy cua tng may bin ap va i chiu vi
tiu chun v t u dy co lu y n cac trng hp sau:
o Hai may bin ap co t u dy le bt ky co th hoan v
hoc i tn pha mt may chung co cung t u
dy.
o Hai may bin ap co t u dy chn cung nhom (co hai
nhom t u dy chn la nhom 12, 4, 8 va nhom 10, 2, 6)
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co th hoan v vong quanh tn pha mt may chung co


cung t u dy.
Xac nh cac cp nc phn ap cn th nghim theo tnh toan
a thoa man cac iu kin nu trn v in ap ngn mach
va t s bin ap nc phn ap d tnh se vn hanh song
song.
9.2.2

Xac nh s ng v pha cua hai may:

- Tin hanh xac nh s ng v pha bng Vnmet (hoc ng


h van nng).
Co hai trng hp:
a. Trng hp 1: Trung tnh pha th cp co u ni t bn
ngoai.
Trng hp nay, cac u trung tnh pha th cp ni t tao
thanh mt im chung v in.
- a in ap 3 pha -380 V (t dung tai tram) vao thanh cai
A,B,C.
- Dung Vnmet o in ap gia cac pha cung tn a1-a2; b1
-b2; c1 -c2; va cac pha khac tn a1-b2; a1-c2; b1-a2; b1-c2; c1-a2; c1-b2.
Nu gia cac pha cung tn khng co in ap (hoc in ap =
0,5% U2) va gia cac pha khac tn co in ap xp x nhau th hai
may o ng v pha.

A
B
C

Hnh 9-1: Trng hp 1- Trung tnh pha th cp co u ni t


bn ngoai.

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121

V du v cach tnh sai s in ap t kt qua o


chnh lch in ap:
S liu th nghim:
in ap nh mc (tai nc phn ap vn hanh): 35000/6300V
in ap th nghim: U1 = 380V
Chnh lch in ap o c: U(a1 - a2) = 0,8V
Tnh toan chnh lch in ap va t s bin ap:
Chnh lch in ap (o c) tai in ap nh mc:
U(a1 - a2) = U(a1 - a2) x UM / UTN = 0,8 x 35000/380 = 73,68 V
Sai lch in ap phn trm:
U(a1 - a2) % = 73,68 / 6300 = 1,17% (hai may bin ap khng thoa
man iu kin t s bin ap khi vn hanh song song)
b. Trng hp 2: Trung tnh pha th cp khng a ra ngoai
hoc pha th cp u tam giac.
Trng hp nay, tao mt im chung v in, ta ln
lt cu tt tam thi mt cp cc pha cung tn (a1-a2; b1 -b2; c1
-c2) ri dung Vnmet ln lt o in ap gia cac cc con lai
nh trng hp 1.

A
B
C

Hnh 9- 2:

Trng hp 2- Trung tnh pha th cp khng a ra ngoai hoc


pha th cp u tam giac.

Trong trng hp tai tram khng co t dung ba pha th co th


dung in ap 3 pha pha th cp cua cac may bin in ap ang
Nm 2004
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vn hanh tai Tram a vao pha cao cua cac MBA nhm kim
tra iu kin hoa song song.
Thc t tai tram ta co th kim tra ng v pha nh s
sau: (s dung s nht th thc t ma hai may se vn hanh
song song)
- a ngun 3 pha 380V vao thanh cai Cao th (A,B,C)
- ong cac dao cach ly CL1, CL2, CL3, CL4, CLP
- ong may ct MC1, MC2, MC3, ct MC4.
- Tin hanh o in ap tai cac u cc hai pha cua MC4 theo
cac bc nh trn.
Sau khi thc hin xong tt ca cac phep o trn mt i tng
thit b, NTN cn phai v sinh thit b o, don dep va hoan tra s
v trang thai nh khi a nhn ban u.

A
B
C
Hnh 9-3: S dung s nht th kim tra iu kin hoa song
song.

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123

10 CNG TAC NAP KH SF6:


10.1 c im tnh cht cua kh SF6:
a-Kh SF6 la kh tr, khng mau, khng mui, khng chay, khng c
hai va bn hoa hoc. Khi lng ring 146 (nng gp 5 ln khng
kh). ap lc kh quyn cng in mi gp 2,6 ln khng kh
cung ap lc.

Cu truc cua kh SF6 Fnh sau:

F
S

F
F
F
b-Cac hp cht cua kh SF6 co tc kh ion rt cao, co kha
nng khi phuc cng cach in nhanh va chu c tc
F
tng in ap cao. Kha nng cach in va dp h quang cua thit b
ong ct dung kh SF6 ln hn khng kh rt nhiu. Cng cach
in cua thit b dung kh SF6 ch phu thuc vao mt kh
(khi lng trong mt n v th tch a cho). Ngi ta kim tra
mt kh SF6 thng qua o ap lc. Ap lc (oc trn ng h)
phu thuc vao nhit mi trng va cao mt nc bin.
c-Mt kh nh mc c o thng qua ap lc xac nh
ap sut kh quyn 1atm va nhit mi trng 20oC ng vi ty
trong nh mc. Ap sut nh mc c hiu chnh theo nhit
mi trng va ap sut kh quyn tai thi im o.
d-Bnh thng kh SF6 co tnh cht hoa hoc n nh, di tac
dung h quang no se phn ly thanh cac san phm kh khac nhau va
san phm rn bam vao cac chi tit trong bung dp h quang. Cac
san phm rn tch tu thanh bui trng va kha nng hut m rt ln,
chung se n mon cac chi tit kim loai nu m cua khng kh mi
trng lot vao. Cac san phm phn huy cua may ct a vn hanh
la cac cht rt c.
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Trong may ct, di tac dung cua h quang nu trong kh SF6


co ln khng kh, m th co th sinh ra nhiu san phm khac nhau
nh N2, CF4, SO2F2, SOF2, COS, SO2, O2, CO2, SOF4, CCl2F2, WF6...
e-Ap lc hi bao hoa cua kh SF6 nhit 20oC la khoang 23
Bar.
10.2 Cac ai lng ap lc thng dung trong tnh toan ap
lc kh SF6:
a-Mt s khai nim:
-Ap lc tuyt i: la ap lc so sanh vi chn khng.
-Ap lc tng i la ap lc so sanh vi ap lc kh quyn
mc nc bin.
- ap lc kh quyn: ng h tuyt i ch 1 Bar, ng h
tng i ch 0Bar
b. Mt s n v thng gp:
1MPa = 10 Bar 1 Bar = 100kPa
1kPa = 1000Pa 1Bar = 14,5Psi
1atm = 760 mmHg

1atm = 1,013Bar

1Bar = 1,02 Kg/cm2

10.3 Cac lu y v an toan trong qua trnh s dung va nap


kh SF6:
10.3.1

An toan khi lam vic vi kh SF6:

V kh SF6 la kh tr co mt gn gp 5 ln khng kh nn
ngi lam vic trong mi trng co kh SF6 co th b ngat nu ty
l O2 giam thp hn 17% (ty l O2 trong khng kh bnh thng la
21%).
Trong phong cha kh SF6, cm khng c n, ung, hut cung
nh lu gi thc n. iu nay c bit c ap dung cho cng
vic bao dng, khi ma cac pha c thao ra.
San phm phn huy cua kh SF6 la cac c t khac nhau, no
gy kho chu cho cac c quan trong c th (mui, hong), ng h hp
va cac phn bn ngoai khng c bao v khac. Hu nh ngay lp
tc trc khi s xay ra nhim c nguy him, mt lng nho cua
san phm phn huy co th nhn ra c bi mui cay kho chu. V
vy cn thn trong khi tip xuc vi cac san phm nay.

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Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

10.3.2

125

An toan khi nap kh SF6:

a- Cng vic nap kh la cng vic thc hin vi ap lc cao, v


vy phai tun thu nghim ngt cac chu y an toan. Phai hiu ro cac
tnh nng cua cac van iu chnh trc khi thc hin cng vic. Ch
nhng ngi c giao nhim vu mi thc hin cng vic nay.
b-V tr t bnh kh SF6 phai cach may ct t nht la 40m i
vi b nap co ng ng nap dai. i vi b nap co ng ng
ngn th ta phai bao boc cac ct s bng li chuyn dung hoc
mai che chn an toan. Tuy nhin am bao cht lng kh nap ta
nn dung ng nap ngn v ng ng dai se rt kho lam sach hi
m trong ng.
c-V tr ngi nap phai ng u hng gio tranh ht
phai kh SF6 trong qua trnh thc hin cng vic.
d-Tt ca moi ngi co mt tai hin trng phai ng cach
may ct vi mt khoang cach an toan ti thiu la 40m, hoc di
mai che chn an toan.
e-Khng c thao tac may ct khi cha nap kh.
An toan trong bao quan kh SF6:
a-Kh SF6 c cha trong cac bnh st crm - mlipen trang
bac trn o in cac c tnh ky thut.
b-Bnh kh SF6 la bnh kh ap lc kh nen, do vy nu cac bnh
s dung kh hu nhit i hoc cao hn mc nc bin th
khng c phi chung di anh nng mt tri.
10.3.3

An toan khi s dung b nap kh a nng:

a-Cn bao quan b nap kh trong mi trng kh sach, tranh


m t.
b- V s an toan ap lc khng c s dung b nap kh a
nng nay vao muc ch nap cac kh khac ngoai SF6 (v du kh Nit,
Argon...).
c-Trong s nap kh SF6 khi khp ni trung gian (kiu van mt
chiu) d hong, th khng c lp khi d+e vao may ct, v se mt
kh bao dng!
d-Tranh tip xuc vi cac dung mi hoa tan xp trong valy b nap
kh a nng (v du: axtn, tluen..).
e-Tranh va p manh b nap kh khi vn chuyn va bao quan.
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10.4 Tnh toan va hiu chnh ap lc kh trc khi nap:


a. Mt s ky hiu:
Pm(abs) : ap lc nh mc tuyt i.
Pm : ap lc nh mc tng i.
Ph : chnh ap lc theo cao.
Pt : chnh ap lc theo nhit .
Pnap

: ap lc tng i tnh toan nap.

Pnap(abs)
Pt

: ap lc tuyt i tnh toan nap.

: ap lc nap nhit t tra theo ng cong cua nha

ch tao.
Pt = Pm + Pt

(Bar)

P(abs) = P + Pk.quyn

(Bar).

Pk.quyn : ap lc kh quyn tai ni t may ct.


b. Tnh toan ap lc nap:
* ng h mu la ng h tng i:
Pnap = Pm + Ph + Pt = Pt + Ph
Ph: tra theo ng cong s phu thuc ap lc theo cao
cua nha ch tao.
Pt: tra theo ng cong s phu thuc ap lc theo nhit
cua nha ch tao.
Pt: tra theo ng cong s phu thuc ap lc theo nhit
cua nha ch tao.
Hoc Ph = 1,013 - Pk.quyn

(Bar)

Pnap

= Pm(abs) + Pt - Pk.quyn

(Bar)

Pnap

= Pm(abs) + Pt - (1,013- Ph)

(Bar)

* ng h mu la ng h tuyt i:

Pnap(abs)

= Pm+ 1,013 + Pt

(Bar)

Pnap(abs)

= Pm(abs)+ Pt

(Bar)

( pha long )

T ra
ng thai long

bar

45,4g/l
t

V du:

bar
+ 0 ,4

+Nhit mi trng luc nap


38,6g/l
t

+ cao ni t may ct
4

+ 0 ,3

: 300C
: 500m

+ 0 ,2
Hoc ap lc kh quyn ni t
may ct: 0,943 Bar

+Pm(abs)
+ Pm

Tra
ngthai kh
( phakh)

0 ,1
: ap lc nh +mc
tuyt i 200C= 7,0 Bar

: ap lc nh mc tng i 200C= 6,0 Bar


0

+500 +1000 +1500 +2000 +2500m

S phu thuc

ap lc theo cao

11,2g/l
t

-30
-20
-10
0
10
30
40
50
C
Tai liu
ao
tao
ngh
Th 20
nghim
in
Nganh
Cao th-Hoa du
S
phu
thuc
0

ap lc theo nhit

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

127

a. ng h mu la tng i (ap lc nap oc trn


ng h mu):
Pnap

= Pm + Ph + Pt

Pt= 0,32 Bar (tra theo ng cong nhit )


Ph= 0,07 Bar (tra theo ng cong cao)
Hoc Ph= 1,013- 0,943 = 0,07 Bar
Pnap= 6,0 + 0,32 + 0,07 = 6,39 Bar
Pnap

= Pm(abs)+ Pt - Pk.quyn

= 7,0 + 0,32 - 0,943 = 6,377 Bar


Pnap = Pm(abs) + Pt - (1,013- Ph)
= 7,0 + 0,32 - (1,013 - 0,07) = 6,377 Bar
b. ng h mu la tuyt i (ap lc nap tuyt i
oc trn ng h mu):
Pnap(abs)

= Pm + 1,013 + Pt

= 6,0 + 1,013 + 0,32 = 7,333 Bar


Pnap(abs)

= Pm(abs)+ Pt

= 7,0 + 0,32 = 7,32 Bar.


(Sai s gia cac phep tnh do ly tron s ap lc tuyt i
Pm(abs)= 7,0 Bar; nu ung phai ly Pm(abs)= 6,0 + 1,013 = 7,013
Bar).
10.5 Qui trnh nap kh SF6 vi b nap kh a nng:
10.5.1

Cng tac chun b:

am bao hoan thanh cng vic nap kh vao may ct va


tranh nhng s c ang tic co th xay ra. Nhng ngi c
giao nhim vu nap kh phai thc hin y u cac cng vic di
y:
Nm 2004
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A/ Kim tra tnh trang may ct:


Kim tra ap lc kh bao dng trong qua trnh vn chuyn.
Phai am bao la co kh SF6 trong tng ct s cua may ct, nu
khng th khng th thc hin c cng vic nap kh.
Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai cua cac ct s, b phn truyn
ng. Phai am bao khng co cac khuyt tt va h hong trong qua
trnh vn chuyn va lp t. Nu co khuyt tt hoc h hong th
ngng cng vic nap kh.
Kim tra tnh trang lp t cac chi tit cua may ct, phai am
bao lp t ung theo yu cu va ch dn cua nha ch tao. Tt
ca cac bulng phai c sit cht theo yu cu.
B/ Dung cu va ngh:
+ B ngh chuyn dung cua may ct (hoc mo lch ln).
+ Bnh kh SF6.
+ B nap kh a nng.
+ Dung cu o nhit (V du: nhit k..).
+ Van nng (dung o tip im ap lc nu co).
+ B do kh SF6 (hoc dung dch xa phong loang).
+Vt liu phu khac: vai lau, m lam kn, rong lam kn...
Trnh t thc hin cng vic:
10.5.2
1

M
S lp b nap kh a nng:
AY
2
3
Ky hiu: C

1-Van bnh kh
T SF6.
2-ng h
o ap
SF6
c
d e
sut u ra.
)
) )
3-ng h o ap

01

B
NH

a
)

sut nap.
a) Van giam ap. Ky

hiu 01

KH

b) Dy nap.

SF6

c) Cn nap va ng
h trung gian. Ky hiu:
02.
d) Khp trung gian.Ky
hiu: 03-1 hoc 03-2.
e) Khp ni vao may
ct, ky hiu:

GIE:
04.
Tai liu ao taoHnh
ngh Th
nghim in
Nganh
Cao
th-Hoa
du
10-2-S

lp
rap
b
nap
kh SF6 a nng

GL107:

05.

Nm 2004

SIEMEN

07

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

129

Trc khi nap phai chun b rong thay th. Yu cu phai dung
rong mi khi nap kh may ct. Chung phai c lam sach va bi
m lam kn trc khi s dung.
u ni mach kim tra ap lc khoa thao tac va bao tn hiu
(nu co).
* Chu y: Tip im khoa thao tac se tac ng trc va bao tn
hiu tac ng sau v ta ang nap kh ap lc t thp n cao.
Tnh toan ap lc nap theo nhit va cao muc 10.4.
Van bnh kh SF6 (van1), van nap (a), cn (c) v tr ong (tha
long cn bop).
Lp van giam ap (a), dy nap (b), cn nap va ng h trung
gian (c) theo s nap kh SF6 phn trn.
Lp (d) va (e). Lp khi nay vao may ct.
Chu y: ch c lp khi nay vao may ct nu dung u
trung gian kiu van 03-1! (u trung gian kiu ni ng 03-2 dung trong
trng hp d phong u nap cua c) hong - ni tt ca a), b), c), e)
vao).iu nay tranh mt ap lc kh bao dng.
M van bnh kh, xoay van nap (a), iu chnh ap lc ng h
u ra (ng h s 2) cua van a) n ap lc thch hp (theo ap
lc nap a tnh toan).
n cn (c), xa kh lam sach ng ng khoang 10 giy. Thao
tac nay nhm loai bo khng kh con sot lai trong b nap.
Va xa va gn u nap (c) vao khi (d)+(e).
Nap cho n khi u ap lc nh mc, kim tra ap lc nap
bng cach thao van cn (c). Nu cha u ap lc th tip tuc nap
thm. (co th tng mt t ng h ap lc u ra s 2 (ln hn
khoang 0,5 bar so vi ap lc nh mc).
Khi u ap lc, tha van c), khoa van a), ong van bnh kh va thao
s .
Kim tra kn bng thit b do kh SF6 chuyn dung hoc
bng dung dch xa phong loang va kt thuc cng vic.
V s nguy him co th lin quan n khi vn chuyn may
ct, moi ngi co mt trong ln vn hanh u tin phai di
mai che an toan hay tun theo 1 khoang cach an toan ti thiu la 40m.

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10.6 Khi lng kim tra SF6 i vi cac may ct trong lp


mi va nh ky:
10.6.1

Khi lng kim tra SF6 i vi cac may ct trong

lp mi:
1. Kim tra ap lc kh bao dng:
-Ap lc kh bao dng la ap lc trong cac pha cua may ct
c nap trong qua trnh vn chuyn bao quan. Ap lc nay nhm
muc ch:
+ Giam sat cac khuyt tt nt v cua may ct (trong ch tao
va vn chuyn).
+Tranh hin tng nhim m do thay i nhit mi
trng (khi thay i nhit nu khng co ap lc kh bao dng
se co th xay ra hin tng ap sut m trong thn may ct va
khng kh m bn ngoai th xm nhp vao may ct).
Thng thng ap lc nay c nap nha ch tao va nm
trong khoang 0,2-0,5Bar.
Cng vic kim tra ap lc kh bao dng rt quan trong va
cn thit i vi cac may ct mi. Khi mt ap lc kh bao dng
th khng c nap kh vao may ct khi cha co cac phep kim tra
khac chng minh la khng nhim m vao may ct.
2. Kim tra tip im ap lc (nu co) trong qua trnh
nap kh.
Tip im ap lc dung bao v may ct trong qua trnh
vn hanh. Thng thng nu co tip im nay th lun co 02 cp
bao v: cp 1 bao tn hiu thiu ap lc (s cn thit cn thit
b sung kh) va tip im cp 2 mc ap lc thp hn se khoa
thao tac may ct (ngn nga nguy him khi thao tac ap lc kh
thp).
Cng vic kim tra tip im thc hin khi nap kh vao may
ct. Tip im khoa thao tac se tac ng trc va tip im bao
tn hiu tac ng sau v ta ang nap kh ap lc t thp n cao.
3. Kim tra ap lc kh SF6.
Sau khi nap kh va trong vn hanh ap lc kh SF6 trong cac pha
lun c kim tra nh ky. i vi cac may ct co lp ng h
giam sat ap lc th trong th nghim, kim tra nh ky phai kim tra
ap lc trn ng h. Ti thiu 03 nm mt ln phai kim tra ap
lc trong cac pha may ct.
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Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

131

Thng thng co 03 kiu ng h c lp trn cac may ct:


-Kiu chia vach, khng bu nhit : i vi loai ng h nay
ap lc se thay i theo nhit mi trng, trn ng h khng co
ky hiu ch bu ap lc (dong ch at 200C). Khi oc ap lc trn
ng h nay chung ta phai hiu chnh v ap lc nh mc thng
qua cac bang hoc th hiu chnh (xem phn Tnh toan ap lc
nap muc10.4).
Cac kiu ng h nay hin lp trn cac pha may ct 35KV
GL107, may ct ABB...
-Kiu chia vach, co bu nhit : i vi loai ng h nay ap
lc se khng thay i theo nhit mi trng, trn thng thng
trn ng h co ky hiu bu nhit (dong ch at 20 0C). Khi oc
ap lc khng cn hiu chnh, ap lc chnh la ap lc nh mc
200C. Cac kiu ng nay hin lp trn cac may ct 500KV, cac may
ct SIEMEN...
Tuy nhin do kha nng bu phu thuc cht lng va chnh
xac cua ng h ma co th co nhng thay i theo nhith
mc cho phep.
-Kiu phn chia vung: Thng thng co 03 vung t ap lc thp
n cao: o, xanh, vang (vung xanh: ap lc lam vic bnh thng,
vung vang: ap lc bao tn hiu, vung o: ap luc thp, khoa thao
tac may ct, cn a ra x ly).
4. Kim tra ro kh SF6.
kim tra ro kh dung cac thit b chuyn dung hoc dung
dch xa phong loang. Cho phep ro kh cua may ct khng qua
1%/nm.
5. Kim tra ham lng m kh SF6 (khi co yu cu cua
nha ch tao).
Ham lng m kh SF6 la nng th tch nc dang hi
trong kh SF6. n v o ham lng m la ppm (phn triu th tch).
Trong qua trnh ong ct, h quang in se phn huy kh SF6 thanh
cac san phm rn c hai va n mon thit b khi co nc. Ham
lng m rt quan trong trong may ct SF6, no anh hng n
cach in cua may ct va tranh cac hin tung n mon bn trong
may ct do cac san phm h quang in sinh ra. Hang muc nay se
anh gia cht lng cua cng vic nap kh may ct cung nh
cht lng cua kh nap. Mt s may ct cp in ap 35KV cung
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

yu cu th nghim hang muc nay, va tt ca cac may ct 110KV


tr ln u yu cu th nghim trong lp mi va nh ky (gii han
cho phep xem bang di).
10.6.2

Khi lng kim tra SF6 i vi cac may ct trong

nh ky:
1. Kim tra ap lc kh SF6.
2. Kim tra ro kh SF6. (thng thng cho phep 1%/nm)
3. Kim tra ham lng m kh SF6 (khi co yu cu cua nha
ch tao).

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Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

133

11 TH NGHIM CHNG SET VAN


11.1 Gii thiu cac loai chng set van c ban c lp va
s dung trn li in va cac thng s ky thut lin
quan:
11.1.1

Gii thiu cac loai chng set van c ban c lp

va s dung trn li in:


Chng set van la thit b dung han ch cac loai qua in
ap xay ra trong li in nhm bao v cho cach in chnh cua cac
thit b in. Cac loai qua in ap y ch xut hin tam thi
do nhiu nguyn nhn gy ra co th qua in ap do set anh, do cac
s c cham t, do thao tac chuyn i phng thc vn hanh
trong ni b li in.
Nhim vu cua chng set la giam tr s qua in ap t trn
cach in cua thit b va khi ht qua in ap phai nhanh chong
dp tt h quang cua dong in xoay chiu, phuc hi trang thai
lam vic bnh thng.
Theo trnh phat trin cng ngh n nay trn li in co 4
loai chng set van chnh:
1. Chng set van SiC co khe h.
2. Chng set van SiC co khe h kem in tr.
3. Chng set van ZnO khng khe h.
4. Chng set van ZnO co khe h.
Cu tao va nguyn tc lam vic cua chng set SiC va ZnO co
khac nhau:
a. Chng set SiC:
Chng set van SiC co khe h dung t hp khe h phong in
xac nh in ap phong va mc ni tip vi cac phn t van
dp tt dong in. Ca khe h va phn t van c bao boc
kn trong vo s.
Khe h cho phep chng set giai tr dong in tn s cng
nghip theo sau phn t SiC khoi b t nong va h hong. Trong
qua trnh vn hanh khe h chu toan b in ap vn hanh pha t,
chc nng cua khe h la khng xay ra phong in in ap vn
hanh bnh thng, phong in ung in ap thit k dn

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dong in i qua phn t SiC va phuc hi tr lai trang thai bnh


thng.
Phn t van la in tr phi tuyn c ch tao t bt
cacbrun (SiC), mt ngoai hat cacbrun co mang mong SiO2 day
khoang 10-5cm, in tr sut ban thn cua hat cacbrun be khoang
10-2 .m va n nh nhng in tr cua mang mong phu thuc vao
cng in trng. Khi cng in trng be in tr sut
cua mang mong khoang 104 106 .m nhng khi in trng tng cao
no se giam rt nhanh va in tr tng giam ti mc in tr cua
hat cacbrun.
Th
p khe hphong i
n

Cac ph
n tSiC

Hnh vem tac


u truc ch
ng set SiC cokhe h

in ap phuc hi cua chng set phn b u trn cac khe


h, sau nay ngi ta a mc thm in tr song song vi khe h
cho s phn b in ap xoay chiu trn cac khe h c u n
do yu t bn ngoai vo boc nh mi trng, m tac ng n
vo boc chng set co th lam in ap phong in khng ung nh
tr s a thit k.T y hnh thanh loai chng set van mi o la
loai chng set van SiC co khe h kem in tr nh a nu trn.
Th
p khe hphong i
n
i
n trghep song song
Khe hphong i
n

Cac ph
n t
SiC

Hnh vem tac


u truc ch
ng set SiC cokhe hkem i
n tr

b. Chng set ZnO:


Chng set van ZnO khng khe h dung phn t van la oxit kim
loai co tnh cht phi tuyn cao tan dong in set, cac phn t
nay c bao boc trong vo boc kn.

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Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

135

Phn t van nay c ch tao t nhiu kim loai chu yu la


oxit kem(khoang 90%) va mt lng nho cac cac oxit kim loai khac
goi la phu gia nh: cobalt, oxit mng gang, bismuth,.... c tnh cua no
phu thuc rt nhiu vao cng ngh ch tao. c im cua phn
t van nay la tnh phi tuyn cc manh nn in ap lam vic
dong ro co tr s rt be cho phep ni thng vao li in khng
cn khe h. Khi qua in ap kt thuc khng co dong in tn s
cng nghip i theo sau va co kha nng hp thu nng lng ln
sau khi tan dong in set khng lam suy giam phm cht cua chung.

Cac ph
n tZnO

Hnh vem tac


u truc ch
ng set ZnO khng khe h

tng kha nng chu ng qua ap tam thi hn so vi chng


set ZnO khng khe h ngi ta a phi hp cng ngh cua chng set
SiC va chng set ZnO khng khe h ch tao ra loai chng set
mi o la chng set ZnO co khe h. i vi chng set loai nay th
s phn t ZnO giam i va thay th vao o la cac t hp khe h
kem in tr.
Th
p khe hphong i
n

Cac ph
n tZnO

Hnh vem tac


u truc ch
ng set ZnO cokhe h

Hnh ve minh hoa mt s chng set van


11.1.2

Cac thng s ky thut lin quan:

Co rt nhiu thng s ky thut lin quan n chng set van,


nhng thng gp nht la cac thng s ky thut sau:
in ap nh mc(Ur):

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in ap nh mc cua chng set la gia tr hiu dung cua


in ap tn s cng nghip cho phep ln nht chng set van
lam vic ung khi co qua ap tam thi.
in ap vn hanh lin tuc(Uc):
in ap vn hanh lin tuc la gia tr hiu dung cua in ap
tn s cng nghip ln nht c thit k ma in ap nay co
th s dung lin tuc gia hai cc cua chng set.
Dong in xa nh mc(In):
Dong in xa nh mc la tr s nh cua dong in xung dung
phn loai chng set.
in ap tham khao(Uref):
in ap tham khao la gia tr nh cua in ap tn s cng
nghip chia cho c s dung o dong in tham khao.
Dong in tham khao(Iref):
Dong in tham khao la gia tr nh cua thanh phn in tr
dong in tn s cng nghip c s dung xac nh in ap
tham khao cua chng set. Dong in tham khao c qui nh bi
chnh nha ch tao chng set.
Qua in ap tam thi(TOV):
La in ap xut hin trn pha khng s c khi xay ra cham
t 1 pha trong li in.
11.2 Hng dn tnh toan, la chon chng set van:
Khi thit k li in mun chon chng set van cn phai
bit ro cac thng s ky thut lin quan cua chng set (in ap nh
mc, in ap vn hanh lin tuc, c tuyn in ap cho bi nha
ch tao,...) ng thi phai hiu ro ch lam vic cua li in
ma chng set van lp t trn o bao gm ch ni t cua
im trung tnh, in ap li nh mc, cac ch vn hanh cua
li in (ch cc tiu, cc ai, s c) nhng quan trong
nht y la ch cc ai va ch s c v hai ch
nay anh hng trc tip n vic tnh chon chng set van.
la chon chng set van noi chung phai quan tm cac yu
t sau:
1. in ap nh mc cua li in:
lam c s tnh chon in ap cho chng set van cn phai
bit cp in ap cua li in.
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137

Ch ni t cua im trung tnh cua li in cn thit


k:
Cn phn bit ro ch ni t cua im trung tnh xac
nh c h s s c cham t ke. Theo tnh toan v ly thuyt
th:
li in co trung tnh trc tip ni t, h s ke
=(1 1,4).
li in co trung tnh cach in hay ni t qua cun
khang, h s ke = 1,73.
2. Ch vn hanh cua li in.
chon chng set lam vic n nh moi ch vn
hanh cua li in ma khng anh hng n iu kin lam vic
bnh thng cua no, cn phai xet n trng hp la li in co
th xay ra s c cham t khi ang vn hanh ch in ap
cc ai.
Vi yu cu khng cao th vic la chon chng set van da
va cac thng s h thng ap dung cho chng set(SiC) va (ZnO) nh
sau:
i vi cac chng set van SiC:
y la cac chng set van cng ngh cu th cn quan tm n
in ap nh mc, khng co khai nim v in ap vn hanh lin
tuc. Do vy khi chon cac chng set van loai nay s dung thng s
in ap nh mc.
Khi chon chng set th phai thoa man iu kin sau:
U mCSV k .
e

U max
3

Trong o: Umax la in ap dy ch vn hanh cc ai


cua h thng.Umax=(1,05 1,1) Umli.
UmCSV la in ap nh mc cua chng set van.
+ li trung tnh trc tip ni t:
U mCSV 1,4.

U max
= 0,808U max
3

H s ke c chon la 1,4 la ng vi ch vn hanh co


kha nng gy ra qua in ap tam thi la ln nht.

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Nu trong h thng in c thit k nhng co mt vai


im trung tnh cua may bin ap khng ni t th ke co xu hng
tin dn n tr s ke 1,4.
Nu trong h thng in c thit k ma trung tnh cua tt
ca cac may bin ap u ni t th ke = 1,05.
li trung tnh cach in:

U mCSV 1,73.

U max
= U max
3

i vi cac chng set van ZnO:


y la cac chng set van cng ngh mi, c im cua chung
la trang thai vn hanh cac phn t van oxit kim loai chu in ap
t trn no do vy khi chon phai s dung cac thng s chnh sau
tnh chon:
H s qua in ap tam thi.
in ap nh mc.
in ap vn hanh lin tuc.
Khi chon chng set cn tin hanh cac bc sau:
Bc 1: Xac nh h s qua in ap tam thi T.
H s nay co quan h vi qua in ap tam thi va in ap
vn hanh lin tuc hoc in ap nh mc tng ng la TC hoc Tr:
TC =

TOV
UC

Tr =

TOV
Ur

H s qua in ap tam thi la ham s theo thi gian t c


cho bi ng c tnh biu din mi quan h T(t). ng c tnh
nay khac nhau tuy thuc vao nha ch tao chng set co th la TC(t)
hoc Tr(t). Nh vy bit c T cn phai bit thi gian t. Thi
gian nay la thi gian tn tai qua in ap tam thi no phu thuc
vao ch ni t cua im trung tnh trong li in ma chng
set c lp t trn o. Theo qui nh hin hanh th thi gian loai
tr s c cham t li trung tnh ni t trc tip la 10
giy, li trung tnh cach in la 2gi. T y tra c tuyn
xac nh T. Chu y s dung ng c tuyn ng vi trang thai
chng set a c nap nng lng.

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139

c tuyn qua in ap tam thi T(t) cua chng set van VariGap
AZL

c tuyn qua in ap tam thi T(t) cua chng set van Varistar
AZS
Bc 2: Chon in ap cho chng set.
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Trng hp chng set cn chon co c tnh la TC(t) hoc


Tr(t) th phai tnh chon in ap theo Uc hoc Ur cua chng set tng
ng nh sau:
TOV
UC
TC
TOV = ke

hoc

Ur

TOV
Tr

U max
3

Trong o:
Umax la in ap dy ch vn hanh cc ai cua h
thng, Umax=(1,05 1,1) Umli.
UC la in ap vn hanh lin tuc cua chng set van.
Ur la in ap nh mc cua chng set van.
+ li trung tnh trc tip ni t:
H s T c tra theo ng c tnh qua in ap tam thi
thi im t =10s.
U
TOV = 1,4 max = 0,808U max
3
UC

TOV
TC

hoc

Ur

TOV
Tr

+ li trung tnh cach in:


H s T c tra theo ng c tnh qua in ap tam thi
thi im t =7200s.
U
TOV = 1,73 max = U max
3
UC

TOV
TC

hoc

Ur

TOV
Tr

T y da vao bang thng s ky thut cua chng set


chon ra chng set co in ap phu hp.
Ghi chu:
Khi co y u cac thng tin v cac iu kin v lp t, cac
iu kin v mi trng, cac iu kin v c hoc, cac iu kin
vn hanh h thng in,... ma chng set c lp t trong o
th vic chon chng set van se chi tit hn.
11.3 Khi lng th nghim chng set van:
thun tin trong vic trnh bay tai liu chung ta qui c
nh sau:
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141

CSV1:Chng set van SiC co khe h.


CSV 2:Chng set van SiC co khe h co in tr song song.
CSV 3:Chng set van ZnO khng khe h .
CSV 4:Chng set van ZnO co khe h .
Sau y la cac hang muc cn kim tra cho tng loai chng
set:
a. o in tr cach in:
Pham vi ap dung: i vi cac loai CSV1, CSV2, CSV3, CSV4.
Thit b th nghim:
Dung cu thng dung la cac Mgmet in t nh: ISOOL5003,
KYORITSU 3121.in ap o t 1000V n 2500V DC.
Phng phap o:
Phai v sinh sach se b mt s trc khi o.
i vi chng set van in ap nho hn 3KV phai dung Mgmet
co in ap 1000VDC.
i vi chng set van in ap ln hn 3KV phai dung Mgmet
co in ap 2500VDC.
i vi chng set van nhiu phn t trong 1pha phai o tng
phn t ring bit.
anh gia kt qua o:
S liu o phai so sanh vi tiu chun cho phep cua nha ch
tao, tiu chun nganh, tiu chun b cng nghip nng.
b. o dong in ro:
Pham vi ap dung: i vi cac loai CSV1, CSV2.
Thit b th nghim:
Dung cu thng dung la cac hp b th nghim cao th nh
A-70, PGK-70, cac xe cng trnh va cac tu in cao th.
Phng phap o:
Phai v sinh sach se b mt s trc khi o.
Ghi nhn nhit luc th nghim.
i vi chng set van nhiu phn t trong 1pha phai o tng
phn t ring bit.
in ap th nghim ap dung theo hng dn nha ch tao
chng set tng ng, tiu chun nganh, tiu chun b cng nghip
nng.
Nu s dung cac hp b o nh A-70, PGK-70 th
nghim cn phai mc thm tu in cao th song song vi i
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tng o va phai tr i dong in i qua tu in bng cach tin


hanh th nghim 2 phep o: phep o th nht o dong in
tng i qua i tng o va tu in, phep o th hai o dong
in i qua tu in.Trong ca hai phep o cng tc chon phai nm
v tr tng ng vi phu tai in dung.
Nu s dung cac xe cng trnh th nghim cn phai mc
thm tu in cao th song song vi i tng o tai phn t kran
cua s o.
S o:
T
ng
u

MBA thnghi
m

Chnh l
u cao th
A

KV

Tulo
c

c
s
v

S nguyn lyo dong i


n ro

anh gia kt qua o:


Kt qua o dong in dn i vi CSV2 phai qui i v nhit
chun la +200C va so sanh vi tiu chun cho phep cua nha ch
tao, tiu chun nganh, tiu chun b cng nghip nng. Cng thc
qui i nh sau:
I20 = (1,06 0,003.t)It
Trong o: It: Dong in dn o nhit t.
t: Nhit luc th nghim.
I20: Dong in dn cho phep +200C.
Nu t +200C: Ly du tr (-) trong ngoc n.
Nu t<+200C: Ly du cng (+) trong ngoc n.
c. o in ap phong tn s cng nghip:
Pham vi ap dung: i vi cac loai CSV1, CSV4.
Thit b th nghim:
Dung cu thng dung la cac hp b th nghim cao th nh
A-70, PGK-70, cac xe cng trnh.
Phng phap o:
Phai v sinh sach se b mt s trc khi o.
S dung cac hp b th nghim cao th va nng in ap cho
n khi chng set van phong in. Phep o c tin hanh nhiu
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ln va ly tr s trung bnh, khoang thi gian tin hanh cac ln o


khng nho hn 10 giy.
S o:
T
ng
u

MBA thnghi
m

KV

c
s
v

S nguyn lyo i
n ap phong t
n scng nghi
p

anh gia kt qua o:


S liu o phai so sanh vi tiu chun cho phep cua nha ch
tao, tiu chun nganh, tiu chun b cng nghip nng.
c. o in ap tham khao xoay chiu:
Pham vi ap dung: i vi cac loai CSV3.
Thit b th nghim:
Dung cu thng dung la cac hp b th nghim cao th
nh: A-70, cac xe cng trnh, thit b o dong in.
Phng phap o:
Phai v sinh sach se b mt s trc khi o.
Ghi nhn nhit luc th nghim.
Thit b o lng dong in phai c t tai ui chng set
van va chn chng set phai cach in vi t.
S dung cac hp b th nghim cao th nng in ap va
oc tr s in ap tai thi im dong in xuyn qua chng set
at n tr s dong in tham khao Iref th tr s in ap o chnh
la in ap tham khao Uref. Tr s dong in tham khao nay c
cho bi nha ch tao chng set van. Chu y rng phep o cn tin
hanh nhanh, in ap t duy tr khng qua 30 giy.
i vi chng set van nhiu phn t trong 1pha tuy theo kha
nng nng cao ap cua thit b th nghim cho phep o in ap tham
khao cua tng phn t. in ap tham khao cua chng set se bng
tng in ap tham khao cua cac phn t trong chng set o.
S o:

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T
ng
u

MBA thnghi
m

c
s
v

KV

mA

S nguyn lyo i
n ap tham khao xoay chi
u

anh gia kt qua o:


Kt qua o in ap tham khaoUref phai qui i v nhit
chun la +200C va so sanh vi tiu chun cho phep cua nha ch tao
chng set. Cng thc qui i nh sau:
Uref(+20) =K x Uref(t)
Trong o: Uref(+20): in ap tham khao 200C.
Uref(t): in ap tham khao o nhit t.
K: H s hiu chnh theo nhit .

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12 TU ONG CT TRUNG AP
12.1 Khai nim chung
Tu ong ct thng c dung ch cac t hp kh cu
in phn phi
dang mun hoc kt cu dang khi. Tuy co cung tn goi
nhng cac cp in ap khac nhau, cac tu ong ct co nhng c
thu ring v vt ly, ky thut, c th hin qua cac tiu chun qui
nh cua cac hang ch tao thit b in.
La t hp cac kh cu in ong ct va cac kh cu in phu
tr khac, nm trong tu kn, c boc kim loai dang tm (tr
trng hp cn thng gio trn noc hoc co ca kim tra). Co
loai t trong nha va loai t ngoai tri, vi in ap nh mc
n 35KV.
Cu tao chnh cua tu ong ct la cac mach in lc u
vao va u ra, cac kh cu in ong ct va cach ly, u ni, cac
thit b iu khin bao v, o lng va cac thit b phu tr kem
theo. Va co cac c im c ban sau:
Thit b ong ct, cach ly co th d dang thao ri khoi tu
cach ly, th nghim k ca trng hp tu trang thai vn hanh.
Thanh gop u vao va u ni c cach ly.
Toan b cac phn ng mang in c boc kn va phn
boc kim loai c ni t.
Co phn lin ng c kh am bao an toan khi thao lp va vn
hanh.
Li vao cua may ct co u khng gian lp t cac thit b
phu tr khac.
Cac thit b va thanh dn pha th cp c ngn cach vi
pha s cp bng cac tm ngn kim loai co ni t.
Cac thit b pha s cp nh: thanh dn, may bin in ap,
may bin dong in...u c boc kn bi cac tm kim loai co
ni t.
12.2 Phn loai may ct tu hp b
Hin nay trong h thng in c lp t kha nhiu loai tu
hp b co may

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ct cua cac hang ch tao khac nhau. d theo doi va quan


ly chung ta co th phn ra cac loai may ct c ban nh sau.
12.2.1

May ct du

May ct gm 3 tru cc lin kt c kh vi nhau vao b truyn


ng c c nh trn xe y.
Xe y co lin kt c kh va co lin ng an toan vi tu:
May ct ch co th keo ra hay y vao tu c khi v tr
ct.
Xe y co ngam tip a tip xuc vi ma tip a cua tu.
Tai v tr vn hanh va th nghim co cht ham c nh v tr
lam vic cua may ct.
Cac u dy cua mach iu khin va bao v t tu a ti
may ct qua cac gic cm.
May ct dung du cach in va dp h quang.
Cac u cc vao va ra cua may ct u co ngam ni
may ct vi thanh cai.
i vi may ct co dong nh mc ln hn 2500A, tng kha
nng mang dong in may ct co 2 cp tip im song song:
1 cp tip im dp h quang nm trong bung dp h
quang.
1 cp tip im nm ngoai goi la tip im lam vic.
Nguyn ly lam vic la: khi ong tip im dp h quang ong
trc chu tia la in khi ong, tip im lam vic ong sau. Khi
ct tip im lam vic ct trc, tip im dp h quang ct
sau chu h quang in khi ct.
Thng xuyn theo doi du cach in trong qua trnh vn hanh
nu thiu hoc en th phai b sung hoc thay th. (v lng du
trong may ct la t, nn khi may ct ong ct tng i nhiu hay
khi ct ngn mach th du se b en).
12.2.2

May ct kh SF6

Xe y co lin kt c kh va co lin ng an toan vi tu:


May ct ch co th keo ra hay y vao tu c khi v tr
ct.
Xe y co ngam tip a tip xuc vi ma tip a cua tu.
Tai v tr vn hanh va th nghim co cht ham c nh v tr
lam vic cua may ct.
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Cac u dy cua mach iu khin va bao v t tu a ti


may ct qua cac gic cm.
Cac u cc vao va ra cua may ct u co ngam ni
may ct vi thanh cai.
May ct kh SF6 la loai may ct dung kh cach in va
dp h quang. Kha nng cach in va dp h quang cua may ct
phu thuc vao mt kh SF6 trong cac tru cc.
Mi pha co mt ng h ap lc va ch th gia tr ap lc kh
SF6 trong may bng vach mau trn ng h.
Mau xanh :

Vung lam vic.

Mau vang:

Vung bao tn hiu ap lc thp.

Mau o

Vung cm may ct lam vic.

Dp h quang theo nguyn ly t iu chnh ap lc thi. Ap


lc trong bung thi do nhit h quang va chuyn ng tng
i cua xi lanh va pit tng tao thanh. Kh SF6 khng b mt trong qua
trnh dp h quang.
Mi bung dp h quang dung cho mt cp tip im, co b
loc hp thu m va cac san phm kh SF6 b h quang phn
tch. Np bung dp co gn vi a an toan bng vt co th t
(gay) ap lc do nha ch tao qui nh giai phong ap lc qua
cao trong bung dp.
May ct co tip im bao tn hiu va khoa may ct khi ap
lc kh SF6 thp.
May ct gm 3 tru cc lin kt c kh vi nhau vao b truyn
ng c c nh trn xe y hoc may ct co banh xe trc
trn ray c lp trong tu (mun a ra ngoai phai co xe do nha ch
tao cung cp).
12.2.3

May ct chn khng

May ct gm 3 tru cc lin kt c kh vi nhau vao b truyn


ng c c nh trn xe y.
Xe y co lin kt c kh va co lin ng an toan vi tu:
May ct ch co th keo ra hay y vao tu c khi v tr
ct.
Xe y co ngam tip a tip xuc vi ma tip a cua tu.
Tai v tr vn hanh va th nghim co cht ham c nh v tr
lam vic cua may ct.
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Cac u dy cua mach iu khin va bao v t tu a ti


may ct qua cac gic cm.
Cac u cc vao va ra cua may ct u co ngam ni
may ct vi thanh cai.
May ct chn khng c bit thun li s dung trong cac
mang li ma co tn s ong ct cao trong pham vi dong lam vic
nao o a c lng trc. Loai may ct chn khng thch hp
cho vic t ng ong lp lai, co tin cy cao va tui tho lu
dai.
Khng phai bao dng bung chn khng. Tui tho bung ct
chn khng c xac nh bi gii han dong tng do nha ch tao
thit k.
May ct chn khng co tip im t trong bung chn khng
(ap lc bung chn khng khoang 10-11bar) tao nn hanh trnh tip
im ngn va hi phuc bn cach in nhanh.
H quang b dp tt vi mt trong cac gia tr zer t nhin
cua dong in. Thi gian phong h quang la ngn iu nay co li
cho tui tho tip im (t n mon tip im do in ap h quang
tng i nho).
12.3 B truyn ng
12.3.1

B truyn ng in t

Khi ong dung nng lng in t cua cun ong. Vi cac b


truyn ng hin nay dong ong khoang 100A in ap 220Vdc.
Khi ct dung nng lng lo xo ct c tch nng khi ong. Luc
nay nng lng cung cp cho cun ct la nho v ch cn giai phong
ly ct.
12.3.2

B truyn ng lo xo

Phai tch nng lo xo ong trc khi thc hin chu trnh ong
may ct.
Khi ong dung nng lng lo xo, khi o nam chm in ong ch
cn mt nng lng nho giai phong ly ong gi lo xo v tr
tch nng.
Khi ct dung nng lng lo xo ct c tch nng khi ong may
ct.
Nu cung cp u ngun cho may ct th sau khi thc hin chu
trnh ong xong may ct t ng tch nng lo xo ong.
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12.4 An toan khi lam vic vi tu hp b


Tai san va thit b h hong co th sa cha, thay th c,
nhng tnh mang con ngi la iu thing ling khng th n bu
c. am bao an toan trong qua trnh th nghim noi chung va
th nghim may ct tu hp b noi ring, trong phn nay se nu ln
mt s lu y khi th nghim may ct tu hp b.
Ngoai vic phai tun thu cac qui nh an toan trong Qui Trnh Ky
Thut An Toan in cua Tng Cng Ty in Lc vit Nam, chung ta
cung cn phai lu y thm mt s vn .
Moi cng vic th nghim hiu chnh ch c tin hanh khi
a a may ct ra khoi tu. (ra khoi v tr th nghim)
Trc khi a may ct ra khoi tu phai kim tra chc chn rng
may ct v tr ct, cac khoa lin ng c kh, cht nh v phai
c giai tr.
Xe y a may ct ra ngoai phai c t vao ung v
tr, cac khoa lin ng c kh cua xe phai c thao tac theo ung
hng dn va banh xe phai khoa.
Khi ong may ct khng c ng gn tip im lam vic.
Nghim cm treo ln may ct, ng trn cac cc va thanh dn
in.
Khi th nghim cao th may ct phai ni t xe y va vo
may ct.
Trc khi a may ct vao tu phai kim tra cac chi tit cua
may ct khng co cac vt dn in hoc co lng t bam vao cac chi
tit nh: s, thanh cach in, bnh tru cach in thanh bung dp
h quang, vach ngn gia cac pha...
Khi a may ct vao tu phai kim tra va am bao may ct v
tr ct.
Trong qua trnh a may ct vao tu cn phai chu y kim tra
cac ngam tip t cua may ct va cua tu phai n khp va tip xuc
tt vi nhau.
Khi may ct a vao n v tr th nghim ta cn phai khoa cac
cht nh v tr trc khi a xe y ra ngoai.
May ct v tr th nghim, tin hanh thao tac may ct:
ong, ct may ct bng tay 2 - 3 ln.
ong, ct may ct bng khoa iu khin 2 - 3 ln.
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Phai am bao chc chn rng dao tip a a c ong va


khoa thao tac, ng thi xac nh cn thn tu a c ct trc
khi m np sau cua tu hp b. (khi tu ang vn hanh)
Lun cn thn khi th nghim dao ct phu tai, tranh cham vao
ly tac ng cua cu ch. (nu cham vao se lam dao ct m ra gy
nguy him)
Chu y lp cu ch ng cho dao ct phu tai phai ung theo qui
nh cua nha ch tao.
12.5 Th nghim thit b ong ct tu hp b
12.5.1

May ct du

Hang muc th nghim lp mi


Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai:
Tu hp b a c lp ung va ni tip a theo ban ve
thit k.
Cac thn may ct, ch th mc du, thanh truyn ng, kt
cu c kh i kem, ngam tip a.
Kim tra mach nh th:
Kim tra hoat ng tip im phu cua may ct co lam vic
ung nh thit k cua nha ch tao.
Kim tra s hoat ng cua mach nh th theo ung chc
nng a thit k nha ch tao.
Tin hanh o in tr cach in mach nh th phat hin
cac h hong cach in cua cap nh th, cun dy ong ct, khi
ng t iu khin (s dung Mgm k co in ap t 500V n
1000V tuy thuc vao quy nh cua nha ch tao).
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Kim tra du trong u cac pha may ct. (co vach ch th mc
du)
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct:
kim tra cac cun dy co b chp vong hay khng.
Tch nng lo xo bng tay:
Kim tra cac b phn cua c cu truyn ng tch nng lo xo
xem co h hong hay co truc trc phn c kh.
Thao tac ong, ct may ct bng tay:

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Kim tra cac chi tit c kh cua b truyn ng may ct, cac
ly khoa cun dy ong ct cung nh c cu truyn ng bng
tay.
o thi gian tch nng lo xo:
Nhm kim tra s hoat ng bnh thng cua c cu tch
nng lo xo.
o dong in mt tch nng:
Kim tra mt tch nng co b qua tai trong sut qua trnh lam
vic.
o in tr cach in chnh cua may ct:
Kim tra phat hin cac h hong cach in chnh cua thit
b.
o thi gian ong, ct:
Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.
o dong in cun ong, ct.
Nhm kim tra s hoat ng cua b truyn ng, cac
cun dy ong ct, s lp t ung cua may ct cung nh hanh
trnh cua may.
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct, khng ng thi.
(nu cn thit)
o tc ong, ct cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct.
trong trng hp s c mt vai bnh cqui cua ngun
iu khin hay in ap li b giam thp th may ct vn lam
vic c.
o in tr tip xuc Tip im chnh: (Dong o ti thiu phai
bng 100A)
M van xa du kim tra xem du co nc hoc mui than.
Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th.
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip i vi cach
in chnh cua may ct:
Khi may ct m:
(A1 + B1 + C1) - (A2 + B2 + C2 + Vo + Tip a)
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Khi may ct ong:


B - (A + C + Vo + Tip a).

(A + C) - (B + Vo + Tip a).

Hang muc th cao th thit b nhm kim tra ch


nng n nht cach in chnh chu ng c ma tnh cht cach
in khng b pha hoai.
Kim tra lin ng in, c kh va thao tac may ct cac v
tr th nghim va v tr vn hanh.
Hang muc th nghim nh ky
Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai: (hang nm)
Cac thn may ct, ch th mc du, thanh truyn ng, kt
cu c kh i kem, ngam tip a.
Kim tra mach nh th (3 nm): lam nh th nghim lp mi
Kim tra du trong u cac pha may ct.(vach ch th mc
du) (hang nm)
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct. (3 nm)
o thi gian tch nng lo xo. (hang nm)
o dong in mt tch nng. (3 nm)
o in tr cach in chnh cua may ct. (hang nm)
o thi gian ong, ct: (2 nm)
Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.
o dong in cun ong, ct.
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct, khng ng thi.
(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.(nu
cn thit)
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct. (2
nm)
trong trng hp s c mt vai bnh cqui cua ngun
iu khin hay in ap li b giam thp th may ct vn lam
vic c.
o in tr tip xuc: (Dong o ti thiu phai bng 100A)
(hang nm)
Tip im chnh.
M van xa du kim tra xem du co nc hoc mui than.
(hang nm)
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Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th. (3


nm)
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip i vi cach in
chnh cua may ct (3 nm): thc hin nh th nghim lp mi
Kim tra lin ng in, c kh va thao tac may ct cac v
tr th nghim.
12.5.2

May ct kh SF6

12.5.2.1 Hang muc th nghim lp mi


Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai:
Tu hp b a c lp ung va ni tip a theo ban ve
thit k.
Cac thn may ct, ch th ap lc kh SF6, thanh truyn ng,
kt cu c kh i kem, ngam tip a.
Kim tra mach nh th:
Kim tra hoat ng tip im phu cua may ct co lam vic
ung nh thit k cua nha ch tao.
Kim tra s hoat ng cua mach nh th theo ung chc
nng a thit k nha ch tao.
Tin hanh o in tr cach in mach nh th phat hin
cac h hong cach in cua cap nh th, cun dy ong ct, khi
ng t iu khin (s dung Mgm k co in ap t 500V n
1000V tuy thuc vao quy nh cua nha ch tao).
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Kim tra ap lc kh SF6 trong cac pha may ct.(kim ch vung
mau xanh)
Kim tra ro r kh SF6.
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct:
kim tra cac cun dy co b chp vong hay khng.
Tch nng lo xo bng tay:
Kim tra cac b phn cua c cu truyn ng tch nng lo xo
xem co h hong hay co truc trc phn c kh.
Thao tac ong, ct may ct bng tay:

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Kim tra cac chi tit c kh cua b truyn ng may ct, cac
ly khoa cun dy ong ct cung nh c cu truyn ng bng
tay.
o thi gian tch nng lo xo:
Nhm kim tra s hoat ng bnh thng cua c cu tch
nng lo xo.
o dong in mt tch nng:
Kim tra mt tch nng co b qua tai trong sut qua trnh lam vic.
o in tr cach in chnh cua may ct:
Kim tra phat hin cac h hong cach in chnh cua thit
b.
o thi gian ong, ct:
Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.
o dong in cun ong, ct.
Nhm kim tra s hoat ng cua b truyn ng, cac
cun dy ong ct, s lp t ung cua may ct cung nh hanh
trnh cua may.
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct, khng ng thi.
(nu cn thit)
o tc ong, ct cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct.
trong trng hp s c mt vai bnh cqui cua ngun
iu khin hay in ap li b giam thp th may ct vn lam
vic c.
o in tr tip xuc: (Dong o ti thiu phai bng 100A)
Tip im chnh.
Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th.
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip i vi cach
in chnh cua may ct:
Khi may ct m:
(A1 + B1 + C1) - (A2 + B2 + C2 + Vo + Tip a)
Khi may ct ong:
B - (A + C + Vo + Tip a).
(A + C) - (B + Vo + Tip a).
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Hang muc th cao th thit b nhm kim tra ch


nng n nht cach in chnh chu ng c ma tnh cht cach
in khng b pha hoai.
Kim tra lin ng in, c kh va thao tac may ct cac v tr
th nghim va v tr vn hanh.
12.5.2.2 Hang muc th nghim nh ky
Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai: (hang nm)
Cac thn may ct, ch th ap lc kh SF6, thanh truyn ng,
kt cu c kh i kem, ngam tip a.
Kim tra mach nh th (3 nm): thc hin ging nh khi th
nghim lp mi
Kim tra ap lc kh SF6 trong cac pha may ct. (hang nm)
Kim tra ro r kh SF6. (hang nm)
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct. (3 nm)
o thi gian tch nng lo xo. (hang nm)
o dong in mt tch nng. (3 nm)
o in tr cach in chnh cua may ct: (hang nm)
Kim tra phat hin cac h hong cach in chnh cua thit
b.
o thi gian ong, ct: (2 nm)
Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.
o dong in cun ong, ct.
Nhm kim tra s hoat ng cua b truyn ng, cac
cun dy ong ct, s lp t ung cua may ct cung nh hanh
trnh cua may.
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct, khng ng thi.
(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.(nu
cn thit)
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct.
o in tr tip xuc: (Dong o ti thiu phai bng 100A)
(hang nm)
Tip im chnh.
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Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th. (3


nm)
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip i vi cach in
chnh cua may ct (3 nm): thc hin ging nh khi th nghim lp
mi.
Kim tra lin ng in, c kh va thao tac may ct cac v
tr th nghim.
12.5.3

May ct chn khng

12.5.3.1 Hang muc th nghim lp mi


Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai:
Tu hp b a c lp ung va ni tip a theo ban ve
thit k.
Cac thn may ct, thanh truyn ng, kt cu c kh i kem,
ngam tip a.
Kim tra mach nh th:
Kim tra hoat ng tip im phu cua may ct co lam vic
ung nh thit k cua nha ch tao.
Kim tra s hoat ng cua mach nh th theo ung chc
nng a thit k nha ch tao.
Tin hanh o in tr cach in mach nh th phat hin
cac h hong cach in cua cap nh th, cun dy ong ct, khi
ng t iu khin (s dung Mgm k co in ap t 500V n
1000V tuy thuc vao quy nh cua nha ch tao).
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct:
kim tra cac cun dy co b chp vong hay khng.
Tch nng lo xo bng tay:
Kim tra cac b phn cua c cu truyn ng tch nng lo xo
xem co h hong hay co truc trc phn c kh.
Thao tac ong, ct may ct bng tay:
Kim tra cac chi tit c kh cua b truyn ng may ct, cac
ly khoa cun dy ong ct cung nh c cu truyn ng bng
tay.
o thi gian tch nng lo xo:
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Nhm kim tra s hoat ng bnh thng cua c cu tch


nng lo xo.
o dong in mt tch nng:
Kim tra mt tch nng co b qua tai trong sut qua trnh lam
vic.
o in tr cach in chnh cua may ct:
Kim tra phat hin cac h hong cach in chnh cua thit
b.
o thi gian ong, ct:
Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.
o dong in cun ong, ct.
Nhm kim tra s hoat ng cua b truyn ng, cac
cun dy ong ct, s lp t ung cua may ct cung nh hanh
trnh cua may.
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct, khng ng thi.
(nu cn thit)
o tc ong, ct cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct.
trong trng hp s c mt vai bnh cqui cua ngun
iu khin hay in ap li b giam thp th may ct vn lam
vic c.
o in tr tip xuc: (Dong o ti thiu phai bng 100A)
Tip im chnh.
Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th.
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip i vi cach in
chnh cua may ct:
Khi may ct m:
(A1 + B1 + C1) - (A2 + B2 + C2 + Vo + Tip a)
Khi may ct ong:
B - (A + C + Vo + Tip a).
(A + C) - (B + Vo + Tip a).
Kim tra lin ng in, c kh va thao tac may ct cac v tr
th nghim va v tr vn hanh.
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

12.5.3.2 Hang muc th nghim nh ky


Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai: (hang nm)
Cac thn may ct, thanh truyn ng, kt cu c kh i kem,
ngam tip a.
Kim tra mach nh th (3 nm): thc hin ging nh khi th
nghim lp mi
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct. (3 nm)
o thi gian tch nng lo xo. (hang nm)
o dong in mt tch nng. (3 nm)
o in tr cach in chnh cua may ct. (hang nm)
o thi gian ong, ct: (2 nm)
Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.
o dong in cun ong, ct.
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct, khng ng thi.
(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.(nu
cn thit)
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct.
trong trng hp s c mt vai bnh cqui cua ngun
iu khin hay in ap li b giam thp th may ct vn lam
vic c.
o in tr tip xuc: (Dong o ti thiu phai bng 100A)
(hang nm)
Tip im chnh.
Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th. (3
nm)
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip i vi cach in
chnh cua may ct (3 nm): thc hin ging nh khi th nghim lp
mi
Kim tra lin ng in, c kh va thao tac may ct cac v
tr th nghim.
Mt s hnh anh may ct

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Hnh 12-1: May ct chn khng tu hp b HD4 - ABB

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Hnh 12-2: Cac dang khac nhau cua may ct HD4, vi cac ngam ni
vao thanh cai. Cn a may ct vao ra v tr vn hanh, th nghim
va tch nng may ct

Hnh 12-3: Cn a may ct vao ra v tr vn hanh, th nghim va


tch nng may ctLVB

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161

Hnh 12-4: C cu lin kt gia 3 pha va thanh truyn ng chnh


cua pha may ct

S NGUYN LY MAY CT 3AH - SIEMENS

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Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Nm 2004

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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

13 BAO DNG VA TH NGHIM CAP


13.1 Cu tao cap:
Cap ong vai tro rt quan trong trong vic truyn dn nng
lng va tn hiu in t. Cac c tnh v in, c ly va mi
trng la yu t chu yu trong vic la chon va s dung cap
trong truyn tai va phn phi in. Cht lng cua cac u ni
cap, cng tac u ni cap cn phai xem xet va thc hin thn
trong v chung quyt nh n cht lng vn hanh, tui tho cua
h thng cap.
Cap thng gm ba b phn chnh la loi, lp cach in va
iu chnh in trng va cui cung la lp bao v bn ngoai.
Loi dn in cua cap thng lam bng vt liu ng hay
nhm. Cac loi dn in thng c tao thanh cac tao dy ng
hay nhm bn lai.
Cach in thng dung la XLPE co c tnh cach in rt tt,
chu m va cac tac nhn hoa hoc. Nhit nong chay thp 900C,
nhit chu ng khi ngn mach 2500C.
Cac lp man ban dn boc loi dy dn va boc lp cach in co
muc ch san u in trng trong cap, tranh c cac phong
in cuc b trong cap, nng cao tin cy va tui tho cua cap.
Cap co lp man thng bng cac bng la ng mong qun
quanh lp cach in va lp ban dn tao nn lp man lin tuc doc
chiu dai cua cap. Lp man nay nhm cac muc ch sau:
-

Ngn nga phong in vng quang.

Gii han trng in mi bn trong cap.

Giam in ap cam ng.

Phn b in ap u.

Lp vo cap bao v c hoc co th la vo ch, vo boc thep, vo


nhm, hay cac vo cht deo nh PVC, PE, Neo
13.2 Khi lng va hang muc th nghim th nghim cap
lc cao ap
13.2.1

Cap cach in bng giy tm du, cap cach in

bng nha tng hp PVC, cap cach in bng cao su.


Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai.
o in tr cach in.
Th nghim cach in cap bng chnh lu tng cao.
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165

Xac nh tnh nguyn cua loi cap va xac nh pha tuyn cap.
o in tr mt chiu loi cap.
Th cao ap cach in vo boc.
Kim tra tnh trang u t cua vo cap.
13.2.2

Cap cach in bng nha tng hp.

Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai.


o in tr cach in.
Th nghim cach in cap bng in ap xoay chiu tng cao
tn s cng nghip.
Xac nh tnh nguyn cua loi cap va xac nh pha tuyn cap.
o in tr mt chiu loi cap.
o in dung va tn hao Tg cua cach in cap.
Th cao ap mt chiu cach in vo boc bng nha tng
hp.
Kim tra tnh trang u t cua vo cap.
13.3 Hng dn th nghim cao ap mt chiu cap lc.
13.3.1

Y ngha cua th nghim cao ap mt chiu i vi

cach in cua cap lc.


Thng qua s bin i cua dong in ro qua cach in theo
thi gian th nghim, co th anh gia c mc suy giam cht
lng cua vt liu cach in cua cap.
13.3.2

Cac lu y v an toan trong qua trnh th nghim

Cac bc thc hin va s lng nhn vin tham gia ap ng


y u qui nh cua qui trnh ky thut an toan cua Tng cng ty in
lc Vit Nam.
Ngi th nghim kim tra i tng c th nghim a
c ct in, cach ly hoan toan vi cac ngun in ap, vo cua
cap phai c ni t.
Khu vc th nghim phai co rao chn, ngi khng co nhim
vu khng c vao va lun co ngi trng coi o, Nu dung dy
cng thay rao chn th trn dy phai treo bin Dng lai! Co in
nguy him cht ngi. Nu cac dy dn in i qua hanh lang, cu
thang, san nha, th phai co ngi ng gac cac v tr cn thit.

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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Trc khi a in vao th, tt ca cac nhn vin trong n v


cng tac phai rut ra v tr an toan theo s ch dn cua ngi ch
huy trc tip.
Trc khi ong in ngi ch huy trc tip phai t mnh
kim tra mach u ni dy th nghim va cac bin phap an toan.
Yu cu ca hai u oan cap phai treo bin Cm ong in!
Co ngi ang lam vic. Nu u cap bn kia nm trong nha ma ni
co ngi ang lam vic khac th trong thi gian th nghim phai c
ngi ng gac ng thi rao lai va treo bin bao Dng lai! Co
in nguy him cht ngi".
Khi s dung cac thit b th nghim phai tun thu cht che qui
trnh hng dn s dung thit b va Qui trnh ky thut an toan
in (Tng cng ty in lc Vit Nam).
Ni t tam thi cac u cc cua cap c th nghim, sau
o tach cac u cc cua cap ni vao h thng in.
13.4 Cng tac chun b
A/ Thit b th nghim:
La chon thit b th nghim phu hp vi in ap th
nghim a chon.
Mt s thit b thng dung: A-70,A-70, PGK70 (PGK150), Xe
cng trnh kiu 35-02.
Cac thit b th in ap cao co kem theo thit b o dong in
mt chiu (A-70, PGK-70, Xe cng trnh kiu 35-02), o nhit
va m mi trng (nhit k - m k) phai c hiu chun
at yu cu ky thut va con hiu lc v thi gian hiu chun.
B/ i tng th nghim:
i vi th nghim mi yu cu Nha cp hang cung cp bin
ban th nghim xut xng, cac thng s ky thut va tiu lin quan.
Trong th nghim nh ky yu cu co BBTN ln kim tra trc o.
i vi th nghim kim tra cht lng cap trc khi
lp t
i vi cap con nguyn cun, cn tach cac u cap ra khoi vo
boc bao v, bao am khoang cach khng phong in theo b
mt va phong in theo khoang cach gia cac pha gia hai u si
cap.
i vi th nghim nghim thu a vao vn hanh (th
nghim lp mi)
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167

Yu cu cac n v lp t tin hanh, lp t si cap vao v


tr vn hanh, lam cac u cap xong, co bin ban nghim thu lp
t, mi tin hanh th nghim kim tra.
i th nghim nh ky:
- Thao cap cn th khoi cac thit b va li, am bao cap
khng co in, lu y cac bin phap ky tht an toan.
C/ H s tai liu:
- Chun b sn bang ghi chep co cac ni dung chu yu sau:
Thng s nhit , m mi trng, nhit cua i tng
th, Dong in ro ng vi tng cp in ap th nghim, thi
gian, a im, ho va tn nhn vin th nghim.
- Tiu chun th nghim
- Qui trnh an toan, qui trnh hng dn s dung cac thit b.
13.5 Phng phap th nghim
Th nghim cap bng in ap mt chiu c tin hanh
bit mc xung cp cach in cua cap theo thi gian, th
nghim nghim thu sau khi lp t, kim tra cac hp u ni
va th nghim sa cha c bit.
Thng thng cac th nghim bao dng c tin hanh vi
in ap th nghim bng 60% in ap th nghim xut xng.
Cac th nghim in ap mt chiu trn cap nhm o in tr
cach in va th nghim cao ap mt chiu.
Cac th nghim nay co th c thc hin nh th nghim
dong in ro, th nghim dong ro theo thi gian hoc th nghim
qua in ap.
u tin cn th nghim o in tr cach in, nu cach
in tt tin hanh th nghim qua in ap mt chiu, sau o lai
th nghim o in tr cach in am bao cap khng b h
hong trong qua trnh th nghim qua in ap mt chiu.
13.5.1

Th nghim o in tr cach in

in tr cach in c o bng mgm k xach tay. o la


phng phap o khng pha hong mu kim tra nhim m,
bui, cacbon cua cach in cap. Phng phap o in tr cach in
khng gy ra ng sut in trn cach in cap hoc cac im trn
cap co cach in yu.
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Trnh t o in tr cach in cua cap bng mgm k nh


sau:
Thao cap cn th khoi cac thit b va li, am bao cap khng
co in.
Phong tt ca in tch trong cap xung t trc va sau khi
th nghim.
Ni u dy mgm k vi loi cap cn th.
Ni t tt ca cac loi khac cung vi vo u chung vi u ni
t cua thit b th nghim.
o gia tr in tr cach in ln lt gia cac pha.
u man chn (G) cua mgm k c s dung tranh anh
hng cua dong in ro b mt qua cach in va u cui cap
hoc ca hai u cap hoc dong ro xung t.
Phai tin hanh o in tr cach in trong cac khoang thi gian
bng nhau va ghi lai nhm muc ch so sanh. Cn lu y rng so
sanh cac gia tr in tr cach in phai c quy v nhit
chun v du 15,6oC (600F). anh gia tnh trang xung cp cua in
tr cach in mc du gia tr o cao hn gia tr cc tiu cho phep.
Cap co in tr cach in thay i rt nhiu, do s dung
nhiu loai vt liu cach in, in ap nh mc hoc chiu day
cach in, chiu dai cua mach o. Hn na mach cap co kch thc
ln co in tr phu thuc vao nhit , u cap va dy dn cung
anh hng ti gia tr th nghim mc du a c lau sach hoc
co man chn.
Theo quy chun IEEE 690 - 1984 va 422-1986, gii han cua in
tr cach in nghim thu tai ch theo cng thc:
IR = 1000 (kU-10)/L

(1-2)

L:la chiu dai cap tnh bng feet.


U: in ap nh mc cua cap in, kV.
Th nghim cao ap mt chiu
Trc y th nghim nay c s dung rng rai
nghim thu va bao dng cap. Cac nghin cu v h hong cap gn
y cho thy th nghim qua in ap mt chiu co th gy h
hong mt s cap cach in nh polytylen lin kt ngang. Th
nghim nay cung con c s dung xac nh s suy giam
cach in cap va cung dung anh thung h hong mi xut hin
Noi chung khng nn s dung th nghim nay anh thung
ch h hong mi xut hin mc du mt s ky s th nghim
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169

vn s dung. Do vy trc va sau khi th nghim cao ap mt


chiu co th phat hin trc ch cap bt u h hong. Ch h
hong cap co th c phat hin bng s thay i t ngt cua
dong in ro trc khi cach in b h hong, khi o th nghim co
th dng lai. Gia tr in ap th nghim da trn in ap th
nghim xut xng tuy theo loai cap, chiu day cach in, kch
thc loi, cu tao cua cap va cp in ap s dung. Gia tr in
ap th nghim mt chiu ng vi in ap xoay chiu th nghim
xut xng c quy nh va thng c biu th theo ty s
in ap mt chiu theo in ap xoay chiu i vi mi h thng
cach in. Ty s nay c ky hiu bng K khi nhn vi 0,8 in ap
th nghim nghim thu hoc 0,6 in ap bao dng se c in
ap th nghim mt chiu dung cho th nghim cao ap. Bang h
s chuyn i i vi th nghim cao ap c cho trong bang 131.
Bang13-1. H s chuyn i dung cho th nghim cao ap mt
chiu
Kiu cach in
Cap ch cach in giy
tm
Phu vecni
Cao su chu zn
Polytylen
PVC
Cao su khng chu zn

H s chuyn i
in ap th
in ap th
nghim nghim

nghim bao dng

thu (0,8 x K)

(0,6 x K)

2,4

1,92

1,44

2,0

1,60

1,20

3,0
3,0
2,2
2,2

2,40
2,40
1,76
1,76

1,80
1,80
1,32
1,32

3. Th nghim dong in ro theo thi gian

Nm 2004
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170

Khi

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

at

ti

in

ap

th

nghim cui cung co th ct


in ap t nht 5 phut va co
th ve th dong in ro
theo thi gian t gia tr ban
u tng i ln n gia tr
xac lp. i vi cap tt
th dong in ro se giam lin
tuc va at ti gia tr xac lp
ma khng co gia tr tng nao
trong qua trnh th nghim.
th dong in ro theo thi
gian cho trn hnh 13-1.
Hnh 13-1. Dong in ro theo thi
gian
4. Th nghim qua in ap
Trong th nghim nay in ap c nng dn ti gia tr quy
nh. Tc tng in ap c duy tr dong in ro at n
trang thai xac lp khi in ap at ti gia tr th nghim cui
cung. Thng thng cn t 1 n 15 phut at ti in ap th
nghim cui. in ap nay co th c duy tr trong 5 phut, nu
dong in ro khng tng t ngt th th nghim at kt qua tt.
Th nghim nay khng cho cac d liu phn tch tnh trang cap
nhng cung cung cp u thng tin v cng trng anh thung.
Kiu th nghim nay thng c thc hin sau khi lp t va
sa cha cap, khi o ch chng nhn cap c kim tra ma khng
b anh thung.
13.5.2

Tin hanh th nghim cao th mt chiu tng cao

Trnh t thc hin


Tin hanh o va ly s liu th nghim
Sau khi thc hin y u theo muc a nu trn.
Nhn vin th nghim tin hanh theo cac bc sau:
1. o in tr cach in
Sau khi gia tr o in tr cach in at yu cu theo bang 13.42, (Yu cu qui i nhit tai thi im o v nhit theo
bang tiu chun). Nhn vin th nghim tin hanh bc tip theo.
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171

2. Th nghim cao ap mt chiu.


Chun b s th nghim cao ap mt chiu
La chon in ap th nghim, phu hp vi dang th nghim
va quy nh cua nganh in i vi tng i tng thit b c
th nghim (xem phn tiu chun th nghim).
Ghi chu:
Khi cha bit chnh xac mc in ap th nghim i vi thit b
th nn tham khao t vn cua nha ch tao.Nu khng co thng tin
th chon in ap th nghim mt chiu da trn in ap nh
mc xoay chiu tranh h hong h thng cach in.

Hnh 13-2: S nguyn ly th nghim Cao th mt chiu


May bi
n ap
thnghi
m

i t

ng
th
nghi
m

CX

Ngu
n
220VAC
f=50Hz

KV

mA

Trnh t th nghim nh sau:


Cap th phai c ct in, cach ly ca hai u va ni t
phong ht in tch d trong cap. Ct tt ca may ct, cu dao,
may bin in ap, chng set, cu ch, cu dao phu tai va cac cu
ni. Nu khng th ct tt ca thit b th in ap th nghim
khng c vt qua gia tr in ap cua thit b ni vi cap.
in ap th nghim mt chiu c ni gia pha va t
mi loi cap va cac loi khac, vo, lp ao kim loai c ni vi t
hoc dy bao v, man chn va vo kim loai c ni t.
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

am bao thit b th nghim cao ap v tr tt va m khoa


(ON, OFF), a in ap iu khin v khng trc khi bt u th
nghim.
Ni t an toan cho thit b th nghim cao ap vi u ni
t chc chn, am bao ch ni tt. Khng bao gi c thao tac
th nghim cao ap mt chiu ma khng c ni t chc chn.
Cung vy cn ni vo cap va u ni t cua thit b th
nghim.
Ni t cac loi khac khng th nghim vi u ni t cua
thit b th nghim.
Ni mt u ra cao th ti pha cua cap th nghim va am
bao ni chc chn.
Cap dung ni thit b cao ap vi cap th phai ngn va ni
trc tip trn sut chiu dai cua no khng b cham t va bao
am khoang cach.
By gi thit b c ni vao u 220V. iu quan trong la
ngun xoay chiu co th iu chnh c bi v in ap ra mt
chiu cua thit b th nghim phu thuc vao in ap vao xoay
chiu. Khoang in ap th nghim c chon trc khi th. Luc
nay co th ong ngun va co th bt u th nghim.
Tao ngn mach nhn tao tai u ra cao th cua thit b th
kim tra hoat ng cua h thng bao v cua thit b th
nghim, nu h thng lam vic tt th mi tin hanh cac bc
tip theo.
Bt chuyn mach chon in ap th nghim trn thit b o
v v tr in ap thch hp.
Bt chuyn mach cp ngun th nghim trn thit b o v
v tr ON.
Tng dn in ap th n in ap a la chon. Tc tng
in ap 2.5KV/giy.
Lu y: Tc tng in ap co th chm hn, c bit
i vi cac i tng th co in dung ln v du cac cap
co in dung ln tranh h hong thit b th nghim.
Ghi nhn gia tr dong in ro thi im 60 giy sau khi in
ap th at n gia tr a la chon. Sau khi nng in ap th n
in ap th tiu chun duy tr ung thi gian a qui nh, theo doi
s bin thin dong ro.
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173

i vi cac si cap cn kim chng lai tr s in tr cach


in: ghi nhn cac gia tr dong in ro cac thi im 15 giy, 60
giy sau khi in ap th at n gia tr a la chon xac nh
in tr cach in va h s hp thu.
Khi gia tr o khng n nh th tam thi ngng o, u tt cac
u cc cap va u t t nht trong 5 phut xa hoan toan cac
in tch d, tm nguyn nhn.
Sau khi kt thuc th nghim, quay khoa chuyn mach cua thit
b th nghim v v tr OFF. Cho phep cap va c th phong
in qua mach phong cua thit b th nghim hoc qua ni t
bn ngoai. Khng s vao cap cho n khi a phong in ht.
Tin hanh kim tra lai gia tr in tr cach in theo cac bc
a thc hin trc
Sau khi thc hin xong tt ca cac phep o trn mt i tng
thit b, NTN cn phai v sinh thit b o, don dep va hoan tra s
v ung s vn hanh nh a nhn ban u trang thai nh
khi a nhn ban u.
13.5.3

Tiu chun ap dung va anh gia kt qua o

Th nghim cao th mt chiu

Tiu chun ap dung: Tuy thuc vao cp in ap nh


mc va vn hanh ta ap dung cac tiu chun sau:
Theo Tiu chun Nghanh Khi lng va Tiu chun Th nghim
nghim thu ban giao cac Thit b in B Cng nghip ban hanh nm
1987
in ap th nghm (kV)
Tth
Tiu
Loai cap
cp in ap lam vic (kV) (phut
chun
3
6
10
15
20
35
)
Cach in giy
18
36
60
100 175
10
Cach in cao su ma
Nganh
hiu: ,,,
6
12
5
-1987
,
Nha tng hp
15
10
B
18
36
60
100 175
10
-1965
TCVN
Cach in rn
15,6 26,4 36,0 52,8 72 108
05
5935PVC/A, PVC/B, PE, EPR,
1995;
XLPE
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

IEC 5021983
anh gia kt qua th nghim:
Phep th cao th mt chiu c coi la at tiu chun
Khng b phong in choc thung hoc pha huy, phong in
thoang qua va s nhay vot hoc tng cua dong in ro trong qua
trnh th nghim.
Tr s dong ro cac pha trn mt si cap khng vt qua 2
ln.
Theo Qui Pham Khi lng va Tiu chun Th nghim Thit b
in B Cng nghip ban hanh nm 1965, trong th nghim nh ky
i vi cap dai khng qua 2000-3000m, dong in ro luc th in
ap th nh mc:
Cap 10 kV va nho hn yu cu dong ro khng qua 500 A
Cap 15 kV n 35 kV yu cu dong ro khng qua 800 A
Gia tr in tr cach in trc va sau khi th nghim khng
suy giam.

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Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

175

14 MAY CT CAO AP
14.1 Khai nim chung
May ct cao ap la c cu ong m c kh co kha nng ong,
dn lin tuc va ct dong in trong iu kin bnh thng va ca
trong thi gian gii han khi xay ra iu kin bt thng trong mach,
v du nh ngn mach. May ct c s dung ong m
ng dy trn khng, cac nhanh cap, may bin ap, cun khang in
va tu in. Chung cung c s dung cho thanh gop va ng
vong trong tram nhiu thanh gop. Ngoai ra may ct cung c thit
k t bit dung cho cho cac nhim vu t bit.
Cu truc c ban cua may ct cao ap gm nhng b phn
chnh sau: c cu tac ng, s cach in, bung ngt, tu in,
in tr. May ct cao ap c ch tao theo nguyn ly muun. S
lng bung ngt tng theo in ap va kha nng ct.
14.2 Phn loai may ct cao ap
Hin nay trong h thng in c lp t kha nhiu loai
may ct, vi nhiu hang ch tao khac nhau. d theo doi va
quan ly chung ta co th phn ra cac loai may ct c ban nh sau.
14.2.1

May ct du

May ct dung du cach in va dp h quang.


Mi pha co 1 hay nhiu khoang ct (hin nay ti a co 4 khoang
ct).
mi bung dp h quang u co np hoc van an toan.
i vi may ct in ap cao ap va loai t du th cach in
c tng cng mi tru cc bng kh Nit vi ap lc cao.
i vi may ct nhiu du, co s u vao va mi pha nm
mi thung du ring re th mi s u vao u co gn kem
theo may bin dong kiu lng. Pha s cp la thanh dn in cua
may ct. Cac u ra nh th cua may bin dong c a ra
ngoai.
14.2.2

May ct kh SF6

May ct kh SF6 la loai may ct dung kh cach in va


dp h quang. Kha nng cach in va dp h quang cua may ct
phu thuc vao mt kh SF6 trong cac tru cc.
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Mi pha co 1 hay nhiu khoang ct (hin nay ti a co 4 khoang


ct).
Cac u nap kh SF6 va lp ng h ap lc cua may ct
u co van mt chiu thun tin cho vic kim tra ma khng
lam mt kh SF6.
Dp h quang theo nguyn ly t iu chnh ap lc thi. Ap
lc trong bung thi do nhit h quang va chuyn ng tng
i cua xi lanh va pit tng tao thanh. Kh SF6 khng b mt trong qua
trnh dp h quang.
Mi bung dp h quang dung cho mt cp tip im, co b
loc hp thu m va cac san phm kh SF6 b h quang phn
tch. Np bung dp co gn vi a an toan bng vt co th t
(gay) ap lc do nha ch tao qui nh giai phong ap lc qua
cao trong bung dp.
May ct co tip im bao tn hiu va khoa may ct khi ap
lc kh SF6 thp.
Tuy tng loai may ct ma 3 pha co 1 b truyn ng chung
hay 3 b truyn ng cho tng pha. Vi loai may ct mi pha co 1
b truyn ng ring th co kha nng tac ng tng pha khi co s
c thoang qua tai 1 pha.
14.2.3

May ct chn khng

May ct chn khng c bit thun li s dung trong cac


mang li ma co tn s ong ct cao trong pham vi dong lam vic
nao o a c lng trc. Loai may ct chn khng thch hp
cho vic t ng ong lp lai, co tin cy cao va tui tho lu
dai.
Khng phai bao dng bung chn khng. Tui tho bung ct
chn khng c xac nh bi gii han dong tng do nha ch tao
thit k.
May ct chn khng co tip im t trong bung chn khng
(ap lc bung chn khng khoang 10-11bar) tao nn hanh trnh tip
im ngn va hi phuc bn cach in nhanh.
H quang b dp tt vi mt trong cac gia tr zer t nhin
cua dong in. Thi gian phong h quang la ngn iu nay co li
cho tui tho tip im (t n mon tip im do in ap h quang
tng i nho).
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

14.2.4

177

May ct khng kh

May ct thi khng kh s dung khng kh nen lam mi trng


dp tt h quang, cach in.
Khi cac tip im ri nhau, khng kh thi qua cac tip im
dang l, dp tt h quang va thit lp khe h cach in.
Loai may ct khng kh nay co b truyn ng bng kh nen
hoc b ttruyn ng in t. Vi truyn ng kh nen th phai
co h thng phn phi kh nen n cac pha may ct va cac bnh
cha kh nen co th tch u ln, ng thi phai co b tip im
ap lc kh khng ch s hot ng cua may ct khi ap lc
kh khng u.
14.2.5

B truyn ng

14.2.5.1 B truyn ng in t
Khi ong dung nng lng in t cua cun ong. Vi cac b
truyn ng hin nay dong ong khoang 100A in ap 220Vdc.
Khi ct dung nng lng lo xo ct c tch nng khi ong. Luc
nay nng lng cung cp cho cun ct la nho v ch cn giai phong
ly ct.
14.2.5.2 B truyn ng lo xo
Phai tch nng lo xo ong trc khi thc hin chu trnh ong
may ct.
Khi ong dung nng lng lo xo, khi o nam chm in ong ch
cn mt nng lng nho giai phong ly ong gi lo xo v tr
tch nng.
Khi ct dung nng lng lo xo ct c tch nng khi ong may
ct.
Nu cung cp u ngun cho may ct th sau khi thc hin chu
trnh ong xong may ct t ng tch nng lo xo ong.
14.2.5.3 B truyn ng kh nen
S dung nng lng kh nen thao tac ong, ct may ct.
Co mt may nen kh va h thng ng ng phn phi kh
n cac tru cc cua cac pha.

Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

H thng kh nen con co mt van an toan vi gia tr tac ng


co th chnh c, mt van xa hi nc t ng khi may nen
dng va cac im xa nc ong trong h thng ng ng.
Mt b tip im kh nen dung cho cac mach khi ng,
dng mt, cung nh khoa mach ong, ct...
Ngoai ra con co loai may ct s dung kh SF6 trong bung dp
h quang thc hin thao tac may ct.
14.2.5.4 B truyn ng du thuy lc
S dung nng lng du thuy lc ap lc cao thao tac
ong, ct may ct.
Co mt may nen kh va h thng ng ng dn du n
cac tru cc cua cac pha.
H thng du thuy lc con co mt van an toan vi gia tr tac
ng co th chnh c.
Mt b tip im ap lc dung cho cac mach khi ng,
dng mt, cung nh khoa mach ong, ct...
14.3 Th nghim thit b ong ct
14.3.1

May ct du

14.3.1.1 Hang muc th nghim lp mi


Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai:
May ct a c lp ung theo ban ve thit k.
Cac ct s hoc s u vao, thn may ct, ch th mc du,
b truyn ng, kt cu c kh i kem, bach ni tip a.
Kim tra u ni cap nh th:
Kim tra cap ni b tng pha, cap t cac pha n tu iu
khin va cap ni b tu iu khin phai c u ung theo ban
ve thit k cua nha ch tao.
Tin hanh o in tr cach in mach nh th phat hin
cac h hong cach in cua cap nh th, cun dy ong ct,
rle va khi ng t iu khin (s dung Mgm k co in
ap t 500V n 1000V tuy thuc vao quy nh cua nha ch
tao).
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct:
kim tra cac cun dy co b chp vong hay khng.
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179

o in tr mt chiu cac in tr sy.


Tch nng lo xo bng tay:
Kim tra cac b phn cua c cu truyn ng tch nng lo xo
xem co h hong hay co truc trc phn c kh.
Thao tac ong, ct may ct bng tay:
Kim tra cac chi tit c kh cua b truyn ng may ct, cac
ly khoa cun dy ong ct cung nh c cu truyn ng
bng tay.
Lu y: Phai thao cac khoa b truyn ng do nha ch tao
khoa trong qua trnh vn chuyn
Kim tra mach nh th:
Kim tra hoat ng tip im phu cua may ct co lam vic
ung nh thit k cua nha ch tao.
Kim tra s hoat ng cua mach nh th theo ung chc
nng a thit k nha ch tao.
Kim tra s hoat ng cua cac rle trung gian, khi ng t
tu iu khin.
o thi gian tch nng lo xo:
Nhm kim tra s lam vic bnh thng cua c cu tch
nng lo xo.
o dong in mt tch nng:
Kim tra mt tch nng co b qua tai trong sut qua trnh lam
vic.
o in tr cach in chnh cua may ct:
Kim tra phat hin cac h hong cach in chnh cua thit
b.
S dung Mgm k co in ap t 1000V n 5000V tuy thuc
vao quy nh cua nha ch tao.
o Tang s u vao may ct.(nu co)
o Tang tu chia ap.(nu co)
Hang muc o Tg nay rt hu ch phat hin ra du hiu
h hong cach in. So sanh tr s goc tn hao in mi sau mi
nm cho ta thy tnh trang gia hoa dn dn cua cach in. Cn
phai lu y rng tr s Tg phu thuc nhiu vao nhit va
m v th ta cn phai tin hanh trong cung iu kin, hoc co
bang quy i cua nha ch tao.
Nm 2004
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Trung Tm Th Nghim in

o in dung tu chia ap.(nu co)


Kim tra ap lc lam vic cua van an toan bung dp h
quang.(nu co)
Nhm am bao khi co s c tng ap lc t ngt trong
bung dp h quang th van an toan phai lam vic tranh gy ra
cac h hong cho may ct va cac thit b gn y.
Kim tra gia tr tac ng cua van an toan.
Kim tra gia tr tr v cua van an toan.
Gia tr nay c kim tra khi tin hanh nap kh Nit vao may
ct.
Kim tra ap lc kh nit bung dp h quang.(nu co)
am bao tnh cht cach in va dp h quang ma nha
ch tao a thit k cho may ct.
o thi gian ong, ct:
Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.
o dong in cun ong, ct.
Nhm kim tra s hoat ng cua b truyn ng, cac
cun dy ong ct, s lp t ung cua may ct cung nh hanh
trnh cua may.
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
o tc ong, ct cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct.
trong trng hp s c mt vai bnh cqui cua ngun
iu khin hay in ap li b giam thp th may ct vn lam
vic c.
o in tr tip xuc: (Dong o ti thiu phai bng 100A)
Trn mi ngn dp.
Trn mi ch V.(nu co)
Trn toan b pha.
Th in ap phong cua du cach in tt ca cac khi
cha du ring.
Th cao th 1 chiu tu chia ap. (nu co)
Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th.
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
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181

Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip i vi cach


in chnh cua may ct:
Khi may ct m:
(A1 + B1 + C1) - (A2 + B2 + C2 + Vo + Tip a)
Khi may ct ong:
B - (A + C + Vo + Tip a).
(A + C) - (B + Vo + Tip a).
Hang muc th cao th thit b nhm kim tra ch
nng n nht cach in chnh chu ng c ma tnh cht cach
in khng b pha hoai.
14.3.1.2 Hang muc th nghim nh ky
Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai: (hang nm)
Cac ct s hoc s u vao, thn may ct, ch th mc du,
b truyn ng, kt cu c kh i kem, bach ni tip a.
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct. (3 nm)
Kim tra mach nh th: (3 nm)
Tip im phu cua may ct.
Kim tra s hoat ng cac mach nh th theo ban ve nha
ch tao.
Kim tra s hoat ng cua cac rle, khi ng t tu iu
khin.
o cach in mach nh th.
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
o thi gian tch nng lo xo. (hang nm)
o dong in mt tch nng. (3 nm)
o in tr cach in chnh cua may ct. (hang nm)
o Tang s u vao may ct.(nu co) (2 nm)
o Tang tu chia ap.(nu co) (3 nm)
o in dung tu chia ap.(nu co) (3 nm)
Kim tra ap lc kh nit bung dp h quang.(nu co)
o thi gian ong, ct: (hang nm)
Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.
o dong in cun ong, ct.(nu o c)
Nm 2004
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Nhm kim tra s hoat ng cua b truyn ng, cac


cun dy ong ct, s lp t ung cua may ct cung nh hanh
trnh cua may.
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.(nu
cn thit)
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct. (2
nm)
o in tr tip xuc: (Dong o ti thiu phai bng 100A)
(hang nm)
Trn mi ngn dp.
Trn mi ch V.(nu co)
Trn toan b pha.
Th in ap phong cua du cach in cac khi cha du
ring. (hang nm)
Th cao th 1 chiu tu chia ap. (nu co) (3 nm)
Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th. (3
nm)
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip i vi cach
in chnh cua may ct (3 nm): thc hin ging nh khi th
nghim lp mi
14.3.2

May ct kh SF6 vi b truyn ng lo xo

14.3.2.1 Hang muc th nghim lp mi


Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai:
May ct a c lp ung theo ban ve thit k.
Cac ct s, ng h ch th ap lc kh SF6, b truyn ng,
kt cu c kh i kem, bach ni tip a.
Kim tra ap lc kh SF6 cac ct:
Ap lc kh trong ct khi vn chuyn, bao dng t 0,30,5
bar.
Nhm am bao rng cac ct cua may ct khng b khng kh
m xm nhp trong qua trnh vn chuyn hay lu kho.
o in tr cach in may ct trc va sau khi nap kh may
ct:
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Kim tra cach in chnh cua may ct trc khi nap kh, nu
cach in khng at th ta co bin phap x ly tranh mt mt
lng kh SF6 a nap vao may.
Tin hanh nap kh SF6 vao may ct n ap lc nh mc.
Phai hiu chnh ap lc nap theo tai liu hng dn nha ch
tao va nn nap ln hn ap lc nh mc khoang 0,1 bar sau o
kim tra ham lng m kh SF6.
Kim tra tip im kh SF6:
Tip im bao tn hiu cp 1.
Tip im khoa may ct cp 2.
am bao an toan cho may ct trong qua trnh lam vic v
kha nng cach in va dp h quang phu thuc vao mt kh
SF6 trong cac ct.
Kim tra u ni cap nh th:
Cap ni b tng pha, cap t cac pha n tu iu khin.
Cap ni b tu iu khin.
o cach in cap nh th.
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct.
o in tr mt chiu cac in tr sy.
Tch nng lo xo bng tay xem co truc trc khng.
Thao tac ong, ct may ct bng tay.
Kim tra mach nh th:
Tip im phu cua may ct.
Kim tra s hoat ng cac mach nh th theo ban ve nha
ch tao.
Kim tra s hoat ng cua cac rle trung gian tu iu
khin.
o thi gian tch nng lo xo.
o dong in mt tch nng.
o ham lng m kh SF6:
am bao kha nng cach in va dp h quang cua may
ct.
Kim tra ro r kh SF6.
o thi gian ong, ct:
Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
Nm 2004
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khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.


o dong in cun ong, ct.
Nhm kim tra s hoat ng cua b truyn ng, cac
cun dy ong ct, s lp t ung cua may ct cung nh hanh
trnh cua may.
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
o tc ong, ct cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct.
trong trng hp s c mt vai bnh cqui cua ngun
iu khin hay in ap li b giam thp th may ct vn lam
vic c.
o in tr tip xuc: (Dong o ti thiu phai bng 100A)
Trn mi ngn dp.
Trn mi ch V.(nu co)
Trn toan b pha.
Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th.
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip cach in chnh
cua may ct:
Khi may ct m:
(A1 + B1 + C1) - (A2 + B2 + C2 + Vo + Tip a)
Khi may ct ong:
B - (A + C + Vo + Tip a).
(A + C) - (B + Vo + Tip a).
14.3.2.2 Hang muc th nghim nh ky
Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai: (hang nm)
Cac ct s, ng h ch th ap lc kh SF6, b truyn ng,
kt cu c kh i kem, bach ni tip a.
Kim tra tip im kh SF6: (3 nm)
Tip im bao tn hiu cp 1.
Tip im khoa may ct cp 2.
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct. (3 nm)
Kim tra mach nh th: (3 nm)
Tip im phu cua may ct.
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185

Kim tra s hoat ng cac mach nh th theo ban ve nha


ch tao.
Kim tra s hoat ng cua cac rle trung gian tu iu
khin.
o cach in cap nh th. (tach mach in t ra khoi mach
o)
o in tr cach in chnh cua may ct. (hang nm)
o thi gian tch nng lo xo. (hang nm)
o dong in mt tch nng. (3 nm)
o ham lng m kh SF6. (3 nm)
Kim tra ro r kh SF6. (hang nm)
o thi gian ong, ct: (hang nm)
Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.
o dong in cun ong, ct.
Nhm kim tra s hoat ng cua b truyn ng, cac
cun dy ong ct, s lp t ung cua may ct cung nh hanh
trnh cua may.
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
o tc ong, ct cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.(nu
cn thit)
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct. (2
nm)
trong trng hp s c mt vai bnh cqui cua ngun
iu khin hay in ap li b giam thp th may ct vn lam
vic c.
o in tr tip xuc: (Dong o ti thiu phai bng 100A)
(hang nm)
Trn mi ngn dp.
Trn mi ch V.(nu co)
Trn toan b pha.
Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th. (3
nm)
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

186

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip i vi cach


in chnh cua may ct (3 nm): thc hin ging nh khi th
nghim lp mi
14.3.3

May ct chn khng vi b truyn ng lo xo

14.3.3.1 Hang muc th nghim lp mi


Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai:
May ct a c lp ung theo ban ve thit k.
Cac ct s, b truyn ng, kt cu c kh i kem, bach ni
tip a.
Kim tra u ni cap nh th:
Cap ni b tng pha, cap t cac pha n tu iu khin.
Cap ni b tu iu khin.
o cach in cap nh th.
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
o in tr cach in chnh cua may ct.
Kim tra bung chn khng bng in ap cao th:
Co hai cach kim tra bung chn khng:
May ct trang thai m hoan toan. Tin hanh th cao th
xoay chiu theo qui nh cua nha ch tao.
a tip im ng n gn tip im tnh vi khoang cach
qui nh cua nha ch tao. Tin hanh th cao th vi in ap a
cho bi nha ch tao(in ap th co th la xoay chiu hoc mt
chiu tuy theo yu cu cua nha ch tao)
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct.
o in tr mt chiu cac in tr sy.
Tch nng lo xo bng tay xem co truc trc khng.
Thao tac ong, ct may ct bng tay.
Kim tra mach nh th:
Tip im phu cua may ct.
Kim tra s hoat ng cac mach nh th theo ban ve nha
ch tao.
Kim tra s hoat ng cua cac rle trung gian tu iu
khin.
o thi gian tch nng lo xo.
o dong in mt tch nng.
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

187

o thi gian ong, ct:


Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.
o dong in cun ong, ct.
Nhm kim tra s hoat ng cua b truyn ng, cac
cun dy ong ct, s lp t ung cua may ct cung nh hanh
trnh cua may.
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
o tc ong, ct cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct.
trong trng hp s c mt vai bnh cqui cua ngun
iu khin hay in ap li b giam thp th may ct vn lam
vic c.
o in tr tip xuc: (Dong o ti thiu phai bng 100A)
Tip im chnh.
Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th.
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip i vi cach
in chnh cua may ct: thc hin ging nh cac loai may
ct khac
14.3.3.2 Hang muc th nghim nh ky
Kim tra tnh trang bn ngoai: (hang nm)
Cac ct s, b truyn ng, kt cu c kh i kem, bach ni
tip a.
o in tr cach in may ct. (hang nm)
Kim tra bung chn khng bng in ap cao th: (hang nm)
Co hai cach kim tra bung chn khng:
May ct trang thai m hoan toan. Tin hanh th cao th
xoay chiu theo qui nh cua nha ch tao.
a tip im ng n gn tip im tnh vi khoang cach
qui nh cua nha ch tao. Tin hanh th cao th vi in ap a
cho bi nha ch tao(in ap th co th la xoay chiu hoc mt
chiu tuy theo yu cu cua nha ch tao)
o in tr mt chiu cun ong, ct. (3 nm)
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

188

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Kim tra mach nh th: (3 nm)


Tip im phu cua may ct.
Kim tra s hoat ng cac mach nh th theo ban ve nha
ch tao.
Kim tra s hoat ng cua cac rle trung gian tu iu
khin.
o cach in cap nh th. (tach mach in t ra khoi mach
o)
o thi gian tch nng lo xo. (hang nm)
o dong in mt tch nng. (3 nm)
o thi gian ong, ct: (hang nm)
Thi gian ong, ct cua tip im chnh.
khng ng thi khi ong, ct gia 3 pha.
o dong in cun ong, ct.
Nhm kim tra s hoat ng cua b truyn ng, cac
cun dy ong ct, s lp t ung cua may ct cung nh hanh
trnh cua may.
Kim tra mon cua tip im. (3 nm)
o hanh trnh, ngp cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
o tc ong, ct cua may ct.(nu cn thit)
Kim tra s hoat ng cac chu trnh cua nha ch tao.(nu
cn thit)
Kim tra in ap lam vic nho nht cua cun ong, ct. (2
nm)
trong trng hp s c mt vai bnh cqui cua ngun
iu khin hay in ap li b giam thp th may ct vn lam
vic c.
o in tr tip xuc: (Dong o ti thiu phai bng 100A)
(hang nm)
Tip im chnh.
Th cao th xoay chiu i vi cach in mach nh th. (3
nm)
Lu y: Phai tach mach in t ra khoi mach o.
Th cao th xoay chiu tn s cng nghip i vi cach
in chnh cua may ct (hang nm): thc hin ging nh khi
th nghim lp mi
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

189

14.4 o in tr tip xuc


14.4.1

Y ngha cua phep o in tr tip xuc

Nhm phat hin ra tnh trang bt thng trn cac mi ni cac


mi ni, cac u tip xuc phat sinh trong qua trnh vn hanh nhm
giup ngi quan ly co th co k hoach bao dng, sa cha hp
ly nhm tranh xay ra s c.
14.4.1.1 Nguyn nhn lam tng in tr tip xuc la do:
Hong hoc v c, mai mon, n mon v c.
Cac b mt tip xuc b xy hoa.
Di tac dung cua nhit lng sinh ra lu ngay se lam cho cac
mi ni tr nn moi va long ra.
Hu qua cua vic tng in tr tip xuc lam cho cac mi ni,
mi tip xuc ngay cang b phat nong lam nhit tai o tng cao
bt thng va o chnh la nguyn nhn gy nn cac s c trm
trong bn trong May ct, cac Dao cach ly, cac u ni khi ang vn
hanh dong tai ln va in ap cao.
14.4.1.2 Cac phng phap o in tr tip xuc
Vic o in tr tip xuc c tin hanh theo phng phap VA mt chiu.Da vao o ta co th o in tr tip xuc bng cac
cach sau: o trc tip va o gian tip.
o trc tip bng cac thit b o chuyn dung: MOM-200, MOM600...
o gian tip qua cac ng h mV-A bng cach cp mt dong
DC chay qua i tng o va o in ap ri trn hai u i tng
ta thu c gia tr:

Rx = U(mV) / I (A)

Lu y:
o cac dong in ln (trn 50 A) ta thng dung mt shunt
dong co gia tr dong nh mc thch hp.
Cp chnh xac cua cac thit b o phai khng c nho hn 0,5.
14.4.1.3 Cac lu y v an toan trong qua trnh o
Khng c h mach dong trong khi o v:
Co kha nng gy hong cac thit b o mach in ap.
Co th phat sinh h quang mt chiu khi o dong ln.
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

190

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

i tng c th nghim phai c cach ly v in vi


cac phn ang mang in xung quanh.
Khi o bng phng phap V-A gian tip phai kim tra am
bao rng bin tr iu chnh phai tip xuc tt, tranh gy nn tnh
trang h mach dong khi iu chnh.
Khng tip xuc vi mach o va i tng trong qua trnh o.
Yu cu cua phep o
Khi o in tr tip xuc cac MC, DCL, cac mi ghep co dong
nh mc ln (trn 400A), dong o phai co gia tr ti thiu la 100A.
Trc khi tin hanh cac phep o in tr tip xuc trn cac MC,
DCL cn phai thao tac ong ct nhiu ln am bao n nh
va tin cy cua kt qua o v:
Trong qua trnh ong ct se lam bc l cac tn tai trong
mach dn dong cua MC, DCL.
Cac b mt b xy hoa, cac san phm phat sinh trong qua trnh
dp h quang trn b mt nay se c ty i.
Nu cn co th tng gia tr dong o ln: 200A, 300A kim tra
thm nhm phat hin nhng mi ghep cha tt.Tuy nhin dong o
khng c ln hn dong nh mc cua thit b tranh sai s do
hin tng qua nhit.
V sinh sach se cac u cc cua May ct, Dao cach ly va cac
b mt cua cac mi ghep trc khi tin hanh phep o tranh sai
s.
14.4.1.4 anh gia kt qua o
Tin hanh o t 3 n 5 ln trn mt i tng vi cung
mt dong o va s o. Gia tr o sau cung se la gia tr trung bnh
cua cac kt qua o trn.
R = (R1+R2+..+ Rn)/ n. (vi n = 35)
Gia tr in tr tip xuc o c khng c ln hn tiu
chun cho phep cua nha ch tao.
Nu gia tr o ln cn kim tra lai s o, cac v tr u ni
va tnh trang cac u u ni. Tin hanh thao tac thm vai ln
kim tra tnh n nh cua kt qua o.
Nu cac gia tr o c trn cac pha MC u tng nh nhau co
th ngh n kha nng kim tra lai ngp va hanh trnh cua cac
tip im.
Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

191

Nu cac kt qua o n nh va cac thng s v hanh trnh,


ngp bnh thng nhng cac gia tr in tr tip xuc vn ln
co kha nng tip im dp h quang cua MC b mon sau mt thi
gian vn hanh. Cn co bin phap kim tra mon va thay th b
tip im ng.
Cho phep gia tr in tr tip xuc tng n 1,2 ln gia tr xut
xng cua nha ch tao (i vi nhng MC a qua vn hanh). Tuy
nhin vic in tr tip xuc tng nhanh va t bin mt pha bao
hiu tnh trang bt thng bn trong may va cn phai chn oan
thm.
14.4.1.5 Thit b o in tr tip xuc mom-200
Pham vi ap dung
MOM-200 c dung kim tra in tr tip xuc cua cac
May ct, Dao cach ly va cac mi ni co dong lam vic ln (trn cac
thanh cai ngoai tri, thanh cai tu hp b, cac mi ghep gia cac
thit b lc: May ct, MBA, DCL vi cac thanh dn, cap u ni)
MOM-200 co th dung kim tra mach vong tip t cua cac
thit b tram, anh gia tnh trang cua cac thanh dn ni trung tnh
cua MBA lc.
Lu y v an toan khi s dung thit b o mom-200
Trc khi o in tr tip xuc trn cac May ct hoc cac Dao
cach ly phai kim tra bit rng cac i tng nay a c
cach ly khoi cac ngun ang mang in khac xung quanh, chung ang
trang thai ong va a c du tip a mt pha (khi tin hanh
phep o khu vc ang mang in). Nghim cm vic ct may ct
trong khi MOM-200 ang ni vao may ct.
Khi tin hanh u ni phai:
Lun lun ni dy ni t bao v.
Lun s dung cac dy ni an toan. (dy o khng b t hoc
try xc lp vo boc)
Tt ngun cp vao thit b trc khi u ni.
Nu trn mach o co ni cac bin dong, phai c lp cac bin
dong va cac r le bao v tranh tac ng ct sai cua cac bao v
lin quan.

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

192

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Tranh s dung trong iu kin lam vic gn ni co ngun


in t trng manh v no co kha nng lam cho thit b hoat ng
sai hoc gy h hong cho mach o.
Kt qua
Gia tr o cua in tr tip xuc thc t se bng:
Gia tr o thu c trn man hnh x K.
Trong o: K = gia tr o cua thang dong a chon / dong o
Do o ta co th thay i nhay cua phep o bng cach phi
hp gia hai gia tr nay.
V du: Gia tr in tr o c trn man hnh: 100
Dong o: 100A, Thang dong a chon: 200A.
K = 200/100 = 2
Gia tr in tr thc t cua i tng o Rtx = 2x100 =
200 .

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

193

Hnh 14-1 S u ni MOM-200 vi i tng o

Hnh 14-2 S o in tr tip xuc trn may ct

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

194

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Tiu chun tip xuc mt s may ct


STT

Kiu

Um

Im

Icm

(KV)

(A)

(KA)

Rtip

2
3

GI - E
FP4025D
(Trong nha)
FP4025G
(Trong nha)

40,5

1600(I)
3150(II)

(I) 25
(II)31,5

40,5

1250

25

40,5

1250

25

3150

40

1250

16

SFA(Trong nha)

36

DIFFLU

7,2

Ghi chu

( )

MAY CT KH SF6
n

xuc

NCT

Nuova
Magrini
Galileo
ALSTOM
(CHINA)
ALSTOM
(CHINA)

Nha ch
( )

I 50 II
25
150
150

AAB

23

TB Nha

25

tao
(I): 25KA
(II): 31,5KA
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao

MAY CT DU
1
2

C-35M-630-10
MK-35-100025bY1

35

630

10

USSR

310

35

1000

25

USSR

250

DW1-35D

35

600

6,3

VMV-744

35

1250

20

BM--10Y3

10

1000

BM--11T3

11

630

BM--11T3

11

1250

BM-11-1250

11

1250

BM--10/11

10/11

2500
630

20/31,
5
20/31,
5
20/31,
5
20/31,
5
31,5
20/31,

Trung
Quc
Tip
khc

550
40

CCCP

40

CCCP

40

CCCP

30

CCCP

30

CCCP

10

CCCP

60/35

CCCP

25

CCCP

25

CCCP

25

CCCP

45/40

10

BK(10,11) - Y2

10/11

11

BK(10,11) - Y2

10/11

12

BK(10,11) - T3

10/11

13

BK (10,11) - Y2

10/11

14

BK (10,11) - T2

10/11

630

15

SN10-10I

10/11

630

16

T.Quc

100

16

Q00

15,6

600

--

RISSEI

150

1250/160
0
1000
1250/160
0

5
20/31,
5
20/31,
5
20/31,
5
20/31,
5

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

STT

Kiu

195

Um

Im

Icm

(KV)

(A)

(KA)

17

HPR2

7,2

18

RME 17,5-50

17,5

3AF01
GVB-M/2000

-1000

LBA-06C

01
02

VR - 3S
N36 / N24 / N12

320

Rtip
NCT

( )

--

Phap

800
16
SACE
MAY CT CHN KHNG
Siemen40,5
1250
25
india
24

2000

25

LG Co.,Ltd

0,69

630

50

LG Co.,Ltd

MAY CT RECLOSER
12,5/1
34,5 560 / 800
6
36

630

xuc

12,5

ABB
Nu-Lec
Pty Ltd

130
50
32

Ghi chu
tao
Nha ch
tao
T.khao
Nha ch

25,7

tao
Nha ch

+ 20%
50+20

tao
Nha ch

tao

150
100

Nha ch
tao
Nha ch
tao

14.5 Phn tch thi gian chuyn ng cua may ct


14.5.1

Muc ch

Khu th nghim nay lun c tin hanh cho cac may ct


trung va cao ap, Nhm kim tra s hoat ng cua b truyn
ng, cac cun dy ong ct, s lp t ung cua may ct cung
nh hanh trnh cua may.
Vi php th nay ta co c thng tin v c tnh thi gian
cua c cu truyn ng, vn tc ong ct, bt cua tip im,
ng b ong ct, dong thao tac cun ong ct, thi gian ong ct.
Nh vao cac phep kim tra nay ma ngi s dung thit b co
th sm phat hin ra cac khuyt tt cung nh cac h hong cua c
cu b truyn ng, tip im chnh, cun dy hoc van in
dung thao tac may ct, tip im phu.
14.5.2

Cac nh ngha

Thi gian ong cua mt phn t:


La thi gian t khi co lnh ong n thi im tip xuc u
tin cua tip im.
Thi gian ong cua mt pha:
La thi gian t khi co lnh ong n thi im tip im cui
cung trong pha bt u tip xuc.
Thi gian ong cua may ct:
Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

196

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

La thi gian t khi co lnh ong n thi im tip im cui


cung cua may ct bt u tip xuc.
Thi gian ct cua mt phn t:
La thi gian t khi co lnh ct n thi im tip im tach
ra.
Thi gian ct cua mt pha:
La thi gian t khi co lnh ct n thi im tip im u
tin trong pha tach ra.
Thi gian ct cua may ct:
La thi gian t khi co lnh ct n thi im tip im u
tin trong pha chm nht tach ra.
Thi gian ng b khi ong cua may ct:
Chnh lch thi gian ong gia pha nhanh nht va pha chm
nht.
Thi gian ng b khi ct cua may ct:
Chnh lch thi gian ct gia pha nhanh nht va pha chm
nht.
Thi gian ng b khi ong cua mt pha:
Chnh lch thi gian ong gia tip im nhanh nht va tip
im chm nht trong pha.
Thi gian ng b khi ct cua mt pha:
Chnh lch thi gian ct gia tip im nhanh nht va tip
im chm nht trong pha.
14.5.3

Phng phap o

S dung cu o chuyn dung.


u ni s theo ch dn cua thit b o.
S dung ng h o giy chay in.

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

197
S
O
KHNG
NGTHI

Ti
pi
mchnh
mayc
t

Nguon

S
O THI GIAN C
T

110

220

CC

C
D

Nm 2004
Hoa du

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

198

Trung Tm Th Nghim in
S
O THI GIAN ONG

110

220

C
D

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

199

Tiu chun thi gian ong ct mt s may ct


STT

Kiu

Um

Nha ch

(KV)

tao

Ton
g

Tct
(ms)

To

Tc

ng

Ghi chu

(ms)
(ms)
(ms)
MAY CT KH SF6 (ch nghin, m: tham khao IEC, BBXX; Bnh thng: nha
1

EDFSK1-1

GI - E
2

1600A/25K
A

3
4

35

83
70

50
33

80

43

AAB

60

70

AAB

75

40,5

ni Galileo

(trong nha)

36
n

3
33
43
40

NuovaMagri

25 3

70
73

SFA
HPA(T.nha)

ch tao)
AAB - n
47 5

7
60

5,0

3,3

3,0

3,0

Uk:ac

3,0

3,0

Uk:dc

3,0

3,0

Uk:dc

5,0

3,3

36 -

5,0 3,3
36
40
MAY CT DU (ch nghin, m: tham khao IEC, BBXX; Bnh thng: nha
ch tao)
1
2
3
4
5

C35M-63010
DW1 - 35D
MK 100025Y1
BM -11630 /1000-

35

USSR

340

50

--

--

120
60

--

--

--

--

35

T.Quc

400
270

35

USSR

400

50

11

CCCP

300

100

20T/KT
BM --11

11
300
70
-630 / 1250
6
10/11
CCCP
-BK-10,11
250
50
7
BK 10,11
10/11
CCCP
75
45
8
SN10-10I
10/11
T.Quc
200
60
02
MAY CT CHN KHNG (ch nghin, m: tham khao IEC; Bnh

NC
in
lo xo

--02
thng: nha

ch tao)
C1:6
1

3AF01

36

VB6

VD4

24
n

GVB-M/600-

Nm 2004
Hoa du

24
24

SIEMENSINDIA

75

5
C2:5

2,0

2,0

E.I.B

50

0
42

5,0

3,3

ABB

60

45

5,0

3,3

LG Co.,Ltd.

100

40

5,0

3,3

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-

200

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

5
6

1000/25X
VB5-20,31
VB4

STT

Kiu

VK/10J,10M

17,5
12

E.I.B
E.I.B

Um

Nha ch

(KV)

tao

12

50
35
Ton
g
(ms)

42
42
Tct
(ms)

5,0
5,0
To

3,3
3,3
Tc

ng

(ms)

(ms)

Ghi chu

Tu hp

50
35
5,0 3,3
10P
b
8
LBA
0,69
LG Co.,Ltd.
80
40
5,0 3,3
MAY CT RECLOSER (ch nghin, m: tham khao IEC, BBXX; Bnh thng:
nha ch tao)
1

VR - 3S

N36

ABB

34,5
n

Nu-Lec Pty

36

Ltd

48

40

--

--

100

50

--

--

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in Nganh Cao th-Hoa du

Nm 2004

Trung Tm Th Nghim in

Nm 2004
Hoa du

201

Tai liu ao tao ngh Th nghim in. Nganh Cao th-