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Sculpture Sculpture is the art of making figures, such as human forms, animals or geometrics that can either be standing

g freely or attached to a background frame; either single or in group. Sculpture is much more functional than painting or literature. In Medieval and Renaissance church, sculpture was frequently used for institutional purposes. Commemoration of individual or events is one of the popular functions of sculpture as well. Another functional use of sculpture is the coin. Every coin shows a relief. It is interesting to note how the spirit of a country is reflected in the designs of its coins. When it can stand freely, it is called three-dimensinal or free-standing sculpture, where the viewer can go around the figure and gaze it at different angles. The different parts of the figure: front, back, and side are all exposed to the viewer. When the figure is mounted to the background, which may either be a frame, a wall or a flat surface, it is called a relief sculpture. In high relief sculture, the frame is embossed or raised above the surface of the background. In low field sculpture, the figure is raised only a little from the background, as in the case of coins. Short History of Sculpture SHORT HISTORY OF SCULPTURE Egyptian Sculpture It is characterized from stone placed on tombs of important persons or temples of powerful rulers. Greek Sculpture (500 BC 410 BC) Greece is the place of the artists, philosophers, warriors and athletes. Greeks are lovers of the human body, therefore, most of their works are of human figures, usually of their gods and goddesses. Earlier works show men figures that are always naked but the women are properly clothed. Later, however, both figures were carved almost with no clothing at all. The recovered statue of Venus de Milo is a good example of this era. Roman Sculpture Rome conquered Greece, but culturally, Greece conquered the Romans. However, to retain Roman culture, in their sculptures, they deducted the human body and concentrated on the bust or just the head part of the human figure. Evident are the bust of Julius Caesar, and Mark Anthony which were preserved out of ruins. Byzantine Sculpture This period is memorable among Christians since this is the time of Catholic liberation. The roman persecution of Christians ended and the celebration of the mass became legal. Common subjects prominent during this era are Biblical Characters, and the image of the God the Father as a bearded old man. Saints were not yet popular since the church was only a few years old then, after the death of Christ. Romanesque Sculpture It is a continuation of the Byzantine era where almost no difference in subject is observed. Gothic Sculpture

It was the most elaborate of all the eras. Sculptors were meticulous on the garments worn by their figures. The embroideries and folds of their clothing were emphasized. Renaissance Sculpture (1270-1594) Renaissance was the Golden Era of Arts and this period brought back the adoration of the human body introduced by the Greeks. Nude sculpture such that of David by Michelangelo is a fine example of this period. Baroque Sculpture Berninis work such as The Ecstacy of St. Teresa which focuses on human emotions of love, pain, and suffering are the main features of this era. Racoco Sculpture (1715-1774) With the hangover of the Medieval period, noble men and women elevated their choice of art displays into a more detailed manner. In the court of influential kings or queens especially in France, England and Spain, their furniture, panels, vessels and others are carved into elaborate designs and perfections. Realist and Naturalist (1800 1895) This is the period of truth, the presentation of good and evil, what really exists in reality. Modern Century Sculpture Modern sculpture is a combination of all periods in the history of mankind with addition of cubism and abstract. Sculpture in the Philippines Since praying and worshiping is apart of Filipino life, it is said that of all other arts, sculpture witnessed the rise and fall of the Filipinos. This is simply because since earliest times, sculpture was there to create an image used for worship, even before, during and after the arrival of the Spaniards on Philippine shores. Cultural minorities carved their bulul or anito, a figure which is either in sitting or standing position. It is made from hard cut wood from the forest. This figure is seen with its hands touching its knees. This figure is popular among the Ifugaos The Elements of Sculpture Subject It tells what the sculpture is all about. Since art is the expression of oneself, subject is the best avenue when an artist can manifest his emotions, his own thoughts, love and frustrations, victory and defeat. A sculptor has unlimited subjects to exploit, from animals, human emotions, human body and many more. Medium Common materials used are wood, metal, rock, marble, clay, wax, plastic or even ice. Medium, therefore, refers to the material used by the artist in the completion of his work. The nature of the medium inevitably influences the type of subject it can portray. Traditionally, sculpture in the round has tended to emphasize mass and weight, and its subjects are objects of definite form and solidity. The

qualities we associate with metalstrength, weight, durabilitycan heighten the effect the sculptor desires if their physical attributes are incorporated into the subject. Texture Literally, texture refers to the touch of the skin against the surface or the body of a given sculpture. Figuratively, it refers to the interpretation given both by the artist and the admirer towards the piece. Space Space refers to the portion or area where the piece stands.

The Process of Creation Subtraction The carving of stone and wood is an example of this process. The artist using his chisels, hammers, and other tools, deducts parts from the medium to form a designed image with perfect lines and angles. Addition The construction of a figure by putting together bits of clay or by welding together metal parts to create an image is addition. (Faulkner et al). Combined Materials This method happens when a combination of small pieces of materials such as plastic or moist dry clay is worked and modelled into desired form which may then be subjected to intense heat to produce a ceramic known as terracotta. Wire, rods and plates may also be combined by soldering or welding. Sculpture and Its Mediums Stone and Bronze The two mediums most commonly used for sculpture are stone and metal. Stone is durable; it resists weather, fire and all ordinary hazards. On the other hand, it is heavy and expensive and breaks easily. Of the stones, marble is the most beautiful. It takes a high polish and is almost translucent Of the metals, the one most commonly used traditionally was bronze. The processes used in making stone and bronze statues are exactly opposite. Most bronze statues are hollow. The process of casting bronze is a very

difficult medium.

and intricate one, so difficult that it constitutes one of the disadvantages of the

Stones tend to be heavy and massive but brittle, whereas metal tends to be light, tensile, and graceful. Wood Wood has an initial advantage in that it is cheap, readily available, and easy to cut. Wood is not brittle and permits the sculptor to work in thin and extended forms.

Ivory Ivory is one of the lost mediums of sculpture, for they are used very little today, though they have been very important in the past. From the Middle Ages on, ivory has been much used for small pieces in which very delicate carving is neededas, for example, crosses, chess pieces, and the backs of the books. Usually carvings in ivory are small, the reasons being the great expense of ivory and the difficulty of securing it in large pieces. The color of ivory is a rich, creamy yellow. Like wood, ivory cracks. Terra Cotta The term terra cotta means baked earth. Terra cotta is made by firing clay, as in pottery. It is usually painted and covered with a heavy glaze. The great advantages of terra cotta are that it is very cheap in comparison with stone and bronze, and that brilliant colors are made possible by glazing. It is easily broken and chipped. It is one of the lost mediums of sculpture.

New Mediums Artists at all times have experimented in new mediums, and sculptors of the present day are no exception. Cast stone (an artificial conglomerate of sand and silicone pressed and molded like concrete), wrought iron, aluminium, glass, and steel are other mediums used today.

Great Sculptors Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini emerged as the chief artist to the Vatican. Vatican then was a melting pot of artistic creation and the Pope was the patron of the artist and their works. One of his most eye catching masterpiece is The Ecstasy of St. Theresa created in 1644 and displayed in Rome, Santa Maria Della Victoria. The art displays the emotions in Ecstasy of the Saint in seeing God in her dreams and the magnificent carvings of the cloth worn by the saint, considering that the medium used was marble.

Pierre Puget, a Frenchman, was a student of Bernini. When Italy was in decline, France was about to emerge as a super power in Europe. It was during this time when Louis XIV made an enormous effort to bring arts to France and he succeeded. Puget6 could always be remembered for his monumental, the Victorious Alexander (1668). It features Alexander the Great fresh from his triumph all in his regality.

Michelangelo Buonarroti Michelangelo is best remembered for his David. This masterpiece was executed in the nude considering the time when it was carved. The word then was conservative, but because the focus was more on the physical beauty, rather than depth of emotion, it gained acceptance and praise. Another masterpiece is La Pieta which features the dead Christ on the lap of the grieving Mother. The sculpture is almost perfect, the sadness, anguish and the pain on the face of the Virgin Mary was captured and defined. Christ himself is a picture of an aching soul-betrayed by friends. Many who witnessed this magnificent art, say that even without knowing the story of Christ and Mary, the sculpture will tell you the full details of their sadness that will make you cry.

Eduardo Castrillo He is a sculptor, a painter, a jeweller and truly the artist of realism and of modern time. This is because of his valuable contribution to art and science and his sense of nationalism in his artwork. He received various awards and citations both from private and government institutions. In 1970, he received the thirteenth Artist Award of the Cultural Center of the Philippines. Castrillo is the favourite of many historians and religious to carve a significant historical event as an important historical mark for an equally historical place. Some of his monumental works are;

1. The Liberators (1980) the landmark of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila. It features the fulfilment of a promise made by a man named Gen. Douglas McArthur as he embarked on the shore of Leyte. 2. People Power (1993) located along EDSA, adjacent to the EDSA Shrine. This monument costs millions. It is composed of many figures, unique of them all is the woman with a cut chain on both hands. It symbolizes the liberation of the Philippines from the bondage of tyranny of 20 years of the Marcos era. It dramatizes the five day historic non-violent revolt of the masses, dabbed as People Power of February, 1986. Castrillo has also executed masterpieces that depict the different memorable moments in the life of the Philippine National Hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal, such as:

1. The Martyrdom of Dr. Jose Rizal (1991) 2. The Tender Moments with Josephine (1991)

3. 4. 5. 6.

The Mock Trial (1991) Rizal Consoling his Family (1991) The Last Walks to Bagumbayan (1991) The Writing of Mi Ultimo Adios (1991) Among the Religious Icons carved under him are as follows:

1. Our Lady of Remedios (1973). It was installed in front of Our Lady of Consolation church in Malate, Manila. 2. The ascending Christ on the Cross (1991). This piece was executed for the Dominican Sisters Seminary in Tagaytay City. This hanging sculpture features Christ in a different perspective. He is ascending to heaven to dramatize his victory over death, a reminder of hope. Yet, the cross is on the background t remind the faithful on Christian reality of sufferings.

Other religious icons are: v La Pieta (19660 v The Redemption (1974) v The Apostles (1977) v Our Lady of Loreto (1976) Castrillo will always be remembered with his above-mentioned works and as an artist, he will always be remembered as the sculptor of bronze, steel, iron and aluminium which are all metals, he favourite mediums.

Guillermo Tolentino One of his monumental creations and lasting legacy to his race is the inspiration that could be taken from the Bonifacio Monument (1933) located at Caloocan City. The monument consists of 23 figures, each figure has a story to tell. It is the chronicle of Philippine history. It dramatizes the lost of a Filipino soul in the midst of injustice and suffering during the Spanish regime. Towering of all the figures if the great plebeian, Andres Bonifacio, holding a bolo on his right and a revolver on his left. Behind him is the Katipunan flag. Another great contribution of Tolentino is the Oblation Statue of the University of the Philippines. This monument is not just a piece of sculpture, the naked figure of a young man is a symbolic gesture of sacrificial offering of service to country and humanity. It is hoped that through this work of art, the Filipino youth will continue to gain inspiration to work for the betterment of the Filipino and allow the human race.

Napoleon Abueva He is the modern Filipino sculptor. He did abstraction, experimentation and modern techniques in sculpture. Some of his works are Baby Moses (1951) and Ring of the Gods (1971).

Architecture Architecture

The art and science of building It is the science, art, or profession of designing and constructing buildings or other structures. It came from the Greek arkhitekton, from - "chief" and "builder, carpenter, mason") Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century CE. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, utilitas, venustas, which translate roughly as Durability it should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility it should be useful and function well for the people using it Beauty it should delight people and raise their spirits. PRIMITIVE AND PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE EARLY BEGINNINGS. It is impossible to trace the early stages of the process by which true architecture grew out of the first rude attempts of man at building. The oldest existing monuments of architecturethose of Chalda and Egyptbelong to an advanced civilization. How the earliest architecture came into existence is as yet an unsolved problem. PRIMITIVE ARCHITECTURE. If we may judge of the condition of the primitive races of antiquity by that of the savage and barbarous peoples of our own time, they required only the simplest kinds of buildings, though the purposes which they served were the same as those of later times in civilized communities. A hut or house for shelter, a shrine of some sort for worship, a stockade for defense, a mound over the grave of the chief or hero, were provided out of the simplest materials, and these often of a perishable nature. Somewhere and somehow the people of Egypt must have developed from crude beginnings the architectural knowledge and resource which meet us in the oldest monuments, though every vestige of that early age has apparently perished. History of Architecture EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE LAND AND PEOPLE. As long ago as 5000 b.c., the Egyptians were a people already highly civilized, and skilled in the arts of peace and war. The narrow valley of the Nile, fertilized by the periodic overflow of the river, was flanked by rocky heights, nearly vertical in many places, which afforded abundance of excellent building stone, while they both isolated the Egyptians and protected them from foreign aggression. At the Delta, however, the valley widened out, with the falling away of these heights, into broad lowlands, from which there was access to the outer world.

The great works of this period are almost exclusively sepulchral, and include the most ancient buildings of which we have any remains. While there is little of strictly architectural art, the overwhelming size and majesty of the Pyramids, and the audacity and skill shown in their construction, entitle them to the first place in any sketch of this period. TOMBS. The Ancient Empire has also left us a great number of tombs of the type known as Mastabas. These are oblong rectangular structures of stone or brick with slightly inclined sides and flat ceilings. They uniformly face the east, and are internally divided into three parts; the chamber or chapel, the serdab, and the well. In the first of these, next the entrance, were placed the offerings made to the Ka or double, for whom 10 also scenes of festivity or worship were carved and painted on its walls to minister to his happiness in his incorporeal life. TEMPLES. The surpassing glory of the New Empire was its great temples. Some of them were among the most stupendous creations of structural art. To temples rather than palaces were the resources and energies of the kings devoted, and successive monarchs found no more splendid outlet for their piety and ambition than the founding of new temples or the extension and adornment of those already existing. By the forced labor of thousands of fellaheen (the system is in force to this day and is known as the corve) architectural piles of vast extent could be erected within the lifetime of a monarch. As in the tombs the internal walls bore pictures for the contemplation of the Ka, so in the temples the external walls, for the glory of the king and the delectation of the people, were covered with colored reliefs reciting the monarchs glorious deeds. Internally the worship and attributes of the gods were represented in a similar manner, in endless iteration. The prime source of early Egyptian architectural design was done in sunbaked bricks together with papyrus and the lotus. Stone was undertaken after thousands of year. Pyramid of Egypt typify monumental architecture .

Pyramid was constructed as an eternal resting place of the pharaohs, or kings of Egypt. Matabas were built for the nobility. The great works of this period are almost exclusively sepulchral, and include the most ancient buildings of which we have any remains. While there is little of strictly architectural art, the overwhelming size and majesty of the Pyramids, and the audacity and skill shown in their construction, entitle them to the first place in any sketch of this period. Mastaba is the Arabic word for stone bench (mastaba). The mastabas were made of mud or stone bricks faced with limestone slabs. Unlike the pyramids most people are familiar with, they were rectangularly shaped, flat-topped, and had sloping sides; hence the name stone bench. Builders most likely had to use ramps to move the bricks and limestone slabs. Each mastaba had an outer chamber that was used for offerings. The inner chamber was connected to a shaft which led to the actual tomb where the body was placed.

TEMPLES
The surpassing glory of the New Empire was its great temples. Some of them were among the most stupendous creations of structural art. The ancient Egyptians believed that temples were the homes of the gods and goddesses. Every temple was dedicated to a god or goddess and he or she was worshipped there by the temple priests and the pharaoh The prime source of early Egyptian architectural design was done in sunbaked bricks.

Stone was undertaken after thousands of year. Pyramid of Egypt typify monumental architecture . Pyramid was constructed as an eternal resting place of the pharaohs, or kings of Egypt. Matabas were built for the nobility. History of Architecture 2 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Greek architecture is best exemplified in the temples of the gods and the goddesses. The Parthenon is a temple dedicated to goddess Athena (Goddess of Wisdom), and is considered the most nearly perfect building in the world because of its exact mathematical calculation by the chief architect, Iknitus. He used the Doric order. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE The Romans were above all things a practical people. They brought engineering into the service of architecture, which they fitted to the varied requirements of government, public amusement, private luxury, and the common comfort. They covered the antique world with arches and amphitheatres, with villas, baths, basilicas, and temples, all bearing the unmistakable impress of Rome, though wrought by artists and artisans of diverse races. Roman architecture is more elaborate than the Greek architecture in terms of huge interiors and vast spaces to hold enormous number of people. Forms of architecture; aqueduct, temples, baths and theatres, forum buildings, arches and homes

THE PANTHEON. The noblest of all circular temples of Rome and of the world. The dome appears to have been composed of numerous arches and ribs, filled in and finally coated with concrete. BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE Inspired by the roman architecture but developed later into a competent style which was remarkably wealthy, colourful and luxurious. It was characterized by a central dome over a square space, with mosaic and marble veneered walls. It excelled Roman architecture by its colorfulness trough the generous use of colored stone and mosaic walls and windows. Church of Hagia Sophia is the greatest achievement of the dome-style construction, built for Emperor Justinian by Isidorus of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles in A.D. 532-537

History of Architecture 3 Gothic Architecture It is known as the architecture of the pointed arch. Gothic architecture found its expression in the church or the cathedral. It did not only become a religious monument but a way of showing the strength and wealthy of the city. Gothic churches were filled with illuminated manuscripts, rich tapestries, and stained glass windows.

Some impressive churches are: Cathedral of Notre dame at Chartres, acclaimed as the Glory of the Middle Ages; Salisbury Cathedral as aleading example pf Early English or Lancet gothic; Cathedral of Siena by Giovann Pisano, as a rare example of Italian gothic.

The structural advantage is that the pointed arch channels the weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle. The other structural advantage is that the pointed arch channels the weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle. This enabled architects to raise vaults much higher than was possible in Romanesque architecture. While, structurally, use of the pointed arch gave a greater flexibility to architectural form, it also gave Gothic architecture a very different visual character to Romanesque, the verticality suggesting an aspiration to Heaven. Renaissance Architecture The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.

Summary Outline Summary Outline of Major Historical Architectural Styles

Egyptian (3000-1000 BCE) 1. Mammoth rectangular plan of limestone

2. Sloping pylons with gorge molding 3. Bud and flower capitals for post-and-lintel construction 4. Clerestory in hypostyle hall 5. Monumental obelisks and sphinxes fronting pylons 6. Relief sculpture on walls and columns Greek (60-100 BCE)

1. Relatively small rectangular plan of marble 2. Entablature of pediment, cornice, frieze, and architrave 3. Doric, Iconic, or Corinthian capitals on fluted columns for post and lintel 4. Color and gliding on statuary and architectural details 5. Mathematical approach to symmetry 6. Refinements of proportion to create optical illusionse.g., entasis Roman (100 BCE- CE. 500)

1. Rectangular and circular plans of pozzuolona and stucco 2. Engineering principle of arch in dome and drum, barrel vaulting and groin vaulting 3. Fluted freestanding and engaged columns and pilasters with Greek orders. 4. Coffered ceilings over large spaces 5. Triangular, circular, and broken pedimentation 6. Decorative medallions and keystones Early Christian (CE. 300-700)

1. Roman basilica plan of center aisle, one or two side aisles, and apse 2. Plain buttressed facade, sometimes with small round window and compound arches 3. Campanile disengaged from facade 4. Square coffered ceiling 5. Interior marble and mosaics 6. Variations of Roman orders, such as basket capitals

Byzantine (CE. 300-1000)

1. Greek cross plan, walls and surfaced in patterned brick in meander, fret, or chevron. 2. Great dome on pendentives buttressed by half domes 3. Plain exterior 4. Clustered colonnettes 5. Carved basket capitals 6. Interiors of colored, richly grained marble and mosaics in upper vaults

Romanesque (1000-1200)

1. Latin cross plan of local stone 2. Use of round arch and buttressed barrel vaulting and groin vaulting 3. Towers engaged to facade and large transept tower 4. Dome often over aspe 5. Recessed doorways ornamented with sculpture, and large rose windows on upper levels 6. Grouped piers (clustered), thick columns, or both

Gothic (1200-1400)

1. Latin-cross plan, usually of native stone 2. Use of soaring pointed arch and ribbed vaulting with flying buttresses 3. High facade towers with gargoyles 4. Stained-glass rose and lancet windows 5. Pinnacles with crockets and finials 6. Tall, recessed doorways decorated with elongated sculptured figures

Renaissance (1400-1600)

1. Rectangular plan with combined post-and-lintel form and arch torm 2. Balanced fenestration of three stories 3. Ribbed dome on drum with lantern 4. Entablature with two-story columns 5. Triangular and circular pedimentation 6. Decorative balustrades, pilasters, keystones, and quoins 7. Greek and Roman ornamentation Baroque (1600-1700)

1. Circular plans and ornamentation; but Baroque facades frequently added to existing buildings 2. Playful in-and-out movement of curved steps and balustrading 3. Accent on sculpture above eye level 4. Overly dramatic and exuberant light-and dark patterns 5. Broken pediments over doors and windows 6. Elaborate console bracket, crests, cartouches, clocks, and fountains International Style (1920s --)

1. Nonelectric with minimum ornamentation 2. New engineering principles, such as cantilevering from hillside 3. Multilevel construction 4. Greater use of glass, steel, and cement 5. New materials, such as permapane and stained aluminium 6. Emphasis, conceptually at least, on honest: functionalism Modern and Philippine Architecture NINETEENTH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE The nineteenth century architecture is known as a period of eclecticism. Eclecticism means freedom of choice; in art, it means the freedom to choose from the styles of the past. In former times architects had always used the style of their own periods. But in the nineteenth century, both architects and clients began deliberately to choose to make a building in the style of one era or another. The interest in various styles has resulted in the adoption of certain styles as suitable for certain types of buildings: Gothic for Churches; Baroque for Theatres; Renaissance for Government Buildings Modern Architecture

New ways and principles were combined with old ones paved the way to new constructions Structural materials such as steel, reinforced concrete, glass in large sheets, plastic, fabricated and prefabricated materials Sir Joseph Paxton built the sensational Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations in 1851 at London Hydes Park. It was built out of iron rods and sheathed by panes and glass. This building was the worlds first prefabricated building and the prototype todays steel selection and glass skyscrapers. Functionalism was for the architects during this period because they believed that form must be based on function. Louis Sullivan attested this in his theory. Schlesinger and Mayer building expressed this theory. Frank Lloyd Wright, Americas greatest architect said, mans home should express his personality and it should be adapted to the natural surroundings of its location. His famous works are: Kaufmann House and Falling Water. Kaufmann is one of his best known home which is built over the bed of a stream and clings to the gorge on each side of it. Philippine Architecture

It is a combination of the different influences handed down to us by our colonizers. These were mixed with our own untouched designs thereby reflecting the Filipino character, motives and traditions. Mother nature endowed the Filipinos with rich natural resources which have provided for their shelter needs. Filipino architecture is ethnic, one that is pure and unblemished by modernization. It is made of simple dwellings that serve as protection from the rain, typhoons, or storms.

These are some of the Philippine ethnic designs:

Lean-to It is improvised type of dwelling that uses two bamboo posts and a roof of leaves and grasses. The Bale. The Ifugaos from the Cordilleras developed this hut, built near the rice field. It is roofed with thick bundles of grass and the posts were made from hard, strong and cylindrical wood. Walay. It is a dwelling place of the Maranaos. It is wider and is built on nine to twelve posts with a stiff roof. The torogan is the biggest house in the community. It is a royal house, a symbol of high status in the community. Tree house. It is the answer to places often visited by floods. Its entrance is made of bamboo or rattan ladder drawn up at night to prevent intruders from entry. Some Ilongots, Manobos and the Gaddangs still lodge in tree houses.

Nipa hut or bahay kubo is the expression of Filipino folk architecture. It is made of cogongrass or nipa with four bamboo posts and a roof made of cogon grass, rice staks, sugar cane leaves, abaca or anahaw leaes.. the floor is made of split-bamboo and the wall is of sawali woven bamboo, or nipa or cogon leaves. Bahay na bato is the typical 19th century dwelling of well-off families. It is also called bahay na tisa. It is made two or three stories where the ground floor is made of stone while the upper portion is made of wood. The windows are made of barandillas or balusters and sliding window frames. The balcony is a special feature of the bahay na bato. Apartment is a development of the bahay na bato, It is a building with several units constructed in the urban and thickly populated areas in the metropolis. Condominiums overtook the apartments. Bungalow is a response to the growing population in the urban areas also. It serves as a model of the housing project of the government. It is one-storey house with a small living room, bedroom, kitchen-dining room and a bathroom. Other forms of architecture are expressed in churches and cathedral. One of the famous cathedrals is the Manila Cathedral, a Romanesque Byzantine inspired architecture; the school buildings, colleges and universities (University of Santo Tomas)

Factors Influencing Functions in Architecture Function in Architecture Architecture is the only one of the major arts that is directly functional. It is also the art in which the proper performance of function is most important. Factors influencing Function in Architecture Climate. With central heating, structural steel, and air conditioning, is it possible to live in any kind of house in any climate; nevertheless climate is still a factor of which everyone is acutely conscious. Is the climate wet or dry, hot or cold, sunny or dark, even or variable, windy or calm? In countries where there is strong wind, the house is planned with windbreaks and the living rooms are put in protected areas from the wind, whereas in warm climates with temperate winds, the house is planned to take advantage of the prevailing winds, the house is planned to take advantage of the prevailing breeze. In a cold climate, emphasis is placed on building for warmth; in a warm climate, it is placed on the attempt to keep cool. When the climate is mild, the primary function of the wall is to ensure privacy and to keep out the sun and the rain; hence, it may be of very light material. Social Factors The term social factors is used to mean all those elements in architecture that are determined by people in contrast with those that are governed by nature. A first consideration in any building is the use to which it is to be put, its function in the narrower sense of the term. A building is designed for special purpose: it may be an office building, a church, a residence, a garage, and so on. These primary functions are influenced by the physical conditionsclimatebut they are even more dependent on social forces. In olden times there was always need for protection. Castles and fortifications were made with very thick, strong wall, as defense against the enemy. Palaces had to be strong enough to ward off possible attack. The palace which Michelozzo built for Cosimo de Medici served both as palace and fortress. Another example of social influences on architecture can be found by comparing buildings designed as places of worship. To Christians a church or a cathedral is primarily a place where large numbers of people can assemble, because corporate worship is an integral part of the Christian faith. The Greeks, on the other hand, had no service in the same sense; their gatherings for religious purposes were infrequent and were held out-of-doors. For them, the temple was basically a shrine for the statue of the god, and in consequence their temples were small, accommodating only a few people at a time. Although there are many individual styles in architecture today, all of them tend to combine concern for mere function with other qualities variety in shape, color, carefully coordinated proportions, texture, symbolism and many more. Important in all these is an aim to create buildings which not only work, but are for people to delight in as they pass them, to live in, to work in, to create in, to enjoy. Prominent Filipino Architects and their Works Leandro Locsin 1990 National Artist for Architecture designed the Cultural Center of the Philippines Ocular Chapel now church of the Holy Sacrifice at the University of the Philippines

Andres Luna de San Pedro chief architect of Manila (1920-1924) built the Crystal Arcade, the most modern building in Manila before World War II Legarda Elementary School at Lealtad Sampaloc Manila. It is a French Renaissance inspired building

Antonio Toledo designed the Manila City Hall The Palma and Rizal Halls of the old University of the Philippines at Padre Faura, Manila

Arellano brothers (Juan and Arcadio) built the neo-renaissance inspired La Gota de Leche on Lepanto St. Sampaloc Manila

Juan Arellanos greatest works were the neoclassicism inspired Post Office Building at Lawton, Manila and the romantic styled Metropolitan theatre also at Lawton. These masterpieces made him a towering figure in Philippine architecture.

Tomas Mapua constructed the Nurses home of the Philippine General hospital at Taft Avenue, Manila

Ocampo Sr.s Paterno Building now Feati University and the Central Seminary Building of the University of Santo Tomas

Fr. Roques Ruano constructed the main building of the University of Santo Tomas in 1927. It is considered as a unique building because of it earthquake-proof construction.