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# A single degree of freedom system consisting of a

## mass m and a spring with stiffness k is considered.

Structural dynamics 1.1
SDF - INTRODUCTION
The spring is undeformed for u = 0
k (N/m)
DAlemberts principle
The system is supposed in dynamic equilibrium.
The principles of statics are applied by
introducing a fictitious inertia force, a force equal
to the product of mass time its acceleration and
acting in a direction opposite to the acceleration.
Free-body diagram
k
m
) (t u
) (t p
Newtons second law
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t p u k u m t u k t p t u m = + =
& & & &
0 ) ( ) ( ) ( = t u m t u k t p
& &
fictitious inertia force
Dynamic equilibrium
The equation of motion can be derived in two ways.
k
m
0 > ) (t u
) (t p ) (t p ) (t ku
) (t u
& &
) (t p
) (t ku
) (t u
& &
) (t u m
& &
Stiffness k
The stiffness k has the same definition as in
the displacement method:
The stiffness k is the external force that is
needed to keep the system in equilibrium
when a unit displacement u = 1 is applied.
Structural dynamics 1.2
Combination of two springs case 2
k m
1 = u
.1 k
1
k
m
2
k
1
F d ,
1
m
1 = u
k
2 2
F d ,
This case is more
complicated.
2 2 2
d k F
d k F
=
=
1 1 1
Combination of two springs case 1
The stiffness for this
system is trivial:
2 1
k k k + =
k m .1 k
1
k
m
2
k
m
k
2 2 2
d k F =
k F F = =
2 1
: statics
1 1
2 1
2 1
= + = +
k
k
k
k
d d
2 1
1 1 1
k k k
+ =
spring external force
Example
Structural dynamics 1.3
1
2
6
5
4
3
1
2
3
1 = u
k
Some structures can be idealised as SDF
In statics, this frame
has 6 active degrees
of freedom.
The mass of this SDF system is m, the
mass of the roof.
The stiffness is determined in the classical way:
3
24
L
EI
k =
Only one d.o.f. is left if
the frame is consisting of
an heavy roof supported
by light columns.
1
1
m
rigid beam
massless
1
3
12
L
EI
2
6
L
EI
3
12
L
EI
2
6
L
EI
By neglecting the
axial deformations,
3 d.o.f. disappear.
Rotations
I
f force inertia

massless
m
L
R
d
G
M(t)
Structural dynamics 1.4
m

& &
x m d
A SDF system can
also have a rotational
movement.
. forces inertia fictitious the by
created moment the is J
& &
Example: Calculation of J for a bar
) ( : dynamics in t M C J = +
& &
2
: disk circular a for
. inertia of moment the is
2
mR
J
J
=

= =
L
m x x f J
0
I

& & & &
d
2
3 3
2
0 0
3
2 2
mL

L
x x m x J
L L
= = = =

d d
L
m
=

m
x
L
L
G d
C C M
32
: statics in
4
= =
SDF - FREE VIBRATION
UNDAMPED FREE VIBRATION
) sin( C ) ( + = t t u
n
which can be written as
Structural dynamics 1.5
The structure is disturbed
from its static equilibrium
and then vibrates without
any applied forces.
The equation of motion is:
0 = + u k u m
& &
) sin( ) cos( ) (
o
o
t
u
t u t u
n
n
n

&
+ =
k
m
) (t u
C
sin
C
cos ) ( C
o o
o o
u

u
u u
n
n
= = + =

&
&
2 2
u
) sin( B ) cos( A ) ( t t t u
n n
+ =
m k
n
=
n t
t
u u u
u u u
B
A
o o
o o
= =
= =
=
=
& & &
0
0
(s) T
n
n

=
2
(Hz)
T
f
n
n
n

= =
2
1
A and B are determined by the initial conditions
natural circular frequency
The solution is:
natural period natural frequency
o
u
o
u
&
n
T
t
C
Energy in undamped free vibration
At each instant of time, the total energy E
is made of two parts, the kinetic energy E
k
and the strain energy E
s
.
2
2
1
) ( ) ( t u m t E
k
&
=
2
2
1
) ( ) ( t u k t E
s
=
) ( ) ( ) ( t E t E t E
s k
+ =
Structural dynamics 1.6
u
t
max =
0 =
k
E
s
E
0 =
=
k
E
s
E max
0 =
=
k
E
s
E max
[ ] [ ]
) ( C
) ( sin C ) ( cos C
) sin( C ) cos( C
) ( ) ( ) (
m k k
t k t m
t k t m
t E t E t E
n
n n n
n n n
s k
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1

= =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ =
E(t) is constant, which implies
conservation of energy.
Remark : the conservation of energy can be
used to derive the differential equation.
2 2
2
1
2
1
u k u m t E + =
&
) (
0 =
t
E

d
d
energy of on conservati
0 0 = + = + = ku u m u ku u u m
t
E
& & & & & &
d
d
VISCOUSLY DAMPED FREE VIBRATION
0 = + + u k u c u m
& & &
[ ]
[ ] ) cos( B ) sin( A
) sin( B ) cos( A ) (
t t
t t t u
D D D D
D D
t
t
n
n
n

+ +
+ =

e
e
&
D n t
t
u u u
u u u
B A
A
o o 0
o o 0
+ = =
= =
=
=
& & &
Friction in the structure is
idealized by a linear viscous
damper which develops a
force proportional to the
velocity
) (t u c f
D
&
=
A and B are determined by the initial conditions.
Structural dynamics 1.7
The equation of motion is:
k
m
) (t u
c
is solution the damping) (critical 2 if km c c
r
= <
[ ] ) sin( B ) cos( A ) ( t t t u
D D
t
n

+ =

e
km
c
c
c
r
2
= =
2
1 =
n D

(

+
+ =

) sin( ) cos( ) (
o o
o
t
u u
t u t u
D
D
D
n
t
n

&
e
) sin( C ) (

+ =

t t u
D
t
n
e
D
u u
n

C
cos
o o
+
=
&
The solution can also be written as
damping ratio damped pulsation
2
2
|
|

\
| +
+ =
D
u u
u
n

o o
o
C
&
C
sin
o
u
=
D
pT t t
n p n
+ =
+
D D
D
D
n
) pT (t
n
t
p n
n
n n
n n

) ) pT (t (
) t (

u
u

e
e
+ +
+
=
+

+
sin C
sin C
p n n
u and u
p
+
points
maximal two between periods
Structural dynamics 1.8
2
t
e
n

C
n
t
p n
t
+
n
u
p n
u
+
u
t
Decay of motion
D
pT
n
n

e =
2
n
n n
p n
n
1
p T p
u
u
D

= =
+
2
ln
p n
n
u
u

p

+

= < ln
2
1
. 1 1 1 0
2
A free vibration test can be used to determine
experimentally the natural frequency and the
damping of a structure.
D
D
T

2
=
Structural dynamics 1.9
COULOMB-DAMPED FREE VIBRATION
k
m
) (t u
dry friction
Coulomb damping
results from friction
against sliding of
two dry surfaces.
The friction force is F = N where denotes
the coefficients of static and kinetic friction,
taken to be equal, and N the normal force
between the sliding surfaces.
F is assumed to be independent of the velocity
The constants A
1
, B
1
, A
2
, B
2
depend on the initial
conditions of each successive half-cycle motion.
The plot of the solution is
u
F is assumed to be independent of the velocity
of the motion and its direction opposes motion.
The equations of motion from left to right are
F u k u m = +
& &
k F t t t u
n n
/ ) sin( B ) cos( A ) ( + =
1 1
The equations of motion from right to left are
F u k u m = +
& &
k F t t t u
n n
/ ) sin( B ) cos( A ) ( + + =
2 2
t
Structural dynamics 1.10
MULTIPLE DEGREES OF FREEDOM
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } ) ( MDF
) ( SDF
t
t p u k u c u m
p u k u c u m = + +
= + +
& & &
& & &
[ ]
[ ] matrix damping
matrix stiffnesss

c
k
DAMPING
Different damping models can be used, a
viscous proportional damping is the most
used approach.
There are two reasons for that:
The mathematical equation which describes
[ ]
[ ] matrix mass
matrix damping

m
c
The mass and stiffness matrices are
obtained by (finite element) discretisation of
the structure.
The damping matrix cannot be obtained by
discretisation, a different approach must be
used.
The mathematical equation which describes
the motion is easy.
This model gives results which are often in
very good agreement with experiments.
A consequence is that the damping
coefficient can only be determined
by experiments.
SDF - HARMONIC EXCITATIONS
) sin(
o
t p u k u m = +
& &
Structural dynamics 2.1
is applied to the
structure.
Without damping, the equation of motion is
k
m
) (t u
) sin(
o
t p
) sin( ) ( t u t u
go g
=
2 / k 2 / k
u
m
y
Example 2
g
u u y + =
u k y m =
& &
Example 1
) sin(
) ( ) (
t r m u k u m
u k u v m u m m

2
= +
= + +
& &
& & & & & &
) sin( t u m u k u m
u k u u m
2
go
g
= +
= +
& &
& & & &
) (
The system consisting
of the mass m and the
excentric mass m is
considered for writing
Newtons equation.
) sin( t r v =
m
m
2 / k 2 / k
u
If u is to be studied (e.g. earthquake)
) sin( t u k y k y m
u y k y m
go
g
= +
=
& &
& &
) (
If y is to be studied (e.g. floor isolation)
WITHOUT DAMPING
) sin(
o
t p u k u m = +
& &
homogeneous solution
C and are determined by the initial conditions
u(t) is a summation of two sinus and is not
defined for =
n
.
In reality, the damping implies that u
h
(t)
disappears after some time. Then the solution
( steady state response ) is
) sin(
) (
) ( ) (
o
t
k p
t u t u
n
p

2
1
= =
Structural dynamics 2.2
) ( ) ( ) ( t u t u t u
p h
+ =
The solution u(t) of the differential equation is
the sum of two parts u
h
(t) and u
p
(t).
k
m
) (t u
) sin(
o
t p
) sin( C ) ( + = t t u
n h

homogeneous solution
particular solution
) sin( ) ( t A t u
p
=
2
2
1 ) (
/
A A
o o
o
n
2
k p
m k
p
p kA m

=

= = +
) sin( ) ( t A t u
p

2
=
& &
) sin(
) (
) sin( C ) ( t
k p
t t u
n
o
n

2
1

+ + =
n
conclusions
After some time, the structure vibrates with
the same frequency as the applied force.
The amplitudes of the vibration are infinite
when =
n
.
u
p
(t) is the steady state response
u
h
(t) is the transient response
WITH VISCOUS DAMPING
) sin(
o
t p u k u c u m = + +
& & &
after calculations (see the book), it is obtained
[ ] [ ]
) sin(
) ( ) (
) (
o

+
= t
k p
t u

n

n
p
2
2
2
2 1
o
180 0
1
2
2
< <

=

n
n
) (
) (
tan
Structural dynamics 2.3
k
m
) (t u
c
) sin(
o
t p
) sin( C ) (

+ =

t t u
D
t
h
n
e
The homogeneous solution u
h
(t) (transient
response) disappears after some time.
The particular solution u
p
response) is of the form:
) sin( A ) ( = t t u
p
Remarks
The total response is u(t) = u
h
(t) + u
p
(t). But
after some time u
h
(t) disappears and u(t) = u
p
(t)
After some time, the structure vibrates with the
same frequency as the applied force.

+ =
t
This numerical example shows that the
transient response u
h
(t) disappears after
some time and that only the steady state
response u
p
(t) is then left.
Structural dynamics 2.4
) ( ) ( ) ( t u t u t u
p h
+ =
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
u
[ ] [ ]
) sin(
) ( ) (
) sin( C ) (
o

+
+
+ =

t
k p
t t u

n

n
t
D
n
2
2
2
2 1
e
C and are determined by the initial conditions.
0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.8
-0.6
t
total response u(t)
transient response u
h
(t)
For this case, the steady state is obtained
Dynamic factor
[ ] [ ]
) sin(
) ( ) (
) (
o

+
= t
k p
t u

n

n
p
2
2
2
2 1
Structural dynamics 2.5
After some while, the structure vibrates with the
same frequency as the applied force. It is the
p
(t).
The amplitude of these vibrations are now studied.
R
d
can be plotted as function of the ratio /
n
for different values of the damping coefficient .
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
1 . 0 =
2 . 0 =
4 . 0 =
d
R
k
p
o
o
) ( =
st
u
[ ] [ ]

1
R

n

n
n d
2
2
2
2 1 ) ( ) (
) , (

+
=
response static" quasi " . R
d n
1 25 0 <
Resonance : large become
vibrations of amplitudes the

n

The static deformation
due to a static load p
o
is
The amplitude of the vibration is equal to the
product of the static deformation times a
dimensionless dynamic factor R
d
.
) sin( ) sin(
o o
t k p u t p u k u c u m = = + +
& & &
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
0.5
1
1.5 4 . 0 =
) (
n

2
2 1 = =
n r
Resonance Band-width method
The structure is excited by a harmonic load. The
frequency of the load is increased step by step.
At each step, the amplitudes of vibrations of the
steady state response are measured. This
implies that at each step, some time must be
waited so that the transient response
disappears. The curve R
d
as function of is then
obtained experimentally.
Structural dynamics 2.6
2
1 2
1

=
max d
R
Resonance is reached for
For this value of , the dynamic factor is
( Experimental method to determine )
3
2 2
2 1 1
2
1
1 0

= = =
<
n r n n
d
m k
R
D
and then . if
max
Example
25 2 = =
d
R %
The deformations are 25 times the static ones.
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 0
f f
f f

+

=
+

<

.

=
2

f
1 2
0 2
0
1
2
3
d
R

max d
R
2
max d
R
r

## Force transmission and vibration isolation

) sin( ) (
o
= t R
k
p
t u
d
The transmissibility TR is defined as the ratio
between the amplitude of the transmitted force f
T
and the amplitude of force applied to the structure.
Structural dynamics 2.7
A harmonic load is applied to a structure. This
structure is connected to the ground through a
support modelled by a spring k and a damper c.
) sin( ) (
o
t p t p =
m
k c
u
[ ]
[ ] ) sin( ) (
) cos( ) ( ) sin( ) (
o
o

+ + =
+ =
t R p
t t R p t f

n d
n d T
2
2 1
2
) sin( ) ( = t R
k
t u
d
The force transmitted to the ground is
) cos( ) sin(
) ( ) ( ) (
o
+ =
+ =
t R
k
c p
t R p
t u c t ku t f
d
o
d
T
&
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
2
2
2
2
2 1
2 1

n

n

n

p
f
TR
T
) ( ) (
) (
o
max

+
+
= =
T
f
k c
TR is dimensionless.
The objective is to choose the support (k, c)
such that TR is as small as possible.
The mass m of the structure and the frequency
of the load are imposed. The problem is to
choose a support with k and such that the
transmissibility TR is minimal.
Structural dynamics 2.8
m k
n
=
TR as function of the ratio /
n
is plotted for
different values of .
1.5
2
2.5
3
0 =
2 0 = .
25 0 = .
TR
The transmitted force is less than the applied
one if the natural frequency
n
is such that
/ > 1.4 .
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
0.5
1
1.5
5 0 = .
n

/
n
> 1.4 .
A low TR is obtained for low values of
n
and .
However, a very low
n
implies a low k and
therefore a too large static displacement p
o
/ k.
Besides, a very low implies high
displacement amplitude while passing through
resonance which may occur before the load
reaches the circular frequency .
Natural rubber is a good compromise and is
often used for the isolation of vibrations.
SDF - ARBITRARY EXCITATIONS
RECTANGULAR PULSE FORCE
o
t t 0
o
p u k u m = +
& &
) ( ) ( ) ( t u t u t u
p h
+ =
k
p
t u
t t t u
o
p
n n h
=
+ =
) (
) sin( B ) cos( A ) (
Structural dynamics 3.1
This chapter studies the response of a SDF
system to pulse, impulse and periodic excitations.
) (t p
o
p
k
m
) (t u
) (t p
0 = =
o o
u u
&
k
p
t t t u
o
n n
+ + = ) sin( B ) cos( A ) (

k
p

u
u
n
o
o
o

=
= +

=
=
0
0
0
0
B
A
&
[ ] ) cos( ) ( t
k
p
t u
n
o
= 1
An undamped SDF system is loaded by a
rectangular pulse force. For this case, the
differential equation can be solved analytically.
t
o
t
m ) (t p
initial conditions:
o
t t
vibration free 0 u k u m = +
& &
) sin(
) (
) cos( ) ( ) (
1 1
t
t u
t t u t u
n
n
o
n o

&
+ =
[ ] ) cos( ) (
n o
o n
o
o o
p
t
k
p
t u t t t

=
= = 1
1
) cos( sin sin cos cos b a b a b a + =
Structural dynamics 3.2
[
] ) sin( ) sin(
) cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) (
o n n o n
o n n o n o n n
o
t t t
t t t t t
k
p
t u

+
=
by using
) sin( ) (
o n
n o
o
t
k
p
t u

=
&
[ ]
) sin( ) sin(
) cos( ) cos( ) (
o n n o n
o
o n n o n
o
t t t
k
p

t t t
k
p
t u

+
= 1
[ ] ) cos( ) cos( ) ( t t t
k
p
t u
n o n n
o
=
it is obtained

= =
o
t
o o
t t p
m
u t u t t p
m
t u
0
1 1
d ) ( ) ( d ) ( ) ( d
& & &

= =
o
t
o
t t p
m
t u
0
d ) ( ) ( I
I
&
0 = =
o o
u u
&
(free vibration)
o
t t
Structural dynamics 3.3
k
m
) (t u
) (t p
) (t p
t
o
t
An undamped SDF system is loaded by a short
impulse force. An approximative response is to
be calculated.
Newtons law for
At t
o
, the impulse load is assumed to have
produced an initial velocity, but no displacement.
) ( ) (
d
) ( d
t p t u k
t
t u
m = +
&
0
0

=
) (
o
o
o
t u
u
t small very is
[ ] [ ]
n
o n
n
o
o n o
m
u
t t
t u
t t t u t u

I
=
+ =
max
is nt displaceme maximum the
) ( sin
) (
) ( cos ) ( ) (
&
Newtons law for
o
t t
This result is only valid if t
o
is small enough so
that u(t
o
) 0. In practice it means t
o
< T
n
/10
In such case, the maximal deformation does not
depend on the form of the impulse load, but only
on the value of the integral .
t
o
is so small that the displacement
u is still zero at t
o
. (u
o
= 0).
Hypothesis:
Then ku(t) can be neglected in Newtons equation
[ ]

=
+ + = = +
1 j
o j o j o
t j b t j a a t p ku u m ) sin( ) cos( ) (
& &
Newtons equation is
Structural dynamics 3.4
PERIODIC EXCITATION
k
m
) (t u
) (t p
A SDF system is excited
by a periodic (but not
o
p
o
T
o
T 2
o
T 3
) (t p
t
The steady state response is calculated by
using the theorem of superposition.

k
a
u a ku u m
o
p o
= = +
& &
k b
j
/
Idea : a periodic function can be separated into
its harmonic components using Fourier series.
[ ]

=
+ + =
1 j
o j o j o
t j b t j a a t p ) sin( ) cos( ) (
t t p
T
a

T
o
T
o
o
o
o
d ) (

=
=
0
1
2

t t j t p
T
b
t t j t p
T
a
o
o
T
o
o
j
T
o
o
j
d ) sin( ) (
d ) cos( ) (

=
=
0
0
2
2

o
T
o
T 2
o
T 3
) sin(
) / (
) sin( t j
j
k b
u t j b ku u m
o
n o
j
p o j

/

2
1
= = +
& &
The total steady state response is then
) sin(
) / (
) sin( t j
j
k b
u t j b ku u m
o
n
j
p o j

2
1
o
/

= = +
& &
[ ]

=
+

+ =
1
2
1
1
j
o j o j
n o
o
t j b t j a
j
k

k
a
t u ) sin( ) cos(
) / (
/
) (

Example
t
T
p
t p T t
o
o
o
= ) ( 0
2
1
0
o
T
o
o
o
o
p
t t
T
p

T
a
o
= =

d

= =
o
T
o
o
o
j
t t j t
T
p

T
a
0
0
2
d ) cos(
o

= =
o
T
o

o
o
o
j
j
p
t t j t
T
p

T
b
0
2
d ) sin(
Only the first three Fourier terms in u(t) must be
considered to get an error less than 2 %. The
plot of the load approximations with 2 and 3
Fourier terms shows that an inaccurate
approximation of the load gives an accurate
approximation of the response. The reason is
that the higher frequencies in the load do not
give any contributions to the response.
Structural dynamics 3.5

=
1
2
1
2
j
o
n o
o o
t j
j
k j p

k
p
t u ) sin(
) / (
/
) (

(

+

=
...
) sin( ) sin(
) sin( ) sin(
) (

t t
t t

k
p
k
p
t u
o o
o o o o
252
4
105
3
30
2
3 2

2 =
n
o

with
The total steady state response is then
Structural dynamics 3.6
NON PERIODIC EXCITATION
Fourier series can also be used for non
periodic loads. As example, the response u(t)
of a damped SDF system loaded by the force
) (t p
t t
) (t u
o
T
) (t p
) (t u
t
of a damped SDF system loaded by the force
p(t) is given above.
p(t) and therefore u(t) are non periodic. They
become periodic by artificially adding the same
model. Then a Fourier analysis can be done.
The Fourier analysis of the artificial periodic
problem is performed by only considering the
steady state response. But the result obtained
for the real problem includes both the transient
t
Remark: u(t) must be zero at the end of the
period T
o
.
Such an approach is not used for real problems,
but it constitutes the basis for signal analysis,
see the chapter experimental dynamics.
Structural dynamics 3.7
RAYLEIGHS METHOD
Rayleighs method can be used to calculate
approximately the lowest natural frequency of
beams.
INTRODUCTION
k
m
) (t u
Free vibrations of an
undamped SDF system
are considered.
u k E
2
1
=
2 2
u m E
1
=
u
t
max =
0 =
k
E
s
E
0 =
=
k
E
s
E max
0 =
=
k
E
s
E max
are considered.
) sin( ) ( t u t u
n

o
= ) sin( ) ( t u t u
n n

o
=
&
strain energy
) ( sin ) ( ) (
2
t u k t u k t E
n o s

2 2
2
1
2
1
= =
kinetic energy
) ( cos ) ( ) (
2
t u m t u m t E
n o
2
n k

2 2
2
1
2
1
= =
&
u k E
o s
2
max
2
1
=
2
max o
2
n k
u m E
2
1
=
conservation of energy
2 2 2
max max o n o k s
u m u k E E
2
1
2
1
= =
m
k

n
=
Structural dynamics 3.8
APPLICATION
) , ( t x u
x
M m L EI
The same approach can be used to calculate
an approximative value of the lowest natural
frequency of the beam above.
strain energy
[ ]

\
|

=
= =
L
2

L
s s
x
L
x
t
L
Y EI
x t x u EI E E
2 2
4
4
2
0
2
1
2
1
d sin ) ( sin
d ) , (
beam

) sin( sin
) , (
) , ( t
L
x
Y
L

x
t x u
t x u
|

\
|

=

=
2
2
2
2
The method consists in
estimating the vibration shape (eigenmode)
calculate E
s
(t) and E
k
(t)
using E
s
(t) = E
k
(t) to get the natural frequency
Lets take ) sin( sin ) , ( t
L
x
Y t x u
|

\
|

=
which is the exact eigenmode if M = 0.

\
= x
L
t
L
Y EI
0
4
2
d sin ) ( sin
3
4
2
2
2
1
L
Y EI E
s

=
max
2
d cos d sin
L
x
L
x
x
L
x

L L
=
(

\
|

=
|

\
|

0 0
2
2
1
2
1
) ( sin ) cos( a a
2
2 1 2 =
Structural dynamics 3.9
kinetic energy
) cos( sin
) , (
) , ( t
L
x
Y
t
t x u
t x u
|

\
|

=
&
beam k M k k
E E E + =
[ ] ) ( cos ) , / ( t Y M t L u M E
2
M k

2 2 2
2
1
2
2
1
= =
&
) (
max max
mL M L
EI

L
EI
L
m M E E
s k
+
=

=
|

\
|
+ =
2
2
2
3
2
3
4
2

particular cases
exact solution since the
conservation of energy
[ ]
x
L
x
t Y m
x t x u m E
L

L
k
d sin ) ( cos
d ) , (
2
beam

\
|

=
=
0
2 2 2
2
0
2
1
2
1

&
|

\
|
+ =
2 2
1
2 2
mL
M Y E
k

max
M = 0
4
2
mL
EI
=
exact solution since the
eigenmode is exact.
m = 0
3 3
2
98 6
2
ML
EI

ML
EI
. =

=
In that case, the beam is
considered as a spring with
3
48
L
EI
k =
which gives as
exact solution 3 3
93 6
48
ML
EI

ML
EI

M
k
. = = =
Structural dynamics 3.10
REMARKS
Only an estimate of the natural frequency
can be calculated.
The accuracy of the result depends
entirely on the shape function which is
assumed to represent the eigenmode.
The natural frequency calculated by
Rayleighs method is always greater than the
exact value.
a possibility is to take the deflected shape
corresponding to the weight of the structure.
(implemented in some f.e.m. codes)
example
M m L EI
Mg = F
mg = q
exact value.
SELECTION OF THE SHAPE FUNCTION
The shape function (eigenmode) must be
kinematically admissible, i.e. must satisfy the
displacements boundary conditions at the
supports.
The main interest of the Rayleighs method
lies in its ability to provide useful estimation
of the natural frequency from any reasonable
assumption of the eigenmode.
CONCLUSION
Structural dynamics 4.1
SDF - TIME INTEGRATION METHODS
k
m
) (t u
c
) (t p
p
t
i
p
1 + i
p
i
t
1 + i
t
) (t p u k u c u m = + +
& & &
The response at time step i +1 is calculated
from the equation of motion, a difference
expression, and known responses at one or
more preceding time steps.
Equations of motion at time i and i +1.
(1) p u k u c u m
i i i i
= + +
& & &
(2) p u k u c u m
i i i i 1 1 1 1 + + + +
= + +
& & &
The purpose is to calculate u (and ,
if required) at the discrete time instants.
[ ] p p p p p p p
n i i i
... ...
1 1 2 1 0 +
= p
The load p is time discretised.
u
&
u
& &
[ ] u u u u u u u
n i i i
... ...
1 1 2 1 0 +
= u
[ ] u u u u u u u
n i i i
& & & & & & & &
... ...
1 1 2 1 0 +
= u
[ ] u u u u u u u
n i i i
& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & &
... ...
1 1 2 1 0 +
= u
An explicit algorithm uses a difference
expression of the general form
) ... , , , , ( u u u u u u
i i i i i i 1 1 1 +
=
& & & &
f
) ... , , , , ( u u u u , u u u
i i i i i i i 1 1 1 1 + + +
=
& & & & & &
f
which is combined with equation (1)
An implicit algorithm uses a difference
expression of the general form
which is combined with equation (2)
t
u u
u
i i
i

=
+
2
1 1
&
2
1 1
2
) ( t
u u u
u
i i i
i

+
=
+
& &
i i i
p u k u c u m = + +
& & &
i i
p u k

=
+1
t
c
t
m
k

=
2
2
) (

2m c m

Structural dynamics 4.2
CENTRAL DIFFERENCE METHOD
difference expressions :
u
(explicit algorithm)
Introducing the two difference expressions in
the equilibrium equation at time i
gives the unknown as
1 + i
u
i i i i
u
t
2m
k u
t
c
t
m
p p

=

2
1
2
2
) ( ) (

1 + i
u
i
u
1 i
u
1 + i
t
1 i
t
i
t
t
t t
c b a + + = t t u
2
assumption
The displacement curve is assumed to be a
parabola between 3 consecutive points.
. u u
0 0
&
and are conditions initial given The
. u u u
1 1 0
determine to required are and But

initialisation
Structural dynamics 4.3
The difference expressions for i = 0 are
t
u u
u

=

2
1 1
0
&
2
1 0 1
0
2
) ( t
u u u
u

+
=

& &
which after substitution gives
0
2
0 0 1
2
u
t
u u u
& & &
) (
+ =

t
Algorithm central difference method
1 initial calculations
m
u k u c p
u
0 0 0
0

=
&
& &
0
2
0 0 1
2
u
t
u u u
& & &
) (
+ =

t
t
c
t
m
k

=
2
2
) (

2
) ( t
2m
k b

=
t
c
t
m
a

=
2
2
) (
The equation of motion at time t = 0
gives the initial acceleration as
m
u k u c p
u
0 0 0
0

=
&
& &
2 calculations for step i
i i i i
u b u a p p =
1

k p u
i i

=
+1
if required
t
u u
u
i i
i

=
+
2
1 1
&
2
1 1
2
) ( t
u u u
u
i i i
i

+
=
+
& &
3 repetition for the next time step
replace i by i + 1 and repeat step 2
Structural dynamics 4.4
AVERAGE ACCELERATION METHOD
(implicit algorithm)
difference expressions :
) ( ) ( 3
2
1 1
u u
t
u u
i i i i + +
+

+ =
& & & & & &
) ( ) (
) (
4
4
1
2
1
u u
t
t u u u
i i i i i + +
+

+ + =
& & & & &
Acceleration
(constant)
i
u
& &
1 + i
u
& &
( )
1
2
1
+
+ =
i i
u u u
& & & & & &
) (
Velocity
(linear)
1 + i
u
&
( )
1
2
+
+ + =
i i i
u u u u
& & & & & &

) (
The acceleration is assumed constant
between t
i
and t
i+1
. it is given by
i
u
&
1 + i
u
&
( 3 )
Displacement
i
u
1 + i
u
t
( )
1
2
4
+
+ + + =
i i i i
u u u u u
& & & & &

) (
( 4 )

## The velocity is then linear and the displacement

quadratic, which gives equations (3) and (4).
t u u u
i i
+ =
+
0
2
1
1
) ( ) (
& & & & & &
Structural dynamics 4.5
The system constituted by equations (2) (3) (4)
has 3 unknowns, .
1 1 1 + + + i i i
u u , u and
& & &
The solution of the system can be calculated as
i i
p u k

=
+1
2
4 2
) (

t
m
t
c
k k

+ =

+ =
+ i
i i
i
i
i
u
t
u
t
u
m u
t
u
c p p
& &
&
&
4 4 2
2
1
) (

## Algorithm average acceleration method

1 initial calculations
m
u k u c p
u
0 0 0
0

=
&
& &
2
4 2
) (

t
m
t
c
k k

+ =
2 calculations for step i

+ + +

+ + =
i i i
u
u u
m u
u
c p p
& &
&
&
4 4 2

i i i i
u u u
t
u
& &

=
+ +
) (
1 1
2
) (
1 1 1 1
1
+ + + +
=
i i i i
u k u c p
m
u
& & &
. u u
0 0
&
and are conditions initial given The
m
u k u c p
u
0 0 0
0

=
&
& &
by calculated be can
0
u& &

+ =
+ i
i i
i
i
i
u
t
u
t
u
m u
t
u
c p p
& &
&
&
4 4 2
2
1
) (

i i
p u k

=
+1
i i i i
u u u
t
u
& &

=
+ +
) (
1 1
2
) (
1 1 1 1
1
+ + + +
=
i i i i
u k u c p
m
u
& & &
3 repetition for the next time step
replace i by i + 1 and repeat step 2
Structural dynamics 4.6
STABILITY
The central difference method will blow up,
giving meaningless results, if the time step
chosen is not short enough. The specific
requirements for stability is :

<
1
n
T
t
The average acceleration method is
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
07 0. = t 01 0. = t
The average acceleration method is
unconditionally stable, which means that the
regardless of the time step length.
example
) sin( t u k u c u m 2 = + +
& & &
05 0 1 8 . = = = k
n
central difference method : 0796 0. < t
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
01 0. = t
08 0. = t
Structural dynamics 4.7
HOW TO CHOOSE t ?
t must be small enough to get a good
accuracy, and long enough to be
computationally efficient.
For SDF systems, stability criteria are not
restrictive since t must be considerably
smaller than the stability limit to ensure
Stability of the numerical method is however
NONLINEAR RESPONSE
) ( ) ( t p u f u c u m = + +
& & &
If the structure undergoes large displacements
or plastic deformation, the equation becomes
where the internal force f(u) is a nonlinear function.
The equation for the central difference method
can be solved explicitly.
Stability of the numerical method is however
important for the analysis of multiple degrees of
freedom systems where it is often necessary to
use unconditionally stable methods.
One useful technique for selecting the time
step is to solve the problem with a time step
that seems reasonable, then repeat the
solution with a smaller time step and compare
the results, continuing the process until to
successive solutions are close enough.
i i i i i i i
u
t
2m
u
t
c
t
m
u f p u k
2
1
2
1
2
) ( ) (
) (

=
+
can be solved explicitly.
1 1
2
1
4 2
+ +
+
=

i i
i
p u
t
m
t
c
u
f

) (
The equation for the average acceleration
method must be solved by iteration (implicitly)
since the first term in [] is unknown.
2D CONTINUOUS BEAMS
Structural dynamics 5.1
Free vibration in bending of a beam with
distributed mass and flexibility is studied.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
u
) ( t x, p
? ) , ( t x u
p
x
V
t
u
m
x p x
x
V
V V
t
u
x m
=

+
|

\
|

+ =

2
2
2
2
d d d
Vertical dynamic equation
Rotational static equation ( the inertial moment
associated with the angular acceleration is
neglected) :
(1)
x dx
x
(kg/m) m EI
neglected) :
x
M
V

=
2
2
x
u
EI M

=
4
4
2
2
x
u
EI
x
M
x
V

) (t p
t
u
m
x
u
EI =

2
2
4
4
(2)
Equations (1) and (2) give
2
2
t
u

x
x
V
V d

+ x
x
M
M d

+
dx
V M
x p d
Structural dynamics 5.2
FREE VIBRATION
0
2
2
4
4

t
u
m
x
u
EI =

## The differential equation

can be solved analytically.
A possible solution is of the form
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
t f
t f
EI
m

x
x

& &
=

4
constant) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
4
(4)
a a
t f
t f
EI
m

x
x
= =
& &

= = +
=

a EI
x a x

2
4
2
4 (4)
0 ) ( ) (

& &
The above equation must hold for every x and t
A possible solution is of the form
) ( ) ( ) , ( t f x t x u =
which gives
0 t f x m t f x EI = + ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
(4)
& &

with
4
4
(4)
d
) ( d
) (
x
x
x

=
2
2
d
) ( d
) (
t
t f
t f =
& &

= = +
m
a EI
t f t f
2
4
2
0 ) ( ) (
& &

+ + + =
+ =
) Dcosh( ) Csinh( ) Bcos( ) Asin( ) (
) Fsin( ) Ecos( ) (
ax ax ax ax x
t t t f

The solution is
E, F are determined by the initial conditions.
A, B, C, D are determined by the boundary conditions.
Structural dynamics 5.3
EXAMPLE: SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM
u
x
m L EI
) ( ) ( ) , ( t f x t x u =
Boundary conditions
) ( ) ( t f x EI
x
u
EI M =

=
2
2

=
=

= +
= +

=
=
0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0

D
B
D B
D B
) (
) (

aL aL
aL aL

L
L

= +
= +

=
=
0
0
0
0
) sinh( C ) sin( A
) sinh( C ) sin( A
) (
) (

=
=

(2) ) sinh( C
(1) ) sin( A
aL
aL

0
0

=
=
=
=

= =
= =
= =
= =
0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0 0
L

L

t L x M
t x M
t L x u
t x u
) (
) (
) (
) (
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (

## ) Dcosh( ) Csinh( ) Bcos( ) Asin( ) ( ax ax ax ax x + + + =

[ ] ) Dcosh( ) Csinh( ) Bcos( ) Asin( ) (
2
ax ax ax ax a x + + =

= (2) ) sinh( C aL 0
0 0 0 2 a = = = C motion) (no or C ) (
0 0 1 aL = = ) sin( or motion) (no A ) (
Conclusion: the boundary conditions require
0 0 = = = = D C B and ) sin( aL
Structural dynamics 5.4
L
n
a n aL aL

= = = 0 ) sin(
4
2 2
4
2
mL
EI
n
m
EIa

n
= =
|

\
|
= = = =

L
x n
A x
n
sin ) ( D C B 0

n
are the natural circular frequencies

## visualisation of the three first eigenmodes

4
2
1
mL
EI
=
|

\
|
=

L
x
x sin A ) (
1

n = 1
n = 2

n
are the natural eigenmodes
An infinite number of solutions u
n
have been found
[ ] t t x t x u
n n n n n n
) sin( F ) cos( E ) ( ) , ( + =
superposition of all the eigenmodes.
[ ]

=
+ =
1
) sin( F ) cos( E ) ( ) , (
n
n n n n n
t t x t x u
) , ( , ) , ( . cond . init the by given are F E 0 0 = = t x u t x u
n n
&
4
2
2
mL
EI
= 4
|

\
|
=

L
x
x
2
2
sin A ) (
4
2
3
mL
EI
= 9
|

\
|
=

L
x
x
3
3
sin A ) (
n = 3
Structural dynamics 5.5
MDF FREE VIBRATION
Free vibration of multi degree of freedom
systems are studied.
EXAMPLE 1 - TRAIN
1
u
2
u
k k k
m m

= +
= +

0 2
0 2
2 1 2
2 1 1
u k u k u m
u k u k u m

& &
& &
The coefficients in parenthesis are determined by
considering first u
1
alone and then u
2
alone.
0
1
> u 0
2
= u
ku ku ku
m m
Differential equations
Newtons law is applied for each coach

+ =
+ =
2 1 2
2 1 1
2
2
u k u k u m
u k u k u m
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
& &
& &
0 u >
2
0
1
= u
1
ku
1
ku
1
ku
2
ku
2
ku
2
ku
Structural dynamics 5.6
Mass and Stiffness matrices
The differential equations can be written as
)
`

=
)
`

+
)
`

0
0
2
2
0
0
2
1
2
1

u
u

k k
k k

u
u

m
m
& &
& &
mass matrix stiffness matrix
1
1
= u 0
2
= u
k 2 k
(

k
k 2
first column of [k]
[ ] m [ ] k
The stiffness matrix can be determined by the
classical way. As example, the components of
first column of [k] are the external forces that
must be applied to the masses in order to
keep the system in equilibrium when a unit
displacement u
1
=0 is applied.
1
2
= u 0
1
= u
k k 2
(

k
k
2
second column of [k]
Structural dynamics 5.7
)
`

=
)
`

+
)
`

0
0
2
2
0
0
2
1
2
1

u
u

k k
k k

u
u

m
m
& &
& &
The solution of this system is of the form
? ? ) sin( t
u
u
n n

)
`

)
`

=
)
`

2
1
2
1
2
1
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] ( )
)
`

=
)
`

)
`

=
)
`

+
)
`

0
0
0
0
2
1 2
2
1
2
1 2
t
t t
n n
n n n

) sin(
) sin( ) sin(

m k
k m
Eigenvalue problem
This equation is valid for every t, which implies
( )
0
eigenvalue
u
) ) ) 2 2 2
Since
1
,
2
,
n
are constants, derivation gives
) sin( t
u
u
n n

)
`

=
)
`

2
1 2
2
1
& &
& &
By introducing the two expressions above
in the system, it is obtained
[ ] [ ] ( )
)
`

=
)
`

0
0
2
1 2

n

m k
eigenvalue
problem
This system has one trivial solution (
1
=
2
= 0)
which corresponds to equilibrium (no motion).
Other solutions can be found if the following
condition is respected:
[ ] [ ] ( ) 0
2

n
= m k det
(1)
(2)
Structural dynamics 5.8

3k

k

k m k k m k
k m k

m k k
k m k

n n
n n
n
n
n
= =
= +
=
=

or
) ( ) (
) (
) (
0 2 2
0 2
0
2
2
2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2
) ( k m
m
k
= =
2
1 1

k k
k k

)
`

=
)
`

0
0
1
2
1

) (
)
`

=
)
`

1
1
1

## This system has an infinite number of solutions,

one of them is

m

m

n n
= = or
Two values of
n
have been found. For each
of them,
1

2
can be determined by
introducing the value of
n
in the system (1).
[ ] [ ] ( )
)
`

=
)
`

0
0
2
1 2

n

m k
(1)
)
`

=
)
`

1
2

) ( 3k m
m
3k
= =
2
2 2

)
`

=
)
`

)
`

=
)
`

1
1
0
0
1
2
1
2
1

k k
k k

. g . e
) (
Structural dynamics 5.9
Conclusion : Two solutions have been found
) sin(
) (
) (
) sin(
) (
) (
t m 3k
t u
t u
t m k
t u
t u

)
`

=
)
`

)
`

=
)
`

1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1

{ }
1

) sin( C ) sin( C
) (
) (
1 1 2 2 2 1
2
1
1
1
1
1
+
)
`

+ +
)
`

=
)
`

t t
t u
t u
Physical interpretation of the eigenmodes
Free vibration is initiated by an initial deflection
corresponding to eigenmode 1:
0 0 0 0 0
2 1 2 1
= = = = ) ( 0 ) ( A ) ( A ) ( u u u u
& &
2

{ }
2

2 1

{ } { }
2 1

: natural circular frequencies
: eigenmodes
Every linear combination of this two solutions
is also a solution of the free vibration problem.
The general solution can be written as
With these initial conditions, the response is
t
t u
t u
) sin( A
) (
) (
1
2
1
1
1

)
`

=
)
`

## The motion of both solids is harmonic with

1
for circular frequency.
The deflected shape is constant in time
and corresponds to eigenmode 1.
Structural dynamics 5.10
EXAMPLE 2 THREE STORY FRAME
1
u
2
u
3
u
L
L
L
m
m
m
mm
kg
L
m
200
2
=
=
mm
mm
h
b
1
10
=
=
columns
1
1
= u
k
k
1
2
= u
k
k 2

k
k
0

k
first column
second column
GPa E 200 =
( 4 columns by story )
[ ]
m
m
m

(
(
(

=
0 0
0 0
0 0
m [ ]
(
(
(

=
k k
k k k
k k

2 0
2
0
k
12
48
3
3
bh
I
L
EI
k = =
1
2
= u
k
k 2
1
3
= u
k
k 2

k
k
k
2

k
k

2
0
( [k] is symmetric )
third column
Structural dynamics 5.11
Eigenvalue problem
[ ] [ ] ( ) { } { } 0 00 0 = m k
2
This is solved numerically by MATLAB.
[ ]
[ ] k
m

K
M
=
=
) , eig( ] , [ M K E F =
The eigenmodes are determined with an
arbitrary multiplicative constant. By convention in
dynamics, the eigenmodes as given on the form
The eigenmodes in MATLAB are calculated such
1
11
31
21
11
1
=

with
solves the eigenvalue problem
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } m k =
=
2
(
(
(

=
2
3
2
2
2
1
0 0
0 0
0 0

E
(
(
(

= F
3 2 1

The MATLAB solution is given as
1
2
31
2
21
2
11
31
21
11
1
= + +

with
[ ] F F F F F F F ) , ( / ) (:, ) , ( / ) (:, ) , ( / ) (:, 3 1 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 =
In order to obtain the dynamic convention, the
following scale command must be used.
Structural dynamics 5.12
Results given by MATLAB
Hz
.
.
58 1
95 9
1
1
=
=
f

Hz
.44 4
9 27
2
2
=
=
f

Hz
.

41 6
3 40
3
3
=
=
f

=
445 0
802 0
000 1
1
.
.
.

=
247 1
555 0
000 1
2
.
.
.

=
802 1
247 2
000 1
3
.
.
.

1.000 1.000 1.000
0.802
0.445
0.555
1.247
2.247
1.802
Physical interpretation of the eigenmodes
If free vibration is initiated by initial displacements corresponding to the eigenmode n, the
vibration of each story will be harmonic with frequency f
n
and the structure will vibrate with a
constant deflected shape corresponding to the eigenmode n
Structural dynamics 5.13
Comparison between discrete and distributed systems
discrete systems
number of natural
frequencies = number
of degrees of freedom
eigenmode = vector

=
31
21
11
1

the eigenmodes
are defined with
a multiplicative
constant
convention
1
11
=
distributed systems
infinite number of
natural frequencies

31

eigenmode = function
|

\
|
=
L
x
x

sin A ) (
1

convention
1
11
=
1 = A
Structural dynamics 6.1
MDF MODE ANALYSIS
The mode superposition approach is used in
order to calculate the response of a MDF
are considered. Finally damping is introduced.
Summary of the eigenvalue problem
[ ] [ ]
k k
k k

m
m

(

=
(

=
2
2
0
0
k m
[ ] [ ] ( ) { } { } 0 00 0
n
= m k
2
eigenvalue problem
The first coach is excited by a harmonic load
) sin(
o
t p
k k k
m m
1
u
2
u
{ } { }
)
`

= =
)
`

= =
1
1
3
1
1
2 2 1 1
m k m k
[ ] { }{ } [ ]
(

= =
1 1
1 1
2 1

The matrix [ ] is defined as
Structural dynamics 6.2
Differential equations
[ ] [ ] ) sin(
o
t
p

u
u

u
u

)
`

=
)
`

+
)
`

0
2
1
2
1
k m
& &
& &

= +
= +
0 2
2
2 1 2
2 1 1
u k u k u m
t p u k u k u m
& &
& &
) sin(
o

The two equations are coupled and it is hence
not possible to solve directly the system.
by derivation, it is obtained
[ ]
)
`

=
)
`

) (
) (
) (
) (
t q
t q

t u
t u
2
1
2
1
& &
& &
& &
& &

Introducing these two expressions in the
differential equations and multiplying on the
left side by [ ]
T
gives
[ ] [ ][ ] [ ] [ ][ ] [ ] { } ) sin(
T T T
t
q
q

q
q
p k m =
)
`

+
)
`

2
1
2
1
& &
& &
not possible to solve directly the system.
Modal coordinates
The idea is to change coordinates (unknowns)
and calculate first q
1
(t) and q
2
(t) which are
defined by
[ ]
)
`

=
)
`

) (
) (
) (
) (
t q
t q

t u
t u
2
1
2
1

q q
)
`

)
`

2 2
& &
which can be rewritten as
[ ] [ ] { } t
q
q

q
q
) sin( P K M =
)
`

+
)
`

2
1
2
1
& &
& &
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

k K
m M
T
T
=
=
{ } [ ] { } p P
T
=
Structural dynamics 6.3
After calculations it is obtained
[ ]
(

=
m
m

2 0
0 2
M [ ]
(

=
k
k

6 0
0 2
K { }
)
`

=
o
o
p
p
P
) sin(
o
o
t
p
p

q
q

k
k

q
q

m
m

)
`

=
)
`

+
)
`

2
1
2
1
6 0
0 2
2 0
0 2
& &
& &

= + ) sin(
o
t p q k q m

1 1
2 2
& &
Each equation are solved by considering
( )
( )

=
=

=
m k t
k p
t q
m k t
k p
t q
3
1
6
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1

) sin( ) (
) sin( ) (
o
o
u and u can now be calculated with

= + ) sin(
o
o
t p q k q m

2 2
1 1
6 2
& &
Since Both [M] and [K] are diagonal matrices,
the two equations are uncoupled and can be
solved separately.
Each equation represents a SDF system.
The natural circular frequencies for the first and
second equations are
1
and
2
which have
been calculated by the eigenvalue problem.
u
1
and u
2
can now be calculated with
[ ]
)
`

=
)
`

) (
) (
) (
) (
t q
t q

t u
t u
2
1
2
1

( ) ( )
( ) ( )

|
|

\
|

=
|
|

\
|

=
) sin( ) (
) sin( ) (
o o
o o
t
k p

k p
t u
t
k p

k p
t u

2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
6
1
2
1
6
1
2
Structural dynamics 6.4
Conclusion
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

|
|

\
|

=
|
|

\
|

=
) sin( ) (
) sin( ) (
o o
o o
t
k p

k p
t u
t
k p

k p
t u

2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
6
1
2
1
6
1
2
After some time (steady state response), the
structure vibrates with the same frequency as
the structure vibrates with a deflected
shape corresponding to eigenmode 1.
the amplitudes of the vibrations become
infinite (undamped case)
If a MDF structure is excited by a harmonic
force whose the frequency is one of the
natural frequencies of the structure , then
structure vibrates with the same frequency as
the force.
Resonance
( )
) sin(
/
o
t
p

u
u

2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1

)

k
natural frequencies of the structure , then
after some while (steady state response)
the structure vibrates with the same
frequency as the applied force
the deflected shape is the eigenmode
associated to the natural frequency
the amplitudes of the vibrations are large
This phenomenon is called resonance
the load frequency is close to the first
natural frequency of the structure
1
Structural dynamics 6.5
[ ]
m
m
m

(
(
(

=
0 0
0 0
0 0
m
[ ]
(
(
(

= k k k
k k
2
0
k
) sin( t 2 1
A harmonic force is applied to the second story.
Applied harmonic force
{ } ) sin( ) sin( t t =

2 2
0
1
0
p
1
u
2
u
3
u
m
m
m
Mode superposition
[ ]

`

) (
) (
) (
) (
t q
t q
t u
t u
2
1
2
1

[ ]
(
(
(

=
k k
k k k
2 0
2 k

29 40
88 27
951 9
3
2
1
.
.
.

[ ]
(
(
(

=
802 1 247 1 445 0
247 2 555 0 802 0
000 1 000 1 000 1
. . .
. . .
. . .

Eigenvalue analysis
3
u
[ ]

)
`

)
`

) (
) (
) (
) (
t q
t q
t u
t u
3
2
3
2

[ ] [ ] { } ) sin( t
u
u
u

u
u
u
=

2
3
2
1
3
2
1
p k m
& &
& &
& &
[ ] [ ] { } ) sin( t
q
q
q

q
q
q
=

2
3
2
1
3
2
1
P K M
& &
& &
& &
Structural dynamics 6.6
[ ] [ ] [ ][ ]
(
(
(

= =
59 18 0 0
0 726 5 0
0 0 682 3
.
.
.
T
m M
[ ] [ ] [ ][ ]
(
(
(

= =
30184 0 0
0 4452 0
0 0 7 364.
T
k K
{ } [ ] { }

802 0.
T
Each SDF system is solved by only considering
the steady state response, which directly gives
( )
( )
( )
) sin( ) sin( ) (
) sin( ) sin( ) (
) sin( ) sin( ) (
t t t q
t t t q
t t t q
=

=
=

=
=

=

2 10 629 7 2
3 40 2 1
30184 247 2
2 10 313 1 2
9 27 2 1
4452 555 0
2 10 656 3 2
95 9 2 1
7 364 802 0
5
2
3
4
2
2
3
2
1
.
.
/ .
.
.
/ .
.
.
. / .
{ } [ ] { }

= =
247 2
555 0
.
.
T
p P

= +
= +
= +
) sin(
) sin(
) sin(
t q q
t q q
t q q
2 247 2 30184 59 18
2 555 0 4452 726 5
2 802 0 7 364 682 3
3 3
2 2
1 1
. .
. .
. . .
& &
& &
& &
The uncoupled system is
( )
Transformation to real coordinates
[ ] [ ] t 2
t q
t q
t q

t u
t u
t u
) sin(
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (

.
.
.
=

5
4
3
3
2
1
3
2
1
10 629 7
10 313 1
10 656 3

) sin(
) (
) (
) (
t
t u
t u
t u

.
.
.
=

2
10 653 1
10 177 3
10 449 3
3
3
3
3
2
1
Structural dynamics 6.7
p(t) is applied to
the first solid
[ ] [ ]
)
`

=
)
`

+
)
`

0
2
1
2
1
) (t p

u
u

u
u
k m
& &
& &
p (N)
t (s)
1
10
0
Transformation to modal coordinates
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1
q
2
q
t (s)
[ ]
[ ] q
q
=
=
2
1
Transformation to modal coordinates
[ ] [ ] { } P K M
q
q
q
q
=

2
1
2
1
& &
& &

= +
= +

) (
) (
t p q k q m
t p q k q m

2 2
1 1
6 2
2 2
& &
& &
Each SDF equation is solved by using a time
integration method (lesson 4). For this particular
case, the exact solution can be found (lesson 3).
Transformation to real coordinates
[ ]
)
`

=
)
`

) (
) (
) (
) (
t q
t q

t u
t u
2
1
2
1

must be performed
for each time step
)
`

=
)
`

=
)
`

t u
t u
22 21
12 11
2
1

) (
) (
Structural dynamics 6.8
SYSTEMS WITH DAMPING
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } ) (t p u k u c u m = + +
& & &
The equation system of MDF
systems with viscous damping is
The transformation to modal coordinates
can be performed as before, which gives
Solution :
1) Natural frequencies and modes are
calculated by neglected damping. This is
correct if the damping is small.
2) Transformation to normal coordinates : a
damping coefficient
n
is introduced for each
mode.
n
is determined by experiment. This
gives n uncoupled equations on the form.
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } ) (t P q K q C q M = + +
& & &
with
[ ] [ ] [ ][ ] c C
T
=
Problems :
how to define [ ] ?
how to obtain by experiments [C] or [c] ?
useful transformation only if [C] is diagonal
{ } [ ]{ } q u =
) (t P q K q C q M
n n n n n n n
= + +
& & &
n n
n
n
M K
C
2
=
3) Each SDF equation is solved by time
integration method
{ } ) (t q
4) Transformation to real coordinates
{ } [ ]{ } q u =
DAMPING MATRIX
Structural dynamics 6.9
For certain problems, it is better to solve directly
the coupled differential equations
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } ) (t p u k u c u m = + +
& & &
instead of using the modal transformation (see next
section). The damping matrix [c] is then needed.
[c] is calculated from the modal damping ratios
n
which are determined by experiments.
Method two : Rayleigh damping
The damping matrix is taken as
[ ] [ ] [ ] a a k m c
1 0
+ =
It can easily be shown that the modal
coordinates transformation leads to a diagonal
modal damping matrix and that
Method one
n n
n
n
M K
C
2
=
[ ]
(
(

=
3
2
1
C
C
C
C
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) [ ][ ]

C c c C
1
= =
T T
[c] is calculated from the modal matrix [C]
This method supposes that all the damping ratios

n
are known, which is usually not the case.
n
n
n

a

a

2
1
2
1 0
+ =
Hence, [c] is calculated using only two modal
damping coefficients.
The two modes with specified
n
should be
chosen to ensure reasonable values for the
other damping ratios. In practice, the lowest
modes and the third or fourth lowest ones
are used to determine a
0
and a
1
.
Structural dynamics 6.10
EFFECT OF THE DAMPING ON
HARMONIC VIBRATIONS TRAIN
The first solid is excited by a force ) sin(
o
t p
Transformation to modal coordinates

= + +
= + +
) sin(
) sin(
o
o
t p q k q C q m
t p q k q C q m

2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
6 2
2 2
& & &
& & &
The steady state response for each equation is
Transformation to real coordinates : after
some work, the response can be written as
[ ]

=
)
`

=
)
`

t G
t G

t q
t q

t u
t u
) sin(
) sin(
) (
) (
) (
) (
2 2
1 1
2
1
2
1

Conclusion :
The steady state response for each equation is
on the form

=
=
) sin( ) (
) sin( ) (
2 2 2
1 1 1

t D t q
t D t q
[ ] [ ]
2
1 1
2
2
1
1
2 1
2

k p
D
) ( ) (
/
o
+
=
2
1
1 1
1
1
2
) (
) (
) tan(

=
Conclusion :
Both solids vibrate with the same frequency
as the applied force, but with a certain
difference of phase. It means that u
1
(t) and
u
2
(t) dont reach their maximal values at the
same time.
The resonance properties enounced without
damping are still valid.
Structural dynamics 6.11
MDF - TIME INTEGRATION METHODS
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } ) (t p u k u c u m = + +
& & &
The system of differential equations can also be
solved by time stepping methods. These methods
are similar to the ones for SDF systems (lesson
4) by replacing scalars by matrices and vectors.
Initial conditions
{ }
0
u { }
0
u
&
CENTRAL DIFFERENCE METHOD
{ }
{ } { }
t
i i
i

=
+
2
1 1
u u
u
&
{ }
{ } { } { }
2
1 1
2
) ( t

i i i
i

+
=
+
u u u
u
& &
(explicit algorithm)
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
i i i i
p u k u c u m = + +
& & &
This method is based on two difference
expressions and the equilibrium at time i.
combination of these 3 eqs. gives
[ ] [ ]
{ } { }
[ ] [ ]
{ } [ ]
[ ]
{ }
i i i i

t
2

t
t
t
t
u
m
k u
c m
p u
c m
(

=
(

+
2
1
2
1
2
2 2
) ( ) ( ) (
[ ] { } { } ( ) [ ] { } { } ( )
i i i i

t

t
u u c u u c

+ 1 1 1
1
2
1
[ ]
{ } { }
[ ] [ ]
{ } [ ]
[ ] [ ]
{ }
i i i i

t
t
2

t
t t
u
c m
k u
c m
p u
m
(

+
2
1
2
1
2
2
) ( ) ( ) (
using the following approximation
it is obtained
Then, if [m] is diagonal, the solution of simultaneous equations is not required.
Structural dynamics 6.12
AVERAGE ACCELERATION METHOD
(implicit algorithm)
For this method, a set of uncoupled equations
cannot be obtained by simplification since the
equations are on the form
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
{ } { }
i i

t
t
p u
m c
k
) (
=
(

+
+1
2
4 2
And if [m] can often be taken as diagonal, this
Example
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } ) (t p u k u c u m = + +
& & &
10000 d.o.f.
) (t P q K q C q M
n n n n n n n
= + +
& & &
10000 modal equations
Only the 10 first equations, corresponding to the
10 lowest natural frequencies need to be
solved. q
11
. q
10000
can be neglected and dont
And if [m] can often be taken as diagonal, this
is not possible for the stiffness matrix [k]
CONCLUDING REMARKS
The modal superposition requires that the
system is linear, i.e. small elastic deformations.
By comparison to time integration methods, the
main interest of the modal analysis is that in
most of structural dynamics problems, only a
few modal contributions need to be solved.
solved. q
11
. q
10000
can be neglected and dont
need to be calculated.
[ ]

0
0
10
1
10000
11
10
1

t q

t q

t u

t u
t u
....
t u
....
) (
....
) (
) (
....
) (
) (
) (

{ } { } { } { } ) ( ... ) ( ) ( ) ( t q t q t q t
10 10 2 2 1 1
+ + u
Structural dynamics 6.13
Implicit time integration methods are suited when many modes would be needed in the modal method.
These methods are often unconditionally stable and the time step t is only limited by accuracy.
Explicit time integration methods are often used in combination with diagonal mass matrices which
allows a small cost per time step. These methods are often conditionally stable and the time step must
be very small so that stability is ensured for all the modes: even if the response in the higher modes is
insignificant, it will blow up if the stability requirements are not satisfied relative to these modes.
Contrary to implicit methods, explicit methods do not require an iteration process for nonlinear problems.
INTERPRETATION OF THE MODAL SUPERPOSITION
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
t q t q t q
t q
t q
t q

t u
t u
t u
3
33
32
31
2
23
22
21
1
13
12
11
3
2
1
3
2
1

=
+
+
) (t q
1
eigenmode 1 eigenmode 2 eigenmode 3
) (t q
3
) (t q
2
EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS
Structural dynamics 7.1
An introduction to earthquake analysis is given.
Analysis by response spectra is presented.
SDF SYSTEMS
A SDF system is subjected to a ground motion
u
g
(t). The deformation response u(t) is to be
calculated.
The ground acceleration can be registered
using accelerographs, see the example below.
) (
) (
t u u u u
u k u c u u m
g n n
g

& & & & &
& & & & &
= + +
= + + +
2
2
0

on accelerati Pseudo
2
) ( ) ( ) ( t u t u t A
n
& &
=
EQUIVALENT STATIC FORCE
k/2 k/2
c
) (t u
g
) (t u
m
) (t u
) (t f
s
t A m
t u m
t u k t f
n
) (
) (
) ( ) (
=
=
=
2

s
f
s
(t) is the force which must be applied statically
in order to create a displacement u(t).
REPONSE SPECTRA
A response spectrum is a plot of maximum response (e.g. displacement, velocity, acceleration)
of SDF systems to a given ground acceleration versus systems parameters (T
n
, ).
A response spectrum is calculated numerically using time integration methods for many values
of parameters (T
n
, ).
Example : Deformation response spectrum for El Centro earthquake
Structural dynamics 7.2
) ( max t u D
t
=
D A
D V
t u D
n
n
2

) ( max

=
=
=
on accelerati Pseudo Peak
velocity Pseudo Peak
n Deformatio Peak
Deformation, pseudo-velocity and pseudo-
acceleration response spectra can be defined
and ploted on the same graphs
COMBINED D-V-A SPECTRUM
Structural dynamics 7.3
n

n
: natural circular frequency
of the SDF system.
EXAMPLE
A water tank is subjected to the El Centro
earthquake. Calculate the maximum bending
moment during the earthquake.
Structural dynamics 7.4
L
=
1
0

m
m = 10000 kg
k = 98.7 kN/m
% 2 =
m
k
n
n n
2
2
14 3 =

= = =

= =
= =
2
87 1 81 9 191 0
190 4 25 47 7
ms . . .
mm . .
A
D
) : obs ( D A
n
2
=
Spectrum
When the equivalent static force has been
determined, the internal forces and stresses
can be determined using statics.
kN . D k f 7 18 = =
s
kNm
max
M 187 =
RESPONSE SPECTRUM CHARCTERISTICS
Structural dynamics 7.5
General characteristics can be derived from
the analysis of response spectra.
k m T
n
= 2
T
n
< 0.03 s : rigid system
no deformation
u(t) 0 D 0
T
n
> 15 s : flexible system
no total displacement
The spectrum can be divided in 3 period ranges :
region sensitive nt displaceme : s
region sensitive velocity : s .
region sensitive on accelerati : s .
T
T
T
n
n
n
3
3 5 0
5 0
>
< <
<
no total displacement
u(t) = u
g
(t) D = u
go
ELASTIC DESIGN SPECTRUM
Problem: how to ensure that a structure
will resist future earthquakes.
The elastic design spectrum is
obtained from ground motions data
EXAMPLE
Structural dynamics 7.6
obtained from ground motions data
recorded during past earthquakes at
the site or in regions with near-similar
conditions
MDF SHEAR BUILDING
[ ] [ ]

+
+
+
(
(

0
0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
3
2
1
3
2
1
2
2
1
3
2
1

u
u
u

u
u
u

u u
u u
u u

m
m
m

g
g
g
k c
&
&
&
& & & &
& & & &
& & & &
[ ] [ ] ) (t u
m
m
m

u
u
u

u
u
u

u
u
u

m
m
m
g
& &
&
&
&
& &
& &
& &

(
(

3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
0 0
0 0
0 0
k c
Eigenvalue analysis
(
13 12 11

11

12

13

## Structural dynamics 7.7

1
u
2
u
3
u
1
m
3
m
2
m
Eigenvalue analysis

3 2 1

[ ]
(
(

=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11

Modal transformation
t u q q q
g n n n n n n n
) (
& & & & &
= + +
2
2
n
n
n
M
P
=
[ ] ) (
T
t u
m
m
m

q
q
q

K
K
K

q
q
q

C
C
C

q
q
q

M
M
M
g
& &
&
&
&
& &
& &
& &

(
(

(
(

(
(

3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1

=
31
21
11
1

=
32
22
12
2

=
33
23
13
3

3 2 1 , , = = + + n t u P q K q C q M
g n n n n n n n
) (
& & & & &
{ } [ ]

=
3
2
1
m
m
m
P
T

RESPONSE HISTORY ANALYSIS
3 2 1 2
2
, , = = + + n t u q q q
g n n n n n n
) (
& & & & &

) known ) ( ( t u
g
& &
Solve numerically
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
t q t q t q
t q
t q
t q

t u
t u
t u
3
33
23
13
2
32
22
12
1
31
21
11
3
2
1
3
2
1

Observation : The
contribution of the
Summation of the
modal contributions
1,2,3 ) ( = n t q
n
Equivalent static forces
Structural dynamics 7.8
) (t f
1
) (t u
1
contribution of the
higher modes can
often be neglected.
Example : base shear force
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t f t f t f t V
3 2 1
+ + =
b
static ) ( max
max
t V V
b b
=
[ ] [ ][ ]
t q
t q
t q

t u
t u
t u

t f
t f
t f

) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
k k
[ ] [ ] [ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
) (
t q t q t q
t f
t f
t f
3
33
23
13
2
32
22
12
1
31
21
11
3
2
1

k k k
The internal forces and stresses can
now be determined using statics.
) (t f
3
) (t f
2
) (t u
2
) (t u
3
) (t V
b
RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
) unknown ) ( ( t u
g
& &
The design response spectrum is used to
estimate the behaviour of the shear building.
3 2 1 1 2
2
, , = = + + n t u q q q
g n n n n n n n
) ( ) (
& & & & &

The modal transformation gave (page 7.7)
which can be compared to the equation
Summation of the modal contributions
[ ]

) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
t q
t q
t q

t u
t u
t u
3
2
1
3
2
1

Structural dynamics 7.9
[ ] (3) but
max
max
D
D
u
u

2 2
1 1
2
1

which can be compared to the equation
for a SDF (page 7.1)
) ( ) ( 2 2
2
t u u u u
g n n n
& & & & &
= + +
D
n
, the maximum displacement for equation (2)
is found on the design response spectrum.
The maximum displacement for equation (1) is
n n n
D q =
max
because D
1
, D
2
, D
3
do not occur at the same time.
(3) over estimates the maximal real displacements.
[ ] (3) but
max
max

D
D
u
u

)
`

)
`

3 3
2 2
3
2

The summation of modal contributions is performed in a different way.
The idea is to calculate first maximum displacements and equivalent static forces for each mode.
Structural dynamics 7.10
) (m1 1
u
) (m1 2
u
) (m1 3
u
) (m1 1
f
) (m1 2
f
) (m1 3
f
) (m2 1
u
) (m2 2
u
) (m2 3
u
) (m2 1
f
) (m2 2
f
) (m2 3
f
MODE 1 MODE 2
[ ]
1 1
31
21
11 1 1
1 3
1 2
1 1
0
0 D
D

u
u
u

) (m
) (m
) (m
[ ]
2 2
32
22
12
2 2
2 3
2 2
2 1
0
0
D D
u
u
u

) (m
) (m
) (m
[ ][ ] [ ]
1
31
21
11 1
1 3
1 2
1 1
0
0 D
D

f
f
f
1
1
) (m
) (m
) (m

k k [ ][ ] [ ]
2 2
32
22
12
2 2
2 3
2 2
2 1
0
0
D D
f
f
f

k k
) (m
) (m
) (m
Same calculations for the third mode
Maximum base shear force due to the mode 1
) 3(m ) 2(m 1) 1(m ) (m 1 1 1
f f f V

+ +
= b
u u u
u

+ +

2
3 1
2
2 1
2
1 1
1
) (m ) (m ) (m
max
Maximum base shear force
) 3(m ) 2(m ) 1(m ) (m 2 2 2 2
f f f V

+ +
= b
Structural dynamics 7.11
Once a value of the required response has
been calculated for each mode separately, the
superposition of the different modes is
performed using an approximative rule. The
most common one is the SRSS approximation.
Maximum displacements
Maximum base shear force due to the mode 2
Maximum base shear force due to the mode 3
Total maximum base shear force
2 2 2
V V V V
) (m ) (m ) (m max 3 2 1 b b b b
+ + =

u u u
u u u
u
u
u

+ +
+ + =

2
3 3
2
2 3
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 2
2
1 2
3 1 2 1 1 1
3
2
1
) (m ) (m ) (m
) (m ) (m ) (m
) (m ) (m ) (m
max
max
max
Observation : The contribution of the
higher modes can often be neglected.
Maximum shear force in the highest floor
2
3 1
2
2 1
2
1 1 1 ) (m ) (m ) (m max
f f f V + + =
1
f
1
V
) 3(m ) 2(m ) 1(m ) (m 3 3 3 2
f f f V

+ +
= b
Structural dynamics 8.1
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } ) (t p u k u c u m = + +
& & &
The equation system obtained by f.e.m. is
with
The generalised load vector and stiffness
matrix have been studied in the f.e.m.
course and are identical in static and
dynamic analyses.
The damping matrix is not obtained by finite
element discretisation. The different ways of
introducing and dealing with damping have
been studied in lesson 6.
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
{ }
{ } vector nt displaceme : ) (
vector load d generalise : ) (
matrix stiffness :
matrix damping :
matrix mass :
t
t

u
p
k
c
m
The resolution of the equation system, by
mode superposition or by direct time
integration methods has been studied in
lessons 4 and 6.
The only remaining work is to present the
derivation of the element mass matrix. The
assembly of the element mass matrices to
the structure mass matrix is performed in
the same way as for the stiffness matrix.
Structural dynamics 8.2
CONSISTENT ELEMENT MASS MATRIX
The equation of motion can be derived by
equating the work done by the externally
applied loads (external work) with the work
absorbed by inertial and dissipative forces
(internal work) for any virtual displacement (that
is, for any imagined small motions that satisfies
compatibility and essential boundary conditions.
{u} and { } represent virtual displacements
and their corresponding strains.
Finite element discretisation provides
{ } [ ]{ } { } [ ]{ } { } [ ]{ } d B d N u d N u = = =
& &
& &
Shape functions [N] are functions of space
while nodal d.o.f. {d} are function of time.
A linear elastic material is assumed
{ } { } { } { } ( )

+ =
v
i
dv W u u
& &

T T

{ } { } { } { } { } { }

=
+ + =
n
i
i i
s v
e
ds dv W
1
f u u F u
T T T

where {F} and { } are the prescribed body
forces and surface tractions, {f}
i
and {u}
i
their corresponding virtual displacements at a
total of n points, is the mass density.
{ } [ ]{ } E =
The internal and external virtual works can
then be rewritten as
{ } [ ] [ ][ ]{ } [ ] [ ]{ } ( )
(

+ =

v
i
dv W d N N d B E B d
& &

T T T
{ } [ ] { } [ ] { } [ ] { }
(

+ + =

=
n
i
i
s v
e
ds dv W
1
f N N F N d
T T T T

Structural dynamics 8.3
This can be rewritten as
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } ) (t p u k u m = +
& &
[ ] [ ] [ ][ ] dv
v

= B E B k
T
[ ] [ ] [ ] dv N N m
T

=
with
{ } [ ] [ ][ ]{ } [ ] [ ]{ } ( )
(

+ =

v
i
dv W d N N d B E B d
& &

T T T
{ } [ ] { } [ ] { } [ ] { }
(

+ + =

=
n
i
i
s v
e
ds dv W
1
f N N F N d
T T T T

The last equations in the preceding page are
W
i
= W
e
is true for arbitrary {d}, which gives
[ ] [ ] { } [ ] [ ][ ] { } { } p d B E B d N N dv dv
v v
= +

T T
& &

{ } [ ] { } [ ] { } [ ] { }

=
+ + =
n
i
i
s v
ds dv
1
f N N F N p
T T T

[ ] [ ] [ ] dv
v
N N m
T

=
The mass matrix defined in the last equation
is called consistent element mass matrix.
The word consistent emphasizes that this
form has been derived using the same shape
functions as the element stiffness matrix.
Structural dynamics 8.4
BERNOULLI 2D BEAM ELEMENT
1
v
2
v
1

E I m
L
1 2
[ ] { } d N t x v = ) , (
{ }

=
) (
) (
) (
t v
t
t v

2
1
1

d
1
3 2
1
2 3 1
|

\
|
+
|

\
|
=
L
x

L
x
x) (
2
2
1
|

\
|
=
L
x
x x) (
1
A m =
shape functions

) (
) (
t
t v
2
2

[ ] [ ] x x x x ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
4 3 2 1
= N
3 2
3
2 3
|

\
|

\
|
=
L
x

L
x
x) ( |

\
|
= 1
2
4
L
x
L
x
x) (
1
1
dx x x m m
j
L
i ij
) ( ) (

=
0
[ ]
(
(
(
(

=
L L L L
L L
L L L L
L L

mL

2 2
2 2
4 22 3 13
22 156 13 54
3 13 4 22
13 54 22 156
420
m [ ]
(
(
(
(

=
L L L L
L L
L L L L
L L

L
EI

2 2
2 2
3
4 6 2 6
6 12 6 12
2 6 4 6
6 12 6 12
k
Structural dynamics 8.5
BERNOULLI 2D BEAM ELEMENT WITH AXIAL DEFORMATIONS
2 2 1 1
u x u x t x u ) ( ) ( ) , ( + =
L
x
x = 1
1
) (
L
x
x = ) (
2

## The shape functions for the bar element are

A bar element is superposed to the previous beam element.
1
u
2
u
1
v
2
v
1

E I A m
L
1 2
[ ]
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
L EI L EI L EI L EI
L EI L EI L EI L EI
L EA L EA
L EI L EI L EI L EI
L EI L EI L EI L EI
L EA L EA

4 6 0 2 6 0
6 12 0 6 12 0
0 0 0 0
2 6 0 4 6 0
6 12 0 6 12 0
0 0 0 0
2 2
2 3 2 3
2 2
2 3 2 3
k [ ]
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
2 2
2 2
4 22 0 3 13 0
22 156 0 13 54 0
0 0 140 0 0 70
3 13 0 4 22 0
13 54 0 22 156 0
0 0 70 0 0 140
420
L L L L
L L
L L L L
L L
mL
m
Structural dynamics 8.6
LUMPED MASS MATRIX
For certain applications it is better to use a
diagonal (or lumped) mass matrix.
Two obvious advantages are less storage
space and less processing time, especially in
case of an explicit time integration scheme.
PARTICLE MASS LUMPING
Example : Bernoulli 2D beam element
mL mL
24
3
mL
1

## The rotational inertia is defined by considering

that a uniform slender bar of length L/2 and
mass mL/2 is attached at each node.
The associate inertia moment is
3 2 2
2
/ ) / )( / ( L mL J =
Example : Bernoulli 2D beam element
An easy way of obtaining a lumped mass
matrix is to replace the distributed mass by
two particles of mass mL/2 at each node.
[ ]
(
(
(
(

=
12 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 12 0
0 0 0 1
2
2
/
/
L
L

2
mL
m
A m =
1
u 2
u
1 2
2
mL
2
mL
24
24
3
mL
1

1
v
2
v
1

E I m
L
1 2
Structural dynamics 8.7
HRZ LUMPING
Different methods can be used to transform the consistent element mass matrix and obtain a
diagonal matrix. One of them is the HRZ lumping.
The idea is to compute only diagonal terms of the consistent element mass matrix, then scale
them so as to preserve the total element mass. Since there may be both translational and
rotational d.o.f., the method for an element of total mass M is
1. Compute diagonal coefficients m
ij
of the consistent element mass matrix.
2. For each coordinate direction in which motion is described by the element d.o.f.
a. determine a number S by adding the m associated with translational d.o.f. only. a. determine a number S by adding the m
ii
associated with translational d.o.f. only.
b. multiply all coefficients m
ij
associated with this direction by the ratio M/S.
Example : Bernoulli 2D beam element
[ ]
(
(
(
(

=
2
2
4 0 0 0
0 156 0 0
0 0 4 0
0 0 0 156
420
L
L

mL
m
mL M
mL S
=
=
420
312
[ ]
(
(
(
(

=
39 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 39 0
0 0 0 1
2
2
2
/
/
L
L

mL
m
1. 2.a. 2.b.
Structural dynamics 8.8
[ ]
e e
e e e e e e e e
e e e e
e e e e
e e
e
L L
L L L L L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L L
L
EI

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

2 2 2
2 2
3
6 12 6 12 0 0
2 6 4 4 6 6
2
2 6
6 12 6 6 12 12 6 12
0 0 2 6 4 6
0 0 6 12 6 12
+
+ +
= k
EXAMPLE
The natural frequencies and eigenmodes
of a simply supported beam are studied.
The beam is discretised in 2 elements.
A m =
E I A L m
Mass and stiffness matrices for the structure
2 / L L
e
=
1
2
1

2
v
3
L / 2
1
v
3
v
L / 2
e e e e
L L L L
(
(

2 2
4 6 2 6 0 0
[ ]
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
4 22 3 13 0 0
22 156 13 54 0 0
3 13 4 4 22 22 3 13
13 54 22 22 156 156 13 54
0 0 3 13 4 22
0 0 13 54 22 156
420
e e e e
e e
e e e e e e e e
e e e e
e e e e
e e
e
L L L L
L L
L L L L L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L L
mL
+
+ +
= m
A m =
Structural dynamics 8.9
Boundary conditions
unknowns ) ( , ) (
1
t p t p
v v
v v
3
3 1
3 1
0
0
= =
= =
& & & &
t p
t p

v
v
v

v
v
v

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

0
0
0
0
3
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
) (
) (

& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
1

(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(

0
0
0
0
4 2 6 0
2 8 0 2
6 0 24 6
0 2 6 4
4 3 13 0
3 8 0 3
13 0 312 13
0 3 13 4
420
3
2
2
1
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
3
3
2
2
1
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
= +

L L L
L L L
L L
L L L
L
EI

L L L
L L L
L L
L L L
mL
e e e
e e e
e e
e e e
e e e
e e e
e e
e e e
& &
& &
& &
& &
Equation system
1
2
2
v
3
1
v
3
v
Structural dynamics 8.10
Solution of the eigenvalue problem
4
1
91 9
mL
EI
. =
4
2
8 43
mL
EI
. =
4
3
110
mL
EI
=
4
4
201
mL
EI
=
) . ( 87 9 ) . ( 5 39 ) . ( 9 88 ) (158

=
0
32 0
1
1
L

.

=
1
0
1
2

=
0
05 0
1
3
L

.

=
1
0
1
4

(exact values in parenthesis)

1
0

1
1

1
0

1
1
1
1
=
0
2
=
1
3
=
L v 32 0
2
. =
0
2
= v
1
1
= 1
2
=
1
3
=
1
1
=
0
2
=
1
3
=
L v 05 0
2
. =
eigenmode 1 eigenmode 2 eigenmode 3
Structural dynamics 9.1
EXPERIMENTAL DYNAMICS
The purpose of experimental dynamics is to
determine by measurements the dynamics
characteristics of a structure. This is performed
by measuring the response of the structure to a
known excitation.
known
excitation
known
response
unknown dynamics
characteristics
Different types of excitations can be used
Free vibration :
Harmonic force :
the structure is disturbed from
equilibrium and then vibrates
without any applied forces.
a sinusoidal force is applied
through a special device.
characteristics
Unknown dynamics characteristics
SDF : natural frequency f
n
damping coefficient
MDF : natural frequencies f
1
f
2
f
3

eigenmodes
1

2

3

modes damping
1

2

3

Pulse force :
Random force :
a hammer is used to apply a
short pulse force.
random noise as e.g. traffic or
For practical reasons, accelerations are
easier to measure than displacements
Structural dynamics 9.2
SDF SYSTEMS
k
m
) (t u
c
Objective : determine
experimentally f
n
and
Free vibration test
t

+ =

n
t
p n
t
+
n
u
& &
p n
u
+
& &
u
& &
t
t
e
n

C
t t u
D
t
n
) sin( C ) (

+ =

e
) sin( D ) (

+ =

t t u
D
t
n
e
& &
After derivation a similar expression for the
acceleration is obtained and consequently
the results derived in Lesson 1 for the
displacements can be used.
p n
n
u
u

p

+

= <
& &
& &
ln
2
1
. 1 0
D
D
T

=
2

T T
f
D n
n
1 1
=
Structural dynamics 9.3
Harmonic force test
The structure is excited by a harmonic force
whose frequency is slowly increased step by
step in order to reach the steady state
response at each increment. The amplitudes
of accelerations are measured at each step.
Results from Lesson 2 :

=
2

f
max
u
2
max
u
u
) sin( ) ( t p t p
o
= ) sin( + = t u u
[ ] [ ]

k p
u

n

n
o
2
2
2
2 1 ) ( ) ( +
=
u u t u u
2
= + =
& & & & & &
) sin(
By derivation, it is obtained :
1 2
1 2
1 0
f f
f f
f f
r n
+

= = < .
In reality, the maximal value is not known and
a curve fitting is done.
If the damping is law, the same method can be
u
& &
u
r
f
1
f
2
f
Structural dynamics 9.4
Ambient vibration test
The structure is excited by a small random force,
which means that the force is not known.
This method is often used for bridges where wind
and traffic loads are used as random forces.
solution Particular ) sin( C ) ( t t u
D
t
n
+ + =

e
& &
The response (acceleration) is the sum of the
free vibration solution and the particular solution
which depends on the random load.
The idea of this approach is to remove the
particular solution and the initial condition by
taking the average of many subrecords of same
length t and same . The result is a free
vibration solution which can be then used.
The trigger value and the length t must be
carefully chosen .
0
u
& &
0
u
&
0
u
& &
t
u
& &
t
0 0
u u
& & & initial conditions random load
carefully chosen .
0
u
& &
Structural dynamics 9.5
MDF SYSTEMS 1
u
2
u
3
u
Objective : determine
experimentally f
1
f
2
f
3

1

2

3
and
1

2

3
Harmonic force test
The structure is excited by a harmonic force

f f
negligible A , A
large A
) (
1
3 2
1
1

= =
The structure vibrates with a deflected shape
corresponding to eigenmode 1 and the
amplitudes of vibrations are large : resonance.
) sin( A
) (
) (
) (

t
t u
t u
t u

1
31
21
11
3
2
1
& &
& &
& &
i
u
& &
The structure is excited by a harmonic force
whose frequency is slowly increased step by
step in order to reach the steady state
response at each increment. The amplitudes
of accelerations are measured at each step.
Results from Lesson 6 :
) sin(
A
A
A
) (
) (
) (

+

(
(
(
(

t
t u
t u
t u
3
2
1
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
3
2
1
& &
& &
& &

=
2

f
1
u
& &
21

31

=
31
21
11
1

1
f
2
f
3
f
2
u
& &
3
u
& &
11

## Structural dynamics 9.6

The sign of
ij
is determined by the phase
which is also measured.
) sin(
.
.
.
C
o
& &
& &
& &
30
25 1
55 0
00 1
3
2
1
+

t

u
u
u

) sin( .
o
& &
30 00 1
1
t u
Explication : the
solution at the first
resonance is e.g.
which can be
Remark : this method assumes that only one
mode is acting at each resonance. For that, the
natural frequencies must be well separated:
negligible A other and large A
j i i
=
i
A
2
A

+ +
+ +
+
=

) sin( .
) sin( .
) sin( .
C
o o
o o
& &
& &
& &
180 30 25 1
180 30 55 0
30 00 1
3
2
1
t
t
t

u
u
u

which can be
rewritten as
The measured phase is either 30 or 210 ,
which gives the sign of
ij
.

1
,
2
,
3
are determined by band width method
for each resonance.
In that case, the influence of the 2
nd
eigenmode
can not be neglected at the 3
rd
resonance.
f
1
A
3
A
1
f
2
f
3
f
Structural dynamics 9.7
Free vibration test (damping neglected)
Results from Lesson 5 : ) sin( ) sin( ) sin(
) (
) (
) (
3 3
33
23
13
2 2
32
22
12
1 1
31
21
11
3
2
1

+ +

+ +

t t t
t u
t u
t u
& &
& &
& &
) sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) (
3 3 13 2 2 12 1 1 11 1
+ + + + + = t t t t u
& &
1
u
& &
0
t
It is impossible to identify the dynamics parameters

11

12

13

1

2

3

1

2

3
directly from the record of
the acceleration of the first story.
The solution is to transform the record from the time
domain to the frequency domain with a Fourier
transformation:
[ ]

=

=
+ = + =
1 1
1
n
n n n
n
n n n n
t c t b t a t u ) sin( ) sin( ) cos( ) (
& &
Structural dynamics 9.8
A numerical Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) gives the following two graphs,
which are the representation of the signal in the frequency domain.

=
+ =
1
1
n
n n n
t c t u ) sin( ) (
& &
f

=
2
n
n
f

20
30
40
n
f
1.58 6.41
o
30
o
10
o
30 -
n
c
n

The required dynamics parameters can be easily determined form these two graphs:
) . sin( ) . sin( ) . sin(
o o o
& &
10 41 6 2 20 30 43 4 2 40 30 58 1 2 30
1
+ + + + = t t t t u ) (
Hz
Hz
Hz
f
f
f
41 6
43 4
58 1
3
2
1
.
.
.
=
=
=
20
40
30
13
12
11

=
=
=

o
o
o
10
30
30
3
2
1

=
=
=

n
f
1.58 4.43 6.41
30 -
Structural dynamics 9.9
The eigenmodes can be entirely determined by doing the same operation for the 2
nd
and 3
rd
story.
) sin( ) sin( ) sin(
) (
) (
) (
3 3
33
23
13
2 2
32
22
12
1 1
31
21
11
3
2
1

+ +

+ +

t t t
t u
t u
t u
& &
& &
& &
u
& &
u
& &
u
& &
1
u
& &
11

12

13

21

22

23

31

32

33

f f f
1
f
1
f
1
f
2
f
2
f
2
f
3
f
3
f
3
f
2
u
& &
3
u
& &
The sign of each
ij
is determined by the phase which is also given by a FFT.
Structural dynamics 9.10
Free vibration test (with damping)
1
u
& &
1
u
& &
The same method is applied. The signal becomes periodic by
artificially adding the same model (see Lesson 3)
FFT
t
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
FFT

1
,
2
,
3
are determined by band width method or by cutting the signal in the frequency domain and
performing an inverse FFT to obtain free vibration of a SDF system corresponding to the eigenmode.
Structural dynamics 9.11
Pulse force excitation
A hammer is used to apply a short pulse force.
) (t p
t t
) (t u
1
& &
p(t) and the response are non periodic. They
become periodic by artificially adding the same
model. The artificial response is then the steady
o
T
) (t p
) (t u
1
& &
t
model. The artificial response is then the steady
state response of the structure loaded by the
considered as the sum of harmonic terms. Each
of these harmonic terms gives an harmonic
response.
t

=
+ =
1 n
n n n
t p t p ) sin( ) (
art

t
t u
t u
t u
n
n
n
n
n
) sin(
D
D
D
) (
) (
) (
art
1
3
2
1
1
3
2
1
+

=
& &
& &
& &

=
31
21
11
3
2
1
1

n
n
n
n

D
D
D
resonance
The dynamic parameters can then be
obtained by performing a FFT.
Structural dynamics 9.12
) D ( u
in i
& &
1
u
& &

=
+ =
1 n
n n n
t p t p ) sin( ) (
art

The load obtained by the hammer
must contain all the frequencies that
have to be studied.

=
2
n
n
f

n
p

=
2
n
n
f

1
u
& &
21

31

=
31
21
11
1

1
f
2
f
3
f
2
u
& &
3
u
& &
11

t
t u
t u
t u
n
n
n
n
n
) sin(
D
D
D
) (
) (
) (
art
1
3
2
1
1
3
2
1
+

=
& &
& &
& &
The FFT of the response is similar to
the graph obtained with an harmonic
force test (see page 9.5 )
Structural dynamics 9.13
SIGNAL ANALYSIS - FFT
A signal can be represented in two different ways: in the time domain or in the frequency
domain. Each domain has its own interest. The transformation between the two domains is
performed numerically by a FFT or an inverse FFT.
y(t) Y(f)
FFT
inv. FFT
[ ]

=
+ =
+ =
1
1
2
2 2
n
n n n
n
n n n n
t f c
t f b t f a t y
) sin(
) sin( ) cos( ) (

) (
) (
or
) (
) (
n n
n n
n n
n n
f
f c

f b
f a

n
b
n
) or (c
n

n
).
y
t
N points
T 0
FFT
inv. FFT
N/2 points
max
f
f
0
n
f
n
c
N/2 points
0
f
max
f
n
f
n

## Structural dynamics 9.14

y(t) is defined numerically by N points
during a time T.
c
n
and
n
are defined by N/ 2 points.
y
t
N points
T 0
FFT
inv. FFT
N/2 points
max
f
f
0
n
f
n
c
N/2 points
0
f
max
f
n
f
n

during a time T.
The FFT requires N = 2
m
m = 1,2,3
T

f
1
=
2 2
rate

N
f
f
= =
max
T
N
rate =
In practice, (
f
, f
max
) are chosen
and ( T, rate) are then determined
such that N = 2
m
.
STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS 5C1840
structure
displacements ?
strains ?
stresses ?
) (t F u k u c u m = + +
& & &
restriction : linear structures
stresses ?
SDF systems MDF systems
Rayleighs method
Earthquakes
F.E.M.
2D continuum beams
mass matrix
SDF systems MDF systems
free vibration
time step methods
eigenvalue problem
mode superposition
Earthquakes
Experimental
Methods
free vibration
damping
natural frequency
resonance
transient response
eigenvalue problem
eigenmodes
mode superposition
mode damping
Rayleigh damping