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Basal Ganglia I.

Introduction Areas of basal forebrain and midbrain involved in movement control o Striatum caurdate nucleus and putamen of lentiform nucleus o Pallidum o Subthalamic nucleus o Pars compacta main component of substantia nigra A. Caudate n. and putamen telencephalic origin; neostriatum; major input nuclei B. Globus pallidum diencephalons; divided to internal and external segments C. Subtalamic n. below thalamus; at its junction with midbrain with 2 zones: 1. Ventral pale zone (pars reticulata) 2. Dorsal pigmented zone (pars compacta) domaminergic with neuromelanin Globus pallidum + substantia nigra pars reticulate major output D. Thalamic nuclei VA & ant of VL nucleus; mediodorsal n. in cognitive pathway II. Inputs from Cortex via Thalamus Almost all afferent connections terminate in neostriatum Cerebral cortex corticostriate projection neostriatum o Most important input; contains fibers from entire cerebral cortex o Topographically organized, specific behavior function o Putamen motor control o Caudate eye movement control and cognitive functions o Ventral striatum limbic function Intralaminar n. (thalamus) neostriatum o Motor cortex Centromedian n. putamen o Additional pathway where motor cortex can influence basal ganglia III. Internuclear Connections Cerebral cortex Caudate, putamen globus pallidus substantia nigra corticostriatal pathway striatopallidal pathway striatonigral pathway o Topographically organized; specific parts External segment of globus pallidus subthalamic n. motor and premotor cortices o Topographically organized projections to pallidus and pars reticulate o Another means for modulating output of basal ganglia Neostriatum substantia nigra pars compacta IV. Projections to Thalamic Nuclei Globus pallidus pars reticulata VL, VA, MD nuclei prefrontal, premotor, motor Internal pallidus centromedian nucleus supplementary motor area cortex o Influence other desc systems (corticospinal and corticobulbar); limbs and body Substantia nigra pars reticulate superior colliculus also influences eye movement VII. Disorders Pathway Degeneration Neurotransmitter Other details Parkinsons Disease Nigrostriatal, raphe n., Locus ceruleus, motor n. of vagus dopamine, serotonin, NO Slowly progressive; 3rd most common neurological disease Onset at 58; tremor at rest, cogwheel rigidity, akinesia, bradykinesia, postural reflex impairment Huntingtons Disease Intrastriatal and cortical cholinergic n., GABAergic n. choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid, decarboxylase, GABA Progressive with dementia & death (within 10-15 yrs) Autosomal dominant; onset in adulthood Chorea, tone, dementia Ballism One subthalamic n. Tarive Dyskinesia Alters dopaminrgic receptors Hypersensitivity to dopamine and its agonist Iatrogenic disorder; due to phenothiazines or butyrophenones Involuntary movements Basal Ganglia Cerebellum Major constituents of 2 impt subcortical loops of motor system Input: Entire cerebral cortex Input: Only from part directly related to sensory motor functions Output: premotor, motor, prefrontal assoc Output: premotor and motor cortex cortex Few connections with brain systems Direct connection from SC No direct connection to SC Major aff and eff conn with many brain system nuclei that are directly connected with SC Planning & execution of complex motor control Directly regulates execution of movements Many other functions other than motor control Linked to Cortex for Behavior A. Oculomotor circuit/loop voluntary saccades o Frontal eye fields body of caudate superior colliculus o Frontal eye fields body of caudate thalamus frontal eye fields B. Dorsolateral prefrontal circuit cognitive loop; motor intentions o Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex & assoc cortex DL head of caudate n. thalamus dorsolateral prefrontal cortex C. Lateral orbitofrontal circuit limbic loop; emotional aspects of movement o Lateral orbitofrontal cortex ventromedial caudate thalamus LOC VI. Circuits within Basal Ganglia Use Different NT Direct Pathway Indirect Pathway Neostriatum internal segment of globus Neostriatum ext of globus pallidus pallidus, substantia nigra thalamus subthalamic nuclei pallidus s. nigra Mediated by GABA and substance P GABA and enkephalin, glutamate Inhibitory Excitatory Movement occurs when: Corticostriatal excitation inhibition of ext Corticostriate excites striatal neurons segment of pallidum disinhibition of phasic disinhibition; inhibition of inhibitory cells subthalamic nucleus (GABA) excites output thalamic cells released nuclei (glutamate) inhibits thalamus and Exciting premotor and supplementary motor decrease excitation of supplementary motor areas and activates projections to motor areas cortex, brain stem, SC Dopaminergic projection Dopamine inhibits indirect pathway; send GABA Excites direct pathway: send GABA and and enkephalin to ext segment of pallidum substance P to output nuclei Activation of striatum can have opposite effects on output; counterbalance each other V.

Most severe form Due to acute vascular accident

Paired collection of nerve cell bodies (nuclei) within the cerebral hemispheres Modulates movement fine and swift Part Caudate Nucleus (CN) Putamen (Ptm) Globus Pallidus (GP) Substancia nigra (SN) Subthalamic nucleus of Luys (SNL) Notes C shaped, similar to lateral ventricle, at the floor of the lateral ventricle, Has head, body and tail, head continuous with the putamen anteriorly, tail near the amygdala anteriorly Similar histologic appearance to CN Major output, 2 segments: GP Interna (GPI) and GP Externa (GPE) Subcortical, Pars compacta (PC) dorsal, pigmented due to neuromelanin (dopamine) and Pars reticulata (PR) ventral, major output, GABA (inhibitor), encephalin, Substance P, serotonin Subcortical Origin Telen Dien Mesen Dien Other Names Neostriatum / striatum Paleostriatum Groupings Lenticular nucleus Corpus striatum

2 Types of Nuclei - Found in CN and Ptm Spiny spines in dentrites Aspiny no spines AS I GABA S I GABA AS II Ach S II SII more spines, substance P As III ? Arrangement of Structures in Coronal Section: Medial to Lateral Ventricle Gray White Internal Capsule Lateral Caudate (Anterior Limb) Internal Capsule Third Thalamus (Anterior Limb) Connections Connection Afferent Tract Corticostriatal Thalastriatal Nigrostriatal Striatopallidal Striatonigral (to SNPR) Pallidosubthalamic Subthalamopallidal Subthalamonigral Nigrothalamic Pallidothalamic Ansa lenticularis / H field of Forel Lenticular / H2 Field of Forel

Gray Caudate Nucleus Lenticular Nucleus (GPI)

White Medial Medullary Lamina (MML)


White Lateral Medullary Lamina (LML)


White External Capsule


White Extreme Capsule

Gray Insula / Island of Reil






Pathway Cerebrum CN & Ptm Centromedian nucleus CN & Ptm SNPC CN & Ptm CN & Ptm GPI & GPE CN & Ptm SNPR GPE SNL SNL GPI & GPE SNL SNPR SNPR VA & VL GPI VA, VL & CMn


Dopaminergic Non-dopaminergic

2 fascicles of pallidothalamic, H + H2 = H1 (thalamic fasciculus)

Disorders Disorder Parkinsons / Paralysis Agitans Choreoathetosis Huntingtons Disease Ballisimus Damage Nigrostriatal tract or SNPR Striatum Striatum SNL Effect No dopamine = tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia Chorea (involuntary movement) + Athetosis (snakelike movement) Ach, GABA = chorea Limb flinging (contralateral)