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21. Enumeration of Items/Choices In this lesson, we will learn how to enumerate items in Japanese.

In English, you enumerate items joining them with the word and as the separator of items. Japanese has just the word of the same function; namely, the word to separates the items you want to enumerate. Now, look at this example to see how to use this word. Omae ga motte-iru yon-dai genso kdo wa dore da? Which of the four element Cards do you have? Windi to Wti. Sakura Windy and Waterey. Syaoran motsu [u-verb] to have something in possession. Progressive: motte-iru Very simle. The word to works exactly as and in English. Let's see one more example to ascertain your understanding. Onii-chan to Yukito-san o mi-nakatta? Didn't you see my brother and Yukito-san? Pengin-kouen ni i-mashita wa. Tomoyo They were in Penguin Park. Sakura mi-nakatta = miru + -nai + -ta = did not see i-mashita = iru + -masu + -ta = existed (polite form) OK, then, what is the Japanese word corresponding to or on the other hand? When you enumerate choices, separate them with the word ka. We have an example below to check how to use this word. Kki ga hitotsu ari-masen wa. Kitto, Kero-chan desu wa. One of the cakes is missing. It must be Kero-chan. Iie, Kero-chan ka onii-chan yo. Sakura Not exactly, Kero-chan or my brother. Tomoyo kki [noun] cake Close Window 22. Conjuction of Verbs We will learn in this lesson how to express sequential actions as in Sakura takes out a Card and casts a spell. In the previous lesson we learned that the special word to was the separator of enumerated items. To express a sequence of actions, is the same procedure possible? Unfortunately, Japanese is not so easy. Then, here's a sample sentence: Sakura wa kdo o toridashite jumon o tonaeru. Sakura takes out a Card and casts a spell. toridasu [u-verb] to take out something. jumon o tonaeru = to cast a spell.

Look at the first verb in the sample sentence. Its root form is toridasu, but it conjugates as toridashite to allow another verb in conjunction. This conjugation form is called the conjunctive form. The conjugation pattern of conjunctive form is the same manner of past form, as shown in the table below. Root Conjunctive -'u kau -tsu -tte matsu -ru hashiru -bu asobu -mu -nde kamu -nu shinu kaku u-verb -ku -ite daku kagu -gu -ide oyogu hanasu -su -shite mawasu exception iku neru ru-verb -ru -te miru ochiru aru irregular suru kuru Type Example katte buy and... matte wait and... hashitte run and... asonde play and... kande bite and... shinde die and... kaite write and... daite hold and... kaide smell and... oyoide swim and... hanashite speak and... mawashite rotate and... itte go and... nete sleep and... mite see and... ochite fall and... atte exist and... shite do (something) and... kite come and...

No matter how many verbs to state in conjunction, the same procudre is possible; you have to conjugate all the verbs but the final one into the conjuctive form. De, Kero-chan wa genki desu ka? So, how's Kero-chan? Aikawarazu. Tabete, gmu o shite, terebi o mite, neru no. Sakura As usual. He eats, plays videogames, watches TV, and sleeps. Tomoyo aikawarazu [adv] as usual; taberu [ru-verb] to eat. gmu [noun] videogame. no [article] sentence terminator of girls' speech. To make the past tense of the series of conjuction verbs, conjugate only the last verb into the past form, remaining the other verbs in the conjunctive form. It might look bizzare, but there's no need to conjugate all the verbs into the past form. The tense (present or past) is determined by the last verb of the sentence, and besides, the past form or the conjuntive form does not conjugate anymore, unlike negative form. Kinou wai wa isogashikatta n'ya! I was busy yesterday! Nani ga? Sakura For what? Tabete, gmu o shite, terebi o mite, neta n'ya. Kero I ate, played videogames, watched TV, and slept. Kero isogashii [i-adj] to be busy. n'ya [article] sentence terminator of Osaka dialect.

Close Window 23. Conjuction of Adjectives Now, we will study how to express the impression with sequence of adjectives. Similar to the conjunctive formula of verbs but slightly different. Anyway, look at the sample dialog quoted from Cardcaptor Sakura mangaSakura and old Masaki (her great granddad) are talking about Fujitaka, after they played tennis. Otou-san wa donna hito da ne? What kind of person is your father? Yasashikute, o-ryouri ga jouzu de, daigaku no sensei de, sorekara... Sakura He's kind and good at cooking and a professor at a university and... Otou-san ga tottemo suki nanda ne. Masaki You really love him, don't you. Masaki donna [interro] how; what kind of. hito [noun] person. yasashii [i-adj] to be kind. ryouri [noun] cooking. jouzu [na-adj] good at something. daigaku [noun] university. sensei [noun] teacher; professor. tottemo [adv] deeply. suki [na-adj] fond of someone or something. In this dialog, Sakura's line describes her father with an i-adjective and a na-adjective in conjunction. An i-adjective turns into its conjunctive form, conjugating its tail -i into -kute. In contrast, a na-adjective does not conjugate; however, the copula da conjugates instead. Yes, the de seen in Sakura's line is the conjunctive form of the copula. Well, how about this dialog? It's full of expression of conjunction. This dialog took place in Cardcaptor Sakura when Sakura and the others saw monsters different for each other which the Illusion Card was behind. The panicky girls describes what they just saw with words in conjunction. Onna no hito ga...! I saw a woman...! Nanka ookikute, me ga hitotsu de, guru-guru no... Naoko Something big and had one eye and it's rolling... Moya-moya-shite, yoku wakara-nakute, togatta mimi no... Chiharu So foggy I didn't know, but it had sharp ears... Watashi ga mita no wa Pengin Daiou deshita kedo... Tomoyo What I saw was the King Penguin slide, though... Sakura nanka [noun] something. ookii [i-adj] to be big. me [noun] eye. guru-guru [na-adj] rolling. (mimetic word for rolling sound) moya-moya-suru [irr. verb] to be foggy. yoku [adv] well; clearly. Often used in a negative sentence, as in yoku mi-enai (= can't see well). wakaru [u-verb] to know; to understand. togaru [u-verb] to be shape. mimi [noun] ear. Naoko's line includes the conjunction of an i-adjective and a na-adjective. Chiharu's line includes the conjunction of an irregular verb and the negative form of a verb. Note that the negative form which ends in -nai follows the same conjugation rule as i-adjectives; that's why the conjunctive form of wakara-nai should be wakara-nakute.

There's one more type for the conjunctive form of -nai, which is -naide besides -nakute. The two versions -nakute and -naide has a little difference. Let's see the difference in these sample sentences: Watashi wa gaman deki-nakute kuukou ni itta no. I couldn't put up with it, and went to the airport. = I couldn't put up with it so that I went to the airport. Watashi wa naka-naide Syaoran-kun o kuukou de miokutta no. I didn't cry but saw Syaoran-kun off at the airport. = Staying the state of not crying, I saw Syaoran-kun off at the airport. gaman dekiru = to be able to put up with something. kuukou [noun] airport. naku [u-verb] to cry. miokuru [u-verb] to see someone off. Do you see the difference between -nakute and -naide? So little that it's hard to tell the difference? The former version implies the logical flow in the conjunction; in other words, the cause and the effect are described in conjunction. The latter version describes the state or condition by the phrase up to -naide, followed by the subsequent verb describing the main clause. I hope you can master the conjunctive form of verbs and adjectives. The conjunctive form is important in Japanese because there are many grammatical construction based on the conjunctive form. If you think the conjugation pattern of the conjuntive form is complicated, I recommend you practice conjugating as many verbs and adjectives as you can, so you'll master how they conjugate. Close Window 24. Asking for a Favor: Requestive Mood Through the following three lessons, we will learn how to request someone to do something in Japanese. But beware of tones of speech; imagine someone asks you a favor when they speak in a king-to-retainer fashion, then you would possibly get mad. For this reason, let me first explain the requestive mood, followed by the directive and the imperative mood; namely, the safest way comes first and the most problematic comes last. Anyway, this lesson explains the requestive mood. The requestive mood is the safest mood for asking someone to do something. This mood is represented by the form of -te-kudasai; namely, attaching a verb to -kudasai with its conjunctive form. Let me show you some samples to show you how to use this mood. Kono hon o katte-kudasai. Please buy this book. hon [noun] book. kau [u-verb] to buy. Warui madoushi ni katte-kudasai. Please defeat the evil sorcerer. warui [i-adj] to be evil. madoushi [noun] sorcerer. katsu [u-verb] to win; to defeat someone. Shoku-go ni kusuri o ichi-jou nonde-kudasai. Please take one pill after meal.

shoku-go ni = after meal. kusuri [noun] medicine; pill. ichi-jou = one pill (of medicine). nomu [u-verb] to drink (water or liquor); to take (medicine). Pengin Kouen ni itte-kudasai. Please go to Penguin Park. iku [u-verb] to go. Kono kosuchmu o kite-kudasai. Please wear this costume. kiru [ru-verb] to wear. Conversely, when you ask someone to refrain from doing something, the same rule applies; connect the negative form of the verb and -kudasai. In connecting those phrases, the negative form of the verb should be conjugated to -naide. In this case, -nakute is not allowed for connection to -kudasai, but I don't know the reason why not. Kono kdo ni sawara-naide-kudasai. Please don't touch this card. sawaru [u-verb] to touch. Watashi no heya de ne-naide-kudasai. Please don't sleep in my room. neru [ru-verb] to sleep. To be exact, the requestive mood shows many variations of tones of speech by omitting or replacing -kudasai with other phrases. Let me show you some examples of tones derived from one single sentence. Those sample sentences are arranged in the order so that the most arrogant fashion comes first. Pengin Kouen ni kite-kure. (Male speech toward their subordinates) Come to the Penguin Park. Pengin Kouen ni kite. (Sometimes spoken by Sakura to Syaoran and Touya) Come to the Penguin Park. Pengin Kouen ni kite-kureru? (Spoken by Sakura to Syaoran) Will you come to the Penguin Park? Pengin Kouen ni kite-kure-nai? (Spoken by Sakura to Syaoran) Won't you come to the Penguin Park? Pengin Kouen ni kite-kudasai. (Safest tone) Please come to the Penguin Park. Pengin Kouen ni kite-kudasai-masu ka? (Spoken by Tomoyo) Would you come to the Penguin Park?

Pengin Kouen ni kite-kudasai-masen ka? (Spoken by Tomoyo) Wouldn't you come to the Penguin Park? Close Window 25. Directing an Action: Directive Mood The second mood to have someone to do something is the directive mood, which is spoken by teachers or parents to direct their children to do something. That means, in Cardcaptor Sakura, Fujitaka, Ms. Mizuki, and Mr. Terada is sometimes likely to use this mood. The directive mood is obtained when the verb is suffixed by -nasai with the conjugation shown in the following table. The conjugation for the directive mood follows the same rule as the polite form which is terminated in -masu. Type Root Directive -i-nasai -nasai matsu hashiru miru okiru aru suru kuru Example machi-nasai wait hashiri-nasai run mi-nasai look oki-nasai wake up shi-nasai do ki-nasai come

u-verb -u ru-verb -ru irregular

Here's a sample dialog, in which Sakura and Tomoyo are out after dark for capturing a Clow Card or stuff, when Ms. Mizuki tells them to go home in the directive mood. Hauu... Mou kuraku nat-chatta. Hauu.. It's already dark. Tsukare-mashita wa. Tomoyo I'm exhausted. O-uchi no hito ga shinpai-shite-iru wa. Sugu ni kaeri-nasai. Ms. Mizuki Your parents are worrying about you. Go home quickly. Sakura mou [adv] already. kurai [i-adj] to be dark. nat-chatta = to have become; namely, naru + -te-shimau + -ta. tsukareru [ru-verb] to get tired. o-uchi no hito = people in one's house (= one's parents). shinpai-suru [irr. verb] to worry. kaeru [u-verb] to return to someplace. How about this one? Sakura wants to talk to Kero about what happened at school, but he's sleeping. As he keeps sleeping though she tried to wake him up one more time, she gets so mad that she talks in directive mood. Just like this sample, they can speak in the directive mood when they're losing their temper. This manner of speech is preferred by women. On the other hand, men losing their temper prefer imperative mood. Kero-chan, okite. Kyou, gakkou de taihen datta nda kara. Kero, wake up. Something serious happened to me today at school. Guuu... Kero Zzz... Kero-chan, okite yo. Sakura You gotta wake up, Kero. Kero Guuu... Sakura

Zzz... Oki-nasai! Sakura Wake Up! okiru [ru-verb] to wake up. taihen datta = Something serious happened. Close Window 26. Giving a Command: Imperative Mood The remaining mood for having someone to do something is the imperative mood which may sound quite imperative (literally :P), or disrespectful because this manner of speech is spoken when the king or queen gives a command to their retainers. In Cardcaptor Sakura, Syaoran and Touya sometimes talk in the imperative mood to Sakura. Additionally, Yue talks in the imperative mood to Sakurasome guardian talks in the imperative mood to his mastersounding the other way around? Anyway, I recommend you never use the imperative mood if you dont want to get into trouble. The imperative mood is obtained by conjugating the verb as in the following table. The conjugation patterns in parenthesis (like miyo and seyo) are obsolete pattern, or which are only seen in written language. Type Root Imperative -e -ro (-yo) Example kau kae buy matsu mate wait hashiru hashire run miru miro (miyo) look okiru okiro (okiyo) wake up aru suru shiro (seyo) do kuru koi come

u-verb -u ru-verb -ru irregular

The imperative mood was spoken by Yue at the Final Judgement like this: Yue Kurou kdo o tsukatte watashi o taose. Use the Clow Cards and defeat me.

tsukau [u-verb] to use. taosu [u-verb] to defeat someone. Syaoran often uses the impeative mood. I guess most of the CCS fans thought he was blunt or arrogant when he first appeared in the show. That's what his manner of speech does. Furzu no kdo o tsukae! Use the Freeze Card. Demo... Sakura But... Iu toori ni shiro! Syaoran Do as I tell you! Syaoran iu [u-verb] to say. iu toori ni = as I tell you.

To prohibit someone in the imperative mood from doing something, attach -na to the root form of the verb to prohibit. The following dialog is the scene after Sakura captured the Snow Card; then she realized she had lost her wrist watch given by Yukito. Yukito-san ni moratta noni... Yukito-san gave it to me. Ore mo issho ni sagasu. Dakara naku-na. Syaoran I'll look for it together. So don't cry. Sakura morau [u-verb] to receive somthing. issho ni = together. sagasu [u-verb] to look for something. You know what? The imperative mood is contained in Sakura's incantations. Although a modest girl like Sakura never uses the imperative mood in her daily conversation, the ones which are used in her incatations are of obsolete style, making the incantations sound olden. Yami no chikara o himeshi kagi yo, shin no sugata o ware no mae ni shimese. O Key that hides the power of darkness, show me thy true form. yami no chikara = power of darkness. himeshi = to be holding something secretly. (obsolete) kagi [noun] key. shin no sugata = true form. ware [pronoun] I, me, or my. (obsolete) shimesu [u-verb] to show something. Nanji no aru beki sugata ni modore! Return to the true form which thou shalt be in! nanji [pronoun] you, thou (obsolete). ~ beki = should do something. modoru [u-verb] to return to the original place or state. Close Window 27. Progressive Form The progressive form is the expression of the action which is currently taking place, like Sakura is running to Penguin Park. Japanese speakers use the progressive form more frequently than English speakers do. If you have mastered how to use progressive form, your Japanese will sound more natural. Kero-chan wa purin o tabete-iru. Kero-chan is eating a pudding. taberu [ru-verb] to eat. Progressive form converts the type of the verb into ru-verb with the suffix -iru. Let's see how this progressive descriptions are conjugated. Sakura wa Jampu no kdo o sagashite-iru. Sakura is looking for the Jump Card. For this example, sagasu (to look for something) is a u-verb, which is converted into a ru-verb when it conjugate into its progressive form.

Sakura wa Jampu no kdo o sagashite-i-nai. Sakura is not looking for the Jump Card. Sakura wa Jampu no kdo o sagashite-ita. Sakura was looking for the Jump Card. Sakura wa Jampu no kdo o sagashite-i-nakatta. Sakura was not looking for the Jump Card. The progressive form can be re-written in the polite tone in the same procedure just as ru-verbs. Sakura wa Jampu no kdo o sagashite-i-masu. Sakura is looking for the Jump Card. Sakura wa Jampu no kdo o sagashite-i-masen. Sakura is not looking for the Jump Card. Sakura wa Jampu no kdo o sagashite-i-mashita. Sakura was looking for the Jump Card. Sakura wa Jampu no kdo o sagashite-i-masen deshita. Sakura was not looking for the Jump Card. The role of the progressive form of Japanese is a little different than that of English. In contrast to the plain present tense of Japanese verbs which express instantaneous action, the progressive form expresses continuous action like habits as well as actions in progress. Thats why many Japanese sentences should be in the progressive form even though its English translation is simply written in the present tense. Sakura wa Tomoeda-chou ni sunde-iru. Sakura lives in Tomoeda-chou. sumu [u-verb] to live in someplace. Onii-chan wa zenbu shitte-ita. My brother knew everything. zenbu [adv] everything shiru [u-verb] to know. Sakura wa shi-gatsu kara kdo o atsumete-iru. Sakura has been collecting Cards since April. shi-gatsu [noun] April. shi = four; gatsu = month. kara [adv] since (time) atsumeru [ru-verb] to collect. Close Window 28. Future Tense There is no grammatical future tense in Japanese. Does that mean that Japanese people dislike talking about the future, or they give up hope for the future? Well, that cant be true. Japanese people speak in the present tense to express what will happen in the future. Despite the present

tense spoken in the sentence, you are able to guess it's something about the future if it includes some chronological info like tomorrow, next week, or something. Kyou o-uchi ni kite-kudasai-masu ka? Will you come over to my house today? Un, san-ji ni iku yo. Sakura Yep, Ill come at 3. Tomoyo san-ji = three o'clock; namely, san (= three) + ji (= time). Conversely, some sentences do not include the information about the time in it. In that case, you should tell if its about the future just by conjecture from the context. Mr. Terada Meilin Dareka, kono mondai o tokeru hito i-nai ka? Somebody can solve this problem? Watashi ga yaru wa. Ill do.

yaru [u-berb] to do (something). It might be funny that Japanese people use present tense to talk about the future and use progressive form to talk about their habbit, where as English speakers use the progressive form to talk about the near future like Im coming to the party this weekend. Close Window 29. Perfective Form The perfective form is the conjugation pattern of verbs which basically expresses the completed action. In the sense, it is similar to the perfect tense in English, but its not equal. The perfective form mainly expresses some unexpected or undesirable action. But this conjugation pattern is often spoken in daily conversation. The perfective form is obtained by attaching -shimau to the verb in its conjunctive form. This sample dialog is from the scene that Eriol and his guardians are watching Sakura in trouble when Keroberos and Yue are unable to return to their Earthly form because of evil Eriols magic; but the lines are changed appropriately for this lesson. Yue ga sentaku o...? Waratte-shimau wa. Yue do the laundry...? I laugh (unexpectedly). Omoshiroi desu ka? Suppi Is it funny? Yue to ieba, tsui-tsui asonde-shimau no yo ne. Nakuru Talking about Yue, I amuse myself (unexpectedly). Nakuru sentaku [noun] laundry. warau [u-verb] to laugh. omoshiroi [i-adj] to be funny. ~ to ieba = When I talk about ~ asobu [u-verb] to play; to amuse oneself. ~ no yo ne = sentence-terminating phrase without special meaning, often spoken in girls speech. The perfective form acts like a u-verb, so its past tense is simple. Looking back at Lesson 18, you may guess that -shimau turns into -shimatta if it's converted in to the past tense. The past tense

of the perfective form expresses completed action, or something that has been done unexpectedly. De? Nande kozou ga koko ni oru nya? So? How come the brat is here? A-ano... Yakusoku-shita kara yonde-shimatta no. Sakura Umm... I just called him out because I made a promised to him. Kero nande~? = how come ~? koko [noun] this place. oru [u-verb] (of a living body) to exist. Osaka dialect for iru. ~ kara = because ~ nya = sentence termination for interrogation in Osaka dialect. In colloquial version (or slang), -te-shimau is pronounced -chau. This version of perfective form is often heard in Cardcaptor Sakura. Some perfective form is of the form -de-shimau; in that case, its colloquial version is -jau as seen in this dialog. Yue ga sentaku o...? Warat-chau wa. Yue do the laundry...? I laugh (unexpectedly). Omoshiroi desu ka? Suppi Is it funny? Yue to ieba, tsui-tsui ason-jau no yo ne. Nakuru Talking about Yue, I amuse myself (unexpectedly). Nakuru The colloquial version of the past perfective follows the same rule; namely -te-shimatta shifts to -chatta, and -de-shimatta to -jatta. De? Nande kozou ga koko ni oru nya? So? How come the brat is here? A-ano... Yakusoku-shita kara yon-jatta no. Sakura Umm... I just called him out because I made a promised to him. Kero You'll see how often Sakura and the others use -chau or -chatta if you watch or read Cardcaptor Sakura in Japanese. When you master the perfective form, you'll be able to understand more lines spoken in the show. Close Window 30. Causative Form The grammar to express the action making someone to do something is called the causative; in English, represented with causative verbs have and makefor example, Sakura has the Windy Card to capture the Dash Card. This lesson explains the causative expression in Japanese. Causative expression is written by conjugating the verb into its causative form, following the conjugation rule shown in the following table. The conjugation into the causative form changes the verb type into a ru-verb; For example, mata-seru (to have someone wait) can be furthermore conjugated: mata-se-nai (negative), mata-se-masu (polite), mata-seta (past), mata-sete-shimau (perfective), etc. Type Root Conjugation -a-seru Example Root Causative Meaning kaku kaka-seru to have (someone) write

u-verb -u

ru-verb -ru Irregular


matsu kau miru akeru aru suru kuru

mata-seru kawa-seru mi-saseru ake-saseru saseru ko-saseru

to have (someone) wait to have (someone) buy to have (someone) see to have (someone) open to have (someone) do to have (someone) come

The typical causative sentence in Japanese is of the form: S wa P ni O o V-saseru. = S has P V O. Here, S is the subject, P the person or thing to do the action denoted by V, the O the object of the action V. Note that some Japanese sentences omit the subject S or the object O if they are explicit. According to the formula, Kero has Suppi eat chocolate, is translated: Kero wa Suppi ni chokorto o tabe-saseru. Kero has (makes) Suppi eat chocolate. chokorto [noun] chocolate. taberu [ru-verb] to eat. OK, look at this sample dialog, which comes from an episode of Cardcaptor Sakuraon the day Syaoran got transferred to Tomoeda Elementary. This scene is when Syaoran has found out Sakura has Clow Cards. Can you find where a causative form is hidden? Look at the bottommost line; mot-asete-iru contains the causative form. Kero-chan to yakusoku-shita kara... I promised Kero-chan that I... Kero-chan tte... Keruberosu ka? Syaoran Kero-chan? It it Kerberus? Kero-chan o shitte-iru no? Sakura You know him? Keruberosu wa doushite konna kodomo ni Kurou kdo o mota-sete-iru nda? Syaoran How come Kerberus has the kid like this possess the Clow Cards? Sakura yakusoku-suru [irr. verb] to make a promise. ~ kara = because ~ shitte-iru = shiru + -te-iru = to keep knowing. doushite = how come. konna = like this. kodomo = child. mota-sete-iru = motsu + -saseru + -te-iru = to keep having someone possess (something). The last sample dialog is almost the same that was really aired in Japan. You are able to understand this common Japanese conversation, because youve studied 30 lessons with Sakuras BME Clinic. ^_^