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Harmonic Analysis and Power Factor Correction Evaluation Plastic Creations Line 13

Prepared by: Electrotek Concepts, Inc. Knoxville, TN www.electrotek.com

Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

- Table of Contents Executive Summary ______________________________________________________1 1.0 Introduction _________________________________________________________2


One Line Diagram ___________________________________________________________ 2

2.0 Field Measurements at Newtown ________________________________________3


2.1 AC Drive Characteristics Roll 1 _________________________________________ 3 AC Drive Characteristics Roll 2 ______________________________________________ 4 2.2 AC Drive Characteristics Kneader B _____________________________________ 6

Overall Load Characteristics Line 13 __________________________________________ 7 2.3 Voltage Distortion Evaluations ___________________________________________ 9

3.0 Recommended Power Factor Correction _________________________________13


3.1 Summary of Reactive Power Requirements ________________________________ 13

4.0 Proposed Filter Design _______________________________________________14

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Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

Executive Summary
The Plastic Creations in Newtown has a new Line 13 with ac variable frequency drives for the calender line. The drives have high harmonic current levels but do not require the level of power factor correction that dc drives require. This evaluation characterizes the loads on Line 13. Power factor correction needs are calculated and the impact of the existing capacitor bank (provides about 600 kvar of compensation) is illustrated. The capacitor increases distortion levels at the 7th and 11th harmonics, resulting in overall voltage distortion levels exceeding 5% on the 480 volt system. Although this should not cause problems for now, the distortion levels are likely to be unacceptable with additional loading from Line 14. Also, the capacitor creates the potential for magnified transient voltages if the utility switches capacitor banks on the transmission system. The capacitor should be converted into a tuned filter and it should be able to provide power factor correction for the existing Line 13 (correction to a power factor of about unity) and should also be sufficient even after the addition of Line 14 (power factor around 0.97). Specifications for the reactor to tune this bank are provided here.

480 Volt Bus

Circuit Breaker: 480 Volt, 2000 A

Inductors: 0.046 mH per phase rms current rating = 1100 amps 5th harmonic current rating = 775 amps Capacitor Bank: 937.5 kvar 600 volts Tuned Capacitor Bank
Proposed Filter Configuration for Line 13 and Line 14

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

1.0 Introduction
The Plastic Creations plant in Newtown has a new Line 13 with a dedicated transformer. Line 13 includes ac variable frequency drives instead of the dc drives that are used on other Plastic Creations lines. This has a dramatic impact on the power factor characteristics of the load. The ac drives have much better displacement power factor (not as much compensation needed) but have significant harmonic distortion levels. The measurements and recommendations presented in this report deal with the power factor correction and filtering requirements for this line, including the impact of a future Line 14 with similar characteristics to Line 13. One Line Diagram

Utility 13.8 kV Feeder from 138 kV substation 3750 kVA, 7.0 % 13.8 kV/480 volts

H110 H111

H22 MCC7

Kneader 13-2 H112 Grinders

Kneader 13-1 H113

937.5 kvar 600 volts

Calender Controls (Protected by 24 kVA UPS)

Mixer

Calender Heaters

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

2.0 Field Measurements at Newtown


Measurements were taken to characterize the ac drive loads and the overall load characteristics for Line 13. The measurements also evaluated the impact of the existing capacitor bank on distortion levels on the 480 volt system supplying Line 13. 2.1 AC Drive Characteristics Roll 1 The following waveforms and harmonic spectrums are typical for Roll 1. This is also typical for Roll 3.
Event waveform/detail
Amps 150

100

50

-50

-100

11:32:34.31

11:32:34.32

11:32:34.33

11:32:34.34 CHA Amps

11:32:34.35

11:32:34.36

11:32:34.37

-150 11:32:34.38

Pre/Post-trigger at 02/25/98 11:32:34.312

Event waveform/detail
Amps 60

50

40

30

20

10

0 THDabs

H05

H10

H15 CHA Amps

H20

H25

H30

Total RMS: 61.27 Amps Total harmonic distortion: Even contribution (H02-H50): Odd contribution (H03-H49): Pre/Post-trigger at 02/25/98 11:32:34.362

32.52 Amps 1.31 Amps 32.50 Amps

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Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

AC Drive Characteristics Roll 2 The following waveforms and harmonic spectrums are typical for Roll 2. This is also typical for Roll 4.

Event waveform/detail
Amps 300

200

100

-100

-200

-300 12:48:18.000 12:48:18.005 12:48:18.010 CHA Amps 12:48:18.015 12:48:18.020

Timed event at 02/25/98 12:48:18.000

Event waveform/detail
Amps 125

100

75

50

25

0 THDabs H05 H10 H15 CHA Amps H20 H25 H30

Total RMS: 123.67 Amps Total harmonic distortion: Even contribution (H02-H50): Odd contribution (H03-H49): Timed event at 02/25/98 12:48:18.000

56.36 Amps 0.45 Amps 56.37 Amps

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Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation Example waveform and spectrum from BMI 3030
Roll 2 Current Waveform
200

100

-100

-200 0 10 20 30 40

Time (mS)

Roll 2 Harmonic Characteristics


100

80

60

40

Freq : 1 Fund : 89.5784 THD : 52.7698 TID : 0 TD : 52.7698 RMSh : 47.2703 RMSi : 0 RMSfh: 101.286 RMS : 101.286 ASUM : 179.963 TIF : 454.674 IT : 46051.9

20

0 0 10 20 30 40

Frequency (H pu)

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Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

2.2 AC Drive Characteristics Kneader B The following waveforms and harmonic spectrums are typical for Kneader B. This is also typical for Kneader A.
Event waveform/detail
Amps 750

500

250

-250

-500

-750 14:53:43.000 14:53:43.005 14:53:43.010 CHA Amps 14:53:43.015 14:53:43.020

Snapshot event at 02/25/98 14:53:43.000

Event waveform/detail
Amps 250

200

150

100

50

0 THDabs H05 H10 H15 CHA Amps H20 H25 H30

Total RMS: 224.85 Amps Total harmonic distortion: Even contribution (H02-H50): Odd contribution (H03-H49): Snapshot event at 02/25/98 14:53:43.000

98.85 Amps 9.78 Amps 98.38 Amps

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

Overall Load Characteristics Line 13 The following summarizes the overall load characteristics for Line 13. This includes the ac drives characterized in the previous sections along with the calender heaters and other loads that are part of the Line. This information can be used for evaluating harmonic filter and power factor correction requirements. The table also illustrates the effect of the existing capacitor bank on the distortion levels and the power factor. Note that the 7th harmonic is significantly increased when the capacitor bank is in service and the voltage distortion often exceeds 5%. The current distortion increases to more than 30% with 20% at the 7th harmonic. This is an indication of the magnification at the 7th harmonic component.
No Cap 1300-1800 1.1-1.3 480-500 .88-.90 .88-.91 2.9-3.2 15-17 1.9-2.0 12-13 1.8 8-9 Bank amps MVA kvar with Cap Bank 1300-1600 amps 1.0-1.1 MVA 150-180 kvar lead 0.95 0.99 lead 4.5-5.9 25-32 2.5 19 3.2 20 % % % % % %

Current Power kvar PF dPF THDv THDi V5 I5 V7 I7

% % % % % %

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation The following waveform and harmonic spectrum represent typical load characteristics for Line 13 (without the capacitor bank).
Line 13 Current Waveform
3000

2000

1000

-1000

-2000

-3000 0 10 20 30 40

Time (mS)

Line 13 Current Harmonic Spectrum


1750

1500

1250

1000

750

Freq : 1 Fund : 1529.89 THD : 14.4941 TID : 0 TD : 14.4941 RMSh : 221.744 RMSi : 0 RMSfh: 1545.87 RMS : 1545.87 ASUM : 1939.89 TIF : 85.7982 IT : 132633

500

250

0 0 3 6 9 12 15

Frequency (H pu)

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

2.3 Voltage Distortion Evaluations The following measurement results summarize the voltage distortion concerns at the 480 volt bus supplying Line 13. Voltage Characteristics without Capacitor Bank Typical voltage waveforms and spectrums are provided below without the capacitor bank in service. The distortion is dominated by the 5th harmonic component since that is the highest current injection from the drive loads.
Event waveform/detail
Volts 750

500

250

-250

-500

-750 15:48:40.01 15:48:40.00 15:48:40.02 15:48:40.03 15:48:40.04 CHA Volts 15:48:40.05 15:48:40.06 15:48:40.07

Snapshot event at 02/25/98 15:48:40.000

Event waveform/detail
Volts 500

400

300

200

100

0 THDabs H05 H10 H15 CHA Volts H20 H25 H30

Total RMS: 464.93 Volts Total harmonic distortion: Even contribution (H02-H50): Odd contribution (H03-H49): Snapshot event at 02/25/98 15:48:40.000

15.76 Volts 2.68 Volts 15.54 Volts

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Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

Voltage Characteristics with Capacitor Bank Typical voltage waveforms and spectrums are provided below after the capacitor bank was switched in. The capacitor creates a resonance between the 7th and 11th harmonics, magnifying both of these components. The voltage distortion levels are increased overall and can exceed 5%. The highest distortion is typically at the 7th harmonic with the capacitor bank in due to the magnification.
Event waveform/detail
Volts 750

500

250

-250

-500

-750 16:20:59.000 16:20:59.005 16:20:59.010 CHA Volts 16:20:59.015 16:20:59.020

Meter mode snapshot at 02/25/98 16:20:59.000

Event waveform/detail
Volts 500

400

300

200

100

0 THDabs H05 H10 H15 CHA Volts H20 H25 H30

Total RMS: 473.33 Volts Total harmonic distortion: Even contribution (H02-H50): Odd contribution (H03-H49): Meter mode snapshot at 02/25/98 16:20:59.000

24.32 Volts 0.59 Volts 24.33 Volts

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Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation Comparison of Voltage Characteristics The figure below shows the THD of the voltage on the Line 13 Main Bus and the values of the 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th harmonic as percentages of the fundamental with the capacitor bank on line and with it off line. The chart makes it easier to see how placing the capacitor bank on line at the Line 13 Main Bus magnifies the 7th and 11th harmonics. The 7th harmonic is virtually non-existent, at 0.02% of the fundamental, with the capacitor bank off line. The 11th harmonic was measured at 0.75% without the capacitor banks. After placing the capacitor banks on line, the 7th increases to 3.73% and the 11th increases to 2.23% of the fundamental.

Line 13 Main Bus


Voltage Distortion (%) 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 THDv 5th 7th Harmonic 11th 13th No Caps With Caps

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Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

Description of the Resonance Problem The capacitor bank introduces a resonance between the 7th and 11th harmonics that magnifies both of these components. The frequency scan below illustrates the voltage at the 480 volt bus per amp injected by the drive loads with and without the capacitor bank in service.
0.4

Frequency Scan with and Without Capacitor Bank

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0 0.00

3.00

6.00

9.00

12.00

15.00

18.00

21.00

24.00

27.00

Frequency (H pu)

This problem can be avoided by converting the capacitor bank into a tuned filter. The frequency scan plots below show the effect of the tuned filter in preventing resonances close to the characteristic harmonics of the drive loads (5th and 7th).
0.4

Frequency Scan Showing Effect of Filter

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0 0.00

3.00

6.00

9.00

12.00

15.00

18.00

21.00

24.00

27.00

Frequency (H pu)

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Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

3.0 Recommended Power Factor Correction


This section summarizes the power factor correction needs for the existing configuration with Line 13 and estimates the impacts of a similar line (Line 14) in the future. 3.1 Summary of Reactive Power Requirements The following table summarizes the load characteristics measured for Line 13 and shows the impact of the 600 kvar of compensation on the power factor of the overall load. The table also shows the effect of this capacitor bank if the load is doubled to include the effect of Line 14 in the future. The power factor with just Line 13 is corrected to unity with the existing capacitor bank. With Line 14, the capacitor bank will correct the power factor to about 0.97 lagging when both lines are running.
Line 13 Transformer Size Transformer Impedance Peak Load (kVA) Displacement Power Factor Reactive Power (kvar) Real Power (kW) Compensation (kvar) Total Reactive Power with Compensation (kvar) Power Factor with Compensation Fifth Harmonic Current (%) 3750 7% 1300 0.9 567 1170 600 -33 1.00 15% Line 13 and Line 14 3750 7.00% 2600 0.9 1133 2340 600 533 0.97 15%

The capacitor should be configured as a tuned bank to prevent excessive distortion and problems with magnification of capacitor switching transients. The next section gives parameters for the tuning reactor.

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Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation

4.0 Proposed Filter Design


Plastic Creations has already purchased a capacitor bank for power factor correction. The capacitor is rated 600 volts so it can easily be used as part of a tuned filter. The proposed filter design is illustrated in the one line diagram below. The following page gives the specifications for the filter reactor that should be purchased.

480 Volt Bus

Circuit Breaker: 480 Volt, 2000 A

Inductors: 0.046 mH per phase rms current rating = 1100 amps 5th harmonic current rating = 775 amps Capacitor Bank: 937.5 kvar 600 volts

Tuned Capacitor Bank


Proposed Filter Configuration for Lines 13 and 14

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Plastic Creations Line 13 Harmonics and Power Factor Correction Evaluation


Low Voltage Filter Calculations: 600 kvar 480 Volt Filter
SYSTEM INFORMATION: Filter Specification: Capacitor Bank Rating: Rated Bank Current: Nominal Bus Voltage: Capacitor Current (actual): Filter Tuning Harmonic: Cap Impedance (wye equivalent): Reactor Impedance: Filter Full Load Current (actual): Filter Full Load Current (rated): Transformer Nameplate: (Rating and Impedance) Load Harmonic Current: Utility Harmonic Current: CAPACITOR DUTY CALCULATIONS: Filter RMS Current: Harmonic Cap Voltage: RMS Capacitor Voltage: 1084.0 Amps 103.3 Volts 513.3 Volts Fundamental Cap Voltage: Maximum Peak Voltage: Maximum Peak Current: FILTER CONFIGURATION:
4 8 0 Volt Bus

5 th 937.5 kVAr 902 Amps 480 Volts 721.7 Amps 4.7 th 0.3840 0.0174 755.9 944.9 3750 7.00 Amps Amps kVA %

Power System Frequency: Capacitor Rating: Derated Capacitor: Total Harmonic Load: Filter Tuning Frequency: Cap Value (wye equivalent): Reactor Rating: Supplied Compensation: Utility Side Vh: (Utility Harmonic Voltage Source) Load Harmonic Current: Max Total Harm. Current:

60 Hz 600 Volts 60 Hz 600 kVAr 2500 kVA 282 Hz 6907.8 uF 0.0461 mH 628 kVAr 2.00 % THD

20.00 % Fund 175.5 Amps

601.4 Amps 776.9 Amps

502.8 Volts 606.1 Volts 1532.8 Amps

CAPACITOR LIMITS: (IEEE Std 18-1980) Limit 120% 180% 135% 110% Actual 101% 120% 103% 86%

Peak Voltage: Current: KVAr: RMS Voltage:

Xl =

0.0272

6 0 0 kVAr @ 6 0 0 V o lts

FILTER REACTOR DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS:


Reactor Impedance: Fundamental Current: 0.0174 755.9 Amps Reactor Rating: Harmonic Current: 0.0461 mH 776.9 Amps

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