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The outline of

preventative medicine

School of International Exchange Weifang

Medical University
The outline of preventative medicine
Curriculum name: preventative medicine
Category of course: Required subject
Target of teaching: students studying abroad from Nepal
Total period: 160
Division of teaching: the department of sanitary science and department of labour hygiene
Writer:
DT: 2005. 1.6

The Preface
The preventive medicine is one of the most important parts in the whole medical
education. Following the reformation of the medical model, the healthy concept had
shift from the clinic treatment to preventing disease. So the connection between the
preventive medicine and the clinic medicine was more close-up. Through learning the
effect of the environment to the health, such as physical environment, social
environment and the psychological factor, the students would receive that the
prevention is first, and realized that the implication of modern medicine was health
promotion, preventing disease, rational therapy and community rehabilitation.

Part one: the Environmental Hygiene.


Total period: 108 Theory: 27 Practice: 12 Self-study: 69
Chapter Content Total period Theory Practice Self-study
Chapter one introduction 2 2 4
Chapter two environment and healthy 2 3 9
Chapter three Atmosphere hygiene 22 8 6 20
Chapter four Waters hygiene 24 6 4 16
Chapter five Drinking water hygiene 20 6 2 14
Chapter six soil hygiene 6 2 6
total 108 27 12 69

Chapter one: introduce


[Objective]
1、to master the definition and the studied object of the Environmental Hygiene.

2 、 to comprehend the history of the Environmental Hygiene and the mainly


achievement of WHO about the Environmental Hygiene.
3 、 to know the primary content and the mainly mission of Environmental
Hygiene.
[Content of teaching] [Period] 2
1、the definition, the studied object and the primary content of the Environmental
Hygiene.
2 、 the history of the Environmental Hygiene and the mainly achievement of
WHO about the Environmental Hygiene.
[Content of self-study] [Period] 4
the mainly occupation and the predominant mission in future of Environmental
Hygiene.
[The special phrase] environmental health, environmental pollutant, Primary
environment, secondary environment, primary pollutant,
Secondary pollutant, biodiversity

Chapter two: environment and healthy


[Objective]
1 、 to master the basic construction of the mankind environment and some the
definitions, such as biosphere, ecosystem, ecological equilibrium and food chain
2、to comprehend the relation of ecological environment and the healthy.

3、to comprehend the impact of environment to mankind.

4、to know the relation of the microelement and the healthy.

5、to master the basic health effect rule of the environmental pollution.

6、to master the studying method of environment and healthy.

7 、 to know the basic composition and the application of the healthy risk
evaluation .
[Content of teaching] [Period] 3

1 、 the basic construction of the mankind environment and the some definitions,
such as biosphere, ecosystem, ecological equilibrium and food chain;
2、the relation of the environment and mankind.

3、the healthy effect of environmental pollution including the acute-chronic injury


of environmental pollution to the mankind.
[Content of self-study] [Period] 9
1、the microelement and the healthy.

2、the basic construction and the application of the healthy risk evaluation.

3 、 the study-methods of the environment and the healthy including the


environmental epidemiologic study-methods and the environmental toxicology study-
methods.
[The special phrase] biosphere, ecosystem, ecological equilibrium, food chain,
Greenhouse effect, dose-effect relationship, Dose-response
relationship, gene polymorphisms, susceptive persons,
Environmental carcinogen, environmental teratogen, Endocrine
disrupting chemicals

Chapter three: Atmosphere hygiene


[Objective]
1 、 to know the definition of and the vertical construction of the atmospheric
sphere, to master the physics character and the hygienic significance of the
atmosphere.
2、to master the resource of atmospheric pollution and the common air pollutant.

3 、 to master the influencing factor of air pollutant and the definition of primary
pollutant and the secondary pollutant.
4、to master the direct-indirect hazard of atmospheric pollution to health.

5 、 to master the effect of the mainly atmospheric pollutants, such as IP, SO2,
NOX, photochemical smog, CO, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and dioxins.
6、to master the concept and the variety of the air sanitary standard, to know the
principle and the method to formulate the air sanitary standard.
7 、 to master the method of the investigation and monitoring about the health
effect of air pollution.
8、to comprehend the health protective measure of air pollution.

9、to comprehend the sanitary survey and the monitoring of air pollution.
10、to master the method of the atmosphere and room air sampling, to master the
detection of the meteorological factor.
11、to master the detecting principle of SO2 and the particulate matter.

12、to master the method of detecting formaldehyde in air.


[Content of teaching] [Period] 8
1、the atmosphere character and its hygienic significance, including the concept of
atmosphere sphere, the vertical construction of the atmosphere, the atmosphere physics
character and the hygienic significance of the atmosphere.
2 、 the air pollution and the turnover of the atmospheric pollutant, including the
resource of air pollution and the common air pollutant, the influencing factor of
atmospheric pollutant, and the definition of primary pollutant and the secondary
pollutant.
3、the direct-indirect hazard of atmospheric pollution to health.

4 、 the effect of the mainly pollutant in atmosphere, such as IP, SO2, NOX,
photochemical smog, CO, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and dioxins.
[Content of practice] [Period] 6
1、the method of the room ail or atmosphere sampling.

2、the detection of the meteorological factor.

3、the detection of the particulate matter


[Content of self-study] [Period] 20
1 、 the concept and the category of the air sanitary standard, the principle and the
method to formulate the air sanitary standard.
2、the investigation and monitoring about the health effect of air pollution.

3、the method of the room ail or atmosphere sampling.

4、the detection of the meteorological factor.

5、the detection of SO2.

6、the detection of formaldehyde in air


[The special phrase] atmospheric sphere, temperature inversion, ultraviolet, infrared, air
ions, air pollution, total suspended particulates(TSP), inhalable
particulates(IP), heat island effect, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease(COPD), Greenhouse effect, sulfer dioxide, nitrogen
oxides, Photochemical smog, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon,
dioxins, Environmental hormone,

Chapter four: Waters hygiene


[Objective]
1、to comprehend the sort and the hygienic significance of the water resources.

2、to comprehend the character and the evaluating indicator of water quality.

3、to master the resource of the water pollution and the common water pollutant.

4、to master the self-purification and the turnover of water pollution.

5 、 to master the water key pollutant and those hazards to health, such as the
mercury, methyl mercury, alcohol phenyl and polychlorinated biphenyl.
6 、 to master the formulated principle and the investigative method of the surface
water quality sanitary standard.

7、to comprehend the water health protective measure.

8、to master the sanitary survey and the monitoring of water pollution.

9、to master the method of water sampling, preservation and pretreatment.

10、to master the detection principle and the method of “three-nitrogen” in water.

11、to master the detection principle and the method of “three-oxygen” in water.
[Content of teaching] [Period] 6
1、the sort and the hygienic character of the water resources.

2 、 the character and the evaluating indicator of water quality, including the
physical character indicator, the chemical character indicator and the biological
character indicator.
3、the resource of the water pollution and the common water pollutant.

4、the character of the water pollution, the overview of the world water pollution,
the self-purification and the turnover of water pollution.
5 、 the hazards of water pollution including biological pollution, chemical
pollution and physical pollution.
[Content of practice] [Period] 4
1、the method of water sampling, preservation and pretreatment.

2 、 the detection principle and the method of “three-nitrogen” in water including


the ammonia nitrogen, the nitrite and the nitrate
[Content of self-study] [Period] 16
1、the water health protective measure

2、the surface water quality standards and the sewage discharge standard.

3、the sanitary survey and the monitoring to water pollution.

4 、 the detection principle and the method of “three-oxygen” in water including


the dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand.
[The special phase] precipitation, surface water, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen
demand, biochemical oxygen demand, eutraphication, self-
purification, bioenvironment, polychlorinated biphenyls

Chapter five: drinking water hygiene


[Objective]
1、to master the hygiene significance of drinking water.

2、to master the occurred reason and the epidemiologic feature of the water-borne
infection, to master correlated content of the common endemic, including etiological
factor, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, epidemiologic feature and preventive
measure, to master the health effect of the drinking water chemical pollution, to
comprehend the relation between by-product of chlorination in drinking water and
health.
3 、 to comprehend the formulated principle and the method of the drinking water
standard.

4、to comprehend two kinds of the water supply mode and the selection principle
of water source.
5 、 to master the purification and the degerm of water qulity, including those
objective, principle, method, influencing factor and the relative merits of those
degerm measures, to know the special treatment of water quality and the sanitary
requirement to the water distribution network.
6、to comprehend the sanitary requirement to the scatter water supply.

7 、 to comprehend the sanitary survey and the health supervision to drinking


water.
8、to master the detection method of total hardness and chloride in water.

9、to master the detection method of the active chlorine in bleaching powder, the
residual chlorine in water and the chlorine demand.
[Content of teaching] [Period] 6
1、the hygiene significance of drinking water.

2 、 the drinking water pollution and the correlation disease, including the health
effect of water-borne infection, biogeochemical disease and chemical pollution.
[Content of practice] [Period] 2
1、the detection of total hardness and the chloride in water.

2 、 the detection of the active chlorine levels in bleaching powder, the chlorine
residual and the chlorine demand in water.
[Content of self-study] [Period] 14
1 、 the health problem of by-product of chlorination in drinking water and the
twice water supply
2、the drinking water standards and the water duty standards.

3 、 collecting water supply system, including the hygiene requirement of water


source, water conditioning and water distribution network.
4、separate water supply.

5、hygienic standard of surface water quality and sewage discharge standard.

6、the sanitary survey and the health supervision to drinking water.


[The special phase] biogeochemical disease, domestic water consumption, endemic
arseniasis, endemic cretinism, endemic fluorosis, endemic goiter,
hygienic standard of drinking water quality, chlorination, by-
product of chlorination
Chapter five: soil hygiene
[Objective]
1、to comprehend the character and the hygiene significant of soil.

2、to master the source, the way and the autopurificantion of soil pollution

3 、 to comprehend the health influence of soil pollution, including the chromium


pollution, itai-itai disease, pesticide pollution and biological pollution.
4 、 to comprehend the formulated principle and the studying method of the soil
hygienic standard.
5、to comprehend the disposal and the multiple utilization of the waste.
[Content of teaching] [Period]  2
1、the character and the hygiene significant of soil.

2、soil pollution and soil autopurificantion.

3、the health influence of soil pollution, including the heavy metal, pesticide and
biological pollution.
[Content of self-study] [Period] 6
1、soil quality criteria and the waste discharge standard.

2 、 the soil health protection and health supervision, including soil harmless
disposal and utilize, the soil health supervision and monitoring.
[The special phase] enviromental capacity of soil, humus, hygienic standard of soil,
itai-itai disease

Part two: the Occupational Hygiene.


Total period: 108 Theory: 27 Practice: 12 Study by oneself:69
Chapter Content Total period Theory practice Self-study
Chapter 1 introduction 16 4 0 12
Chapter 2 Occupational toxicant and 40 11 6 23
occupational poisoning
Chapter 3 pesticide poisoning 13 3 0 10
Chapter 4 The pneumoconioses 22 4 6 12
Chapter 5 Physical agents 17 5 0 12
total 108 27 12 69

Chapter 1 introduction [Period]  16

The teacher of theory [Period]  4

(1)master the concept, research objects, objectives and tasks of occupational health

and occupational medicine.

( 2 ) master the concepts of occupational disease, work-related disease and

occupational injury.

(3)master the characteristics and diagnosis principles of occupational disease.

( 4 ) master the meanings of primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary

prevention in occupational hygiene aspects.

(5)know well the categories of occupational hazards.

(6)know well the prevention and controlling measures of occupational harms.

( 7 ) understand the history and development tendency of occupational health and

occupational medicine.
Emphasis: the concept, characteristics and diagnosis principles of occupational
disease.
Difficulty: the meanings of primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary
prevention in occupational hygiene aspects.
Contents:
( 1 ) In detail narrate the concept , research objects , objectives and tasks of

occupational health and occupational medicine.

( 2 ) narrate the history and development tendency of occupational health and

occupational medicine.

(3)narrate occupational hazards.

(4)In detail narrate occupational harms.

(5)narrate the prevention and controlling measures of occupational harms.

Study by oneself [Period]  12

Contents:

(1)understand the categories of occupational disease.

(2)understand the conventional projects of occupational health surveillance.

( 3 ) understand the conventional methods of the occupational physical

examinations.
Chapter 2 Occupational toxicant and occupational poisoning [Period]  40

The teacher of theory [Period]  11

(1)master the clinical manifestations of chronic lead poisoning, mercury poisoning,

benzene poisoning, aniline poisoning, trinitrotoluene poisoning, irritative gases


poisoning and asphyxiating gases poisoning.

( 2 ) know well the toxicologies, diagnoses ,treatment and preventive measures of


chronic lead poisoning, mercury poisoning, benzene poisoning, aniline poisoning,
trinitrotoluene poisoning, irritative gases poisoning and asphyxiating gases poisoning.

( 3 ) understand the physics and chemistry characteristics and occupational

exposures of lead, mercury, benzene, aniline , trinitrotoluene, irritative gases and


asphyxiating gases.

Emphasis: the clinical manifestations of chronic lead poisoning, mercury poisoning,


benzene poisoning, aniline poisoning, trinitrotoluene poisoning, irritative gases
poisoning and asphyxiating gases poisoning..

Difficulty: the toxicologies of chronic lead poisoning, mercury poisoning, benzene


poisoning, aniline poisoning, trinitrotoluene poisoning, irritative gases poisoning and
asphyxiating gases poisoning.

Contents:

(1)narrate the summarize of occupational toxicant and occupational poisoning.

(2)In detail narrate lead poisoning.

(3)In detail narrate mercury poisoning.

(4)In detail narrate benzene poisoning.

(5)In detail narrate aniline poisoning and trinitrotoluene poisoning.

(6)narrate irritative gases poisoning and asphyxiating gases poisoning.

The teaching of practice [Period]  6

1.Emphasis
(1)master the diagnosis and treatment principles of occupational disease.

(2)master the analysis methods to the cases of occupational poisoning.

( 3 ) know well the investigation and appraisement methods to the hazards of

occupational disease in working sites.


2.Contents of practice

(1)the case discussion about chronic lead poisoning.

(2)the case discussion about chronic benzene poisoning.

(3)the case discussion about acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning.

Study by oneself [Period]  23

Contents:

( 1 ) understand the clinical manifestations of chronic manganese poisoning,

cadmium poisoning, arsenic poisoning, chromium poisoning , toluene poisoning,

xylene poisoning and toluene diisocyanate poisoning.

( 2 ) understand the toxicologies, diagnoses ,treatment and preventive measures of

chronic manganese poisoning, cadmium poisoning, arsenic poisoning, chromium

poisoning,toluene poisoning, xylene poisoning and toluene diisocyanate poisoning.

( 3 ) understand the physics and chemistry characteristics and occupational

exposures of manganese, cadmium, arsenic, chromium , toluene, xylene and


toluene diisocyanate.

Chapter 3 pesticide poisoning [Period]  13

The teacher of theory [Period]  3

( 1 ) master the toxicology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and

preventive measures of organophosphorous pesticides poisoning.

(2)know well the physics and chemistry characteristics, absorption and metabolism

of pesticides.

(3)understand the categories of pesticides.

Emphasis: the toxicology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and


preventive measures of organophosphorous pesticides poisoning.
Difficulty: the toxicology of organophosphorous pesticides poisoning.

Contents:

(1)narrate the summarize of pesticide.

(2)In detail narrate organophosphorous pesticides poisoning.

Study by oneself [Period]  10

Contents:

( 1 ) understand the toxicologies, clinical manifestations, diagnoses, treatment and

preventive measures of pyrethroids poisoning and carbamates poisoning.

( 2 ) understand the distinction diagnoses of organophosphorous pesticides

poisoning, pyrethroids poisoning and carbamates poisoning.


Chapter 4 The pneumoconioses [Period]  22
The teacher of theory [Period]  4

( 1 ) master the concept, pathologic changes, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and

preventive measures of silicosis.

( 2 ) know well the occupational exposures, pathogenesis and treatment measures of

silicosis.

(3)understand the sources, categories, physics and chemistry characteristics, harms

and controlling harm measures of productive dusts.


Emphasis: the concept, pathologic changes, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and
preventive measures of silicosis.
Difficulty: the diagnosis of silicosis.

Contents:

(1)narrate the summarize of productive dusts.

(2)In detail narrate silicosis.

The teaching of practice [Period]  6

1.Emphasis

(1)master the mensurations of dust concentration and shattered degree.

(1)know well the generic methods and principles of the air sampling.

(2)know well the dust sampling

2. Contents of practice

Visit and sampling to the factory.


1.Emphasis

(1)master the radiographic characteristics of the pneumoconiosis.

(2)know well the methods of reading chest X-rays .

(3)understand the attention matters of reading chest X-rays.

2. Contents of practice

Read chest X-rays together.

Study by oneself [Period]  12

Contents:

( 1 ) understand the concept, occupational exposures, pathogenesis, pathologic

changes, clinical manifestations, diagnosis ,treatment and preventive measures of


asbestosis.

( 2 ) understand the concepts, occupational exposures, clinical manifestations,

treatment and preventive measures of byssinosis and occupational acute allergic


alveolitis.

Chapter 5 Physical agents [Period]  17

The teacher of theory [Period]  5

( 1 ) master the concept ,categories, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis,

treatment and preventive measures of acute heat illness.

( 2 ) master the occupational exposures, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations,

diagnoses, treatment and preventive measures of occupational deafness , vibration


disease .
(3)know well the effects of work in hot environment , noise and vibration to body.

(4)understand the related concepts about noise and vibration.

Emphasis: the concept ,categories, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis,


treatment and preventive measures of acute heat illness. the occupational exposures,
pathogenesis, clinical manifestations diagnoses, treatment and preventive measures
of occupational deafness and vibration disease.
Difficulty: the effects of work in hot environment , noise and vibration to body.

Contents:

(1)In detail narrate the work in hot environment and acute heat illness.

(2)In detail narrate noise.

(3)narrate vibration.

Study by oneself [Period]  12

Contents:

(1)Video:acute heat illness,occupational deafness and vibration disease.

(2)understand the occupational exposures, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations,


diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures of radiation sickness.

(3)understand the related concepts about radiofrequency radiation and ionizing


radiation.

Part three: the format of examination.


1. written examination(80%)
2. technical skill test(20%)

Part four: the teaching material and the reference book.


Teaching material:
1. Morgan MT. Environmental Health[M]. Dubuque William C.Brown Company
Publishers, 1993.
2. Rom WN. Environmental & Occupational Medicine (the third edition) [M].
Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 1998.

The main reference book:


1. Jin tai-yi ( chief editor ) . Occupational health and occupational medicine ( fifth

edition). people’s medical publishing house,2003

2. Zhong lai-fu ( chief editor ) . Hygiene ( sixth edition ) . People’s medical


publishing house,2004
3. Harber P, Schenker MB, Balmes J. Occupational & Environmental Respiratory
Disease.Mosby.St.Louis,1996
4. LaDou J. Occupational & Environmental Medicine(second edition).Appletion &
Lange,Stanford,Connecticut,1997