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Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester I Subject Code MB0043 Subject Name Human Resource Management 4 Credits

(Book ID: B1132)

Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)

Q.1 Write down the difference between Personnel management and Human Resource management. Answer: Many students of management and laypeople often hear the term HRM or

Human Resource Management and wonder about the difference between HRM and the traditional term Personnel Management. In earlier times, the Personnel Manager of a factory or firm was the person in charge of ensuring employee welfare and interceding between the management and the employees. In recent times, the term has been replaced with HR manager. This article looks at the differences in usage and scope of functions as well as the underlying theory behind these nomenclatures. In the section on introducing HRM, we briefly looked at the main differences. We shall look into them in more detail here.
Personnel Management

Traditionally the term personnel management was used to refer to the set of activities concerning the workforce which included staffing, payroll, contractual obligations and other administrative tasks. In this respect, personnel management encompasses the range of activities that are to do with managing the workforce rather than resources. Personnel Management is more administrative in nature and the Personnel Managers main job is to ensure that the needs of the workforce as they pertain to their immediate concerns are taken care of. Further, personnel managers typically played the role of mediators between the management and the employees and hence there was always the feeling that personnel management was not in tune with the objectives of the management.
Human Resource Management

With the advent of resource centric organizations in recent decades, it has become imperative to put people first as well as secure management objectives of maximizing the ROI (Return on Investment) on the resources. This has led to the development of the modern HRM function which is primarily concerned with ensuring the fulfillment of management objectives and at the same time ensuring that the needs of the resources are taken care of. In this way, HRM differs from personnel management not only in its broader scope but also in the way in which its mission is defined. HRM goes beyond the administrative tasks of personnel management and encompasses a broad vision of how management would like the resources to contribute to the success of the organization.
Personnel Management and HRM: A Paradigm Shift ?

Cynics might point to the fact that whatever term we use, it is finally about managing people. The answer to this would be that the way in which people are managed says a lot about the approach that the firm is taking. For instance, traditional manufacturing units had personnel managers whereas the services firms have HR managers. While it is tempting to view Personnel Management as archaic and HRM as modern, we have to recognize the fact that each serves or served the purpose for which they were instituted. Personnel Management was effective in the smokestack era and HRM is effective in the 21st century and this definitely reflects a paradigm shift in the practice of managing people.

It is clear from the above paragraphs that HRM denotes a shift in focus and strategy and is in tune with the needs of the modern organization. HRM concentrates on the planning, monitoring and control aspects of resources whereas Personnel Management was largely about mediating between the management and employees. Many experts view Personnel Management as being workforce centered whereas HRM is resource centered. In conclusion, the differences between these two terms have to be viewed through the prism of people management through the times and in context of the industry that is being studied.
Q.2 Write a note on scope of HR in India. Answer: The scope of human resource management in India is very great indeed. This is

because there is an increasing number of jobs within the IT sector and also because the number of young people looking for work is also on the rise. Therefore the demand for young and talented people has increased dramatically. The scope of human resources, no matter which country, is very great because there is an increasing number of human resource related jobs and human resource related demands such as advanced performance appraisal, Human Resource Information System, employee involvement, corporate governance and job satisfaction. Students who are looking for a job in human resource management will usually have to have a MBA human resources degree. This will allow them to get a job in a wide variety of different organizations such as financial firms such as banks, and firms that are not related to finance such as IT companies and insurance companies. These types of companies are where a human resource department is needed the most, although it is still important in all types of companies regardless of which field they are in. The scope of human resource has a great scope because there is also a great need to recruit, select, train and develop the skills of the people that they hire, as well as motivating them, maintaining the high level and standard of work and dimension of the people. Human resource management is a field of management that handles the strategic approach towards management of an organizations resources, specifically the human

resources. The scope of human management includes industrial management, organizational management, employee relations and personnel management and administration. More simply, the five scopes of human resources are the procurement of workers, training of these workers and the development of their skills, job and performance analysis, wages and salaries of the workers and welfare and an industrial relationship.
Q.3 Explain the critical steps in Human Resource Planning system.
Answer: Critical steps in human resource planning system are:

A. Purpose of Human Resource Planning: Human Resource Planning fulfils individual as well as organizational goals. What it essentially amounts to is striking a balance between the future human resources needs and the future enterprise needs. And this is done with the clear objective of maximizing the future return on investment in human resources. And this objective may be laid down for a short-term (i.e.for one year). B. Estimating/Forecasting the future Manpower Requirements: the first step in the process is to arrive at the desired organizational structure at a given point in time. Mapping this structure with the existing structure helps in identifying the gap in resources requirement. The number and type of employees needed have to be determined. In addition to the structure there are a number of external factors that affect this determination. They include business forecasts, competitor strategy, expansion plans, product/skills mix changes, profit/revenue growth projections, in addition to management philosophy and government policies. This step also includes an analysis of the external labour/talent environment, its demographics, demand/supply of the required talent, and cost considerations. C. Auditing Human Resources: Once the future human resource needs are estimated, the next step is to determine the present supply of manpower resources. This is done through what is called Skills Inventory. A skills inventory contains data about each employees skills, abilities, work preferences and other items of information which indicate his worth to the company. Skills inventory are also referred to as competency dictionaries. This information is usually retained as part of the performance management system with the HR department. This step in the HRP system helps identify the existing profile of the manpower and its efficiency. It helps highlight where the organization is vs. where it ought to be. The step concludes with identifying clear gaps in the skills/ manpower mix required to meet the upcoming business objectives. D. Job Analysis: After having decided how many persons would be needed, it is necessary to prepare a job analysis. The recorded details of training, skills, qualification, abilities, experience and responsibilities, etc. as needed for a job are studied. Job analysis includes the preparation of job descriptions and job specifications. E. Developing a Human Resource Plan: This step refers t the development and implementation of the human resource plan, which consists in finding out the sources of

labour supply with a view to making an effective use of these sources. Some important considerations at this point are: Specific roles/disciplines being hired for, of them which roles are pivotal for the business Competencies and capabilities needed Manager vs. employee hiring Hire internally vs. External sourcing Planning for new skills through training existing staff vs. hiring new teams In case of surpluses, planning for redeployment/ reduction in workforce as required Succession planning for key positions in the company

Q.4 With reference to the compensation and salary system what are the systems that are helpful to raise the effectiveness of employees. Answer: Employee effectiveness is a seldom-discussed but crucial component to

improved business performance. For this reason, effective employees are worth their weight in gold. Today's consumers are inundated with marketing stimuli, to the point that the consumer base in society is now "numb" to traditional marketing tactics and advertisements. In this society of never-ending technological improvements, how can you make your company stand out? The answer is simple: by employing people that understand the basic tenets of human interaction and utilize this understanding toward increasing company profits. Or, more simply, by hiring and developing effective employees. What follows are three tips for executives for improving employee effectiveness. Tip #1: Understand the basic human needs What are the basic human needs? Some of the most important include the need for human connection, the need for variety, and the need to feel significant. We as humans all have varying levels of each of these needs; however, lack of fulfillment in any of these areas will result in a dramatic drop in self-concept. One of the earliest theories on the development of schizophrenia, for example, emphasized profound maternal rejection as the ultimate stressor that ultimately determines whether or not an individual develops symptoms of schizophrenia, a disorder characterized by the disorganized and loose thinking patterns. People have a need to connect with others-we are social creatures, and lack of this stimulation can have serious ramifications. So how do you utilize your understanding of this tenet with your employees? By connecting with your employees and allowing them to understand that they are a valuable part of the company. How many of your employees do you really know? How many of their spouses have you met? Do you know how many children they have, and those childrens' names? Variety, obviously, is another need. Without it, human performance drops dramatically. We as humans are curious, knowledge-seeking creatures, and to this end it is important

that you stimulate the minds of your employees accordingly. Vary the type or length of tasks performed by certain employees. Surprise employees with appreciation parties. Assign one day a week as casual dress day. The possibilities are endless, but the important concept is that humans crave variety in everyday life. Significance is a crucial need. The end result of employees that feel significant is company loyalty. Think about it this way: in your own life, are you closer with those that talk a good game, or those that have proven to you that you matter to them? The answer is obvious. When we feel that we are significant (that we have value) in the eyes of others, we will go a long way to stay connected with that individual. So how do you meet this need in your employees? Start by understanding how important your employees are to your company. Next, seek to understand how your employees are different from other employees. What skills do they bring that are valuable? What experiences have they had that are unique? The last step? Applaud these individuals for the above mentioned characteristics. Praise those qualities that may be seldom appreciated by others in their lives. Your perceptiveness in this manner will go a long way toward meeting the need of those who work with and for you to feel important, to feel significant. Tip #2: Instill hope Hope, contrary to the popular poem by Emily Dickinson, is not a thing with feathers. Hope is a crucial aspect of human existence. As an executive, do all you can to instill hope in your employees and those around you. Hope is a future-oriented positivity, and can always be reality-based. In any given situation, there are different ways to perceive the actual event. Instead of becoming passive in your reality interpretations, practice rational positivity. If sales are down this quarter, doesn't that mean that you and your employees have been given valuable feedback from the public? Something needs to change for the better, and if sales are to increase, employee productivity and effectiveness will have to increase accordingly. So this perceived "setback" is not really a setback at all, but in actuality an opportunity for learning and change. One last thought on the importance of hope: how many stories have you read about involving elderly couples, who, after fifty plus years of wedded bliss, die within a short time period of each other? Why might this be? Perhaps it has to do with hope, or the absence of it. Couples that are this close live for each other, and when one passes on, so does their reason to live. They give up on life, and soon pass on themselves. Tip #3: Understand the importance for balance Balance is crucial to improving employee production. We as humans are multi-talented individuals, each of us carrying different variations of needs and wants. We are not solely creatures who work. We play, we laugh, we work out, we have hobbies, etc...This are all necessary components of the human existence. However, all too frequently, we tend to neglect these different aspects of our lives in our quest for improved positioning or improved production at work. We rationalize away our neglect of our health, families, and hobbies. As an executive with increasing demands and responsibility, perhaps you are guilty of doing the same. One of the oldest (and silliest) excuses is that "I don't have

enough time". I don't know about you, but last time I checked, each day had only twentyfour hours. I've never met someone enjoying a twenty-five hour day. So it really has nothing to do with the time available to us, but rather, how we divide that time each day (or week, or month, etc). Learn to value the importance of balance in not only your life but the lives of your employees. You don't have a work life and a personal life-you have one life, and your time is divided accordingly. Seek out those areas of your life that you have been neglecting, and change that fact. Promote life balance in the lives of your employees, also. Encourage them to pursue their hobbies, to enrich their family lives, to take care of their personal health. Find someone working extra late? Send them home, and give them a half day the next day. Offer gym memberships at discounted rates to your employees. Again, possibilities abound. Seek balance.
Q.5 What is competency? How it can be linked to the HR system? Answer: Organizations around the world depend on human capital to achieve their

strategic objectives. Nevertheless, how they leverage the talents of their resource is the hidden mantra. With umpteen numbers of organizing factors emerging day by day, competency based HR management is being increasingly recognized as an effective way of talent management. Today, the process and competency have become key factors in determining how HR function is organized. While the process play a keen role on total quality management and re-engineering, a growing number of organizations sees competence as the key to enduring performance and to making HR most effective. Competency Based HRM A competency is any skill, attitude, knowledge, or other attribute that is observable and identifies successful performance. Effectively competencies translate the strategic vision and goals of the organization into measurable and observable behaviors or actions that employees must display. For any given organization, there will be a common framework of competency that integrates all aspects of the HR system including employee selection, evaluation, promotion, and reward systems. By communicating these competencies, organizations empower employees to take charge of their careers, direct their own personal development and continually self-evaluate and improve. The framework also helps the organization to pro-actively plan for its human resource needs and establishes programs that support employees in acquiring the competencies needed for the organizational success. However, it takes extraordinary effort and commitment to develop and implement a detailed and integrated competency-based human resource management system. Hence, it requires a valuable amount of time to evaluate the needs of the organization and to create a strategy or plan that will meet these needs.

Implementing Competency Based HRM Implementing competency based HRM requires significant change initiative and there must be a compelling need and will to change. In order to develop a common framework, not just the HR, but, everyone in the organization must see the benefits and be willing to champion the initiative. For instance, leaders must see the benefits while employees must understand how the program will benefit them both in their current jobs, as well as in advancing their careers. In order to succeed, HR will have to implement first the components of a competency based HRM system that addresses the expressed needs of the employees, preferably in a non-threatening way. Having championed the change, the first major challenge will be to define the competencies across levels. For instance, will it be sufficient to define the common framework of competencies for everyone, or should specific competencies be developed for a particular level, functions, and jobs? The answer hinges on how the competencies will be used. For example, to staff particular position, competencies should be defined for the job, while on the other hand for appointments to level, should competencies only be defined at the core or common level. With myriad of competency modeling methods, it becomes crucial for any given organization to arrive at a methodology best suited to support their identified needs. However, no one single method will effectively support all components of the HRM system (i.e. training, development, selection, performance etc.) or the full range of occupation levels (executive, skilled, semi-skilled etc.). Finally, communication is highly important before you implement a competency based HRM. While employee communication is imperative, promoting the framework between stakeholders also becomes mandatory. This ensures that the competencies are truly reflecting the behaviors that contribute to the sustained organizational success.
Q.6 Dynamic Learning is an organization that wants to revise the HR policies. It has conducted a survey and the results of survey indicated that r=there is employee unrest, tardiness, absenteeism, more grievances. This all clearly indicates low morale. Suggest the measures that can be taken to improve employee morale. Answer: Employee Morale Boosters

Morale boosters can take the form of recognition, compensation, special perks or simply terminating employees. Here are 11 low cost morale boosters: Welcome ideas: Employee morale improves when staff feel they are valued. Share and implement their innovations and ideas.

Keep Score: Mount a large score board in the office to recognize top performers and to motivate those on the bottom of the list. Inspect: The old management adage, inspect what you expect is true. Companies with a lack of focus can confuse staff and lead to less morale. Thank You Notes: Send a special thank you letter to you staffs family or spouse, praising their good work and efforts. Huddle: Have a daily morning huddle to highlights tasks for the day and to cheer yesterdays wins. Open Up: Provide an open forum or one-on-one time to allow employees to express their concerns and feelings can be an easy means to boost morale. Have Fun: Special events and outside work activities can take the pressure off the day-today grind in the office. Show Charity: Get your staff involved in a bigger cause to help them see there is more to life than work. Add Perks: Use low cost perks such as a Foosball table in the lunch room. Fire Staff: Sometimes the root cause of low employee morale can be a staff member whose negativity brings down the group. Even a top performer can bring down staff behind your back. Measure it: Keep tabs on the levels of morale in your business by regularly measuring employee satisfaction. The backbone of business success resides in the productivity and output of your employees. Those companies who remain vigilant to the signs of low morale and who focus on improving morale can thwart off the impact of a low morale workplace.

Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester I Subject Code MB0043 Subject Name Human Resource Management 4 Credits
(Book ID: B0909)

Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)

[10 Marks] Q.1 List and explain the sources of recruitment?

The sources of employees can be classified into two types, internal and external. Filling a job opening from within the firm has the advantages of stimulating preparation for possible transfer of promotion, increasing the general level of morale, and providing more information about job candidates through analysis of work histories within the organization. A job posting has a number of advantages. From the view point of the employee, it provides flexibility and greater control over career progress. For the employer, it should result in better matches of employee and job.

In most instances, the jobs are posted on notice boards, though some carry listings in the company newspapers. The posting period is commonly one week, with the final decision for hiring being completed within four weeks. Internal applications are often restricted to certain employees, the guidelines for one company including (1) good or better on most recent performance review; (2) dependable attendance record; (3) not under probationary sanction; and (4) having been in present position for 1 year. The present supervisor must at some time be informed of his or her subordinates interest in another job. Some require immediate notification, while others inform only if the employee becomes a prime candidate for the listed opening. The personnel unit acts as a clearing house in screening applications that are unrealistic, preventing an excessive number of bids by a single employee, and counselling employees who are constantly unsuccessful in their attempt to change jobs. Inevitably, the firm must go to external sources for lower entry jobs, for expansion, and for positions whose specifications cannot be met by present personnel. Thus the firm has a number of outside sources available, among which are the following: 1. Advertising: There is a trend toward more selective recruitment in advertising. This can be effected in at least two ways. First, advertisements can be placed in media read only by particular groups. Secondly, more information about the company, the job, and the job specification can be included in the ad to permit some self-screening. 2. Employment Agencies: Additional screening can be affected through the utilization of employment agencies, both public and private. Today, in contrast to their former unsavoury reputation, the public employment agencies in several States are well-regarded, particularly in the fields of unskilled semi-skilled and skilled operative jobs. In the technical and professional areas, however, the private agencies appear to be doing most of the work. Many private agencies tend to specialize in a particular type of worker and job, such as sales, office, executive or engineer. 3. Employee Referrals: Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn. When the labour market is very tight, large employers frequently offer their employees bonus or prizes for any







referrals that are hired and stay with the company for a specific length of time. Some companies maintain a register of former employees whose record was good to contact them when there are new job openings for which they are qualified. This method of recruitment, however, suffers from a serious defect that it encourages nepotism, i.e. persons of ones community or caste are employed, who may or may not be fit for the job. Schools, Colleges and Professional Institutions: Offer opportunities for recruiting their students. They operate placement services where complete biodata and other particulars of the students are available. The companies that need employees maintain contact with Guidance Counsellors of Employment Bureaus and teachers of business and vocational subjects. The prospective employers can review Credentials and interview candidates for management trainees or probationers. Whether the education sought involves a higher secondary certificate, specific vocational training, or a college background with a bachelors, masters or doctoral degree, educational institutions provide an excellent source of potential employees for entry-level positions in organizations. These general and technical/ professional institutions provide blue-collar applicants, white-collar and managerial personnel. Labour unions: Firms with closed or union shops must look to the union in their recruitment efforts. Disadvantages of a monopolistically controlled labour source are offset, at least particularly, by savings in recruitment costs. With one-fifth of the labour force organized into unions, organized labour constitutes an important source of personnel. Casual applicants: Unsolicited applications, both at the gate and through the mail, constitute a much-used source of personnel. These can be developed through provision of attractive employment office facilities and prompt and courteous replies to unsolicited letters. Professional organizations or recruiting firms or executive recruiters: maintain complete information records about employed executives. These firms are looked upon as head hunters, raiders and pirates by organizations which lose personnel through their efforts. However, these same organizations may employ executive search firms to help them find talent. These consulting firms recommend persons of high calibre for managerial, marketing and production engineers posts. Indoctrination seminars for colleges professors: are arranged to discuss the problem of companies and employees. Professors are invited to take part in these seminars. Visits to plants and banquets are arranged so that the participant professors may be favourably impressed. They may later speak well of a company and help it in getting the required personnel. Unconsolidated applications: For positions in which large numbers of candidates are not available from other sources, the companies may gain keeping files of applications received from candidates who make direct enquiries about possible vacancies on their own, or may send unconsolidated applications. The information may be indexed and filed for future use when there are openings in these jobs.

10. Nepotism: The hiring of relatives will be an inevitable component of recruitment programmes in family-owned firms, such a policy does not necessarily coincide with hiring on the basis of merit, but interest and loyalty to the enterprise are offsetting advantages. 11. Leasing: To adjust to short-term fluctuations in personnel needs, the possibility of leasing personnel by the hour or day should be considered. This practice has been particularly well-developed in the office administration field. The firm not only obtains well-trained and selected personnel but avoids any obligation in pensions, insurance, and other fringe benefits. 12. Voluntary organizations: such as private clubs, social organizations might also provide employees handicaps, widowed or married women, old persons, retired hands, etc., in response to advertisements. 13. Computer data banks: When a company desires a particular type of employee, job specifications and requirements are fed into a computer, where they are matched against the resume data stored therein. The output is a set of resumes for individuals who meet the requirements. This method is very useful for identifying candidates for hard-to-fill positions which call for an unusual combination of skills.
Q.2 Write a note on objectives of training? Answer: The HR formulates the following training objectives in keeping with the Companys goals and objectives: a)To prepare the employee both new and old to meet the present as well as the changing requirements of the job and the organizations)To prevent obsolescence)To impart the new entrance the basic knowledge and skill they need for an intelligent performance of definite jobs)To prepare employees for higher level tasks)To assist employees to function more affectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing their skills they will need in their particular fields)To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy mare responsible positions)To broaden the mind of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correcting the narrowness of outlook that may arise from over specializations)To develop the potentialities of the people for the next level jobs)To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department j)To ensure economical output of the required qualitys)To promote individual and collective moral, a sense of responsibility, co-operative attitudes and good relationships. Organizational Objectives and Strategies: The first step in the training process in an organization is planning i.e. the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these and their related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weakness of its human resources. Needs Assessment:

Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Needs assessment occurs at two levels-group and individual. An individual obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short of standards, that is, when there is performance deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Any change in the organizations strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. For example, when the organization decides to introduce a new line of products, sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce, sell and service the new products. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates, low morale and motivation, or other problems are diagnosed. Training and Development Objectives: Once training needs are assessed, training and development goals must be established. Without clearly-set goals, it is not possible to design a training and development programming, after it has been implemented; there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness. Goals must be tangible, verifiable, and measurable. This is easy where skills training are involved. Behavioral objectives like attitudinal changes can be more difficult to state. Nevertheless, clear behavioral standards of expected results are necessary so that the programmed can be effectively designed and results can be achieved. Designing Training and Development Programme: Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues- i) who participates in the programme? ii) who are the trainers? iii) What methods and techniques are to be used for training? iv) what should be the level of training? v) What learning principles are needed? vi) Where is the programme conducted? Implementation of the Training Programme: Once the training programme has been designed, it needs to be implemented. Implementation is beset with certain problems. In the first place, most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too bust to engage in training efforts. Secondly, availability of trainers is a problem. In addition to possessing communication skills, the trainers must know the companys philosophy. Q.3 What are the different career development activities? Explain.

Answer: Career development activities and opportunities train, motivate and challenge employees for greater productivity in the workplace. For example, an employee might have have an interest in developing interpersonal skills. The ideal environment for your employee is the opportunity to interact with customers. Activities in job rotation, working with a mentor and internships provide similar opportunities for your employees to have individual exposure to many environments for their career development.

Job Rotation Activities

Being in one position for a long time can stifle an employee's growth. As a career development strategy, job rotation breaks the monotony by moving an employee, temporarily, into another position to gain exposure to another function. As an activity, have your employees participate in a series of job rotations based on their individual learning needs. Upon completion of the rotation, your employees are capable of applying what was learned to their current position and assisting in new functions within the organization.

Mentoring Activities

Assigning a career development mentor to an employee provides support for career development and professional aspirations. For example, an employee from another country shares with her mentor experiences of work culture in both places for the mentor to help her adjust to the workplace. She looks to her mentor for tips on her resume and cover letters. Other activities you can suggest are role-play job interviews, and "what-if" scenarios of challenges and solutions in the workplace.

Internship Activities

An internship program is a career building strategy for employees' development in leadership skills. Under the internship program, your employees develop new experiences and training in interpersonal skills to feel comfortable with assertiveness to handle issues such as conflict resolution. As an activity for practical experience on leadership skills upon completion of the internship, ask your employee to develop a special project for management in leadership for a presentation.

Learning Group Activities

Do your employees have common career development interests and learning objectives for career development such as learning new technology or developing public speaking skills? Why not set up a learning group as a career development activity. A learning group shares knowledge and skills in a supportive environment with no formal training. Ideally, employees meet during lunch hours or early in the morning without interfering with work. By communicating through newsletters or email messages, all of your employees can benefit from the opportunity of learning groups.

Q.4 Discuss some steps that are commonly practiced for motivating employees. Answer: Motivating your employees is imperative to the success of your company. You

cannot have a thriving business when your workers perform work slowly, come in late and behave poorly. Often this type of behavior is the result of a lack of motivation or a

feeling of being unappreciated. Managers and business owners alike benefit from giving workers reasons to perform well. Motivating factors include verbal acknowledgement, monetary rewards, increases in responsibility and help in achieving career goals. Difficulty: Moderate


Ask your employees what they want and listen. Some people are motivated by the prospect of more money, but for others, it's the possibility of more time off. Still others want more challenging work and more responsibility. Each person has his own reasons to feel motivated. The fact that you take the time to listen to your employees is a big motivator for employees who may have previously felt unappreciated.

Create an action plan. After talking and listening to your workers, sit down with them and map out a plan for success. Engage in one-on-one conversation with each member of your team, giving each person a clear goal and performance expectation. At work, most people prefer clear goals, rather than generalities. If your employee isn't clear about your expectations, he may spend more time wondering what you want rather than doing it.

Lead by example. If your company has a strong work ethic, but you always go home early, you cannot expect your employees to feel motivated. If you expect quality and dedication from your workers, show them how it's done. A good leader understands that actions are more important than words, and therefore, what you do has stronger motivational influence than your words.

Watch your employees for signs to what really motivates them. A good manager pays attention to unspoken cues his employees give. What one says motivates him might actually be different than how he acts. This isn't because he's lied. Rather, it could be the result of a mistake in calculating what he really wanted. For example, the person who said he wanted to work on a prestigious project realizes he doesn't enjoy the work as much as he thought he would. In this case, talk to the employee again to find out how you two can work together to achieve mutual goals.

Give the appropriate amount of encouragement to each of your team members. No one likes to work without feeling as if someone appreciates her hard work. While some enjoy public praise, others prefer a more quiet approach to praise. A quick "good job" or "thanks for your hard work" are all many employees need to feel motivated to please the boss. If you believe one employee has done a consistently good job, consider leaving a thank-you card on his desk or in a private meeting.

Delegate tasks. This shows you have faith in your team to get the job done. Delegating to your team members encourages them to come up with new ways to solve problems, create more efficient procedures and develop new products. Set a clear goal for these tasks and give them ownership of it. Employees who enjoy increased responsibility will be motivated to perform at their best.

Encourage your employees to increase their knowledge. When you show a genuine interest in your team members' career goals, they will be more likely to work harder for you. Give your employees the chance to increase their knowledge and skills, and provide them with the connections they need to make their dreams a reality. As a result of your interest in their long-term goals, your employees might stay with the company longer, working up the ranks. This benefits you and the company in that you have a more knowledgeable workforce familiar with the inner workings of your particular business.

Keep your team members' skills and training updated. New technology emerges almost daily, and the competitive business environment many professionals find themselves in requires an ever-increasing knowledge of the latest upgrades. Whether your work involves extracting and storing electronic data, or if you're involved in sales, keep abreast of relevant updates new products that could help streamline your business practices. Employees who use old and outdated equipment may feel as though the company does not care enough about them to invest in high-quality tools.

Resolve conflicts quickly and fairly between employees. While this does not seem like an obvious motivational factor, it is. A decisive and fair

resolution to office conflicts helps motivate team members by showing them you take their needs seriously. A perceived troublemaker could just as likely be a concerned employee bringing attention to unsafe or unethical business practices by his coworkers. Refrain from making snap judgments. Listen to the complaints and issues and investigate the problem before making your decision. Workers who realize the boss is fair are more likely to feel motivated to perform well.

Find out how to get your people moving. Frank McNair, author of "The Golden Rule for Managers," says you cannot motivate "stick people" with carrots. This metaphor brings to light a core difference between two types of people: those who are motivated by rewards, and those who are motivated by fear. If some members of your team, after having received positive rewards and praise, are still not working to their greatest capacity, fire one to motivate the others. Terminating an employee in this way should be a last resort after all other efforts have failed.

Q.5 Describe the grievance handling procedure.

Answer: Grievances always vary from company to company and it has many definitions also by many authors. Grievance is used company to indicate various forms and stages of an employees dissatisfaction. According to the Dale Yoder, a written complaint filled by an employee and claiming unfair treatment. Another definition comes with Prof. Jucious who defines as, any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether expressed or not and whether valid or not, arising out of anything connected with the company that an employee thinks, believes or even feels unfair, unjust or inequitable. There are various factors which arise Grievances. A grievance is always a symbol of some malfunctioning or maladjustment and an able and skillful manager can always find out the real or submerged reasons for a grievance. The dispute or grievance constitutes a managerial problem and the scientific method is usually most productive in arriving at a satisfactory solution. A grievance should be dealt within the limits of the first line supervisor. The appellate authority should be made clear to the employee so that is he cannot get satisfaction from his immediate supervisor, he should know the next step. The grievance should be dealt with speedily.

In establishing a grievance procedure, if the grievance is against an instruction given by a superior in the interest or order and discipline, the instructions must be carried out first and then only employee can register his protest.

Grievance Handling Procedure Image In the grievance handling the some factors include: Receive and define the nature of the dissatisfaction. Get the facts. Analyze and divide. Apply the answer. Follow up. In establishing a grievance procedure, if the grievance is against an instruction given by a superior in the interest of order and discipline, the instructions must be carried out first and then only employee can register the protest. In the language of the labor management relations, a grievance is a complaint formally presented by the employee or employees to the management. In case, the grievance has not been settled by top management and top union leadership, the same may be submitted to an impartial arbitrator.

Q.6 Write a note on types of groups. Answer: Group may be defined as the aggregation of small number of people who work

for common goals and develop a shared attitude. The following are the features of the group:a. TWO OR MORE PERSONS - A group should have at least two people. With a single individual there cannot be a meaningful interaction. b. COLLECTIVE IDENTITY - Each member of the group must believe that s/he is a part of the group and be aware of his membership. If not aware, there will be no meaningful interaction. c. INTERACTION - Each member should share her/his ideas with others through communication, at least occasionally. d. SHARED GOAL INTEREST Every group has a common objective. The shared goal interest/s brings the group members together. Types of Groups 1. Primary & Secondary Groups:A primary group has intimate, face to face association & co-operation e.g. family, neighborhood groups, friendship groups A secondary group is formal, may not have any interest in the problems & pleasure of others. 2. Membership & Reference Groups: A membership group is one to which an individual really belongs. A reference group is one with which the individual identifies. The attractiveness of the reference group makes the norms of that group more attractive to the individual who aspires for it. 3. Command & Task Groups: A command group is composed of subordinates who report directly to a common supervisor e.g. a production manager & his subordinates in his department. A task group is usually formed to solve a problem. It is comprised of the employees who work together to complete a particular task.

4. In-groups & Out-groups: In-groups are a cluster of individuals that have a dominant place in social functioning. The out-groups are marginal in the society and referred as minority groups. 5. Formal & Informal groups: Formal groups are created and maintained to fulfill specific needs related to the overall organizational missions. Designed by Top management for achieving organizational goals. Concentrates more on the performance of jobs. People are placed in hierarchy and their status determined accordingly. Co-ordination of members are controlled through process, procedures etc Informal Groups are created in the organization because of social and psychological forces operating at the workplaces. A natural outcome at the work place & not designed and planned. Organization is coordinated by group norms and not by norms of the formal organizations. Such group associations are not specified in the blue-print of the formal organization