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VLSI

Part-A (10*2=20) 1. What are the advantages of BiCMOS technology? 2. What is meant by hot electrons effect? 3. Draw the stick diagram of an NMOS inverter. 4. What are the problems encountered in driving large capacitive loads? 5. Compare the number of MOS transistors required by the conventional CMOS and dynamic CMOS approaches for implementing a gate of M pulse. 6. Distinguish absolute clock skew and relative clock skew. 7. What factors determine the overall size of a PLA? 8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of PLDs? 9. Write the VHDL entity for an RS flip-flop. 10. Distinguish the EXIT and NEXT statements of VHDL. Part-B (5*16=80 11.(a)(i) Explain the different steps of n-well CMOS fabrication process with neat diagrams.(10) (ii) Compare the construction, operation and characteristics of NMOS enhancement and depletion transistors.(6) Or (b)(i) Consider an NMOS transistor with the following parameters: gate oxide thickness=10nm, relative permittivity of gate oxide =3.9, electron mobility = 520cm2/V-sec, threshold voltage=0.7V, permittivity of free space=8.85*10power-14 F/cm and (W/L)=8. Calculate the drain current for the two cases of (Vgs=2V and Vds=2V) and (Vgs=2V and Vds=1.2V). . Note that W and L refer to the width and length of the channel respectively.(10) (ii) Explain the significance of threshold voltage of MOS transistors with necessary equations.(6) 12.(a) (i) Derive the pull up to pull down ratio required for an NMOs inverter driven by another NMOS inverter.(8) (ii) Draw and explain the lambda based rules for NMOS transistor region and contact cuts.(8) Or (b)Draw and explain the operation of (i)Inverting and noninverting NMOS super buffers.(10) (ii)BiCMOS two input NOR gate(6)

13.(a)(i) Describe the operation of dynamic CMOS, precharged-high, two input NOR and NAND gates with neat diagrams.(8) (ii) Explain the different CMOS implementation of 4 to 1 multiplexer.(8) Or (b)(i) Draw a 4*4 band shifter based on NMOS transistors and explain its operation and applications.(8) (ii) Draw and explain the different exclusive-OR structures with neat circuit and stick diagrams.(8) 14.(a)(i) Explain the NMOS NAND-NAND PLA realization with a neat stick diagram(8) (ii) Write a brief note on PLA based finite state machine.(8) Or (b)(i) Draw and explain the clocked FPLA structure and compare it with PROM.(8) (ii) Explain the different types of programmable interconnects used in FPGA.(8) 15.(a)(i) Write the VHDL entity and behavioral description of a 1 to 4 demultiplexer(8) (ii) Explain the concurrent and sequential assignments in VHDL with suitable diagrams (8) Or (b)(i) Write a VHDL function to convert an integer into a binary number(8) (ii) Explain a simple test bench for a bit comparator with necessary VHDL code(8)

EE338 - PROTECTION AND SWITCHGEAR Time: 3hrs Max. Marks: 100 Answer all Questions PART A (10 x 2 = 20 Marks) 1. Differentiate between a fuse and a protective relay. 2. Define the following terms as related to protective relaying: (a) pick-up current, (b) reset value and (c) reset ratio. 3. What are the different types of faults and abnormal conditions expected in an alternator? 4. What are the requirements of line protection? 5. Define (a) arc voltage, (b) restriking voltage, (c) recovery voltage and (d) breaking capacity of a circuit breaker. 6. What is the importance of arc resistance? On which factor does it depend? 7. A three-phase oil circuit breaker is rated at 1500 A, 1000MVA and 33kV Find (a) rated symmetrical breaking current, (b) making capacity. 8. Suggest a suitable choice of circuit breakers for the following voltage ranges: (a) 3.3kV to 33kV, (b) 400kV to 760kV. 9. What is Peterson coil? What protective functions are performed by this device? 10. Differentiate between a surge diverter and surge absorber. PART B (5 x 16 = 80 Marks) 11. With a neat sketch explain the Merz-Price circulating current scheme for protection of alternators. (16) 12.a) Explain the principle of a distance relay, stating clearly the difference between electromagnetic version of an impedance relay and a mho relay. Your answer should include typical schematics the characteristics of these relays in an R-X diagram. (OR) 12.b)i) Give the block diagram of a typical microprocessor based protective relay for motor protection. (8) ii) What are the typical protective functions that can be built into the relay? (8) 13.a) A star connected, 3 phase, 10 MVA, 6.6kV alternator has a per phase reactance of 10%. It is protected by a Merz-Price circulating current protection which is set to operate for fault currents not less than 175 A. Calculate the value of earthing resistance to be provided in order to ensure that only 10% of the alternator winding remains unprotected. (16)

(OR) 13.b)i) Explain current chopping phenomenon. (6) ii) Discuss the various methods of arc quenching in circuit breakers. (10) 14.a)i) Derive an expression for restriking voltage and rate of rise of restriking voltage (RRRV) in terms of system voltage, inductance up to the fault location and bushing to earth capacitance of the circuit breaker. (8) ii) For a 132KV system, the reactance up to the fault location and bushing capacitance are 3 ohms and 0.015F respectively. Calculate the maximum value of RRRV. (8) (OR) 14.b) In a 132kV systems, the reactance and capacitance up to the location of the circuit breaker is 5O and 0.02F respectively. A resistance of 500 O is connected across the contacts of the circuit breaker. Determine (i) natural frequency of oscillations (4) (ii) frequency of damped oscillations (4) (iii) critical value of resistance (4) (iv) the value of resistance which will give frequency of damped oscillations which is equal to 1/4th the natural frequency (4) 15.a)i) Describe the construction and the operation of metal oxide surge arrester?(10) ii) What are its advantages over conventional arrester and its drawbacks? (6) (OR) 15.b) Explain the following: (i) Earthing screen (8) (ii) Overhead ground wires (8)