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Flame dynamics using the level set equation

M.L. Bondar, K.R.A.M. Schreel , L. P.M. De Goey, J.H.M. ten Thije Boonkkamp, R.M.M. Mattheij Introduction
Modern low emission combustion devices based on fuel lean premixed ames can display acoustic instabilities (combustion noise). The prediction of acoustic instabilities in fully premixed Bunsen type burners requires a transfer function that correlates the perturbations in the heat release rate and in the gas velocity. The ame is assumed to be an innitely thin layer that separates the burnt from the unburnt gas. Assuming that the heat release rate is proportional to the area of the ame, the instantaneous area of the ame surface is needed. To nd the area of the ame it is crucial to model the ame dynamics. The strain rate is dened as S := (n )(v n) + v = vt , (6)

where v t is the tangential component of the ow velocity. The G-equation is written in the form G = L(G), t where L(G) := H( G) + P (G), H( G) := v P (G)
0 G SL | 0 := SL L|

(7)

(8) (9) (10)

G| + LS| G| G|

Flame dynamics
The surface of the ame front can be described as the G0 -level set of a scalar function G (e.g., the temperature), (see Fig 1). Choosing as initial position a stationary position of the ame front, G is initialised on the grid by applying the signed distance function.

H is a hyperbolic Hamilton-Jacobi term and it is approximated using a high order SLLF (Stencil Local Lax-Friedrichs) method combined with 5th order WENO scheme P is a parabolic term approximated with central dierences, a 3rd order low storage TVD Runge Kutta time integration is applied to (7),

reinitialisation is applied to keep G a signed distance function, C++ oriented object implementation.

Tests
The numerical scheme was tested to capture the movement of implicit dened curves. Tests indicate that the numerical scheme is robust and can be used to describe nonlinearities like ame front cusping and breaking.
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Fig 1: Flame front dynamics. The ame front moves at the front velocity vf , vf = v S L , (1) where v and SL are the ow velocity and the laminar burning velocity, respectively. SL = SL n, (2) where SL is the laminar burning speed and n is the unit normal to the ame front directed towards the unburnt mixture. The motion of the ame front is given by the level set equation (G-equation) G + v G = SL | G|, (3) t SL depends on the ame curvature and ow strain, i.e.,
0 0 SL = SL SL L LS.

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Fig 2: Motion of a circle captured with the level set method. Left: circle collapsing in a curvature-driven ow. Right: motion of a circle due an extern velocity eld

Future developments

(4) apply the above numerical method to simulate the movement of a Bunsen ame due to ow perturbations 0 Here SL , L, and S are the burning speed of the unstretched planar ame, the Markstein length, the curvature of the ame describe the interaction between the ame and the ow by solving numerically the ow equations coupled with the G-equation. front and the strain of the ow, respectively. The curvature is given by Department of Mathematics and Computer Science 2 G n (n G) Department of Mechanical Engineering , (5) := | G|

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