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Potential Shale Gas Basins of India Possibilities & Evaluations

Dr.V.K.Rao

Conventional Oil/Gas Exploration


In pursuit of conventional Oil/Gas Exploration over the years,Geologists regarded Shales as: Cap rock by virtue of their impermeable nature and compactness thus acting as good seal Source Rock by virtue of the richness of organic material content, its maturity ,generation potential and geographic spread over large areas

Gauging Shale Gas reservoirs


Methane in shales is generated from the transformation of organic material by bacterial(biogenic) and geo-chemical (thermogenic) processes The gas so generated gets stored by multiple mechanisms as free gas in micropores/microfractures and as adsorbed gas on the internal surfaces Thus shale gas is a combination of sorbed gas and micropore gas The challenge in these accumulations is not of finding it BUT to exploit it commercially Thus it is more of technological challenge which has been met by innovative hydraulic fracturing and multi-lateral horizontal drilling techniques. USA has emerged as the pioneer in developing and using this technology for commercial production of shale gas.

Geological parameters for Shale gas evaluation


Thickness & areal extent Organic matter type & its richness Thermal maturity Mineralogy,Faults & Fractures Gas content /Gas Storage Adjacent water bearing Formations

India-Likely acolyte of shale Gas revolution


Rapidly growing Gas markets India has high Natural Gas prices Increasing dependancy on LNG imports Nascent CBM industry Widening DemandSupply gap Rising Energy Consumption Rising economic growth

Potential Shale Gas Basins


C 3 B 6
0 0 68 00 72 00 76 00 80 00 84 00 88 00 92 00 96 00 3 6 0 0

3 2 0 0

3 2 0 0

2 8 0 0

2 8 0 0

2 4 0 0

2 4 0 0

2 0 0 0

2 0 0 0

1 6 0 0

1 6 0 0

1 2 0 0

1 2 0 0

8 0 0 72 00 76 00 80 00 84 00 88 00 92 00

8 0 0

: Potential Cambay Assam-Arakan Gondwana Vindhyan Rajasthan Bengal KrishnaGodavari Cauvery

Cambay Basin
Narrow elongated rift Basin extensively explored petroliferous basin Sanchor-Patan Block Ahmedabad-Mehsana Block Tarapur-Cambay Block Broach-Jambusar Block Narmada-Tapti Block

Shales in Stratigraphy

Tarapur Fm(Up.EoceneOligocene) Kalol Fm(Mid.Eocene) Younger Cambay Shale Fm(Lr.Eocene) Older cambay Shale Fm.(PaleoceneLr.Eocene) Olpad Fm.(Paleocene)

Cambay Shale Fm.

Source:DGH

Shale characteristics of Cambay Basin


Formation Olpad Thickness(m) 340-2700 TOC (%) 1.5-4.0 VRo (%) 0.75 Kerogen Type II & III

Older Cambay Shale


Younger Cambay Shale

500-1900

1.5-4.0

0.75-0.85

II & III

520-1500

1.00-4.0

0.75-0.85

II & III

Kalol

200-300

0.75

II & III

Tarapur

60-400

0.53

Prognosticated Resource Potential of 90 TCF is estimated

Assam-Arakan Basin

Assam Shelf Naga-Schuppen Belt Assam-Arakan Fold belt Zunki Schuppen Belt Ophiolite Complex Naga Metamorphic Complex

Shales in

Stratigraphy

Shale characteristics of Assam-Arakan Basin


Formation Thickness( m)
2000-3000

TOC %
0.69-4.0

VRo %

Kerogen Type
II & III

Up.Disang Gp.

0.90-1.94

Kopili Jenam Bhuban Bokabil

>500 900-1200 800-1000 400-1000

1.0-6.2 2.5-4.5 No data

0.92-1.44 0.64-1.20 0.90-1.00

II & III II & III

No data

Prognosticated Resource Potential of 55 TCF is estimated

Gondwana Basins

(South Rewa Basin)



Intracratonic rift Graben Basin Criss crossed by a number of ENE-WSW trending Faults Lr. & Up. Gondwana sediments are present . Barakar and Raniganj Fms. Consist of coal seams and massive shales /sandstones Deccan Trap outpouring during Late Cretaceous Paleocene

Shales in Stratigraphy of South Rewa Basin


Age Recent Cretaceous to Paleocene GROUP UP. GONDWA NA Alluvium Deccan Traps Basalt and Dolerite Formation Thick-ness (m) Generalised lithology

Unconformity
Late Cretaceous Lameta 50 Sandstone cake, clays Limestone, Mart.

Unconformity
Early Cretaceous Bansa Chandia 100 Sandstone, Conglomerates, clays, shales and Chert

Unconformity
Late Traissic Middle-Early Triassic LR. GONDWA NA Parsora Pali-Tihki 450 450-600 Sandstone, Mudstone Mudstone, shale & sandstone

Unconformity
Raniganj Barren Measures 800-1250 140-600 175-900 3-5 Sandstone, Shale, Clays, Coal Sandstone, Red clays Sandstone, grey shales and coal Fossiliferous sandstone and clays

Early Permian

Barakar Umaria Marine Bed

Unconformity
Talchir Manendragarh Marine Bed 15-400 Sandstone & Shale, Green Shale & Sandstone

Unconformity
Precambrian Basement Granite, Gneiss, Schist, Phyllites

Geological section along NW-SE trend of South Rewa Basin

Shale characteristics of South Rewa Basin

Formation Thickness(m) TOC %

VRo %

Kerogen Type

Raniganj

800-1250

1.0618.40

0.40-0.60

III

Barakar

170-900

1.0614.72

0.40-0.60

III

Gondwana Basins (Pranhita-Godavari Basin)


Intracratonic Rift Basin trending WNW-ESE

Three Sub Basins are identified:


-Eastern Albaka -Central Pakhal -Western Chandarpur
+
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

BHUTARY
+ + + + + +

CHANDRAPUR
+ + + + + + + + + ASIFABAD +

+ ++

+ +

+ + + + + +

PG-ONN-2001/1
+ + + + + + + + +

SIRONCHA

BHADRACHALAM
+ +
+ + + +

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

ASWARAOPETA ASP-1 CHINTALAPUDI


+

+ +

+ +

+ + + + + +

NORTHWESTERN SECTOR

NORMAL / REVERSE FAULT WRENCH FAULT


+

ANTICLINAL AXIS
SYNCLINAL AXIS BASEMENT
0 Scale

CENTRAL SECTOR
SOUTHEASTERN SECTOR

30 KM

Stratigraphy in Pranhita-Godavari Basin


SUPER GROUP THICK. (m)
V

AGE

FORMATION

LITHOLOGY
V V V V

UPPER GONDWANA

PALEOCENE CRET. JURASSIC

DECCAN TRAP / LAMETA CHIKIALA / GANGAPUR

1.

400 600 900

KOTA

TARVAI

TRIASSIC

MALERI

1200

LOWER GONDWANA

KUDUREPALLI

150 600 200 250 350 600 300 400


+ + +
1

MANER
KHANAPUR

PERMIAN

JAI PURAM POTAMADOGU BELLAMPALLI BARAKAR TALCHIR BASEMENT

PRECAMBRIAN

SANDSTONE SHALE / CLAYSTONE COAL + BASEMENT

Shale characteristics of Pranhita-Godavari Basin

Formation/ Group

Thickness (m)

TOC %

VRo %

Kerogen Type

Lower Gondwana Gp.

400-550

6.41%

0.67

III

Upper Gondwana Gp.

900-1100

No Data

Vindhyan Basin
Peri-Cratonic basin located in the central part of Indian massif Main Tectonic Features are: Great Boundary Fault Bundelkhand massif Son-Narmada Geofracture Zone

Shales in Stratigraphy
Binita,Nimbahera &Suket shales Rewa, Ganorgarh and Sirbu shales Chakaria Olive, Hinolta and Pulkova shales

Shales in Vindhyan stratigarphy


WEST VINDHYAN EAST VINDHYAN

GROUP UPPER VINDHYAN

SUB GROUP BHANDAR

FORMATION SIRBU SHALES SAMARIA GANURGARH

THICKNESS(M) 250 30 75

FORMATION SIRBU SHALES GANURGARH

THICKNESS(M) 85

45

REWA

UPPER REWA

150

UPPER REWA BIJAIGARH

55 35 320 210

LOWER VINDHYAN

SEMRI

SUKET NIMBHERA BINOTA HINOTA

30 150 100 120

CHAKARIA PULKOVA

Shale characteristics of Vindhyan Basin


Formation Thickness(m) TOC % VRo % Kerogen Type

Chakaria Olive shale

185

0.60-1.04

II & III

Hinota shale

90

0.56-3.89 No Data

II & III

Rewa shale Pulkova shale

225 210

0.07-0.40 35.0-37.85

II&III II & III

Suket shale Ganurgarh Shale

100 75

0.04-0.37

No Data No Data

II & III

Cauvery Basin

Intracratonic rift basin located between two cratonic masses viz: Indian peninsula and Sri Lankan Massif Main Tectonic elements are:

Ariyalur-Pondicherry sub basin Kumbhkonam-Madnam-Portonovo High Tanjore-Tranquebar sub basin Pattukottai-Mannargudi-Karaikal High Nagapattinam sub basin Vedarniyam High Pattukuttai-Manargudi high Ramnad-Palk Bay sub basin Mandapam Ridge Gulf of Mannar sub basin Vedarniyam Tiruchirapally terrace

Shales in Stratigraphy
Sattapadi Shales in Uttatur Group Kudavasal shales & Portnovo Shales in Ariyalur Group Komarakshi Shales in Ariyalur Group Karaikal Shales in Nagore Group

Geological Section across Cauvery basin

Isopach and Shale disposition

Shale characteristics of Cauvery Basin


Sub Basin Thickness(m) TOC Approx; % VRo % Kerogen Type

AriyalurPondicherry

1500

0.31-2.78

1.15

II & III

Tranquebar Nagapattinam

2000 1500

0.31-4.76 1.68-1.89

0.65-0.79 0.45-0.34

II & III II & III

Mannar

2000

1.50-1.75

1.0-1.12

II & III

Other Prospective Basins

Krishna-Godavari Basin Bengal Basin Rajasthan Basin

Summary
Shale gas Exploration in India is in nascent stages An anology with USA shale Gas basins implies that India could have significant shale gas potential in its major sedimentary basins Shale Gas production could be a Game changerin energy mix In order to assess the shale gas resources basic shale gas specific data requires to be generated through laboratory studies and well data in major shale gas prone basins

Summary
ONGC has already initiated the process and 1st Shale gas exploratory well is under drilling in Bengal basin. Initiatives being taken by Govt. of India through DGH & MoPNG to have international multi task ventures is a welcome step in this direction We are awaiting for the 1st bid round of shale gas blocks proposed to be offered by MoPNG by the end of 2011.