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1.1

Rectangular Coordinates

Points in the space are presented by their coordinates, similar to the case for points in a plane. Take three lines in the space which are mutually perpendicular and we call them the x-axis, y-axis and the z-axis. The intersection of these three lines is called the origin O. The xy-plane is the plane containing both the x-axis and the y-axis, and its similar for the yz-plane and the xz-plane. The rst (x), second (y), third (z) coordinates of a point P is the perpendicular distance from P the point to the yz-plane, xz-plane, xy-plane respectively. For a function in one variable f, the graph of f is the set of points (x, y) in the plane satisfying y = f(x). The graph is a geometric object closely related to the function f. In general, if f is a function in two variables. The graph of f is the set of points (x, y, z) in the space satisfying z = f(x, y). It is a surface in the space and is closely related to the study of f. If (a, b, c) is a point in the space. The distance from the origin to this point is a2 + b2 + c2. This result is done by applying the Pythagoras theorem for twice. More generally, the distance between the points (a, b, c) and (, , ) in the space is (a )2 + (b )2 + (c )2 . Example 1.1 The set of points (x, y, z) in the space satisfying x2 + y2 + z 2 = 4 is the set of points having a distance 2 from the origin. Thus, it is a sphere with center the origin and radius 2. Example 1.2 The set of points (x, y, z) in the space satisfying y 2 + z 2 = 4 is the set of points having a distance 2 from the x-axis. Thus, it is a cylinder with its axis the x-axis and radius 2.

1.2

Vectors

Denition 1.3 A vector is an ordered collection of numbers. There are some operations dened for vectors: Denition 1.4 Addition: (x1 , ..., xn) + (y1 , ..., yn) = (x1 + y1 , ..., xn + yn ) 1

Denition 1.5 Scalar multiplication: a(x1, ..., xn) = (ax1 , ...axn) Theorem 1.6 For all vectors x, y, z and for all numbers a, b, 1. (a + b)x = ax + bx 2. (ab)x = a(bx) 3. a(x + y) = ax + ay 4. x + y = y + x 5. (x + y) + z = x + (y + z) Denition 1.7 Inner product (Dot product): (x1 , ..., xn) (y1 , ..., yn) = x1y1 + ... + xn yn Theorem 1.8 For all vectors x, y, z, and for all numbers a, 1. (ax) y = a(x y) 2. (x + y) z = x z + y z 3. x y = y x Vectors and their usual operations can be interpreted geometrically in the following way: 1. A vector (x, y, z) is represented by a point in the space whose coordinates are x, y and z. It can also be represented by an arrow pointing from the origin to the point with coordinates x, y, z. 2. The addition of two vectors u + v is the forth vertex of the parallelogram whose three other vertices are u, O and v. 3. The scalar multiplication by a number a is to lengthen vectors by a factor a. Denition 1.9 The length of a vector x is the non-negative number x x. It is also denoted by ||x||. Remark 1.10 The length of a vector ||x|| = x x is the distance from the origin to the point representing x. Example 1.11 The set of vectors x with ||x|| = 2 is a sphere centered at the origin with radius 2.

Now, if (x1, x2), (y1 , y2) are two points in the plane and let be the angle between these two vectors, by the cosine law,

2 2 (x1 y1 )2 + (x2 y2 )2 = (x2 + x2) + (y1 + y2 ) 2 x2 + x2 2 1 1 2 2 2 y1 + y2 cos .

Expand the squares and simplify, we have x1 y 1 + x 2 y 2 = Thus, (x1, x2) (y1 , y2) = ||(x1, x2)|| ||(y1 , y2)|| cos . So we make the denition: Denition 1.12 A vector x with ||x|| = 1 is called a unit vector. Denition 1.13 For a nonzero vector x, the vector x/||x|| is called the normalization of x. What we did was: For unit vectors x, y in the plane, x y is cosine of the angle between them. We generalize it with a denition: Denition 1.14 For two nonzero vectors x and y, the angle between them is the number lying between 0 and so that cos = x y/||x||||y||. Denition 1.15 Two vectors x and y are perpendicular to each other if x y = 0. Denition 1.16 Let e be a unit vector. For any vector x, the perpendicular projection of x onto e is the vector (x e)e. Lemma 1.17 Given a unit vector e, any vector x can be written as a sum x = (x e)e + [x (x e)e] with the rst term just the perpendicular projection of x onto e, or the component of x along e. The second term is perpendicular to e, we call it the component of x perpendicular to e. proof: All we need is to verify that (x (x e)e) e = 0 by direct calculation. Denition 1.18 The cross product (vector product) of the two vectors x = (x1 , x2, x3), y = (y1 , y2 , y3) is xy =( x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 ) , , y1 y2 y3 y1 y2 y3 = (x2y3 x3y2 , x3y1 x1y3 , x1y2 x2y1 ) 3 x2 + x 2 2 1

2 2 y1 + y2 cos .

Remark 1.19 Cross product is dened ONLY for vectors in the three dimensional space. Remark 1.20 In general x y = y x. Indeed x y = y x. Remark 1.21 When cross product is used, the coordinate axis must be chosen according to the right hand screw rule. The purpose is to obtain (1, 0, 0) (0, 1, 0) = (0, 0, 1) by right hand screw rule. Simetimes we also write i j = k where i = (1, 0, 0), j = (0, 1, 0), k = (0, 0, 1). Theorem 1.22 x y is perpendicular to x. proof: Use the notation introced in the denition of cross product, x (x y) = x1(x2y3 x3y2 ) + x2 (x3y1 x1y3 ) + x3(x1 y2 x2y1 ) =0 Theorem 1.23 If x and y are vectors in the three-dimensional space, ||x y|| is the area of the parallelogram spanned by x and y. proof: Let be the angle between x and y, x = (x1 , x2, x3) and y = (y1 , y2, y3). Then [area of the parallelogram spanned by x, y]2 = ||x||2||y||2 sin2 = ||x||2||y||2 ||x||2||y||2 cos2 2 2 2 = (x2 + x2 + x2 )(y1 + y2 + y3 ) (x1y1 + x2y2 + x3y3 )2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = x2y3 + x3 y2 2x2y2 x3y3 + x2 y1 + x2y3 2x1y1 x3 y3 + x2 y2 + x2y1 2x1 y1 x2y2 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 = (x2y3 x3y2 ) + (x3y1 x1 y3) + (x1y2 x2 y1 ) = ||(x2y3 x3 y2 , x3y1 x1y3 , x1y2 x2y1 )||2 = ||x y||2 Corollary 1.24 If x and y are vectors in the three-dimensional space, then x y = 0 if and only if x is parallel to y. proof: If x y = 0, the area of the parallelogram spanned by x and y is zero from the previous theorem. Thus, the angle between x and y is either 0 or and so x and y are parallel to each other. Conversely, if x is parallel to y, there is a number a such that x = ay. A direct calculation shows that x y is zero. Corollary 1.25 If x, y, z are vectors in the three-dimensional space, then, |z (x y)| is the volume of the parallelepiped spanned by x, y and z.

proof: Let be the angle between z and a vector perpendicular to both x and y. Then, volume of the parallelpiped spanned by x y z = [area of the parallelogram spanned by x y] [||perpendicular distance from z to the plane containing both x and y||] = ||x y||||z||| cos | = |z (x y)| Theorem 1.26 For vectors x, y, z in the three-dimensional space, z (x y) = x (y z) = y (z x). proof: omitted.

1.3

Denition 1.27 Let r0 and v be vectors. The line going through r0 and along the direction v is the set of vectors (or points) r satisfying r = r0 + tv for some number t. Remark 1.28 The line going through r0 and along the direction v is the same as the line going through r0 and along the direction kv where k is a nonzero number. Theorem 1.29 The line going through (x0, y0 , z0) and along the direction (a, b, c) is the set of points (x, y, z) satisfying x = x0 + ta, y = y0 + tb, z = z0 + tc for some number t. proof: A vector r = (x, y, z) lies on the line through r0 = (x0 , y0, z0) and along v = (a, b, c) if and only if r = r0 + tv for some number t, which is (x, y, z) = (x0 , y0, z0 ) + t(a, b, c) and it is expanded into x = x0 + ta, y = y0 + tb, z = z0 + tc. Remark 1.30 Let L be the line going through r0 = (x0 , y0, z0) and along v = (a, b, c). To say that L consists of vectors r so that r = r0 + tv for some t is called the vector representation of L. To say that L consists of points (x, y, z) satisfying x = x0 + ta, y = y0 + tb, z = z0 + tc for some t is called the parametric representation of L. 5

Example 1.31 Find the line that passes through (1, 1, 0) and (0, 1, 1). solution: The line is along the direction (1, 1, 0) (0, 1, 1) = (1, 0, 1). Thus, this line is the set of all points (x, y, z) satisfying x = 1 + t, y = 1, z = t for some t.

1.4

Denition 1.32 The plane that passes through r0 and has normal vector n is the set of points r satisfying (r r0) n = 0. This is sometimes called the vector representation of the given plane. Theorem 1.33 The plane that passes through r0 = (x0, y0 , z0) and has normal n = (a, b, c) is the set of points (x, y, z) satisfying ax + by + cz + d = 0. Here d = ax0 by0 cz0 . We also say that ax + by + cz + d = 0 is the dening equation of the given plane. proof: A vector r = (x, y, z) lies on the given plane if and only if [(x, y, z)(x0, y0, z0 )] (a, b, c) = 0. It is expanded into a(x x0) + b(y y0 ) + c(z z0 ) = 0. We may also replace ax0 byo czo by the symbol d and see that ax + by + cz + d = 0 is the requirement that (x, y, z) lies on the given plane. Example 1.34 Find the plane that passes through (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1). solution: the dierence (1, 0, 0) (0, 1, 0) = (1, 1, 0) gives the direction of the line joining the former two given points. (0, 1, 0) (0, 0, 1) = (0, 1, 1) gives the direction of the line joining the latter two given points. Now the vector (1, 1, 0)(0, 1, 1) = (1, 1, 1) is perpendicular to the two directions mentioned. Thus it is a normal to the plane. The dening equation of the plane is necessarily x+y+z +d= 0 We know that the plane passes through (1, 0, 0). So, 1 + 0 + 0 + d = 0 and d = 1. The dening equation of the plane is x + y + z 1 = 0. Example 1.35 Find the angle between two planes whose dening equations are x + 2y + 3z = 6 and 3x + 2y + z = 6. 6

solution: The normals to these planes are (1, 2, 3) and (3, 2, 1) respectively. So, angle between these two planes = angle between (1, 2, 3) and (3, 2, 1) = cos1 [(1, 2, 3) (3, 2, 1)/ 12 + 22 + 32 32 + 22 + 12] = cos1 5/7. Example 1.36 Let P be the plane with dening equation ax + by + cz + d = 0. Find the shortest distance from (x0 , y0, z0 ) to P . solution: From (x0, y0 , z0), drop a line perpendicular to P and let this line meet P at (x1 , y1, z1 ). Then, (x0 , y0, z0 ) (x1, y1, z1 ) is the line joining those two points and thus a normal to P . We know also that a normal to P is (a, b, c). Therefore (x0 x1, y0 y1 , z0 z1 ) = t(a, b, c) for some number t. Let D be the length of the vector on the left hand side (the distance we want). Then,

D = t a2 + b2 + c2 . We see that t = D/ a2 + b2 + c2 . Compare the components of the previous vector equation, x0 x1 = Da/ a2 + b2 + c2 , y0 y1 = Db/ a2 + b2 + c2 , z0 z1 = Dc/ a2 + b2 + c2 .

Multiply the rst equation by a, the second equation by b, the third equation by c and sum them up, |a(x0 x1) + b(y0 y1 ) + c(z0 z1 )| = D |ax0 + by0 + cz0 + d| = D a2 + b2 + c2 .

However, (x1, y1 , z1) is a point belonging to P , ax1 + by1 + cz1 = d. Therefore, a2 + b2 + c2 . Consequently, the distance from (x0, y0 , z0) to P is |ax0 + by0 + cz0 + d|/ a2 + b2 + c2.

1.5

Quartic Surfaces

x2 a2

y2 b2

z2 c2

= 1.

x2 a2

x2 a2 y2 b2 x2 a2

+

2

y2 b2

y2 b2

z2 c2

= 1.

z2 c2

= 1.

= z 2. +

x2 a2 y2 b2

= z.

y2 b2

= z.

1.6

Denition 1.37 (Cylindrical Coordinate) Given the usual coordinate axis (with origin O), (, , z) are the cylindrical coordinates of a point P if z is the perpendicular distance from P to the plane containing the st two coordinate axis. is the perpendicular distance from P to the thir coordinate axis. let Q be the foot of perpendicular from P to the xy-plane. Then, is the angle between the line OQ and the positive rst coordinate axis. Lemma 1.38 If (x, y, z) and (, , z ) are the usual and cylindrical coordinates respectively of a point P in the three-dimensional space, x = cos , y = sin , z = z . proof: omitted Denition 1.39 (Spherical Coordinate) Given the usual coordinate axises (with origin O), (, , ) are the spherical coordinates of a point P if r is the length of the line OP . is the angle between the line OP and the third coordinate axis. let Q be the foot of perpendicular from P to the xy-plane. Then, is the angle between the line OQ and the positive rst coordinate axis. Remark 1.40 The angle in the previous discription is called the lattitude of the point P . The angle in the previous discription is called the longitude of the point P . Lemma 1.41 If (x, y, z) and (r, , ) are the usual and spherical coordinates respectively of a point P in the three-dimensional space, x = r sin cos , proof: omitted y = r sin sin , z = r cos .

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