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Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act for

Colleges and Universities

October 2007 PDF (279 KB)

Postsecondary officials are regularly asked to balance the interests of safety and privacy for individual students. While the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) generally requires institutions to ask for written consent before disclosing a student's personally identifiable information, it also allows colleges and universities to take key steps to maintain campus safety. Understanding the law empowers school officials to act decisively and quickly when issues arise. Health or Safety Emergency In an emergency, FERPA permits school officials to disclose without student consent education records, including personally identifiable information from those records, to protect the health or safety of students or other individuals. At such times, records and information may be released to appropriate parties such as law enforcement officials, public health officials, and trained medical personnel. See 34 CFR 99.31(a)(10) and 99.36. This exception to FERPA's general consent rule is limited to the period of the emergency and generally does not allow for a blanket release of personally identifiable information from a student's education records. In addition, the Department interprets FERPA to permit institutions to disclose information from education records to parents if a health or safety emergency involves their son or daughter. Disciplinary Records While student disciplinary records are protected as education records under FERPA, there are certain circumstances in which disciplinary records may be disclosed without the student's consent. A postsecondary institution may disclose to an alleged victim of any crime of violence or non-forcible sex offense the final results of a disciplinary proceeding conducted by the institution against the alleged perpetrator of that crime, regardless of whether the institution concluded a violation was committed. An institution may disclose to anyonenot just the victimthe final results of a disciplinary proceeding, if it determines that the student is an alleged perpetrator of a crime of violence or nonforcible sex offense, and with respect to the allegation made against him or her, the student has committed a violation of the institution's rules or policies. See 34 CFR 99.31(a)(13) and (14). The Clery Act The Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act requires postsecondary institutions to provide timely warnings of crimes that represent a threat to the safety of students or employees and to make public their campus security policies. It also requires that crime data be collected, reported, and disseminated to the campus community and to the Department annually. The Clery Act is intended to provide students and their families with accurate, complete, and timely information about safety on campuses so that they can make informed decisions. Such disclosures are permitted under FERPA. The following Web site provides more information about these and other provisions about campus safety: http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/campus. html. Law Enforcement Unit Records Many colleges and universities have their own law enforcement units to monitor safety and security in and around campus. Institutions that do not have specific law enforcement units may designate a particular office or school official to be responsible for referring potential or alleged violations of law to local police authorities. Investigative reports and other records created and maintained by these law enforcement units are not considered education records subject to FERPA. Accordingly, institutions

may disclose information from law enforcement unit records to anyone, including outside law enforcement authorities, without student consent. See 34 CFR 99.8. While an institution has flexibility in deciding how to carry out safety functions, it must also indicate in its policy or in information provided to students which office or school official serves as the college or university's "law enforcement unit." (The institution's notification to students of their rights under FERPA can include this designation. As an example, the Department has posted a model notification on its Web site at http://www.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid /fpco/ferpa/ps-officials.html.) Law enforcement unit officials who are employed by the college or university should be designated in the institution's FERPA notification as "school officials" with a "legitimate educational interest." As such, they may be given access to personally identifiable information from students' education records. The institution's law enforcement unit officials must protect the privacy of education records it receives and may disclose them only in compliance with FERPA. For that reason, it is advisable that law enforcement unit records be maintained separately from education records. Disclosure to Parents When a student turns 18 years old or enters a postsecondary institution at any age, all rights afforded to parents under FERPA transfer to the student. However, FERPA also provides ways in which schools may share information with parents without the student's consent. For example:

Schools may disclose education records to parents if the student is a dependent for income tax purposes. Schools may disclose education records to parents if a health or safety emergency involves their son or daughter. Schools may inform parents if the student who is under age 21 has violated any law or its policy concerning the use or possession of alcohol or a controlled substance. A school official may generally share with a parent information that is based on that official's personal knowledge or observation of the student.

FERPA and Student Health Information Postsecondary institutions that provide health or medical services to students may share student medical treatment records with parents under the circumstances described above. While these records may otherwise be governed by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), the HIPAA Privacy Rule excludes student medical treatment records and other records protected by FERPA. The Department plans to issue further guidance on the interplay between FERPA and HIPAA. FERPA and Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) FERPA permits institutions to comply with information requests from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and its Immigration and Customs Enforcement Bureau (ICE) in order to comply with the requirements of SEVIS. Officials who have specific questions about this and other matters involving international students should contact the U.S. Department of Education's Family Policy Compliance Office. Transfer of Education Records Finally, FERPA permits school officials to disclose any and all education records, including disciplinary records, to another institution at which the student seeks or intends to enroll. While student consent is not required for transferring education records, the institution's annual FERPA notification should indicate that such disclosures are made. In the absence of information about disclosures in the annual FERPA notification, school officials must make a reasonable attempt to notify the student about the

disclosure, unless the student initiates the disclosure. Additionally, upon request, the institution must provide a copy of the information disclosed and an opportunity for a hearing. See 34 CFR 99.31(a)(2) and 99.34(a). Contact Information For further information about FERPA, please contact the Family Policy Compliance Office or visit its Web site. Family Policy Compliance Office U.S. Department of Education 400 Maryland Ave. S.W. Washington, DC 20202-5920 202-260-3887 For quick, informal responses to routine questions about FERPA, parents may also e-mail the Family Policy Compliance Office at FERPA.Customer@ED.Gov. For inquiries about FERPA compliance training, e-mail FERPA.Client@ED.Gov. Additional information and guidance may be found at FPCO's Web site at: http://www. ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/index.html.

College Student Records: Legal Issues, Privacy, and Security Concerns. ERIC Digest.
As the practice of entering student records online has become more widespread, many colleges are struggling with the technical and legal complexities of protecting the privacy of student data. There have been a number of reports in the news of hackers breaking into college websites to steal student identifies, tamper with grades or other information, and illegally view student records. Many colleges have established policies to comply with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974, also known as the Buckley Amendment, which enumerates legal guidelines regarding the privacy of student records. However, changing technologies and the new law, the US Patriot Act, which amends some provisions of FERPA, forces colleges to reexamine how they can protect student records. This digest will briefly discuss the provisions of FERPA and the US Patriot Act, and the measures some colleges are implementing to comply with these laws and improve the security of electronic student records. FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY ACT (FERPA) FERPA established specific rights to parents regarding their children's education records. These rights transfer to the student when he or she turns 18 years of age, and these students are called "eligible students" under the law. FERPA applies to educational institutions that receive federal funding. The rights established by FERPA are posted on the U.S. Department of Education website: (http://www.ed.gov/offices/OM/fpco/ferpa). The basis tenants of the law state the following: 1.) Parents or eligible students have the right to

inspect and review the student's education records maintained by the school, and schools are to comply with these requests. 2.) Parents or eligible students have the right to request that a school correct records which they believe to be inaccurate or misleading. If the school denies the request, the parent or eligible student is entitled to a hearing. If after the hearing, the school still denies the request, the parent or eligible student has the right to place a statement in their education records about contested information. 3.) Generally, schools must have written permission from the parent or eligible student to release information from a student's educational record. However, FERPA allows school to disclose educational records without consent to particular parties such as school officials with a legitimate educational interest. 4.) Schools may disclose, without consent, directory information such as name, address, and date of birth. However, schools must notify parents and students about directory information, and given them sufficient time to opt out of the disclosure. Finally, schools must notify parents and students annually of their rights under FERPA. The Family Policy Compliance Office, with the U.S. Department of Education, responds to all complaints or alleged violations under FERPA, and gives advise to colleges and schools on how to comply with the law (Walsh, 2002a). For the first time, the U.S. Supreme Court, in 2002, heard two cases based on FERPA. In February 2002, the court unanimously decided in Owasso Independent School District v. Falvo (No. 00-1073), that the practice of peer grading and students calling out each other's grades to the teacher, did not violate the provisions of FERPA (McCarthy, 2002). In Gonzaga University v. Doe (No. 01-679), the U.S. Supreme Court rules 7-2, that individuals do not

have a right to sue over alleged violations under FERPA, and that individuals cannot seek compensation under that law (Walsh, 2002b). The Gonzaga ruling reaffirms the process by which the U.S. Department of Education enforces FERPA. THE US PATRIOT ACT As a result of the US Patriot Act, educational institutions must comply with aspects of the law that require the monitoring of foreign students and the disclosure of student records to track suspected terrorists. The US Patriot Act allows the U.S. Attorney General to access student records and collect information on foreign students, such as name, address, and visa classification which is maintained by educational institutions through the Student Exchange and Visitor Information System (SEVIS). The law also permits the U.S. Attorney General to apply for a court order to access student records maintained by educational institutions for the purpose of an investigation or prosecution relating to terrorism (American Council on Education, 2001). The law exempts both SEVIS and information obtained from student records by a court order from the disclosure clause required by FERPA. Many colleges and universities are grappling with the complexities of the law, in particular their obligations and role. A number of colleges are worried that responses to an invalid request will prompt lawsuits under the Fourth Amendment (Carlson & Foster, 2002). In response to the requirements of the law, some colleges are drafting compliance checklists for staff use to more effectively respond to law enforcement requests to search confidential university records. Librarians are concerned about privacy rights of readers since patrons' book loan records could be investigated under the U.S. Patriot Act. ELECTRONIC SECURITY ISSUES AND COLLEGE POLICIES Electronic information is protected not only by technology such as firewalls, password protection, and other measures, but also by the college

employees who safeguard and manage the information. Some colleges have created electronic communications procedures to educate staff on how to protect student information. The University of California, Los Angeles has a policy that restricts the level of access to student information based upon what the particular staff member needs to know. For instance, academic counselors have a different level of access compared to financial aid officials. Also, before any faculty or staff member can access information, they must fill out a form detailing what they want to view and why. The form must be approved by the computer-systems manager of the registrar's office (Foster, 2001). For computer records maintained by centers other than the registrar, U.C.L.A. gives departmental discretion to other campus managers on whether or not to retain files of websites that students visit. Another complex issue is under what circumstances college officials have the right to view student emails or other electronic files. Many colleges reserve the right to view student emails under certain conditions. EDUCAUSE, a nonprofit association which promotes the advancement of higher education through information technology, recommends that colleges notify students about their privacy rights, have policies stating how online activity is monitored, and inform students about how their records will be used (Foster, 2001). Also, the widespread use of Social Security numbers has come under fire by those concerned with security issues. Some colleges, like the University of Illinois, are phasing out the use of Social Security numbers as student identification numbers. One college official states that the use of Social Security numbers is problematic on many campuses because many colleges do not have a disclosure policy which states how and why the college will use the information (Foster, 2002b). Under FERPA, colleges must inform students whether or not the

disclosure is voluntary. The widespread use of Social Security numbers to tract student records has made many student records vulnerable to identity theft by computer hackers or other criminals. In February 2003, hackers broke into a University of Texas database and stole the names, Social Security numbers, and email addresses of over 55,000 students and employees ("Hackers Breach Student Database at the University of Texas," 2003). In 2002, a Swedish hacker broke into an Indiana University database and downloaded the names and Social Security numbers of 3,100 students (Foster, 2001). In 2002, a University of Delaware student allegedly changed her grades online after successfully impersonating a professor by finding his Social Security number online and guessing the password to the professor's computer account (Read, 2002). Incidences like these often occur because software glitches or errors by university staff leave the electronic system vulnerable to attack, the lack of safeguards in protecting student information, and even organized crime rings (Foster, 2002a). Occurrences of security breaches have prompted students and some lawmakers to pressure college officials to curtail the use of Social Security numbers. Although some colleges have limited the use of students' Social Security numbers to identification purposes, many college administrators are reluctant to alter their practices, arguing that changing their procedures is too costly and time consuming and ultimately ineffective (Foster, 2002a). Laws have been passed in Arizona, California, Maryland, New York, and Wisconsin which restrict a college's use of student Social Security numbers. CONCLUSION The complexities of the digital age, combined with new laws designed to protect national security have altered the ways in which educational institutions provide access to, monitor

and safeguard student records. Colleges and universities have created policies tailored to the needs of their institution both to protect student records from unwanted intrusions and to comply effectively with new and complex legal and law enforcement requirements. Active debate surrounding these issues continues as educational institutions try to accommodate and balance the sometimes conflicting pressures of privacy concerns versus legal directives. REFERENCES American Council on Education (2001, November 5). .S. Patriot Act includes provisions on student records. Retrieved on June 24, 2003 from http://www.acenet.edu/hena/issues/2001/11-0501/patriot.act.cfm. Carlson, S., and Foster, A.L. (2002, March 1). Colleges Fear Anti-terrorism Law Could Turn Them into Big Brother. The Chronicle of Higher Education A31. Foster, A.L. (2001, May 11). The Struggle to Preserve Privacy. The Chronicle of Higher Education, A37. Foster, A.L. (2002a, August 2(. ID Theft Turns Students into Privacy Advocates. The Chronicle of Higher Education, A27, A29. Foster, A.L. (2002b, August 2). U. of Illinois may be a model in protecting privacy. The Chronicle of Higher Education, A28. Hackers Breach Student Database at the University of Texas (2003, March 7). Associated Press, E05. McCarthy, M.M. (2002). The Supreme Court Addresses Student Records: Peer Grading Passes the Test. Educational Horizons, Vol. 81, Number 1, 13-15. Read, B. (2003, august 2). Delaware Student

allegedly Changed Her Grades Online. The Chronicle of Higher Education, A29. U.S. Department of Education (2002). Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). Retrieved March 17, 2003 from http://www.ed.gov/offices/OM/fpco/ferpa. Walsh, M. (2002a, April 17). Court To Decide If Pupil Privacy a Federal Case. Education Week, 25,27. Walsh, M. (2002b, July 10). Privacy Law Not a Courtroom Matter. Justices Decide. Education Week, 35,43.

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College campuses pose many unique challenges when it comes to security. A video surveillance system must be carefully planned out in order to keep watch over the diverse assortment of facilities that comprise a typical campus community. From dormitories and libraries to sports complexes and sprawling student grounds, there's a lot to look after. The proper surveillance setup will go a long way in ensuring the safety of students, faculty, and facilities on campus. View blog posts relating to campus video surveillance.

What best describes your Campus Surveillance surveillance needs?

outdoor security

indoor monitoring


Benefits of University Surveillance Equipment Maintain secure facilities College campuses feature a variety of buildings, each with their own security needs. Video surveillance helps to secure these facilities, watching for suspicious behavior and unauthorized access. Protect students Students have to cover a lot of ground when navigating their way through campus. This often involves traveling by foot, and sometimes the journey takes place late at night. Video surveillance is an invaluable tool, allowing students to wander the campus under safe watch. Deter crime Security cameras can serve as a visual deterrent to crime such as theft and break-ins. Prevent vandalism With proper video surveillance, the threat of vandalism to school property is lessened. Monitor parking lots Security cameras can prevent and deter criminal activity and theft in parking lots throughout a campus community. Help in investigations Archived surveillance footage can be used to identify individuals who have committed crimes or breached school policies. Assist in application of university policies Surveillance cameras can monitor campus activity, working to ensure that school policies are properly followed. Easy installation IP cameras are easy to install and set up. Unlike analog CCTV cameras, all you need to do is mount your cameras and hook up your recorder. No coaxial cable or power tools necessary. Remote Access A video surveillance system operating with IP network technology enables video streams to be sent over the internet for remote monitoring. Footage from cameras throughout the campus can be viewed online from any computer with an internet connection and access to the network.

Risks and Potential Problems for College CCTV Systems Vandalism Visible security cameras can be targets for vandalism and tampering. Damaged cameras can cause lapses in your recording. Privacy Cameras should only record in public areas throughout the campus grounds and facilities. Private areas such as bathrooms, faculty break rooms, and dorm rooms are considered inappropriate for video surveillance installation.

False sense of security While video surveillance is effective in heightening campus safety, it's important to also have the necessary security staff and law enforcement patrolling the grounds. Configuration Considerations for Security Cameras on Campus Providing proper video surveillance over an entire campus community is almost like monitoring a small city. There are so many different types of facilities and settings that require continuous monitoring, with the safety of students, faculty, and school property at stake. The following factors should be considered when setting up a campus surveillance system: Have there been instances of violence on campus? Is vandalism a strong concern? Is there a history of damage to school property? Is the campus properly lit at night? Are there trouble areas on campus that require special attention? What is the frequency of burglaries on campus? Have there been instances of crime and theft in campus parking lots? What types of security systems are in place currently? Is the campus well-staffed with security personnel? What type of security is employed when school is out of session? Best Practices for Video Surveillance on College and University Campuses Places cameras near entrances and exits to school buildings. Install surveillance for campus parking lots. Mount cameras in at-risk areas such as poorly lit walking paths and locations where students and faculty might find themselves alone and defenseless. Position cameras in campus stores, cashier offices, and other areas where money is exchanged. Have proper video surveillance for sports facilities. Monitor common areas such as stairways, lobbies Install security cameras for enhanced security at residence halls.

Writ mandamus on cctv cameras in college?

http://w w w .law y Experts








Category : Constitutional Law | This query is : resolved

author : Anonymous
Posted On 30 September 2011

Dear Sir, A college Governing Council(deemed Univ.) based on a report of educationist,installs CCTV cameras in campus,class rooms,& connect to internet, to have "academic exllence & discipline.". A girl student was scolded by her parents, for chatting with boys & she is depressed.. Students' forum Association wants to file writ in HC, seeking Writ Mandamus to direct Govrning council of college to remove. Can it be possible & on what grounds students forum be successful? Can writ stand & under what article they can take shelter or college can restrict privacy of students? Experts,Please guide. I will be thankful.

In my opinion it is not a ground for filing a writ in the high court. Her parents may be from traditional family they may not like chatting with boys. It is the duty of the girl to convince her parents. By installing the CC Tv wont solve the problem. Expert :

adv. rajeev ( rajoo )

Posted On 01 October 2011

Expert :

Posted On 01 October 2011

The installation of the CCTV is within the premises of the College Campus. There is no privacy issue involved here. The CCTVs have not been installed in any of the private premises belonging to the students. Therefore, as rightly opined by Mr. Rajeev, there exists no ground for obtaining writ of mandamus. It is not clear how does the parents come to know whether the girl was chatting with boys or not through the CCTV? While it is not a crime or wrong on the part of the girl to chat with the boys in the college, if the parents scold the girl it is for the girl to take up with her parents and tell them that she is not doing anything wrong. In any case, there is nothing for her to get depressed about. Her education should have made her strong to stand up and face such things in life.

I agree with opinions of both experts.

Expert :

Shailesh Kr. Shah

Posted On 01 October 2011

I do go with my seniors.

Expert :


Posted On 01 October 2011

Mr.Ramachandran! parents of girls came to know only because the CCTVs are connected with internet also so that educationalist independent valuers may have an opportunity to watch the college campus and class rooms for their evaluation and recommendations. Expert :

prabhakar give birth to any change in circumstances so far as right to writ of students singh are concerned.

But i think merely CCTV connected to net with purpose aforesaid,can NOT

Posted On 01 October 2011

I do agree with the views of both experts. There is no merit in the proposed idea of filing in writ. CCTVs are being installed in each and every office and institution to check such things, against which you want to lodge complaint.

Expert :

raj kumar makkad

Posted On 01 October 2011

writ cannot be filed against individual or private institutions.

Expert :

Posted On 01 October 2011

If it is a private college, writ petition will not be maintainable. However, U may file a suit for mandatory injunction for removal of CCTVs.

Expert :

Chanchal Nag Chowdhury

Posted On 01 October 2011

Writ can be filed against private institutions if the fundamental rights are violated.

Expert :

Advocate. Arunagiri

Posted On 01 October 2011

Expert Advocate. Arunagiri! will you kindly explore if fundamental rights are, here on facts given, violated????????

Expert :

prabhakar singh

Posted On 01 October 2011

author : Anonymous
Posted On 02 October 2011

Dear Sirs, Thanks for your valuable replies.. That girl students' parents( not trasditional) are beaurocrats... & the college has connected these CCTVs to internet.. Is any individual's privacy infringed? May be the students may think only of this ground,while approaching the courts... If discipline/security (getting compromised) is beyond control then college should not have connected CCTV cams to net & kept a watch themselves than on net. Please guide.

There are no privacies much less individual privacies violated by installation

of CCTVs in the instant case. Therefore, there is hardly any case for seeking writ remedy. In any case, no one can stop any one from seeking writ remedy against any perceived violation of ones fundamental right. Expert :

Posted On 02 October 2011

Benefits of Security Cameras in College Campuses By Laura Wattenberg Ads by Google School of Engineering AIT www.set.ait.ac.th Top Engineering School in Research Thailand, Scholarships upto 100% SMS Marketing in Retail www.clickatell.com Learn how to Stand Out with SMS. This Festive Season - Dowload Guide 2 MAs in Criminology www.um.edu.mt/imp University of Malta & Western Michigan University Security Cameras have gradually gained popularity because of the incorporation of unique features in them. The use of these cameras is not restricted to homes or business place only as they are being widely used in laboratories, museums, old age homes, schools and college campuses as well. These cameras monitor the subjects moving around and record their video footage. This footage acts as evidence whenever required to nab the intruders or mischievous elements in the college campus. Installation of security cameras in college campuses is helpful in providing security to the college property and protection to the students. These cameras offer 24/7 surveillance which further provides a safe and peaceful

campus to students and helps in creating a healthy environment which is free from any kind of criminal activity. These cameras can be installed at the entrance, exit of the college building, in the parking area, ground, auditorium, library, accountant's office and many other places. These cameras closely observe these areas and are advantageous to investigate any type of past criminal and violent act to deter the criminal activities. The security cameras come in a wide variety like indoor and outdoor cameras, dome cameras, bullet cameras, hidden cameras, vandal proof cameras and many more. These cameras are equipped with some unique features like remote surveillance which makes it possible to view live footage of the area monitored through internet while sitting in any part of the world. The vandal-proof cameras can withstand any kind of attempt of destruction by anti-social elements in college. Besides being vandal proof, these cameras are also tamper resistant and puncture-proof which assures the users of their sound working. Though, security cameras are an effective and efficient way to maintain peace in college campuses, it is highly important for the college community members to remain active in the security provision and monitoring the unscrupulous elements prevalent in campus. CloseOutCCTV.com is an online store which is popular for offering high quality surveillance products including security cameras, digital video recorders, CCTV accessories and many more. We offer free ground shipping as well as free lifetime technical support on all the items purchased from us. For further information, please visit http://www.closeoutcctv.com. Laura Wattenberg have written many articles on various topics. For more details about security cameras, visit us at http://www.closeoutcctv.com Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Laura_Wattenberg

CITY COLLEGES INSTALL CCTV CAMERA Times of India: City colleges are in the process of setting up CCTV cameras on their campuses, as per the instructions of the police in the backdrop of the blast in German Bakery in the city on February 13 this year. While some institutes already have the cameras in place, others are in the process of

working out the details. Rajendra Zunjarao, principal, Modern College, told TOI that 21 of the approved 32 cameras have been installed and the rest will be set up in the second phase. The monitoring is done in the principals and the viceprincipals cabins, he said, adding, We have explained to the students the necessity for doing so, and they have been completely cooperative. Similarly, Ravindrasinh Pardeshi, principal, Fergusson College, said that as many as 12 cameras have been installed to keep vigil on the campus. We installed the CCTV cameras after a detailed study of our security requirements. The changing face of security in the city has deemed these cameras a necessity, and thats the best way to keep out trespassers. The objective of the exercise has been spelt out clearly to the students, and everyone realises how important it is. For his part, J R Pathare, HR and administrative head, Symbiosis society, said the cameras were in place on various campuses in the city. Of course, it is very difficult to have them everywhere. But we have covered important areas mainly the academic buildings. Though it is a heavy investment, there is no doubt that the cameras act as a deterrent against any untoward activity. Vaijanti Joshi, principal, ILS Law College, said the authorities were in the process of a feasibility check before setting up the cameras. Our campus is huge, with multiple entry points, and not even a hundred cameras would be enough. It is, therefore, imperative to closely examine which spots and areas need maximum vigilance, she said. Bhagwan Thakur, principal of Nowrosjee Wadia College, affirmed that an inhouse meeting had already approved the CCTV cameras, and the equipment would be installed soon. The minimum cost of a CCTV camera is upwards of Rs 10,000, and the investment required for the same depends on the make and number of machines set up within a particular campus