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Unit-1 Origin and evolution of microbiology Introduction and scope of microbiology. Classification of microorganisms-Haeckel’s three kingdom concepts-Whittaker’s five kingdom concepts. Classification and salient features of bacteria according to the bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology-cyanobacteria. Contribution of early microbiologists. Unit 2 Microscopy Stains and staining reactions-simple, differential and special staining techniques. Compound microscope, dark field microscope, phase contrast microscope, fluorescent microscope, electron microscope-SEM, TEM, Confocal microscopy and their applications. Unit 3 Bacterial anatomy Culture media and culture methods-aerobic and anaerobic. Preservation methods. Structure, properties and biosynthesis of cellular components of bacteria. Unit 4 Bacterial physiology Growth – factor- nutritional requirement of bacterial growth. Bacterial metabolismrespiration- fermentation- photosynthesis. Unit 5 Antimicrobial chemotherapy Sterilization and disinfection- method and quality control. Antibiotics – classification- mode of action-drug resistance- sensitive test.

IMMUNOLOGY UNIT 1 Historical perspective of immunology. Innate immunity (factors involved in it). Acquired immunity ( active and passive). Humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity. Cells of the immune system- lymphoid cells. Organs of the immune system- primary lymphoid organs and secondary lymphoid organs. UNIT 2 Antigens – factors influencing immunogenicity- epitopes. Haptens . immunoglobulins- basic and fine structure – classes- IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE- biological activities. Monoclonal antibodies. Antigen – antibody reaction- invitro methods- agglutination , precipitation, complement fixation, immnofluorescence, ELISA, RIA. Invivo methods- skin tests and immune complex tissue demonstrations. UNIT 3 Major histocompatibility complex- structure and functions of class I, class II and class III. Antigen processing and presentation. T-cell receptor- maturation, activation and differentiation of T-cell and B-cell. Cytokines – structure and functions. UNIT 4 Complement system- complement activation- classical, alternative and lectin pathwaysterminal sequence – biological consequences of complement activation. Hypersensitive reactions- classification- IgE mediated (type-I), antibody mediated cytotoxic (type-II), Immune complex mediated (type-III) and Type IV hypersensitivity. UNIT 5 Vaccines – types. Toxoid – antitoxins. Immunohaematology – ABO and Rh incompatability. Autoimmunity – organ specific and systemic autoimmune disease. Transplantation immunology-graft versus host reaction- transplantation antigen. Introduction to tumor immunology- host immune response to tumors – immune diagnosis and treatment of tumors.

MICROBIAL GENETICS UNIT 1 DNA the genetic material – evidence for DNA as the genetic material – importance of bacteria and viruses in genetic. The duplex DNA – double helix and multiple conformations, denaturation & renaturation.RNA as the genetic material. Gene transfer mechanismstransformation, conjugation and transduction.structure of chromosomes . UNIT 2 DNA REPLICATION – geometry of DNA replication – Meselson and stahl experiment – Enzymology of DNA replication – Bidirectional replication and rolling circle replication. DNA repair mechanisms. UNIT 3 MUTAGENESIS- type of mutation- molecular basis of mutation- base substitution, Addition & Deletions – Spontaneous mutation- induced mutations- Mutation rates. Hot spots- site specific mutagenesis. Reverse mutations and Suppressor mutations- Detection & isolation of mutants, Mutant selection- Carcinogenicity testing. UNIT 4 MOLECULAR aspects of gene expression- organization of bacterial genes- promoter- coding sequences- Terminator, Transcription & translation processes- Post transcriptional modifications of RNA – genetic code- gene regulation in bacteria – lac and trp operons. UNIT 5 Plasmids- properties and type of plasmids- Detection- purification- Transfer and replication- episomes- cosmids. Transposable elements – Detection of transposition in bacteria – type of bacterial transposons- excision of transposans. E.coli phage, Mu-Mu DNA transposans and evolution – use of transposans in mapping & cloning of genes.

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