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FREE SPACE OPTICS

INFORMATION TRANSMISSION BY LIGHT BEAMS THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE

@Presented by@

A. Varalakshmi PIN:08KG1A0402 Email: varalakshmi.402@gmail.com Nalanda Institute of Technology[N.I.T]

R.Hrudya PIN:08BQ1A0452Email: hrudya.sarika@gmail.com Vasireddy venkatadri institute of technology[V.V.I.T]

INDEX

Introduction FSO Networking And Architecture Comparison Of FSO With Other Technologies Applications Advantages Challenges Present Limitations In FSO And Future Directions Conclusion References INTRODUCTION

Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and a receiver. In fiber optic communication the

Voice and video communications simultaneously through the air enabling fiber-optic connectivity without requiring physical fiber-optic cable. It enables optical communications at the speed of light. This optical connectivity doesn't require expensive fiber-optic cable or securing spectrum licenses for radio frequency (RF) solutions. FSO technology requires light. The use of light is a simple concept similar to optical transmissions using fiber-optic cables; the only difference is the medium. Light travels through air faster than it does through glass, so it is fair to classify FSO technology as optical communications at the speed of light.

information is transmitted to the receiver from the transmitter by light beams through the

atmosphere. It is a technology that offers fullduplex Gigabit Ethernet throughput. This line-ofsight technology approach uses invisible beams of light to provide optical bandwidth connections. Its capable of sending up to 1.25 Gaps of data,

FSO NETWORKING AND ARCHITECTURE:

Transceivers can be located on a rooftop, on a corner of a building or indoors behind a window. Link lengths, or the distances between

wireless unit uses an optical source, plus a lens or telescope atmosphere that to transmits another light lens through receiving the the

transceivers, are determined for site-specific weather conditions and can vary from more than 600 feet up to about a mile in a clear, dry atmosphere.FSO networks are based on either 780-nm to 850-nm or 1,550-nm laser wavelength systems, which have very different power and distance characteristics. Lasers of much higher power can safely by used with 1,550-nm systems than with 780-to-850-nm systems. This is because wavelengths less than about 1,400 nm are focused by the cornea into a concentrated spot falling on the retina, which can cause damage.FSO

information. At this point, the receiving lens or telescope connects to a high-sensitivity receiver via optical fiber. This is not possible with any fixed wireless or RF technology. Optical wireless Also eliminates the need to buy expensive spectrum (it requires no FCC or municipal license approvals worldwide), which further distinguishes it from fixed wireless technologies. Moreover, FSO technologys narrow beam transmission is typically two meters versus 20 meters and more for traditional, even newer radio-based

technologies such as millimeter-wave radio. Optical wireless products' similarities with

technology is surprisingly simple. It's based on connectivity between FSO-based optical wireless units, each consisting of an optical transceiver with a transmitter and a receiver to provide fullduplex (bi-directional) capability. Each optical .

conventional wired optical solutions enable the seamless integration of access networks with optical core networks and help to realize the vision of an all-optical network

COMPARISON OF FSO WITH OTHER TECHNOLOGIES:

FSO is a line-of-sight technology that uses invisible beams of light to provide optical bandwidth connections that can send and receive voice, video, and data information. Today, FSO technology the foundation of Light Pointes optical wireless offerings has enabled the development of a new category of outdoor wireless products that can transmit voice, data, and video at bandwidths up to 1.25 Gbps. This optical connectivity doesn't require expensive fiber-optic cable or securing spectrum licenses for

radio frequency (RF) solutions. FSO technology requires light. The use of light is a simple concept similar to optical transmissions using fiber-optic cables; The Only Difference Is The Medium. Light travels through air faster than it does through glass, so it is fair to classify FSO technology as optical communications at the speed of light. While fiber-optic cable and FSO technology share many of the same attributes, they face different challenges due to the way they transmit

information. While fiber is subject to outside

disturbances

from

wayward

construction

which can affect FSO system performance capacity. And because FSO is a line-of-sight technology, the interconnecting points must be free from physical obstruction and able to "see" each other.

backhoes, gnawing rodents, and even sharks when deployed under sea, FSO technology is subject to its own potential outside disturbances. Optical wireless networks based on FSO technology must be designed to combat changes in the atmosphere,

APPLICATIONS: Free Space Optics (FSO) is an excellent supplement to conventional radio links and fiber optics. It is a broadband wireless solution for the Last Mile connectivity gap throughout FSO-systems have been developed within the past 5 years. Thereby the main effort was laid on using LEDs instead of laser diodes. One system is based on a modular concept using available standard components, used for distances of about 300 m at a specific power margin of 25dB/km.

metropolitan networks. At the Department of Communications and Wave Propagation several Some of its applications are:

LAN-to-LAN connections in a city. Example, Metropolitan area network.

Reestablish high-speed connection quickly (disaster recovery).

Speedy service delivery of high-bandwidth access to optical fiber networks.

As an alternative or upgrade add-on to existing wireless technologies.

Converged Voice-Data-Connection. Temporary network installation (for events or other purposes).

For communications between spacecraft, including elements of a satellite constellation.

For inter- and intra chip communication.

ADVANTAGES:

Each optical wireless unit uses an optical source, plus a lens or telescope that transmits light through the atmosphere to another lens receiving the information. At this point, the receiving lens

or telescope connects to a high-sensitivity receiver via optical fiber. This FSO technology approach has a number of advantages. They are:

o o

Requires no RF spectrum licensing. Is easily upgradeable, and its open

o o

Requires no security software upgrades. Is immune to radio frequency interference or saturation.

interfaces support equipment from a variety of vendors, which helps enterprises and service providers protect their investment in embedded many telecommunications
o

Can

be

deployed

behind

windows,

eliminating the need for costly rooftop rights

infrastructures.

CHALLENGES:

While fiber-optic cable and FSO technology share many of the same attributes, they face different

challenges

due to

the way they transmit

information. They are

Fog Absorption Scattering Physical obstructions Scintillation

PRESENT LIMITATIONS IN FSO AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

Although the demonstrations described above are important milestones in the quest

For using optics within the board, it also underlines some of the present limitations of FSO. These shortcomings include the:

Height Of The Optical Package Signal Integrity And Synchronization Issues

Thermal Stability Of The Assembly Effective CAD Tools Ultra Low Voltage Light Modulation Costs Associated With FSOI. CONCLUSION:

To those unfamiliar with FSO technology, safety can be a concern because the technology uses lasers for transmission. The proper use and safety of lasers have been discussed since FSO devices first appeared in laboratories more than three decades ago. The two major concerns involve eye These factors cause an attenuated receiver signal and lead to higher bit error ratio (BER). To overcome these issues, vendors found some solutions, like multi-beam or multi-path

exposure to light beams and high voltages within the light systems and their power supplies. Strict international standards have been set for safety and performance, and Light Pointes optical wireless systems comply with these standard

reserved for rain, smog, fog). To keep an eye-safe environment, good FSO systems have a limited laser power density and support laser classes 1 or 1M. Atmospheric and fog attenuation, which are exponential in nature, limit practical range of FSO devices to several kilometers.

architectures, which use more than one sender and more than one receiver. Some state-of-the-art devices also have larger fade margin (extra power,