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An Introduction to the Art

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

Welcome to GUSKC!
This booklet is aimed to give you an introduction to Shorinji Kempo, a Japanese martial art that has limitless possibilities to improve you in both body and mind. Shorinji Kempo is a Japanese martial art that at its core attempts to improve you by creating a health body and mind and teaching self defence techniques. It tries to imbue each student with the confidence and ideals to stand up for what is right. With this aim it hopefully develops a person who is better suited to benefiting society as a whole. It does not teach you to start confrontations but gives you the ability to protect yourself if needed. Shorinji Kempo is taught on a voluntary basis - instructors do not make their livings from teaching the art.
A Brief History

Shorinji Kempo was founded by a Zen monk named Doshin So in Tadostu, on the island of Shikoku, Japan shortly after World War Two. Doshin So's main aim was to contribute towards the rebuilding of Japanese society after it had been devastated by war and defeat. Social order had broken down, leaving in its place a situation where the strong and ruthless could dominate the weak. Using techniques he learnt during his youth in Japan and travels in China, he developed a system of fighting that aimed to produce individuals that had the ability and motivation to defend themselves and others. It was also intended to be a means of teaching his brand of Buddhist philosophy, with the main aim of working towards a society - and ultimately a world - where people would not resort to force to resolve disputes. Doshin So's key thought was that, "Everything depends on the quality of the person". Evil things happen largely because decent people lack the will or the capacity to resist them. Shorinji Kempo is designed to give people both the will and capacity to stand up for what they think is right.

The founder of Shorinji Kempo and one of his calligraphies depicting the essence of Shorinji Kempo: Live half for yourself and half for others.

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

Shorinji Kempo started spreading outside Japan during the late 1960s. It was brought to Britain in 1974 by Sensei Tameo Mizuno, 8th Dan Sei Hanshi (Senior Master) and is steadily growing, not least through the University system in the UK. Britain is the only country in the world other than Japan where an annual University Training Seminar (UTS) is held solely for the members of University clubs.
Mizuno Sensei

Origins of the Art

The origins of Shorinji Kempo can be traced back to India almost 5000 years ago. Legend has it that these traditional Indian martial arts were taken to the Far East by Bodhidharma about 1500 years before the present day. He is said to have incorporated them into the disciplines practised by Buddhist monks to strengthen them for meditation. As Buddhism spread through China, such training became the main form of spiritual training for the monks in the Shaolin temples. Within the monasteries many forms of Kempo were created and practised until the Boxer rebellion in the late 19th Century. This resulted in these Shaolin schools becoming underground societies. Doshin So trained within these societies and on his return to Japan systematised the techniques he had learned, adding his own techniques and philosophies, to create Shorinji Kempo.

Shorinji Kempo Hombu (Headquarters) in Tadotsu, Japan.

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

What to Expect
Shorinji Kempo training teaches self defence techniques, philosophy, meditation and acupressure techniques.

Sensei Kawashima perfoming nage waza (a throwing techique).

The self defence elements of Shorinji Kempo consist of goho and juho techniques. Goho (hard method) consists of techniques that include striking with punches and kicks, dodging and blocking attacks. Juho (soft method) involves defending against grabs to which you either escape or throw the attacker and subdue them with a hold. All the techniques work on physiological principles that require no effort or strength to be effective. For this reason Shorinji Kempo is an art that caters for all sizes, shapes and genders.

The philosophy underlying Shorinji Kempo ultimately comes from the teachings of Doshin So, its founder. All martial arts started out with this kind of philosophical basis, but as practised in the West this has been increasingly de-emphasised. You might go through your entire life without having to actually fight someone. In the end, the reasons for practising martial arts have to go beyond mere self defence.

Sensei Mizuno conducting howa (a philosophy talk) at the 2004 Southampton UTS.

The final two aspects of training are seiho (acupressure techniques) and zazen meditation. The acupressure is a therapeutic system developed over thousands of years to promote good health. Using shiatsu-like massage techniques it relaxes muscles, relieves tension and regulates circulation. Zazen meditation is practised in class to calm the mind and promote breathing control. It is at this point the Dokun - a concise statement of Shorinji Kempo philosophy - is recited to reaffirm the reasons for practice.
Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

The Glasgow Club

The Glasgow Branch was founded in the late 1970s by Sensei Benny Wang, a 2nd dan from Malyasia. As with most University clubs there has been a steady turnover of students and instructors over the years and the club is currently run by Sensei Tony Leith (3rd dan). Glasgow alumni have a habit of getting about, club members have recently trained in Australia, Canada, Portugal, Sweden and Japan (including at WSKO headquarters). Sensei John McCulloch, 5th dan, WSKO councillor and branch master of Torontorddojo, began his Shorinji Kempo career in Glasgow, as did Sensei Adrian Simpson, 3 dan branch master at City University in London and Sensei James Woodward, 2nd dan and branch master of the Durham University club. Also, we are currently in the process of establishing a twinning relationship with the th Hokkaido University club in Japan whose branch master, Nosaka Sensei, 7 dan and WSKO instructor visited Glasgow during last summer and hope to return again soon.

The Benefits to You

Sensei Terry Goodman with Glasgow kenshi at The Crown Inn, Southampton.

Sensei Tony Leith (left) training at the 2004 UTS

The benefits of training in Shorinji Kempo are an improved state of mind and health as well as learning self defence techniques. As a club we aim to provide you with practice in the art of Shorinji Kempo, taught by highly qualified instructors. Our aim is to take you from beginner to black belt within four years. We have a strong social spirit within the club and regularly enjoy a well earned drink after training. You will also get the
Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

opportunity once a year to participate in the University Training Seminar where you will spend a weekend training at a University club within the UK where you will receive instruction from the chief instructor of the British Shorinji Kempo Federation, Mizuno Sensei, as well as other highly ranked instructors, often including a visiting instructor from Japan.

Glasgow club members at the 2005 UTS in Durham

Some highlights from the next twelve months include:a trip to Sweden for an international training camp at the end of October, a visit by Mizuno Sensei in November, the GUSKC Christmas Meal, and the biggest event of the academic year; our hosting of the 2007 UTS! Next October there'll Trip to Japan for the 60th anniversary of Shorinji Kempo which will undoubtedly include a visit to the World Shorinji Kempo headquarters and a chance to train there under the absolute top instructors in the world. Several club members have been to Japan fairly recently and will tell you that it's a trip not to be missed!!

Getting Started
Simply turn up to one of the following sessions in comfortable loose clothing and have a go - it's as simple as that! Monday 8:45 to 10:30pm Thursday 6:35 to 8.35pm Saturday 2:15 to 4:15pm Monday and Saturday classes are held in the Exercise Studio on Level 4 of the Stevenson Building, Thursdays class is at Garscube. Attendance at all three classes every week is NOT mandatory but there is a simple rule of thumb; the more you train, the faster you will progress.
Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

How to Learn
You'll notice pretty early on that a lot of the training vocabulary we use is Japanese. This is simply because Shorinji Kempo began in Japan. This provides the huge advantage of being able to train in any Shorinji Kempo dojo anywhere in the world and still know what's going on. Many members of the Glasgow University club have trained in various parts of the world - including Japan itself - surviving purely on 'Kempo Japanese'. You learn the self defence techniques initially by watching your instructors and copying them. If you don't understand something; ask! When you watch a technique being demonstrated you should be asking yourself some basic questions. For example, think about the following:

What are the stances being used by the attacker and the defender? What 's the attack? What 's the defence? Are there any special points or subtleties to remember?

This way you can build up your own set of reference notes, which can be invaluable when preparing for a grading. As for the philosophy topics, there is a Shorinji Kempo textbook, the Tokuhon, which contains everything you need to know up to your black belt grading. It is a very good idea to read specific topics and then discuss them with your fellow kenshi and instructors. Again, make notes!

As in all martial arts, there is a ranking system. In Shorinji Kempo it goes as follows, with approximate time scales for advancing through the grades, if training regularly (twice a week): 5th Kyu 4th Kyu 3rd Kyu 2nd Kyu 1st Kyu Shodan (White Belt) (Yellow Belt) (Green Belt) (Blue Belt) (Brown Belt) (1st Level Black Belt) Day One + 3 months + 3 months + 6 months + 6 months + 1 year (20 classes) (20 classes) (40 classes) (40 classes) (80 classes)

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

These are minimum times between gradings as laid down by WSKO, but even so it can be seen that grading to Shodan can be done within a 3 year degree course, and is certainly within reach of those doing a 4 year Honours degree.

Sensei Chris Lloyd (Oxford University Dojo) conducting a grading examination.

The purpose of a grading is not to prove how hard you can hit your grading partner, or how much you can hurt them with your throwing and pinning techniques. It is for you to test yourself and each grade should be looked on as a marker in your own progression in Shorinji Kempo both physically (the self defence techniques) and mentally (the short essays you will have to write about the philosophy of Shorinji Kempo). You do this, of course, by demonstrating to the grading instructor that you know your techniques and can apply them successfully under pressure and that you've read and understood the philosophy textbook. It is the responsibility of your teachers to judge when you are ready to grade, but you will be encouraged to advance as quickly as possible.

Unfortunately, there's no such thing as a free dinner so there are various costs that have to be borne by club members:
Provisional Membership: 5.

This covers club membership and your first month's training insurance, This gives you time to decide if Shorinji Kempo is for you rather then making you stump up for full membership on your first day.

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

Full Membership:

British Shorinji Kempo Federation (BSKF) and the World Shorinji Kempo Organisation (WSKO). WSKO membership is a one off payment.
35. 33.

Membership Renewal: Instruction fees:

Payable every April to the BSKF.

15 per term (first term free for beginners). These

fees do not go directly to the instructors but go towards their expenses when attending compulsory instructors seminars. Other things you will need to purchase, as and when you decide to become a full member, are:

Dogi. This is the familiar white suit worn by most martial artists and will cost 15 if

ordered through the club - we get a good rate from our supplier!

A copy of the Tokuhon, the textbook outlining the philosophy of Shorinji Kempo, an understanding of which is required to progress through the ranking system. This costs 14.
Grading fees are paid by the candidate. These start at 18 for the 4th Kyu (white to

yellow belt) grading and increase by about 5 - 10 each time as you progress to higher levels. Please visit the club's website for more information about the Glasgow University club such as contact details, a calendar of events, the address for our internet news group and links to other sites of interest. It can be found at: www.gla.ac.uk/clubs/shorinji For more information on Shorinji Kempo in general, please have a look at the BSKF and WSKO websites which can be found at www.bskf.org and http://www.shorinjikempo.or.jp/wsko/index.html respectively.

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

What follows is some general information on safety and etiquette in training. You'll also find instructions on how to tie your belt properly, a copy of the Dokun, which is a concise version of the Shorinji Kempo statement of purpose and a copy of the 4th Kyu (white to yellow belt) syllabus which contains everything you have to know for your first grading. Finally, there is a list of Japanese words commonly used in Shorinji Kempo along with their English translations.

GUSKC Safety Policy

Training in a martial art such as Shorinji Kempo carries an element of risk. This should be borne in mind by both instructors and kenshi (students of Shorinji Kempo) in the dojo (training hall). This statement should not be construed as a disclaimer of responsibility by the Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club (hereafter GUSKC). It is the responsibility of GUSKC instructors to run classes safely and ensure that, as far as possible, kenshi are not injured themselves and do not injure others. However, some responsibility must devolve to individuals in this matter. In any unincorporated association, the trustees (or the officers of the association in the trustees' default) can be sued. Therefore, all senior kenshi who may be involved in instructing duties should carry Instructors Indemnity Insurance. At least one such indemnified instructor should be present at every GUSKC class.

Specific Precautions for Individuals

1. Before commencing training, kenshi should make their instructors aware of any health conditions that may affect their ability to participate fully in classes. Conditions such as asthma, epilepsy, diabetes or cardiovascular problems require particular attention. However, non-chronic problems such as recent muscle injuries, viral infections etc. should also be reported.

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

2. Kenshi with scheduled conditions should confirm with their doctors that Shorinji Kempo training is suitable for them and should provide a medical certificate to that effect.
3. Kenshi should always ensure that they train within the levels of their own

abilities and state of fitness, including ensuring that they have had adequate food and fluid intake during the day. It is encouraged that you bring a bottle of water to class with you - there are regular water breaks to prevent dehydration. 4. If an individual has to leave a class because of illness or injury, they must inform the class instructor and be accompanied by a senior kenshi. 5. No jewellery of any sort should be worn during training sessions, particularly piercings and including fabric and leather bracelets, watches etc. All such items are capable of causing injury to both the wearer and to training partners. 6. Finger and toe-nails should be kept short and clean at all times. PLEASE OBSERVE THIS POINT as the most common injury in the dojo is getting a cut from a training partner's long nails. 7. Long hair should be tied back. 8. All kenshi must become members of the British Shorinji Kempo Federation (hereafter BSKF) at the earliest possible opportunity, to take advantage of the personal accident insurance policy offered by the Federation. At time of writing (September 2006), this insurance is available through Guthrie Herrington & Co. Ltd, on behalf of the BSKF.

Instructors Responsibilities
(a) Insurance

i) All GUSKC instructors should carry Instructors Indemnity Insurance, in addition to being members of the BSKF.
(b) New Members


Instructors should ensure that new kenshi receive a copy of the GUSKC Safety Policy and understand the section Specific Precautions for Individuals. They should also check that these requirements are met by each individual.

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

ii) Instructors should be satisfied that the attitude of new kenshi to Shorinji Kempo training is such that they will not be a danger to themselves or to other members of the dojo.
(c) Safe Training Areas


In general, Shorinji Kempo training requires sprung floors. When these are not available, training should only take place if non-slip, martial arts training mats are used to cover the floor of the dojo. ii) The floor area must be uncluttered and clean. Personal belongings should be kept well away from the training area. The dojo must have adequate lighting and ventilation. iii) The training area must not be overcrowded. The guideline given in `Sport in Higher Education: Code of Practice' is that five square metres should be allowed for each individual. When this is not possible, classes should be arranged so that only the correct number of kenshi are training at any one time. iv) A First-Aid kit should be available at each training session.
(d) Warm-Up

i) Each class should begin with a suitable warm-up and stretching session. ii) Best practice should be followed in terms of the choice and execution of exercises. In particular, ballistic stretches should be avoided.
(e) Supervision

i) At least one (indemnified) instructor should be present at all times. ii) More advanced techniques or areas should not be introduced until kenshi can correctly and safely apply basic forms and actions. iv) Any kenshi who leaves the dojo through illness or injury should be accompanied by an instructor or senior kenshi, until they have recovered or medical assistance is obtained. v) Any individual whose behavior is a danger to themselves or others in the dojo will be required to leave the class.
(f) First Aid

i) Instructors and senior kenshi should undergo training in First Aid, with particular concentration on sports injuries. Glasgow University Sports Association (GUSA) run courses of this type at various points during the year.

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

Shorinji Kempo Kenshi Etiquettes and Requirements

The following points have been drawn up by the Executive Committee of the British Shorinji Kempo Federation in order that you may quickly understand what is expected of a student in Shorinji Kempo.


A. Make sure you hands and feet are dean. Finger and toe nails should be kept short. B. Make sure your DOGI (training uniform) is kept clean and in good repair, and always put a BSKF badge on your DOGI (avoid the embarrassment of having to be told).

A. On arrival at the Dojo get changed quickly, then either practice your techniques or practice some form of exercise. Do not stand aimlessly around talking or sit on the Dojo floor (unless you are told to do so). B. Any KENSHI (student of Shorinji Kempo) arriving late will sit in zazen. This is so that you may prepare yourself for the training session. C. Ensure that you always address your instructor as 'SENSEI', your captain as 'SHUSHO' and your Vice-Captain as 'FUKUSHO'. Remember to GASSHO (salute) any of the above before and after you speak to them. Senior students should be addressed as 'SEMPAI'. D. Make sure you react with speed to any instructions given to you by the SENSEI, SHUSHO, FUKUSHO, or any senior student. E. Make every attempt to be ready for training 10 minutes before the session is due to begin. F. Make sure that you pay your training fees promptly. The fees are due on the first training session of each month. Do not wait to be asked. Non-payment of fees may result in suspension of training. G. No shoes or jewellery of any description are to be worn in the dojo. Do not eat, drink or chew gum in the Dojo.

A. Gradings - a 4th Kyu grading can only be taken if you are member of WSKO for a full 3 months before the first grading (other than approval of your techniques from your Branch Master). Without a WSKO KENSHI NUMBER you are not entitled to take the 4th Kyu grading. B. Lastly, remember if you have any questions or problems that are not related to training then ask the SHUSHO or the FUKUSHO.
Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006


1. Rely on yourself and not on others. No one is as reliable as your own well disciplined

2. By committing evil you defile yourself, by avoiding evil you attain purity.

1. In acquiring this art we pledge to honour the founder and not to betray our masters, to

respect our elders and not to slight the young. As comrades we pledge to help each and cooperate for the accomplishment of these teachings.
2. We pledge to leave our past aside and to devote ourselves to mastering the art as

plainly and naively as infants.

3. We pledge never to perform our art for selfish reasons, but for the benefit of mankind.

1. We are grateful that we are endowed with our souls from Dharma and our bodies from

our parents. We determine to make every effort to return their blessings.

2. We love our country and determine to better the welfare of our people. 3. We love justice, respect humanity, observe courtesy, keep the peace and determine to

be true and brave.

4. We strive to master the art and discipline the body and soul. We love our comrades

and help each other. We cooperate and endeavour to establish an ideal world.

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

Tying your Obi (belt)

Tying your belt correctly can be complicated at first. Hopefully the pictures below will help you to get it right first time. If not, ask a more senior member - they'll be happy to show you.

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

4th Kyu Syllabus

Technique name Notes Technical Family

Ryusui Geri Uchi uke zuki Uwa uke geri

Mae & Ushiro. Tai & hiraki gamae. Juji ashi sagari Attack with shuto uchi. Juji ashi sagari

Nio ken Nio ken Nio ken

Technique name Notes Technical Family

Ude juji gatame Kote nuki Gyaku gote Yori nuki (katate)

Tate gassho gatame, gedan geri Ura ken, chudan zuki Mae yubi gatame, chudan zuki Kumade zuki Yoko ukemi Daisharin

Kongo ken Ryuo ken Ryuka ken Ryuo ken


Basic Technical Japanese Words

Rei Naore Onegaishimasu Arigato gozaimashita Hajime Yame Chosoku Kiai Shugo Seiretsu Kamae Palms together in salutation Hands down Please Thank you (for teaching me) Begin Stop Breathing control Shout Assemble Line up Take up position Ichi Ni San Shi Go 6 7 8 9 10 Roku Shichi Hachi Ku Ju


1 2 3 4 5

Gakka How to behave at the Dojo (see 'Shorinji Kempo Kenshi Etiquettes and
Requirements' above).
Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

Shorinji Kempo Dictionary

Below is a list of Japanese terms used in Shorinji Kempo. Translations are not guaranteed to be exact or comprehensive as they relate specifically to a Shorinji Kempo context. The list aims to contain all words used in the naming of Shorinji Kempo techniques, and although other words are present, it is not intended to be a complete reference for all Shorinji Kempo vocabulary. Some words appear twice in the list because they may have a hard or soft sound (and spelling) depending on the syllable preceding. It is worth noting these adjustments since in some cases words may appear only under one spelling. Sounds commonly exchangeable are h/b, h/p, k/g, s/z, t/z.
Age Ai Ashi Ate Atemi Baku Budo Byakuren ken Up Love Foot/Leg/Step Strike Striking the body (anywhere) Bind/Tie up Martial way Fist of White Lotus. Goho techniques in which the defending arm frequently returns the attack. Earth (sometimes meaning down/lower) Fist of Earth King. Goho family where a multiple attack begins with a jodan zuki, or a geri Plover (a type of bird that moves diagonally) Mid-level (torso) Number, Big Cartwheel (Big Wheel) Simultaneous Capture Lapel Swing Not hurt, but develop (principle of Shorinji Kempo) Return Outside Entwine Palms together Low level (legs/groin) Fist of righteous harmony. (Family of kata) Hard method (techniques involving strikes) The unity of hard and soft Reverse/Rear (hand, leg etc.) Reversed hand Upper arm Half Half turn Brush away/Knock away Stance like holding a beach ball Hidari Hiji Hiki Hiraki Hiza Hokei Ichi Ichiji Ichinyo Idori Ippon Jodan Juho Juji Jun Kaeshi Kagite Kaisin Kakuritsu ken Left Elbow Pull Open Knee Pattern encapsulating part of the system One Horizontal Unity Seize One point Top level (head/neck) Soft method (techniques for repelling grappling attacks) Cross (shape) Front (front hand, leg etc.) Return Locked hand Opening the body Fist of Standing Crane. Goho family involving blocking and countering with the leg. Stance Crab Gate bar Set form/Single Pin One handed juho attack Fist The unity of mind and body Kick Groin Cut Fist of Crimson Manji (kata) Push in Mix Fist of Diamond (Buddhist symbol of indestructible truth) Attacking/restraining juho family. Leaf (meaning hand) Cross over/Move over

Chi Chio ken

Chidori Chudan Dai Daisharin Doji Dori Eri Furi Fusatsu katsujin Gaeshi Gai Garame Gassho Gedan Giwa ken Goho Go Ju Ittai Gyaku Gyakute Haku Han Han tenkan Harai (uke) Hasso (gamae)

Kamae Kani Kannuki Kata Katame Katate Ken Ken Zen Ichinyo Keri Kinteki Kiri Ko manji ken Komi Kon Kongo ken

Konoha Koshi

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006

Kote Kubi Kumade Kumo Kusshin Mae Maki Me Midare Migi Morote Muna Nai Nami Ni Nidan Nio ken

Nuki Okuri Osae Oshi Otoshi Rakan ken

Randori Ren Ren han ko Riki Riki Ai Funi Ryaku Ryo Ryote Ryuka ken Ryu Ryuo Ryuo ken Ryusui Sabaki Sagari Sambo San Sango ken

Sankaku Se Sei Seiho Seiza Shita

Wrist Neck Bear hand (heel of hand) Spider Yield (a ducking motion) Front Wrap Eye(s) Mixed Right (not left) Two hands on one hand juho attack Chest Inside Wave Two Two level Fist of Nio (The two Buddhist temple Guardians) Single Jodan attack Goho family. Elude (escaping from a grab) Send (sometimes leading by the hand) Push Push Drop/Release/Let fall Fist of Lohan (achiever of Nirvana) Juho family involving wrapping/binding in clothing. Free fighting practice Continuing Extended/continuing attack Strength Strength and love together Simplified/Informal Double Two hands on two hands juho attack Fist of Blossoming Dragon Hand capture and throwing juho Dragon Dragon King Fist of Dragon King Eluding juho family Waterfall (body motion, the head arcs downwards) Movement Retreat Triple defence Three Fist of Triple Unity Mainly chudan attack, keri defence, goho family. Triangle Finger/Thumb Correct Healing techniques Kneel Down

Shorinji Kempo Shushu koju Shuho Shuto Sode So Doshin Sotai Sokuto Soto Sukui Tai (gamae) Tai sabaki Taiki (gamae) Tanen Tanto Tate Tembin Ten Tenchi ken Tenkan Tenno ken

Tenshin Tsubame Tsuitate Tsuki Tsuri Uchi Ude Uke Ukemi Umpoho Ura Uraken Ushiro Uwa Wa Wanto Waza Yoko Yori Yubi Zeme Zen Zen tenkan Zuki

Small forest temple fist system. (Shaolin temple in Henan, China) Defence before attack Defence Hand blade (side of hand) Sleeve The founder! Pair-form Foot blade (side of foot) Outside Scoop Opposite stance (closed) Body movement Waiting stance Pair form Dagger Vertical Position on triceps above elbow Heaven (sometimes top or upper) Fist of Heaven and Earth (Family of Kata) Turn Fist of Heaven King Multiple attack, jodan first, goho family Pivot/Shuffle/Skip Swallow (bird) Vertical thrust Punch/Lunge Hang/Suspend/Hook Inside/Strike Arm Block/Deflect Roll, Cartwheel (evasive body movement) Footwork Back Back-fist (top two knuckles) Rear Up Circle/Ring Arm blade (inside - Nai - or outside Gai - of forearm) Technique Side Coming together Finger/Thumb Attack Mind/Zen/Full Full turn Punch/Lunge

Glasgow University Shorinji Kempo Club 2006