Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet standard protocol for exchanging management information between management console applications such as HP Openview, Novell NMS, IBM NetView, or Sun Net Manager, and managed entities. The managed entities can include hosts, routers, bridges, and hubs.

Supported Versions
Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 support SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c. This topic provides basic information about each of these versions of SNMP. Simple Network Management Protocol version 1 (SNMPv1) is the earliest version of the protocol. SNMPv1 is defined by RFC 1157, RFC 1155, and RFC 1212. For SNMPv1, security is based on community strings. Simple Network Management Protocol version 2c (SNMPv2c) is defined by RFC 1901, RFC 1905, and RFC 1906. SNMPv2c updates the protocol operations and data types that were defined in SNMPv2p. SNMPv2c, known as "community string-based SNMPv2," uses SNMPv1 community-based security. SNMPv2x is supported on Windows 2000 and later client and server operating system platforms, including Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.

About SNMP
SNMP uses a distributed architecture consisting of managers and agents. An agent is an SNMP application that responds to queries from SNMP manager applications. The SNMP agent is responsible for retrieving and updating local management information based on the requests of the SNMP manager. The agent also notifies registered managers when significant events or traps occur. A manager is an SNMP application that generates queries to SNMP agent applications and receives traps from SNMP agent applications. On computers running Microsoft Windows XP/Windows 2000/Windows NT, the SNMP agent is implemented by the SNMP service (SNMP.EXE). The SNMP manager is typically a third-party SNMP management console application. The management console application does not need to run on the same host as the SNMP agent. To use the information the Microsoft SNMP service provides, you need at least one SNMP management console application. The system includes libraries that support SNMP management console applications, but it does not include an SNMP management console application at this time.

How SNMP Works


The following steps outline how a third-party SNMP management console application returns information from the SNMP service: 1. The SNMP management console application formulates an SNMP message based on input from the user. The message includes a protocol data unit (PDU) and authentication information. The management console application can use the Microsoft SNMP Management API library (MGMTAPI.DLL) or the Microsoft WinSNMP API library (WSNMP32.DLL) to perform this step.

2. 3. 4. 5.

The SNMP management console application sends the SNMP message to the SNMP service, using the SNMP service libraries. The SNMP service receives the request. It verifies the authentication information and the source IP address. The SNMP service selects the appropriate extension agent and requests that the agent retrieve the requested information. The SNMP service sends the response to the SNMP management console application.

The SNMP Management Information Base (MIB)


A Management Information Base (MIB) describes a set of managed objects. An SNMP management console application can manipulate the objects on a specific computer if the SNMP service has an extension agent DLL that supports the MIB. Each managed object in a MIB has a unique identifier. The identifier includes the object's type (such as counter, string, gauge, or address), the object's access level (such as read or read/write), size restrictions, and range information. The following table contains a partial list of the MIBs that ship with the system. They are installed with the SNMP service in the %systemroot%\system32 directory. For a complete listing of MIBs, refer to the Windows Resource Kit.

MIB Name Tree


The name space for MIB object identifiers is hierarchical. It is structured so that each manageable object can be assigned a globally unique name. Authority for parts of the name space is assigned to individual organizations. This allows organizations to assign names without consulting an Internet authority for each assignment. For example, the name space assigned to Microsoft is 1.3.6.1.4.1.311, which is defined in MSFT.MIB. Microsoft has the authority to assign names to objects anywhere below that name space. The object identifier in the hierarchy is written as a sequence of subidentifiers beginning at the root and ending at the object. Subidentifiers are separated with a period.

System Files for SNMP


The following table describes the principal files that relate to the SNMP service.

Filename
DHCPMIB.DLL

Description
Extension agent DLL that implements the Microsoft-defined DHCP MIB. Installed only on DHCP servers.

EVNTAGNT.DLL SNMP DLL that translates event logs into SNMP traps; also known as the SNMP event translator.

HOSTMIB.DLL LMMIB2.DLL MGMTAPI.DLL

Extension agent DLL that implements the Host Resources MIB. Extension agent DLL that implements LAN Manager MIB-II. Microsoft SNMP Management API library. This API allows SNMP manager applications to "listen" for SNMP manager requests, and send requests to and receive responses from SNMP agents.

MIB.BIN SNMP.EXE

Compiled MIB information used by MGMTAPI.DLL. SNMP service. This is the master agent that receives SNMP requests and delivers them to the appropriate extension agent DLL.

SNMPAPI.DLL

SNMP utilities DLL used by SNMP extension agent DLLs and manager applications. This DLL contains a framework for developing extension agent DLLs.

SNMPSNAP.DLL SNMP configuration application that is a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in component. The snap-in adds several pages to the SNMP Service Properties sheet. For more information, see the online help for the SNMP service. SNMPTRAP.EXE SNMP trap service. Receives SNMP traps and forwards them to SNMP manager applications. WINSMIB.DLL Extension agent DLL that implements the Microsoft-defined WINS MIB. Installed only on WINS servers. WSNMP32.DLL Microsoft WinSNMP API library. This API allows SNMP manager applications to "listen" for SNMP manager requests, and send requests to and receive responses from SNMP agents.

SNMP Utilities
The following table lists the SNMP utilities that are available in the Microsoft Windows Resource Kit.

Filename
EVNTCMD.EXE EVNTWIN.EXE MIBCC.EXE SNMPUTIL.EXE

Description
A command-line application for configuring the SNMP event translator An application that provides a user interface for configuring the SNMP event translator The SNMP MIB Compiler A sample SNMP manager console application

Configuring the SNMP Service

To configure the SNMP service, you must know the community names that the network uses, the trap destination for each community, and the computer name or IP address for each SNMP management host. The following table lists topics that contain information about configuring the SNMP service.

Topic
Community Names Host Names and IP Addresses Configuring SNMP Security Configuring SNMP Group Policy Configuring SNMP Agent Information

Contents
Describes the use of community names in SNMP. Describes the use of host names and IP addresses in SNMP.

Describes SNMP security features.

Describes the subkeys that are associated with using the Microsoft Management Console to set registry-based policy settings for SNMP. Describes the use of agent information in SNMP.

Community Names
A community name identifies a collection of SNMP managers and agents. The use of a community name provides primitive security and context checking for both agents and managers that receive requests and initiate trap operations. An agent won't accept a request from a manager outside the community. Note that standard security recommendations recommend against using SNMP except on trusted networks, because the protocol, by design, provides minimal security. For more information, see Configuring SNMP Security.

Host Names and IP Addresses


TCP/IP networks require host names to be resolved to IP addresses before the address information can be used to create a connection. Computers running on the Windows operating system use a host file that, for this purpose, maps host names to IP addresses. The host file is a text file that lists explicit host names and IP addresses. The host file is automatically loaded into memory on startup and consulted when a host name requires resolution. If the host file does not contain the mapping information that is required to resolve a specific host name to its IP address, a resolution query is made to a DNS server. SNMP uses the Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) for host name resolution. WINS makes it possible to map NetBIOS names, or machine names, to IP addresses on TCP/IP networks. If the computer cannot access a WINS server, the SNMP service uses the host file to resolve host names to IP addresses.

The SNMP service supports the use of both host names and IP addresses. However, when you have a choice between using host names or IP addresses to identify network locations, your SNMP management applications should use host names. If you use host names, add all host name and IP address mappings of the participating systems to the host file.

Configuring SNMP Security


SNMP's security features allow you to specify the communities and hosts from which a computer accepts requests, as well as the type of operations to accept from the computers belonging to a community. SNMP also allows you to specify whether to send an authentication trap when an unauthorized community or host requests information. For more information, refer to the Windows Resource Kit and to the SNMP service online documentation. Windows Server 2003: By default, community names are not configured, and the SNMP service is configured to accept SNMP requests only from the host name "localhost".

Configuring SNMP Group Policy


If you use the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in for Group Policy to administer registry-based policy settings that apply to SNMP, one or more of the following subkeys may exist. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\SNMP\Parameters\ValidCommunities HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\SNMP\Parameters\PermittedManagers HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\SNMP\Parameters\TrapConfiguration Typically, only members of the Administrators local group can access the following registry subkeys that store configuration data for the SNMP service: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\SNMP\Parameters\ValidCommunities HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\SNMP\Parameters\PermittedManagers

Configuring SNMP Agent Information


SNMP agent information allows you to specify comments about the user and the physical location of the computer and to indicate the types of service to report. The types of service that can be reported are based on the computer's configuration.

MIB
Management Information Base (MIB) is a database related to network administration of connected print devices and has been implemented on Ricoh printers and multifunctional products. Normally,

network-printing devices are referred to as agents and a network management application is called the manager. From the managers point of view, each print device is a separate resource or database of information managed via Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). MAIN FEATURES The standard MIB comprises the Industry Standards: RFC1213, RFC1514 and RFC1759.