Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 33

The curriculum outline of microbiology

Total period 158 Theory 108 Practice 50


Chapter contents Total Theory practice
period
Introduction 11 6 5
Chapter one Bacterial Morphology and Structure
Chapter two Bacterial physiology 8 3 5
Chapter three Disinfection &sterilization 8 3 5
Chapter four Bacteriophage 6 6
Chapter five Bacterial variation
Chapter six Bacterial Infection &Immunity 6 6
Chapter seven Detection, Prophylaxis and Treatment of
Bacterial Infection
Chapter eight Cocci 11 6 5
Chapter nine Enteric Bacilli 11 6 5
Chapter ten Vibrio
Chapter eleven Anaerobic bacteria 3 3
Chapter twelve Actinomyces and Nocardia
Chapter thirteen Corynebacterium 3 3
Chapter fourteen Mycobacterium 8 3 5
Chapter fifteen Bacteria of Animal Origin 3 3
Chapter sixteen Miscellaneous Bacteria 3 3
Chapter seventeen Mycoplasma 2 1.5 0.5
Chapter eighteen Rickettsia 2 1.5 0.5
Chapter nineteen Chlamydia 2 1.5 0.5
Chapter twenty Spirochete 2 1.5 0.5
Chapter twenty-one General Intruduction of fungus 4.5 3 1.5
Chapter twenty-two Pathogenic Fungus 4.5 3 1.5
Chapter twenty-three The Basic features of Virus 6
Chapter twenty-four Viral Infection and Immunity 6
Chapter twenty-five Diagnosis and Control of Viral Infection 3
Chapter twenty-six Respiratory Virus 11 6 5
Chapter twenty-seven Enterovirus 2
Chapter twenty-eight Virus causing acute Gastroenteritis 1
Chapter twenty-nine Hepatitis Virus 6
Chapter thirty Flavivirus 3
Chapter thirty-one Hemorrhagic virus 3
Chapter thirty-two Herpesvirus 3
Chapter thirty-three Retrovirus 3
Chapter thirty-four Other Virus 1.5
Chapter thirty-five Prion 1.5
Total 158 108 50
Introduction to microbiology
Microbiology is the biology of microorganisms that are small,
simple structure and not directly visible to unaided eye. It is a
bioscience for the study of the evolution, classification,
morphology of microbes under certain definite conditions, the
law of their life activities, and their interaction with human
beings, animals or plants as well as with natural environment.
The teaching of Theory
Introduction
(1)Master kinds of microorganisms
(2)Understand the distribution of microorganisms
Emphasis: kinds of microorganisms
Contents: Kinds and distribution of microorganisms,
Relationship between microorganisms and human beings,
medical microbiology

Chapter 1 Bacterial Morphology and Structure


(1)Master the size and shape of bacteria
(2) Master the Bacterial structures
(3) Understand morphological and structural identification of
bacteria
Emphasis: the size and shape of bacteria, the bacterial
structures
Difficulty: Bacterial structures
Contents:
1. Size
(1)Unit for measurement: micron or micrometer (μm).
(2)Size: varies with kinds of bacteria, and also related to their
age and external environment.
1) Cocci: 0.8-1.0 μm in diameter.
2) Bacilli: varied considerably in different species, median
size is 2-3um in length and 0.5-1.0um in width.
3) Spiral bacteria: 1-3um in length and 0.3-0.6um in
width.
2. Shape
(1) Spherical (cocci): round, ball-like, sometimes bean or
kidney shaped; according to their mode of division: diplococci,
tetrads, and sarcina.
(2)Cylindrical (bacilli): rod-shaped of various size and length;
cocco- bacilli, coryneform bacilli, streptobacilli, etc.
(3)Helical (spiral bacteria): curved or spiral; vibrio, spirillum.
3. Bacterial structures
Bacterial structures consist of basic structures (cell wall, cell
membrane, cytoplasm, cytoplasmic inclusions, nucleus) and
special structures (capsule, flagella, spore, pili.)
(1). Basic structures: all bacteria possess, visualized only after
special staining or by electron microscope.
1) Cell wall
a. Situation: outmost portion, 15-30nm in thickness,
10%-25% of dry weight.
b. Functions: maintain shape, protection,
semipermeability, toxicity, antigenicity, etc.
c. Chemical composition
a) Common peptidoglycan layer
i) A backbone of N-acetyl-glucosamine and N-
acetyl-muramic acid: both discovered in Gram
positive and Gram_negative bacteria.
ii) A set of identical tetrapeptide side chain
attached to N-acetyl-muramic acid: different
components and binding modes in Gram
positive and Gram_negative bacteria.
iii) A set of identical peptide crosses bridges:
only in Gram-positive bacteria.
The action of lysozyme on Gram-positive bacteria is to
break the bridge between N-acetyl-glucosamine and N-acetyl-
muramic acid, while the penicillin action is interference on the
synthesis of cell wall.
b) Special components of Gram-positive cell wall--
teichoic acid: a polymer of ribitol or glycerol residues
joined through phospho-diester linkages, and divided
into wall and membrane teichoic acid.
c) Special components of Gram_negative cell wall--
outer membrane consisting of lipoprotein,lipid double-
layer and lipopolysaccha ride (lipid A,
nucleopolysaccharide, specific polysaccharide.)
d) Bacteria with defective cell wall--bacterial L form:
protoplast,spheroplast.
2) Cell membrane: a double-layered structure composed of
lipid and protein with thickness of 7.5nm,but without
cholesterol; its major functions are:
a. Selective permeability and transport of solutes into
cells.
b. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
c. Excretion of hydrolytic exoenzymes.
d. Site of biosynthesis of DNA,cell wall polymers and
membrane lipids. Mesosomes are specialized
structures formed by convoluted inveigh- nations of
cytoplasmic membrane, and divided into septal and
lateral mesosome.
3) Cytoplasm: composed largely of water, together with
proteins, nucleic acid, lipids and small amount of sugars and
salts.
a. Ribosomes: numerous, 15-20nm in diameter with 70S;
distributed throughout the cytoplasm; sensitive to
streptomycin and erythromycin site of protein
synthesis.
b. Plasmids: extrachromosomal genetic elements.
c. Inclusions; sources of stored energy, e.g. volutin
(metachromatic granules).
4) Nucleus: lacking nuclear membrane, absence of nucleoli,
simple doomosome, hence known as nucleic material or
nucleoid, one to several per bactrerium.
(2). Special structures: only some bacteria possess.
1) Capsules: mucous outside of cell wall, usually
polysaccharide occasionally protein in nature; often inhibit
phagocytosis and correlate with virulence in certain bacteria;
capsule, microcapsule, slime layer.
2) Flagella: elongated filaments responsible for motility;
composed of the protein "flagellin"; chemically similar to
actomyosin; four kinds-- monotrichate, amphitrichate,
lophotrichate, peritrichate.
3) Pili: chemical nature is pilin.
a. Common pili or fimbriae: fine, rigid, numerous,
related to bacterial adhesion.
b. Sex pili: longer and coarser, only 1-4, related to
bacterial conjugation.
4) Spores or endospores: resting stage, highly resistant to
desiccation, heat and chemical agents; under favourable
conditions, a spore germinates into a vegetative cell.
5) Glycocalyx: mucous extracelllular polymer.
2. Morphological and structural identification of bacteria
(1). Microscopy: light microscope; darkfield microscope;
phase contrast microscope; fluorescence microscope;
electron microscope.
(2) Staining: simple staining; differential staining (Gram stain,
acid-fast stain), special staining (negative stain, spore stain,
flagella stain).

Chapter 2 Bacterial Physiology


(1) Master growth and multiplication of bacteria
(2) Master medical important metabolic products
(3) Know well bacterial chemical components and physical
characteristics
(4) Know well bacterial nutrition
(5) Understand artificial cultivation of bacteria
(6) Understand bacterial classification and nomination
Emphasis: the growth and multiplication of bacteria, medical
important metabolic products
Difficulty: the growth and multiplication of bacteria
Contents:
1. Bacterial chemical components and physical characteristics
2. Bacterial nutrition
(1) Types of nutrition: Autotrophs, Heterotrophs
(2) Nutrients of bacteria: water, Carbon source, Nitrogen
source, Inorganic salts, Growth factors: (3) Enviroment of
Bacterial Growth: Nutrients; PH; Temperature: psychrophile,
mesophile and thermophile; Gases: obligate aerobes,
microaerophilic bacteria, facultative anaerobes, obligate
anaerobes; Osmotic pressure.
3. Growth and multiplication of bacteria
(1) Mode and speed of bacterial multiplication: usually by
simple binary fission, majority of bacteria multiply 2-fold in 20-
30 minutes.
(2) Bacterial growth curve: to transfer into fresh liquid
medium, four main phases—lag phase, logarithmic or
exponential phase, stationary phase, decline phase.
4. Metabolism of bacteria: anabolism or assimilatlion,
catabolism or dissimilation.
(1) Respiration of bacteria (biological oxidation or
biooxidation): addition of oxygen, dehydrogenation, liberation
of an electron.
1)Aerobic oxidation or Respiration
2)Anaerobic oxidation or Fermentation: reasons why
anaerobes failed to grow in presence of oxygen due to: Lower
Eh of anaerobes, Lack of superoxide dismutase (SOD),
peroxidase and hydrogen peroxidase.
(2). Medical important metabolic products
1) Catabolic products: Sugar fermentation test, Voges-
Proskauer (VP) test, Methyl red (MR) test, Citrate test, Indole
test, H2S test
2) Anabolic products: Pyrogen, Toxins: exotoxins,
endotoxins, Invasive enzymes: coagulase, hyaluronidase, etc,
Pigments, Antibiotics, Bacteriocins, Vitamins
5. Artificial cultivation of bacteria
(1) Culture media: substances used for artificial cultivation of
bacteria.
1) According to physical condition: liquid, solid, semisolid.
2) According to basic ingredients: basic, nutrient,
differential,selective and anaerobic culture media.
(2) Phenomena of bacterial growth
6. Bacterial classification and nomination

Chapter 3 Disinfection and Sterilization


(1) Master the definition: Disinfection, Sterilization, Antisepsis,
Asepsis
(2) Master each physical method and its use
(3) Master the mechanism of chemical agents
(4) Master the targets of antimicrobial drugs
(5) Know well the factors influencing chemical disinfectants
(6) Understand the mode of action of antimicrobial drugs
Emphasis: physical methods and their uses, the mechanism of
chemical agents, the targets of antimicrobial drugs
Difficulty: physical methods and their uses, the mode of action
of antimicrobial drugs
Contents:
1. Definition: Disinfection, Sterilization, Antisepsis, Asepsis
2. Physical methods
(1) Heat
1) Dry heat: Incineration, Burn, Hot-air oven
2) Moist heat: Pasteurization, Boiling, Live steam (free
flowing steam), Fractional sterilization (tyndallization):
inspissator, Autoclaving: autoclave.
(2) Radiation: ultraviolet light, X-rays, neutrons, alpha, beta
and gamma rays.
(3) Filtration: membrane filter, Seitz filter, etc.
(4) Ultrasonic vibrations
(5) Drying and low temperature
(6) Cold: lyophilization (freeze-drying).
3. Chemical methods and their mechanisms
(1) Active mechanism
(2) Common disinfectants
(3) Applications of disinfectants
(4) Factors influencing chemical disinfectants
1) Concentration and nature of disinfectants.
2) Kind and amount of bacteria
3) Time
4) Temperature
5) pH
6) Organic material
4. Targets of antimicrobial drugs
(1)Cell wall
(2)Cell membranes
(3)Protein synthesis
(4)Nucleic Acid
(5)Folic acid synthesis

Chapter 4 Bacteriophage
(1) Master the lytic cycle of virulent phage
(2) Master the Lysogenic bacterium or temperate phage
(3) Know well the biological characteristics of bacteriophage
(phage)
(4) Understand the applications of phages
Emphasis: the lytic cycle of virulent phage, Lysogenic
bacterium or temperate phage
Difficulty: the Lysogenic bacterium or temperate phage, the
applications of phages
Contents:
1. Biological characteristics of bacteriophage (phage)
(1) Shape and structure
(2) Chemical composition: nucleic acid and protein.
(3) Antigenicity
(4) Resistance
2. Lytic cycle of virulent phage
(1) Adsorptioin and penetration
(2) Biosynthesis (replication)
(3) Assembly and releasing (lysis of bacterial host)
3. Lysogenic bacterium or temperate phage
Free infectious phage particle, bacteriophage nucleic acid,
prophage.
4. Application
(1) Identification and typing of bacteria.
(2) As an important tool in molecular biology.
(3) Diagnosis and Treatment of Bacterial Infection

Chapter 5 Bacterial Variation


(1) Master the Genetic basis of bacterial variation
(2) Master the Mechanism of bacterial variation
(3) Master the following concepts :
1. Plasmid 2. transformation 3. transduction 4.
conjugation
5. lysogenic phage (temperate phage) 6. lysogenic bacteria 7.
prophage
(4) Know well the Phenomena of bacterial Variation
(5) Understand the Application of bacterial variation
Emphasis: the Genetic basis of bacterial variation, Master the
Mechanism of bacterial variation
Difficulty: the Mechanism of bacterial variation
Contents:
1. Phenomena of bacterial Variation: Shape, Structural, virulent
and drug variation
2. Genetic basis of bacterial variation
(1) Bacterial chromosome: circular double stranded DNA.
(2) Plasmid: extrachromosomal DNA; in general, big one
codes several hundreds genes, small one only 20-30 genes.
(3) Transposable genetic elements: insertion sequence,
transposon
(4) Bacteriophage
3. Mechanism of bacterial variation
(1) Gene mutation
1) Mutation rate
2) Relationship between mutation and selectivity
3) Backward mutation
4) Relationship between translocation factor and mutation
(2) Gene transfer and recombination
1) Transformation: recipient cell takes up soluble free DNA
released from donor cell.
2) Conjugation: unidirectional transfer of genetic
information, i.e. one cell acts as a donor and the other as a
recipient; fertility factor (F factor or sex factor), high frequency
recombinant (Hfr) strain, F factor, drug resistant factor (R
factor).
3) Transduction: a fragment of donor chromosome is
carried to recipient by a temperate phage that has been produced
in donor cell.
4) Lysogenic conversion: prophage DNA as a gene
recombined with chromosome of host cell.
5) Protoplast fusion: fusion of two protoplasts treated with
lysozyme and penicillin.
4. Application of bacterial variation
(1) Use in medical clinic: diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis.
(2) Use in genetic engineering.

Chapter 6 Bacterial Infection and Immunity


(1) Master Definition: Pathogen, Nonpathogen, Opportunistic
bacterium, Normal flora, Hospital acquired infection
(2) Master the Bacterial pathogenicity
(3) Master the original and development of Bacterial Infection
(4) Master the infection of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria
(5) Master the functions of normal flora
(6) Know well the Immunity of host
(7) Understand distribution of normal flora
Emphasis: the Bacterial pathogenicity, the original and
development of Bacterial Infection, the functions of normal flora
Difficulty: the Bacterial pathogenicity, the infection of
opportunistic pathogenic bacteria
Contents:
1. Definition: Pathogen (Pathogenic bacterium), Nonpathogen
(Nonpathogenic bacterium), Opportunistic bacterium, Normal
flora, Hospital acquired infection
2. Bacterial pathogenicity
(1) Pathogenicity, Virulence: LD50, ID50.
(2) Virulence: Invasiveness: Capsule, Adhesin, Invasive
substances
(3) Virulence: Toxins
1) Exotoxins: neurotoxin, cytotoxin, enterotoxin
2) Endotoxins: Fever, Leukopenia and leukocytosis,
Endotoxemia and shock, Shwartzman phenomenon and
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
3) Comparing the Differences between exotoxins and
endotoxins
3. Bacterial colonization Original and devolopment of Bacterial
Infection
(1) Source of infection
1) Exogenous infection: patient, carrier, diseased animal or
animal carrier.
2) Endogenous condition: most are normal flora, cause
infection under abnormal condition.
(2) Routes of infection: respiratory, gastroenteric,
trumatic,closely contact, insect bitting, blood transfusion, etc.
(3) Kinds of infection
1) Inapparent or subclinical infection
2) Latent infecction
3) Apparent infection
According to infectious courses:
I Acute infection
II Chronic infection
According to infectious sites:
I Local infection
II Generalized or systemic infection: Toxemia,
Endotoxemia, Bacteremia, Septicemia, Pyemia
4) Carrier state: carrier
4. Immunity of host(
(1) Nonspecific immunity or innate immunity
1) Physiological barriers: Skin and mucous membrane
barrier, Blood-brain barrier, Placental barrier
2) Phagocytes
3) Humoral factors: complement, beta-lysin, lysozyme, etc.
(2) Specific immunity or Acquired immunity : cell-mediated
immunity and humoral immunity.
1) Immunity of extracellular bacterial infection: antibodies
(IgG, IgM, SIgA); phagocytes (neutrophils); complement;
humoral immunity mainly.
2) Immunity of intracellular bacterial infection: cell-
mediated immunity mainly.
5. Normal flora and opportunistic pathogen
(1) Normal flora, beneficial effects and distribution of normal
flora
(2) Opportunistic pathogen
(3) Flora disequilibrium

Chapter 7 Detection, Prophylaxis and Treatment of Bacterial


Infection
(1) Master the Bacteriological diagnosis
(2) Master the Specimen Selection, Collection and Processing
(3) Understand well the Identification of Microorganisms from
Specimens
Emphasis: the Specimen Selection, Collection and Processing
Difficulty: the Bacteriological diagnosis
Conternts:
1. Specimen Selection, Collection and Processing
2. Identification of Microorganisms from Specimens:
Microscopy and stains, Culture systems, Biochemical reaction,
Antigen and antibody detection, Serodiagnosis, DNA
hybridization.

Chapter 8 Cocci
(1) Master the diseases, pathogenesis and clinical findings of
Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.
(2) Master the important toxins and enzymes produced by S.
aureus and group A streptococcus.
(3) Master the three hemolytic types of streptococcus.
(4) Master the following concepts: 1. Coagulase 2. SPA 3. M
protein 4. Streptolysin
5. poststreptococcal diseases
(5)Understand the important properties, transmission, laboratory
diagnosis, treatment and prevention of staphylococcus and
streptococcus.

Emphasis: General characteristics of staphylococcus,


Pathogenicity of staphylococcus, General characteristics of
streptococcus, Pathogenicity of streptococcus, Bacteriological
diagnosis of streptococcus, Pathogenicity Streptococcus
pneumoniae, Pathogenicity of gonococcus, Pathogenicity of
meningococcus, the General characteristics of Neisseria.
Difficulty: Pathogenicity of staphylococcus, Pathogenicity of
streptococcus, Bacteriological diagnosis of streptococcus
Contents:
1. Staphylococcus:
(1) Biological characteristics: Morphology, Growth
characteristics, Antigenic structure (SPA), Classification,
resistance.
(2) Pathogenicity:
①Toxin and Enzyme: Catalase, Coagulase, Hemolysin,
leukocidin, enterotoxin, toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST),
exfoliative toxin
②Clinical manifestations: Invasive diseases, Toxinosis
(3) Immunity: weak
(4)Bacteriological diagnosis: Specimens, Direct smear and
Gram stain, Cultivation, Identification
2. Streptococcus
(1) Biological characteristics: Morphology and Identification,
Growth characteristics, Classification (according to antigenic
structure and hemolysis on blood agar), resistance.
(2) Pathogenicity: Group A streptococcus: Pyogenic
streptococcus
① Exotoxins and invasive enzymes: more than 20.
1) Streptolysin: 2 types (SLO,SLS)
2) Pyrogenic exotoxin (Erythrogenic toxin)
3) Hyaluronidase (Spreading factor)
4) Strpetokinase (SK; Fibrinolysin)
5) Streptodornase (SD; Streptococcal
deoxyribonuclease)
② Clinical manifestations
1) Pyogenic infection(spreading diluted pus)
2) Toxic infection: scarlet fever
3) Poststreptococcal allergic diseases: acute
glomerulonephritis,rheumatic fever.
(3) Immunity:
Type-specific, associated with anti-M protein
antibodies;immunity against scarlet fever is based on specific
antitoxin in blood.
(4)Bacteriological diagnosisSpecimens, Stained smear,
Culture and identification, Serological test: anti-streptolysin O
(ASO) test; Dick test; Schultz-Charlton reaction.
(5)Treatment and prevention
3. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
(1) Biological characteristics: Morphology, Cultlure,
biochemical reaction, antigenic structure and subtype,
Resistance
(2) Pathogenicity: Capsule
(3) Immunity: type-specific capsular antibodies.
(4) Bacteriological diagnosis
(5) Treatment and prevention: Polyvalent capsular vaccine.
4. Neisseria
N. meningitidis (meningococcus) and N. gonorrhoeae
(gonococcus): Morphology, Cultlure, Resistance, Pathogenicity,
Bacteriological diagnosis, Treatment and prevention

Chapter 9 Enteric Bacilli


(1) Master antigens and common features of the
enterobacteriaceae family.
(2) Master the feature and pathogenicity of five types E.coli
(ETEC, EIEC, EHEC, EPEC, EAEC) in intestinal tract
infection.
(3) Master the antigenic structure and pathogenicity of Shigella
(4) Master the chemical reaction, antigenic structure and
classification pathogenicity of Salmonella.
(5) Master Widal test.
(6) Understand laboratory diagnosis, treatment and
prevention of Escherichia.
Emphasis: feature and pathogenicity of five types E.coli,
antigenic structure and classification pathogenicity of
Salmonella, Widal test
Difficulty: feature and pathogenicity of five types E.coli,
analysis of Widal test
Contents:
1. Common characteristics: Morphology, Culture, Biochemical
activities, Antigenic structures, Resistance, Variations
2. Escherichia
(1)Pathogenicity
1) Intestinal tract infection: according to their pathogenesis,
pathogenic E. coli can be classified into 5 groups.
① Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC): diarrheal diseases in
the nursery and travelers, caused by LT, ST, or LT/ST.
② Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC): elder children and adult
diarrhea, clinical manifestations like dysentery.
③ Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC): infant diarrhea, no
enterotoxin.
④ Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC): younger than 5
years old,causing hemorrhagic colitis :O157H7
⑤ Enteroaggregative E. Coli(EaggEC): infant persistant
diarrhea
2) Apenteric infection: systemic infection, urinary tract
infection
(2) Laboratory diagnosis: MacConkey’ agar, EMB agar
(3) Treatment: depend on the resistance pattern of the specific
isolate
2. Shigella (dysentery bacteria)
(1) Biological characteristics: Morphology, Culture,
Antigenic structure, Resistance
(2) Pathogenicity
1) Pathogenic substances: pili; endotoxin; Shiga toxin.
2) Clinical manifestations: cause human bacterial
dysentery--acute, chronic.
(3) Immunity: SIgA.
(4) Bacteriological diagnosis: specimen, Culture and
identification, Toxicity Test, Quick immunological methods:
immunofluorescent "ball" test; Coagglutination;PCR.
(5) Treatment and prevention: Problem of drug-resistance,
Vaccine: streptomycin dependent (Sd) dysentery vaccine, etc.
3. Salmonella
(1) Biological characteristics: Morphology, Culture, Antigenic
structure and classification, Resistance
(2) Pathogenicity
1) Virulence: Vi antigen; endotoxin; enterotoxin (some
strains,e.g. Salm. typhimurium).
2) Clinical manifestations
① Enteric fever: typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever.
② Gastroenteritis: food poisoning.
③ Septicemia
④ Asymptamatic Carrier
(3) Immunity: Intracellular immunity
(4) Bacteriological diagnosis
1) Specimens
① Enteric fever: blood, bone marrow, stool, urine.
② Food poisoning: stool, vomitus, suspected food.
③ Septicemia: blood
2) Culture and identification
3) Serological diagnosis: Widal reaction: Procedure and
Analysis of results
4)Detection of typhoid carriers: culture; Vi antibody
detection.
(5) Prevention: vaccination.

Chapter 10 Vibrio
(1) Master the antigenic structure and subtypes of Vibrio
(2) Master the mechanism of pathogenicity
(3) Know well the Bacteriological diagnosis
(4) Understand the Biological characteristics and pathogenicity
of V. parahemolyticus
Emphasis: the mechanism of pathogenicity
Difficulty: antigenic structure and subtypes of Vibrio, the
mechanism of pathogenicity
Contents:
1. Vibrio cholerae:
(1) General characteristcs
1) Morphology: curves or comma shaped single polar
flagellum.
2) Culture: aerobic; tolerate alkaline conditions to pH9.0,
extremely sensitive to an acid pH, pH6.0 will sterize the culture.
3) Antigenic structure and classification
4) Resistance: weaker, 100℃ for 2 minutes dies, sensitive
to dry and acid.
(2) Pathogenicity
Pathogen of cholera; substances related are enterotoxics,
flagella, pili, other toxicity factors
(3) Immunity: Strong immunity after recovery, SIgA.
(4) Bacteriological diagnosis
(5) Prevention: vaccination.
2. V. parahemolyticus
One kind of halophilic vibrios; optimal NaCl concentration
contained in culture media is 3.5%; hemolysin related to its
pathogenicity, can be detected by human or rabbit RBC test
(Kanagawa test); cause food poisoning in human beings.

Chapter 11 Anaerobic Bacteria


(1) Master the pathogenetic conditions of Clostridium
(2) Master the mechanism of pathogenicity
(3) Know well the classification of anaerobic bacteria
(4) Know well the morphology of Clostridium
(5) Understand the Diagnosis of Anaerobic Infections
Emphasis: pathogenetic conditions of Clostridium, the
mechanism of pathogenicity
Difficulty: the mechanism of pathogenicity
Contents:
1. Categories
2. Clostridium:
3. C. tetani
(1) General characteristics: Morphology, Culture,
Biochemical activities, Resistance
(2) Pathogenicity
1) Pathogenic substances: Tetanospasmin, Tetanolysin
2) Clinical manifestation: tetanus.
(3) Immunity; humoral immunity (antitoxin).
(4) Treatment and prevention: tetanus antitoxin (TAT); DPT
vaccine.
4. C. perfringens (C. welchii):
(1) General characteristics: Morphology, Culture,
Biochemical activities:
(2) Pathogenicity: producing more than 10 kinds of exotoxins;
5 types (A-E) divided according to different toxins produced,
type A causes gas gangrene and food poisoning, type C causes
necrotic enteritis.
(3) Bacteriological diagnosis
5. C. botulinum
(1) General characteristics: Morphology, Culture,
Classification, Resistance
(2) Pathogenicity:
1) Pathogenic substance--botulin: cause botulism, not
infection, but intoxication; the commonest serotypes of botulin
are type A and B.
2) Clinical manifestations: food poisoning; baby botulism.
(3) Bacteriological diagnosis
(4) Treatment and prevention
6. C. difficile:
Very sensitive to oxygen; produce toxin A (enterotoxin)
and toxin B (cytotoxin); cause pseudomembranous colitis under
certain conditions of long using some kinds of antibiotics.
7. Nonspore-forming anaerobic organisms: Main bacteria,
Pathogenicity, Bacteriological diagnosis, Treatment and
prevention

Chapter 12 Actinomyces and Nocardia


(1) Master the difference between actinomycete and eukaryote
(2) Master the following concepts: Sulfur granule
Emphasis: Sulfur granule
Difficulty: the difference between actinomycete and eukaryote
Contents:
1. Actinomyces
Gram positive; sulfur granule;related to decay tooth and
peridentitis.
2. Nocardia: pathogenisis
Chapter 13 Corynebacterium
(1) Master the pathogenesis and disease of Corynebacterium
diphtheriae
(2) Master Schick test
(3) Know well the morphology and culture characteristics of
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
(4) Understand laboratory diagnosis
Emphasis: the pathogenesis and disease, Schick test
Difficulty: analysis of Schick test
Contents:
1. General characteristics: Morphology, Culture, resistance
2. Pathogenicity
(1) Exotoxin: main pathogenic substance, produce only by
strains carrying Corynephage (contains tox+ gene); protein in
nature, MW 63000, consists two polypeptide chains A and B.
(2) Clinical manifestation: diphtheria.
3. Immunity: Humoral immunity (antitoxin), permanent. Schick
test
4. Bacteriological diagnosis
5. Treatment: Diphtheria antitoxin.
6. Prevention: Diphtheria toxoid.

Chapter 14 Mycobacterium
(1) Master the pathogenicity
(2) Master the following concepts: BCG
(3) Master Tuberculin Skin Test
(4) Master pathogenicity of leprosy
(5) Know well the morphology, culture characteristics,
resistance, and variation of TB
(6) Understand the microbiological diagnosis
Emphasis: pathogenicity, Tuberculin Skin Test, morphology,
culture characteristics, resistance, and variation of TB
Difficulty: pathogenicity, Tuberculin Skin Test
Contents:
1. M.tuberculosis (human tubercle bacillus)
(1) General characteristics: Morphology, Culture, Resistance,
Variation
(2) Pathogenicity:
1) Virulence factor: Lipids, Proteins, Polysaccharides
2) Tuberculosis
(3) Immunity and hypersensitivity
(4) Bacteriological diagnosis
(5) Prevention: BCG vaccination.
2. M. leprae: pathogen of leprosy.
(1) General characteristics
(2) Pathogenicity and immunity
(3) Bacteriological diagnosis
(4) Prevention: BCG vaccination.

Chapter 15 Bacterium causing zoonosis


(1) Master the mode of infection of zoonosis
(2) Know well the dominant species of the bacterium causing
zoonosis
(3) Understand the morphology, pathogenicity and prevention
and control of Brucella, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus Anthracis
Contents:
1. Brucella
(1) General characteristics: classification, morphology, culture
characteristics, chemical reaction, antigenic structure and
subtypes, resistance
(2) Pathogenicity and immunity: intracellular pathogen,
infection immunity; endotoxin, capsule and invasive enzymes
(3) Bacteriological diagnosis
(4) Prevention: live attenuated vaccine for animal
immunization.
2. Yersinia---Y.pestis
(1) General characteristics: morphology, culture
characteristics, antigenic structure
(2) Pathogenicity and immunity: clinical manifestations:
bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic types; persistant immunity
after recovery.
(3) Bacteriological diagnosis: specimens, stained smear,
culture. serological diagnosis, animal inoculation.
(4) Prevention: live attenuated vaccine.
3. Bacillus: B.anthracis
(1) General characteristics: Morphology, Culture, Antigenic
structure, Resistance: spore highly resistant to dry and heat.
(2) Pathogenicity
1) Toxins: edema factor, protective antigen, lethal factor.
2) Clinical manifestations: main disease of plant-eating
animals (herbivore); in humans, cutaneous anthrax, pulmonary
anthrax and intestinal anthrax.
(3) Immunity: Long, may be due to antibodies to capsule and
protective antigen.
(4) Bcteriological diagnosis:
(5) Prevention: Live attenuated vaccine.

Chapter 16 Miscellaneous Bacteria


(1) Know well pathogenicity of C.jejuni, Helicobacter pylori,
H.influenzae, B.pertussis
(2) Understand the morphology, and culture characteristics of
C.jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, H.influenzae, B.pertussis
Emphasis: pathogenicity of C.jejuni, Helicobacter pylori,
H.influenzae, B.pertussis
Difficulty: pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori
Contents:
1. Campylobacter---C.jejuni: Morphology, Culture,
Pathogenicity, Bacteriological diagnosis
2. Helicobacter pylori: Morphology, culture, Pathogenicinty and
Immunity, Bacterial diagnosis and prevention
3. Pseudomonas: P.aeruginosa: General characteristics,
Pathogenicity, Bacteriological diagnosis
4. Haemophilus: H.influenzae: General characteristics,
Pathogenicity and immunity, Bacteriological diagnosis
5. Bordetella: B.pertussis: General Characteristics,
Pathogenicity and immunity, Bacteriological diagnosis,
Prevention
Chapter 17 mycoplasma 1.5 hours
(1) Master the concept of mycoplasma .
(2) Master the pathways of mycoplasma infection .
(3) Master the types of diseases in mycoplasma infection.
(4) Know well morphology and structure.
(5) Understand the colonies with a “fried egg”.
(6) Understand diferrence of mycoplasma and L forms bacteria
Emphasis: ①the concept of mycoplasma .② the pathogenesis
of mycoplasma infection .
Difficulty: the pathogenesis of mycoplasma infection .
Contents:
1. the concept of mycoplasma.
2. morphology and structure of mycoplasma.
3. the pathogenesis and diseases in mycoplasma infection.

Chapter 18 Rickettsia 1.5 hours


(1) Master the concept of Rickettsia.
(2) Master the pathways of Rickettsia infection .
(3) Master the types of diseases in Rickettsia infection.
(4) Know well common characteristics of Rickettsia.
(5) Understand culture characteristics of Rickettsia.
Emphasis: ①the concept of Rickettsia.② the pathogenesis of
Rickettsia infection .
Difficulty: the pathogenesis of Rickettsia infection .
Contents:
1.The concept of Rickettsia.
2.The biological characteristics of Rickettsia.
3.The pathogenesis and diseases in Rickettsia infection.

Chapter 19 chlamydias 1.5 hours


(1) Master the concept of chlamydias.
(2) Master the biological characteristics(developmental cycle
and morphology) of chlamydias.
(3) Master the pathways of chlamydias infection .
(4) Master the types of diseases in chlamydias infection.
(5) Know well the sort of chlamydias.
(6) Understand culture characteristics of chlamydias.
Emphasis: ①the concept of chlamydias.② the pathogenesis of
chlamydias infection .
③the developmental cycle and morphology of chlamydias.④the
sort of chlamydias.
Difficulty: the pathogenesis of chlamydias infection .
Contents:
1.The concept of chlamydias.
2. the sort of chlamydias
3.The biological characteristics of chlamydias.
4.The pathogenesis and diseases in chlamydias infection.

Chapter 20 spirochete 1.5 hours


(1)Master the concept of spirochete.
(2)Master the biological characteristics(morphology and
structure) of spirochete.
(3) Master the pathways of leptospira infection .
(4) Master the pathways of treponema pallidum infection .
(5) Master the type of diseases of treponema pallidum infection.
(6) Master the microscopic agglutination test.
(7)Know well the sort of spirochete .
(8) Understand culture characteristics of spirochete.
(9)Understand the type of diseases of leptospira infection.
(10)Understand laboratory diagnosis of treponema pallidum and
leptospira.
Emphasis: ①the concept of spirochete .② the pathogenesis of
infection of treponema pallidum and leptospira . ③the sort of
spirochete .
Difficulty: the pathogenesis of spirochete infection .
Contents:
1.The concept of spirochete.
2. the sort of spirochete .
3.The biological characteristics of spirochete .
4.The pathogenesis and diseases in treponema pallidum and
leptospira infection.

PART II Mycology
The fungi are eukaryotic organisms growing as a mass of
branching,interlacing filaments known as mycelium. Among the
many thousands of fungi known, only about 100 can cause
diseases in humans and animals.
Chapter 21 General introduction of Fungi 3 hours
(1). Master morphology of fungi(unicellular fungi, multicellular
fungi), master types of hypha and spore.
(2). Master general features of culturing fungi
(3). Know well fungi definition
(4). Know well reproductive strategy and spore formation
(5). Know well direct examination method
(6). Understand classification of fungi
Emphasis: morphology of fungi, types of hypha and spore.
general features of culturing fungi, classification of fungi,
examination method.
Difficulty: the reproductive strategy and spore formation
Content: fungi definition, morphology of fungi, types of hypha
and spore, general features of culturing fungi, classification of
fungi, examination method.
Chapter 22 Pathogenic Fungus 3 hours
(1). Master biological characteristics of Candida albicans,
Cryptococcus neoformans.
(2). Master Candida albicans: tissue phase and histopathology,
direct microscopic examination
(3). Master direct microscopic examination of Cryptococcus
neoformans.
(4). Know well pityriasis versicolor
(5). Know well dermatophytoses
(6). Understand the types superficial mycoses.
(7). Understand the diseases caused by opportunistic fungus
diseases.
Emphasis: biological characteristics of Candida albicans,
Cryptococcus neoformans, tissue phase, histopathology of
Candida albicans, direct microscopic examination of Candida
albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans.
Difficulty: tissue phase, histopathology of Candida albicans
Content: definition of opportunistic fungus, biological
characteristics of Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans,
histopathology and direct microscopic examination of
opportunistic fungus.
PART III Virology
Virology is the bioscience for study of viral nature, and the
relationship between viruses and hosts. Viruses often cause
serious diseases, relate to some cancers and congenital
deformities, also can be used as tool for genetic engineering.
Chapter 23 The Basic Features Of Virus 6 hours
(1). Master size and shape of virus
(2). Master the chemical composition and function of viruses
(3). Master the following concepts: Virion , Defective virus
(4). Master the major feature of the replication cycle of viruses
(5). Know well Reaction to Physical and Chemical Agent
(6). Understand Interference Phenomenon
(7). Understand the following concepts: Recombination,
Reassortment
(8). Understand Basis of Classification
Emphasis: size, shape, structure of virus, replication cycle of
virusrs.
Difficulty: Structure of virus, replication cycle of virusrs
Contents: Concept of virion, virus size and shape, virus
structure and associated functions(gene structure, Capsid,
Envelope). Replicative cycle. Interference Phenomenon
Reaction to physical and chemical agent. Basis of classification
Chapter 24 Viral Infection and Immunity 6 hours
(1). Master the pathways of viral infections and the viruses
which can result in vertical infection.
(2). Master the types of viral infection. Master the types of
persistent infections and their mechanisms.
(3). Master the following concepts :
a. vertical transmission b. persistent infections. c.viraemia d.
Interferon (IFN) e. neutralizing antibody f. CPE
(4). Master the pathogenesis of viral infection.
(5). Know well the types of IFN and the mechanisms of IFN.
(6). Understand the classification of IFN and the production of
IFN.
(7). Understand the specific immunity
Emphasis: types of viral infection, the pathogenesis of viral
infection, definition of CPE, IFN.
Difficulty: the types of persistent infections and their
mechanisms, the mechanisms of IFN.
Contents
1. The pathways of viral infections
2. The type of viral infection and their mechanisms.
3. Pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis of viral infection.
Chapter 25 Diagnosis of viral infection & Antiviral infection
3 hours
(1). Master the methods of viruses culture. Master the types of
cell culture.
(2). Know well the principles of collecting specimens
(3). Know well the methods of detection viral antigen, antibody,
and nucleic acids
(4). Understand the characteristics of antiviral agents.
(5). Understand the vaccines of viruses
Emphasis: the methods of viruses culture, the types of cell
culture, the types of vaccines.
Difficulty: the methods of viruses culture
Contents:
(1). Identification in cell culture (CPE, inclusion body).
(2). Serologic procedures.
(3). Detection of viral nucleic acid.
(4). The characteristics of antiviral agents
(5). Inactivated vaccines,
(6). Attenuated virus vaccines:
(7). Purified component vaccines
(8.). Naked DNA vaccines
(9.). Problems in vaccine development
Chapter 26 Respiratory virus 6 hours
(1). Master the property of Influenza viruses genome
(2). Master the two types of antigenic changes of Influenza
viruses: antigenic shift and antigenic drift
(3). Master the transmission of respiratory virus
(4). Master the pathogens of common cold.
(5). Know well the structure of influenza viruses
(6). Know well the pathogenesis of influenza viruses, Measles
virus, Mumps virus, Rubella virus.
(7). Know well the important properties of adenoviruses, the
main diseases of adenoviruses
(8). Understand the types of respiratory virus
Emphasis: the property of Influenza viruses genome, the two
types of antigenic changes of Influenza, the transmission of
respiratory virus,
Difficulty: the property of Influenza viruses genome.
Contents:
(1). Classification and associated diseases of respiratory viruses
(2). Influenza viruses: important properties, transmission &
epidemiology, pathogenesis, control.
Chapter 27 Picornaviruses, Chapter 28 Reoviridae 6 hours
(1). Master the common properties of Picornaviruses
(2). Master the common properties of Rotaviruses
(3). Master the transmission of Picornaviruses virus and
Rotaviruses
(4): Master the Classification and associated diseases of
Poliovirus virus, Coxsackie viruses, Echoviruses and
Rotaviruses.
(5). Master the pathogenesis of poliovirus, Rotaviruses
(6). Know well poliovirus vaccines
(7). Know well the treatment of Rotaviruses
Emphasis: the transmission of Picornaviruses virus and
Rotaviruses, the pathogenesis of poliovirus, Rotaviruses
Difficulty: the pathogenesis of poliovirus, Rotaviruses
Contents:
(1). The common properties of Picornaviruses
(2). Classification and associated diseases of Picornaviruses
(3). The pathogenesis of poliovirus, the diseases caused by
poliovirus, Coxsackie viruses, Echoviruses.
(4). The common properties of Rotaviruses
(5). The pathogenesis and the treatment of Rotaviruses
Chapter 29 Hepatitis Viruses 6 hours
(1). Master the source of infection, transmission of HAV, HBV,
HCV, HDV, HEV.
(2). Master the pathogenesis of HAV, HBV.
(3). Master Dane particles structure. Master the structure and
function of HBV gene and its replication properties.
(4). Master HBV antigens and antibodies, their clinical meaning.
(5). Know well Co-infection, Super-infection of HDV.
(6). Know well the stability of Hepatitis Viruses (HAV, HBV,
HCV, HDV, HEV).
(7). Understand the classification of Hepatitis Viruses
(8). Understand the pathogenesis of HCV, HDV, HEV.
(9). nderstand the clinical symptoms of hepatitis.
Emphasis: Transmission of Hepatitis Viruses. Dane particles
structure. The structure and function of HBV gene and its
replication properties. HBV antigens and antibodies, their
clinical meaning. The pathogenesis of HAV, HBV.
Difficulty: The structure and function of HBV gene and its
replication properties. HBV antigens and antibodies, their
clinical meaning. Co-infection, Super-infection of HDV.
Contents:
Classification of Hepatitis viruses.
HAV: important properties, transmission, pathogenesis, control
HBV: important properties, transmission, pathogenesis, control.
HCV, HDV, HEV: viruses structure, diseases.
Chapter 30, 31 Arboviruse & Hemorrhagic virus 6 hours
(1). Master natural transmission cycles(long-term reservoir,
reservoir host) of Arboviruse.
(2). Master the vector and long-term reservoir, source of
infection and reservoir host of epidemic B encephalitis virus.
(3). Master common characteristics of Hantaviruses.
(4). Master animal reservoir and transmission of Hantaviruses.
(5). Know well pathogenesis of Dengue fever and Dengue
Hemorrhagic Fever.
(6). Know well pathogenesis of Hantaviruses.
(7). Understand classification of Arboviruse & Hemorrhagic
virus
(8). Understand common characteristics of Togavirus and
Flavivirus
Emphasis: the vector and long-term reservoir, source of
infection and reservoir host of epidemic B encephalitis virus.
animal reservoir and transmission of Hantaviruses.
Difficulty: the pathogenesis of Dengue fever and Dengue
Hemorrhagic Fever
Contents: Classification of Arboviruse & Hemorrhagic virus,
the natural transmission cycles of Arboviruse, common
characteristics of Togavirus, Flavivirus, Hantaviruses. Diseases
caused by Togavirus, Flavivirus, Hantaviruses.
Chapter 32 Herpesviruses 3 hours
(1). Master classification of Herpesviruses.
(2). Master infection types of Herpesviruses
(3). Master structure properties of Herpesviruses.
(4). Master transcription properties of Herpesviruses.
(5). Master HSV-1, HSV-2 primary Infection, latent infection
and virus reactivation. Master HSV-1, HSV-2 latent sites.
(6). Master diseases caused by HSV-1, HSV-2.
(7). Master diseases caused by Varicella virus, EBV, CMV.
(8). Know well the pathogenesis of Herpesviruses
(9). Understand gene structure of Herpesviruses.
Emphasis: infection types of Herpesviruses, HSV-1, HSV-2
primary Infection, latent infection and virus reactivation.
diseases caused by Herpesviruses
Difficulty: transcription properties of Herpesviruses. gene
structure of Herpesviruses.
Contents:
Classification of Herpesviruses. Common properties of
Herpesviruses. HSV infection, Varicella virus infection, diseases
caused by EBV, CMV.
Chapter 33 Retroviruses 3 hours
(1). Master the structure of HIV.
(2). Master the functions of gp120
(3). Master the transmission of HIV
(4). Master the cells that are infected by HIV.
(5). Know well HIV gene structure.
(6). Know well the pathogenesis of HIV
(7). Know well the replication cycle of HIV.
(8). Understand classification of Retroviruses
(9). Understand the problems involved in the production of an
anti-HIV vaccine.
Emphasis: The functions of gp120, The transmission of HIV.
Difficulty: HIV gene structure , the replication cycle of HIV,
Contents: Classification of Retroviruses, the structure of HIV,
HIV replication cycle, the pathogenesis of HIV, HIV vaccine
Chapter 34 Other virus 1.5 hour
(1). Master the transmission of Rabies virus. Master 4 typical
clinical phases of rabies.
(2). Master the laboratory diagnosis.
(3). Master prevention and treatment of Rabies virus.
(4). Master HPV transmission, diseases caused by HPV
(5). Know well replication cycle of Rabies virus.
(6). Know well Pathogenesis of Rabies virus.
(7). Know well biological properties(shape, viral structure, gene
structure).
(8). Understand structure of rhabdoviruses.
Emphasis: the transmission of Rabies virus, the laboratory
diagnosis, prevention and treatment of Rabies virus.
Difficulty: replication cycle of Rabies virus.
Content: the structure, shape of rhabdoviruses, kinds of
proteins, replication cycle of Rabies virus, source of infection,
transmission, 4 typical clinical phases of rabies, the laboratory
diagnosis, prevention and treatment of Rabies virus. Biological
properties and pathogenicity of HPV.
Chapter 35 Prion 1.5 hour
(1). Master the definition of prion. Master the function of PrPC,
the difference between PrPC and PrPSC.
(2). Master the Prusiner’ theory.
(3). Master the characteristics of prion disease.
(4). Know well the diseases caused by prion.
(5). Know well the immune response
(6). Understand diagnosis treatment.

Medical Microbiology Experiment


Experiment 1
1. Emphasis:
(1) Master the use of oil-immersion lens of microscope.
(2) Know well the bacterial shape and special structure .
2. Contents of practice
(1) Use oil-immersion lens of microscope
(2) Morphological Observation of Bacterial Cells
(3) Observation of basic Structure of Bacteria
(4) Observation of Special Structure of Bacteria
(5) Homework

Experiment 2
1. Emphasis:
(1) Master the approach of gram stain
(2) Understand the principle and the use of gram stain
(3) Understand the cultivation techniques of bacteria
2. Contents of practice
(1) Common culture media
(2) Growth observation of bacteria
(3) Gram Stain
(4) Homework

Experiment 3
1. Emphasis:
(1) Master the paper disk method of disinfectants sensitive test
(2) Master the distribution of bacteria
2. Contents of practice
(1) Distribution of microorganisms
1) Examination of microbe in the air of laboratory
2) Examination of microbe in the finger
3) Examination of microbe in the tartar of oral cavity
(2) Effect of disinfectants on bacteria
(3) Homework
Experiment 4
1. Emphasis
(1) Master the process of coagulase test.
(2) Mater the process of Antistreptolysin O test
(3) Know well the process of identification of pus.
(4) Know well the morphology of pathogenic cocci.
2. Contents of practice
(1) Morphology observation of pathogenic cocci.
(2) Growth phenomenon observation: pigmentation and
hemolysis
(3) Coagulase test
(4) Antistreptolysin O test
(5) Homework

Experiment 5
1. Emphasis
(1) Master the the process of Widal test
(2) Know well the process of identification of Enteric
microorganisms
2. Contents of practice
(1) Observation of the cultural characteristis of Enteric
bacteria on selective media
(2) Growth on Double sugar-ion agar
(3) Five sugar fermentation
(4) Identification culture medium of enteric rods
(5) Widal Test
(6) Homework
Experiment 6
1. Emphasis
(1) Master the process of acid-fast stain.
(2) Know well anaerobic culture and Morphology of anaerobic
bacteria.
2. Contents of practice
(1) Introduction of anaerobic culture and morphology of
anaerobic bacteria
(2) Acid-fast stain
(3) Homework

Experiment 7
1. Requirement
(1). Master the method of series double dilution.
(2). Master the mechanisms of Haemagglutination Test. Master
the results analysis
(3). Master the Haemagglutination inhibition Test. Master the
results analysis.
(4). Know well the morphologic characteristic of Negri bodies
2. Content
(1). Haemagglutination Test
(2). Haemagglutination inhibition Test
(3). Slides: Negri bodies
3. Experiment report
Write down two tests results and analyze the results.
Experiment 8
1. Requirement
(1). Master the process of direct examination method of fungi
(2). Be familiar with the morphology of mycoplasma(colony),
chlamydia, spirochetes and fungi(types of hypha, spore)
2. Content
(1). Direct examination of fungi
(2). Morphology of mycoplasma, chlamydia, spirochetes and
fungi
3. Experiment report