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A priori pertaining to knowledge that is logically prior to experience; reasoning based on suck knowledge.

. Antirealism- the doctrine that the objects of our senses do not exist independently of our perceptions, beliefs, concepts, and language Argument for design: an argument for the existence of God that claims that the order and purpose manifest in the working of things in the universe require a God. Atman- the Hindu idea of the self after enlightenment; the concept of no self. Authority- a common secondary source of knowledge; a source existing outside the person making the claim that the person uses as an expert source of information Autonomy- The right or condition of self-government, esp. in a particular sphere: "Tatarstan demanded greater autonomy within the Russian Federation". Brahman: the Hindu concept of an impersonal Supreme Being; the source and goal of everything. Categorical Imperative- An unconditional moral obligation that is binding in all circumstances and is not dependent on a person's inclination or purpose. Cause- whatever is responsible for or leads to a change, motion, or condition. Coherence Theory- a theory contending that truth is a property of a related group of consistent statements Common sense: the way of looking at things apart from technical or special training. Compatibility- capable of existing or living together in harmony. Consequentialist Theory- Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgement. Contingent- an entity that may be and also may not be. Correspondence theory: a theory contending that truth is an agreement between a proposition and a fact. Cosmological- the process by which the world unfolds and evolves. Determinism- the doctrine that all facts and events exemplify natural laws. Divine command theory- a single-rule, non-consequential normative theory that says we should always do the will of God Dualism: The theory that reality is composed of two different substances so that neither one can be related to the other thus: spirit/ matter, mind/ body, good/ evil Duty- in ethics, a justified obligation imposed on an individual Egoism- the habit of valuing everything only in reference to one's personal interest; selfishness Empiricism- the position that knowledge has its origins in and derives all of its content from experience Epistemology: The branch of philosophy that investigates the nature, sources, limitations, and validity of knowledge. Ethical absolutism morality- in ethics, the view that affirms the existence of a single correct and universally applicable moral standard. Ethical RelativismIn ethics, the belief that nothing is objectively right or wrong andthat the definition of right or wrong depe nds on the prevailingview of a particular individual, culture, or historical period. Excusability- the concept that under certain circumstances, people are not morally responsible for their decisions and conduct

Free will: the denial that human acts are completely determined. Golden rule- the ethical rule that holds: do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Human Naturethe psychological and social qualities that characterizehumankind, especially in contrast with other living things. Hypothesis- in general, an assumption, statement, or theory of explanation, the truth of which is under investigation Idealism: In metaphysics, the position that reality is ultimately no matter; on epistemology, the position that all we know are our ideas. Inductive reasoning- the process of reasoning to probable explanations or judgements. Innate Ideas- Possessed at birth; inborn. Karma- the Hindu law of sowing and reaping; determines what form and circumstances we assume in each reincarnated state Libertarianism: in metaphysics, the view that determinism is false and that people are free to choose to act other than they do; in social philosophy, the view that the right to freedom from restraint takes priority over all other rights. Logic- the branch of epistemology that studies the methods and principles of correct reasoning. Materialism- preoccupation with or emphasis on material objects, comforts, and considerations, with a disinterest in orrejection of spiritual, intellectual, or cultural values. Morals- the rules of conduct by which people live Panentheism- the belief that God is both fixed and changing, inclusive of all possibilities Mysticism: The philosophy of religion contending that reality can be known only when we surrender our individuality. Non-consequentialist theory- in ethics, the position that the morality of an action is determined by more than just its consequences. Ontologicalof or pertaining to ontology, the branch of metaphysics thatstudies the nature of existence or being as such ; metaphysical: Some of the U.S. founders held an ontological belief in natural rights. Perception: The act of process by which we become aware of things. Philosophy- the love and pursuit of wisdom. Pragmatisma philosophical movement or system having various forms,but generally stressing practical consequences asconstituting the essential criterion in determining meaning, truth, or value. Realism- the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being experienced Reason: The capacity for thinking relatively and making inferences the process of following relationships from thought to thought and of ultimately drawing conclusion. Reductionism- the practice of simplifying a complex idea, issue, condition, or the like, especially to the point of minimizing, obscuring, or distorting it. Sense data- images or sensory impressions. Rule Utilitarianism- Rule utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism that says actions are moral when they conform to the rules that lead to the greatest good, or that "the rightness or wrongness of a particular action is a function of the correctness of the rule of which it is an instance Scepticism- (initial capital letter ) the doctrines or opinions of philosophical Sceptics; universal doubt

Secondary qualities- according to Locke, qualities that we impose on an object: colour, smell, texture, and so on Self: The individual person; the ego knower; that which persist through changes in a person. Solipsism- an extreme form of subjective idealism, contending that only I exist and that everything else is a product of my subjective consciousness Virtue ethics- in ethics, the position that the moral life should be concerned with cultivating a virtuous character rather than following rules of action Transcendental idealism- in epistemology, the view that the form of our knowledge of reality derives from reason but its content comes from our senses. A posterior: pertaining to knowledge that is logically prior to experience; reasoning based on such knowledge. Virtue- conformity of one's life and conduct to moral and ethical principles; uprightness; rectitude.