Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

Work and Economy

Migration's benefits don't go down to the poor?

Economic benefits of international labor migration "have not trickled down to the poor
and less developed regions in the country."

In sharp contrast, Go added, the regions in Mindanao, which have high levels of poverty
incidence, have the lowest proportion of OFWs. These include the conflict-ridden
Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (the poorest region where the smallest
proportion of migrant workers come from), Central Mindanao (region 12), Southern
Mindanao (region 11), Northern Mindanao (region 10), and Western Mindanao (region
9).

Poverty incidence versus number of OFWs per region

The National Capital Region, according to the 1997 FIES, has 6.4 percent of its residents
at or below the poverty threshold, and contributes 19.1 percent of the country's total
OFWs.

Impacts on OFW, family, community vary accordingly

Urban families benefit more from migration than rural families

'The most disquieting aspect of international labor migration'


Table 1: Remittance figures (from Go, 2002; Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas)
January to July

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2001

Total (in US$


5,741,835 7,367,989 6,794,550 6,050,450 6,031,271 4,263,594 3,416,044
million)
Land-based (in
5,484,223 7,093,440 5,948,341 5,123,773 4,937,922 3,560,995 2,804,910
US$ million)
Sea-based (in
257,612 274,549 846,209 926,677 1,093,349 702,599 611,134
US$ million)
Remittances as %
22.8 16.7 19.4 Not Not
of Export
percent percent percent available available
Earnings 1
Remittances as %
6.6 7.1 8.7 Not Not
of Gross National
percent percent percent available available
Product (GNP) 2

Remittances/OFW $7,679.4 $8,859.6 $8,117.5 $7,189.0 $7,194.7


(US$)Total

Land-based $9,806.8 $11,112.3 $9,289.5 $7,964.8 $7,770.9

Sea-based $1,366.9 $1,420.3 $4,302.3 $4,672.5 $5,334.5

1 - From 1990 to 1999, the percentage of remittances to export earnings is 20.3 percent
2 - From 1990 to 1999, the percentage of remittances to GNP is 5.2 percent

Table 2: 1997 Distribution of OFWs and Poverty Incidence of Families by Region (Go, 2002)
% Distribution of Poverty Incidence of Families
Island Group / Region Rank Rank
OFWs (%)

Philippines 100.00 31.8

National Capital Region 19.1 1 6.4 15


Luzon 53.2 30.1
* Cordillera Autonomous Region 2.0 12 42.5 5
* Region 1: Ilocos 12.6 3 37.8 10
* Region 2: Cagayan Valley 5.0 6 32.1 12
* Region 3: Central Luzon 12.0 4 15.4 14
* Region 4: Southern Tagalog 18.9 2 25.7 13
* Region 5: Bicol 2.7 9 50.1 2
Visayas 15.4 38.2
* Region 6: Western Visayas 9.4 5 39.9 8
* Region 7: Central Visayas 4.2 7 34.4 11
* Region 8: Eastern Visayas 1.8 14 40.8 6
Mindanao 12.3 44.6
* Region 9: Western Mindanao 3.0 8 40.1 7
* Region 10: Northern Mindanao 1.3 15 47.0 4
* Region 11: Southern Mindanao 2.6 10 38.2 9
* Region 12: Central Mindanao 2.4 11 50.0 3
* Autonomous Region of Muslim
1.9 13 57.3 1
Mindanao

Iba pang data:

Citing data from the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration, Sto. Tomas said
the biggest number of OFWs is still in Saudi Arabia, making up 26 percent of the 209,293
land-based OFWs deployed in various countries during the first quarter of 2005.

Next to Saudi Arabia are Hong Kong with 28,006 OFWs, or 13.3 percent of the total
deployed land-based OFWs; United Arab Emirates with 9.47 percent (19,817); Japan
with 8.22 percent (17,213); Taiwan with 5.8 percent (12,222); Kuwait with 5 percent
(10,216); Singapore with 4 percent (8,660); and Qatar with 3.4 percent (7,193).

In terms of demand for land-based OFWs, Qatar registered the highest increase,
employing 50 percent more than the 4,793 Filipinos it hired in the first quarter of 2004.

Other countries with marked increases in their demand for OFWs are:

• Bahrain, 49 percent (1,810 to 2,693)

• Kuwait, 24 percent (8,213 to 10,216)

• Malaysia, 21 percent (1,748 to 2,114)

• UAE, 15.4 percent (17,172 to 19,817)

• United States, 13.6 percent 1,074 to 1,220)

• Singapore, 12.8 percent (7,678 to 8,660)

http://www.filipinoreporter.com/archive/3403/headline04.htm
http://www.philippinestoday.net/ofwcorner/ofw11_1.htm
Tungkol sa GNP

Labor and Employment Secretary Patricia A. Sto. Tomas said that there are now about 8.1
million Filipinos living or working in 194 countries and territories all over the world.
The overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) and migrants, she said, now make up almost 10
percent of the total Philippine population.
Of the total, 3.2 million are permanently living abroad while 3.6 million are temporarily
working overseas. Irregular Filipino workers overseas, on the other hand, are estimated to
constitute some 1.3 million.
She said the overseas Filipinos, including migrants remitting dollars to their kin in the
Philippines infused into the economy in 2004 a total of 8.5 billion US dollars, which is
roughly 9.2 percent of the GNP during that year.

http://www.newsflash.org/2004/02/be/be003156.htm

In 1992, this category of workers accounted for about 60% of all newly hired OFWs; by
2005 that percentage had shot up to 70%.
The second statistical trend is the so-called "feminization" of new OFWs, rising from
50% to 70% over the same 13-year period.

OFW dollar remittances have recently averaged about US$7 billion per year, and peaked
at more than $10.7 billion in 2005.

While growing remittances help to spark local consumption, government policymakers


are starting to ask hard questions about the long-term economic impact of its current
success as a labor exporter.
The specter of a growing "brain drain" is stoking new fears that the Philippines might be
losing more skilled workers than it can afford in critical sectors of the economy, including
health, aviation, mining, shipping, and port operations.

http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/HF20Ae04.html

Centres d'intérêt liés