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Defining The Caribbean The Geographical Concept: Countries lying in and around the Caribbean Sea The Geological Concept: Countries lying on the Caribbean plate The Historical Concept: Countries sharing the common historical past of European Colonialists The Political Concept: Countries sharing the common political experience of European domination ruled from abroad and the struggle for self rule and independence

Flaws of the Concepts The geographical concept it does not include countries that are part of the Caribbean such as Guyana, Barbados and Bahamas. But it would include countries such as Honduras, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua. The geological concept the Western edge of the Caribbean plate includes Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama and the Northern end of the plate excludes Cuba, Bahamas, Belize and the southern end of the plate excludes Guyana The historical concept it divides the Caribbean according to European heritage and linguistic consideration while ignoring the common experiences The political concept- it includes south and central America and ignores the influence of the USA and the fact that outside control still continues Sub divisions of the Caribbean

Greater Antilles they are located south-east of the United States. They are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea and includes four major islands: Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico Lesser Antilles long chain of islands wrapped around the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea on the boundary of the Atlantic Ocean. Include the U.S. Virgin islands, the British Virgin Islands, Anguilla, St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua and Bermuda, Montserrat , Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, Barbados, St. Vincent and The Grenadines, Grenada, Trinidad, Netherland Antilles (Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, St. Martin) Lesser Antilles is broken down into the Leeward Islands and the Windward Islands The Windward Islands are the southern islands of the Lesser Antilles. They are called such because they are more Windward than the Leeward Islands given that the prevailing winds in the area blow to the north. The Windward islands include Martinique, St. Lucia, Barbados, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada and Trinidad The Leeward Islands are the Northern islands of the Lesser Antilles. They are called Leeward because the prevailing winds in the area blow from south to north thus the Leeward islands are down-wind. They are the group of islands that first meet the Tradewinds. Mainland Territories (not islands but part of a country) Guyana, Belize, Suriname Southern Caribbean

Society and Culture Society Layman. 1. Collection of people living in a geographical area. 2 Rich and influential individuals and their lifestyles. 3. Abstract moral authority on acceptable behaviour Society Sociological. Sociological view is concerned with two terms; interaction, and group membership. Sociologists see members of a society interacting together on the basis of common membership in social institutions and social organizations. Social institutions cherished ideas and beliefs we hold in common with others as to how our lives should be organized, for example, family, religion, education

Social organizations these are the arrangements or groups we form to reflect our cherished ideas and beliefs about life. Eg. Nuclear, extended, single parent families Simply put society maybe defined as a group of people who share common social institutions and social organizations Society then provides a frame work or interactions in which culture develops. The patterns of interaction in a society over time allow certain ways of organizing life where some become dominant and others fade.

Society and Culture Laymans View of Culture The artistic expression of people for example, paintings, food, literature, drama and dance. It is the lifestyle peculiar to a particular group

Sociological Definition of Culture Culture is seen as cumulative store of symbols, ideas and materials, products associated with a social system that influences the behaviour of individuals within that social system. Culture maybe divided into material and non-material culture. Material culture are tangible products of the interactions of members of society example, artifacts, architecture or culinary skills. Non-material culture are the non-tangible beliefs, values and ideas created by the interation of people in a society

Cultural Beliefs Refer to what the collective society feels is true

Cultural Values Refer to the set of people in a society who confer to a myriad of social behaviour. Certain practices are ranked highly if they are perceived as somehow good or valued to society, e.g. high positive regard is conferred on persons who demonstrate altruistic qualities such as heroism or patriotism Values then are shared ideas about how behaviours or depositions are to be ranked in a given culture

Norms are standards of behaviours that are accepted and emulate from the realm of cultural values the importance of norms is that they invoke a range of rewards and sanctions to be conferred on members of the society according to their behaviours

Cultural Creation These are any arrangements within the institutions that have come about because our forefathers thought that such ways were best for the society to survive, i.e. cultural creations allow the group (society) to organize itself and be perpetuated. These ideas and arrangements are taught to the younger generation so that society would not fall apart Sanctions a mechanism used to enforce social norms it can be used to reward individuals who uphold the law or to punish individuals who deviate from the law. Sanctions maybe formal i.e. given out by an official body or informal, i.e. unplanned or given out by an unofficial body Homework draw out a map of the Caribbean labeling each territory and the Caribbean plate identify the Antilles, the windward islands and the leewad silands





Family (roles, norms, values


Social Stratification This refers to the way a society ranks social groups in terms of status, wealth and prestige. Historically, the systems of social stratification were rigid and based on race and colour. With the demise of slavery, race and colour continue as dominant themes but other factors play their part, e.g. education, political affiliation, class, family ties, employment and network

With This hybridization, they coexisted with the archaic people up to 1492 in region such as Western Cuba and they were known as Ciboneys These groups enjoy the freedom of movement throughout the region and even traded with some mainland territories From the time of contact the Arawak of South America began to migrate northwards navigating the Orinoco river in Venezuela and exploring what is now the Caribbean and the Antilles This migration will continue for hundreds of years until there was a presence on most Caribbean islands including Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola About 400 years before the coming of the Europeans was the last wave of migrants from South America who were the island Caribs The name Caribs were given by the Spaniards

European Migration Columbus was the first European to carry back tangible evidence of gold and precious stones of the new world (1492). Following Columbus first voyage ( 1492) there were droves of Spaniards flocking to the Caribbean in search of wealth They comprised of conquistadors (conquerors) who came to pillage (reign); priests came to convert the heathens and administrators came to organize the society and ensure that gold and silver of the Spanish went only to Spain

The first Spanish settlers in the region settled in Hispaniola this was so because gold was found there and there were a large number of Tainos who were used as labour in search for more gold Upon their arrival for the greed of gold and wealth they raged war against the Tainos stealing their gold, enslaving them, killing their leaders and exhausting the mines they owned They also set up the encomienda system Encomienda system natives pay the Spaniards taxes of gold in return for salvation by converting to Christianity It is evident that the genocide of the native Caribbean people were done mainly by the Spanish more than any other European nation Account for the conflicting conceptions of a place called the Caribbean Those migrants who continued to come following the initial groves came to settle They were mainly royalties who were sent to ensure that Spains interests were intact The royal African company set up a fort called Cape Coast Castle along the Gold Coast of Ghana. These forts were set up for three reasons- 1. Protection from rivals and foes. 2. Storage area for slaves, 3. Storage area for goods (gold trinkets, etc. for trading or bartering for slaves) An estimated 15 million Africans were taken to the Americans as slaves Colony Jamaica Barbados St. Domingue Cuba Antigua Import (Estimated) 610 000 148 821 800 000 30 875 12 278

Year 1700 - 1789 1747 - 1766 1680 - 1776 1763 - 1789 1720 - 1729

African Migrants Continued

Even though trade was on the coast it affected a region miles inward. They captured slaves by raids at first then with the help of rival African groups. This was the first part of the triangular trade Once the left the post of Africa they set towards the Caribbean (Middle Passage). The voyage across the Atlantic ocean lasted 2 to 3 months. The conditions abroad the ship were inhuman. Once they got to the Caribbean and were sold, the Europeans offloaded the slaves and reloaded the ships with cargo of sugar, molasses an rum to be transported to Europe, hence completing the triangular trade.

Triangular Trade 1. Trinkets of gold (other goods) Africa 2. Slaves captured in Africa Caribbean 3. Cargo: Sugar, molasses, etc. Europe Caribbean Europe Africa Caribbean Impact of the Slave Trade o Directly linked to the need for labor, the colonies where plantations were first established tended to developed African populations before others. o In the British, French and Dutch colonies, the African segment of the population became dominant. o Spain was slow to introduce plantations to Cuba, Puerto Rico and Santo Domingo, therefore over centuries, fewer Africans were imported. E.g. In 1750, in St. Domingue, there were 164 859 slaves and in Jamaica, 127 881 and Cuba, 28 760. Yet by 1880, in Cuba, there were 199 094. Abolition of Slave Trade 1804- British abolished Slave Trade 1814- Dutch abolished Slave Trade 1818- French abolished Slave Trade Abolition of Slavery 1834- British abolished Slavery 1848- French abolished Slavery 1863- The Dutch abolished Slavery

1886- Slavery was abolished in Cuba Apprenticeship 1834-1838 was the apprenticeship period. The ex-slaves had to work long hours of free labor on their masters plantation to get a small plot of land in return to build a house and make a profit off the land. But the time-off was negligible so no profits could be made. After 1838, there were new problems arising on the plantation i.e. the cost of labor(wages). There was strong conflict over wages between the whites and the blacks which led the planters to a new labor supply i.e. indentured laborers. The Rise of Sugar By the 1640s only tobacco was the most suitable crop for largescale production Due to a number of factors however sugar was introduced into the British Leeward Islands and soon after it became more important than tobacco

Factors that accounted for the changeover from tobacco to sugar the role of the Dutch under the supervision of the Dutch sugar was introduced into the English and French islands. The Dutch provided necessary credit and bought the produce of the infant colonies (English and French colonies). They also furnished the colonists with European manufactures and food stuff tobacco produced in the colonies could no longer compete in quality and quantity to the U.S the combination of West-Indian and Virginian tobacco created a glut on the world market which inevitably affected the price social habits in Europe were changing around this period. Drinking of tea and coffee became a norm therefore something cheaper than honey was needed to sweeten beverages the effects of the change from tobacco to sugar in the West Indies has been termed the Sugar Revolution

the changes profoundly affected the economic conditions, social structure and political organization of the islands

Plantation as a total institution a total institution is an institution where all parts of life of individuals under the institution are subordinated to and dependent upon authorities of the organization for example prisons, mental institutions or boarding schools on the plantations all aspects of life are conducted in the same place under the same single authority, i.e. all aspects of life were supervised under the watchful eye of the planter carefully structured activities usually serve an ultimate goal on the plantation activities were structured to serve the ultimate goal of maximization of profits of economic activity social mobility is grossly restricted n the plantation ones status was ascribed and therefore there was little or no chance of upward social mobility

Format of Internal Assessment


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Cover Page (title, name, date, centre, centre no. Acknowledgements Table of contents Introduction and Purpose of research Literature Review Data collection sources primary, secondary sources, close-ended, openended questions. How was it beneficial to the study Presentation of findings at least tables, graphs, paragraphs Interpretation of findings Discussion link it to the lit review Conclusion explicitly say if you have proven what you have set out to prove Limitations of Research Recommendations for further research, or if you could enhance further research Bibliography Appendices sample of the questionnaire, and things that support

Research Variables elements that are measured, controlled or manipulated in research. Independent variables a variable that is manipulated, measured or selected by a researcher as an ANTECEDENT condition to an observed behaviour. In a cause effect relationship, the independent variable is the cause and the dependent variable is the effect or outcome Dependent variables this is the variable that is not under the researchers control. It is the variable that is observed and measured in response to the independent variable

Hypothesis a tentative statement about a given state of affairs that predicts a relationship between the variables, usually put forward as a basis for empirical (scientific) testing.

It highlights the relationship between independent and dependent variables. Hypothess must be: Clear highlight the variables Testable with available research methods Value free free from any biases Specific

Stratified Divide population into groups different from each other sexes, races, ages Sample randomly from each group Less error compared to simple random More expensive to obtain stratification information before sampling

Cluster Dived population into comparable groups: schools, cities Randomly sample some of the groups More error compared to simple random Reduces costs to sample only some areas or organisations

Non-Probability Sampling Non-probability sampling is any procedure in which elements will not have the equal opportunities of being included in a sample In non-probability sampling, you set criteria for elements to be included in the sample e.g. on basis of region, appearance and so forth hence limiting the chances of representation in the sample

Types of Non-Probability Sampling Convenience Sampling

Sample is selected by choosing anyone who is willing to stop in the streets, into a store, or restaurant, etc. Purposive Researcher selects who he/she perceives to be representative of the population Snowball Sampling Sample is selected by referral from individual to another

Sources of Information and Data Collection There are seven main sources of information Published materials magazines, newspapers, books, brochures, past research, case studies Internet sources Oral Histories these are unstructured interviews with people about their life or events of the past Newspaper Reports Minutes of meetings Archives historical documents. Found in repositories. Holding place of historical materials or documents for long term storage or safe keeping Surveys

Criteria for selecting sources Adequacy the source must meet or be related to the problem being studied Objectivity the source must be free from bias

Accuracy the source must be consistent with the facts Relevance the source must be up to date Credible the source is accepted by a recognized academic community or a professional organization

Data collection Method the strategy used to gather information or data you need

Instrument the tool that is used to illicit and record the data. (The questionnaire itself, the interview schedule or the observation checklist.)

June 2011. Section C. No. 11. Study the hypothesis below and answer the questions below Access to health care is primarily determined by the cost of the service. a. List two reasons why a researcher would want to investigate the hypothesis above 2 b. List two data collection methods that could be used in this research 2 To investigate the availability of health care for the masses of the population. 12 a. explain what is meant by the term literature review 2 comprises of past studies done on the topic c. state two reasons why researchers should include a literature in their research 2 13 team of researchers concluded that carnival in Trinidad had been adversely affected by the increased incidence of violence in the society a. develop a research statement that could be used in this research 2 b. state two ways in which the data collected in this research can be presented 2 14. define the term oral source 2 b. state two benefits of using an oral source in a research study 15. You are conducting research on the prevalence of teenage pregnancies in your community a. outline one reason why you would need to gain permission to conduct your research b. identify two ethical issues other than that of obtaining information which may arise while conducting your research

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