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GRE

Sentence Completion
기출 문제집

- PP2, 10 회분(95-99),
회분
8 회분(91-94),
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정 리 : 강 상 흥
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1. In scientific studies, supporting evidence is much more satisfying


to report than are discredited hypotheses, but, in fact, the__________
of errors is more likely to be_______ than is the establishment of
probable truth.
formulation . . permitted
correction . . ignored
detection . . useful
accumulation . . agreeable
refinement . . conditional

2. Although skeptics say financial problems will prob-


ably ________our establishing a base on the Moon,
supporters of the project remain _______, saying
that human curiosity should overcome such pragmatic
constraints.
beset . . disillusioned
hasten . . hopeful
postpone . . pessimistic
prevent . . enthusiastic
allow . . unconvinced

3. The state of a nation's science determines its prosperity


and political power, and scientists should not_______ this
relationship even if their own interest in science is of a less
practical nature.
overlook
consider
overestimate
rely on
notice

4. All_______ biological traits fall into one of two


categories: those giving their possessors greater
________the environment and those rendering them
more independent of it.
widespread . . detachment from
beneficial . . control over
successful . . freedom from
neutral . . compatibility with
harmful . . advantage in

5. Most histories of science are success stories that


conclude on _______ note with the fin_______ of a
theory that is the basis of subsequent inquiries by

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later researchers.
a retrospective . .e xtrapolation
an analytic . . rebuttal
an objective . . rationalization
a positive . . refutation
a triumphal . . ascendancy

6. Whereas the Elizabethans struggled with the transition from


medieval ________ experience to modern individualism, we
confront an electronic technology that seems likely to reverse
the trend, rendering individualism obsolete and interdepen-
dence mandatory.
literary
intuitive
corporate
heroic
spiritual

7. The a tempt to breed suitable varieties of jojoba by using


hybridization to_______ favorable traits was finally aban-
doned in favor of a simpler and much faster ________: the
domestication of flourishing wild strains.
eliminate . . alternative
reinforce . . method
allow . . creation
reduce . . idea
concentrate . . theory

8. In spite of the increasing_______ of their opinions, the group


knew they had to arrive at a consensus so that the award could
be presented.
impartiality
consistency
judiciousness
incisiveness
polarity

9. Supporters praised the mayor's a action as a speedy and judicious


solution, but critics condemned it as _______ and unfairly influenced
by recent events.
innocuous
fortuitous
beguiling
discreet

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premature

10. Although frequent air travelers remain unconvinced, researchers


have found that, paradoxically, the_______ disorientation inherent
in jet lag also may yield some mental health _______.__
temporal . . benefits
acquired . . hazards
somatic . . disorders
random . . deficiencies
typical . . standards

11. Some artists immodestly idealize or exaggerate the significance


of their work; yet others________ to exalt the role of the artist, re-
ject a transcendent view of art.
appearing
disdaining
seeking
failing
tending

12. Calculus, though still indispensable to


science and technology, is no longer
_______; it has an equal partner called
discrete mathematics.
preeminent
pertinent
beneficial
essential
pragmatic

13. Usually the first to spot data that were inconsistent


with other findings, in this particular experiment she
let a number of _______ results slip by.
inaccurate
verifiable
redundant
salient
anomalous
14. Despite its________, the book deals _______ with a number
of crucial issues.
optimism . . cursorily
importance . . needlessly
virtues . . inadequately
novelty . . strangely

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completeness . . thoroughly

15. Because the most recent research has _______ earlier criticism
of her work, one has to conclude that scientists who persist in
dismissing her contribution are either________ the latest findings
or simply obstinate.
disparaged . . satisfied with
refined . . preoccupied with
rejuvenated . . unmoved by
confirmed . . opposed to
invalidated . . ignorant of

16. Babcock's criticism of the business practices of


fellow merchants was colored by _______: the
more successful the other entrepreneurs, the
more bitterly they were _______.__
sensitivity . . courted
jealousy . . castigated
admiration . . admonished
ambivalence . . dismissed
blame . . exonerated

17. Though his contemporaries tended to fixate


on the politician's supposed _______, his
personal correspondence _______ a
surprising largesse.
charity . . confirms
parsimony . . contradicts
avarice . . betrays
integrity . . reveals
generosity . . bespeaks

18. In contrast to more _______ publications of ever narrower


purview, the journal Antiquity has remained as __________
as it was when it began, continuing to serve the broader
interests of the discipline of archaeology.
atypical . . anomalous
specialized . . eclectic
diverse . . idiosyncratic
irrelevant . . superfluous
authoritative . . autocratic

19. If the theory is self-evidently true, as its proponents


assert, then why does _______ it still exist among

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well-informed people?
support for
excitement about
regret for
resignation about
opposition to

20. Religious philosopher that he was, Henry More


derived his conception of an infinite universe
from the Infinite God in whom he believed, a
benevolent God of _______ whose nature was
to create _______.__
plenitude . . abundance
vengeance . . justice
indifference . . suffering
indulgence . . temperance
rectitude . . havoc

21. According to some experts, modern science as it


emerged in the seventeenth century was essentially
a _______ calling: the culture of science was more a
_______ than a departure from ecclesiastical traditions.
scholarly . . recapitulation of
skeptical . . return to
religious . . continuation of
solemn . . recantation of
technical . . modification of

22. We first became aware that his support for the new
program was less than _______ when he declined
to make a speech in its favor.
qualified
haphazard
fleeting
unwarranted
wholehearted

23. Because of the excellent preservation of the fossil, anatomical


details of early horseshoe crabs were ________ for the first
time, enabling experts to_______ the evolution of the horse-
shoe crab.
scrutinized . . ensure
verified . . advance
identified . . dirt

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obscured . . illustrate
clarified . . reassess

24. Nothing _______ his irresponsibility better than his__________


delay in sending us the items he promised weeks ago.
justifies . . conspicuous
characterizes . . timely
epitomizes . . unnecessary
reveals . . conscientious
conceals . . inexplicable

25. The few dozen gray seals that have thus far died of canine
distemper can, at least for now, be considered _______, since
most of the remaining 200,000 gray seals appear uninfected
by the disease.
unexceptional
immune
anomalous
endangered
contagious

26. A century ago the physician's word was _______: to


doubt it was considered almost sacrilegious.
inevitable
intractable
incontrovertible
objective
respectable

27. So much of modern fiction in the United States is autobiographical,


and so much of the autobiography fictionalized, that the__________
sometimes seem largely _______.__
authors . . ignored
needs . . unrecognized
genres . . interchangeable
intentions . . misunderstood
misapprehensions . . uncorrected

28. Prior to the work of Heckel, illustrations of fish were


often beautiful but rarely_______ ; this cat, combined
with the________ nature of most nineteenth-century
taxonomic descriptions, often kept scientists from
recognizing differences between species.

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impressive . . inaccurate
realistic . . detailed
traditional . . progressive
precise . . inexact
distinctive . . sophisticated

29. Because modern scientists find the ancient Greek view of


the cosmos outdated and irrelevant, they now perceive it
as only of _______ interest.

historical
intrinsic
astronomical
experimental
superfluous

30. The challenge of interpreting fictional works written


under politically repressive regimes lies in distin-
guishing what is _______ to an author's beliefs, as
opposed to what is _______ by political coercion.

innate . . understood
organic . . imposed
contradictory . . conveyed
oblique . . captured
peripheral . . demanded

31. Although the intellectual and artistic achievements


of this ancient civilization were, even by modern
standards, extraordinarily _______, its level of
technical and mechanical development was by no
means _______ to that of modern technology.

primitive . . superior
diverse . . inimical
sophisticated . . comparable
primeval . . equivalent
influential . . subordinate

32. Although the genetic explanation of why some


people are right-handed whereas others are le ft-
handed is plausible, it has been effectively__________
by experiments in which genetically _______ mice
showed different paw preferences.

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verified . . related
challenged . . indistinguishable
tested . . altered
proven . . identical
destroyed . . complex

33. While T.S. Eliot maintained that poets themselves


were the best _______ of _______, C.S. Lewis
opposed this view, declaring that one did not have
to be a trained chef to be a discriminating gourmet.

mimics . . life
constructors . . rhyme
critics . . verse
conservators . . aesthetics
interpreters . . sensation

34. Paradoxically, altruism may in fact be _______ if it


aids only one's c lose relatives.
stalwart
beneficent
rancorous
selfish
censorious

35. The discipline of sociology has finally achieved a


degree of consensus: however _______ their indi-
vidual interpretations and emphases might be, most
sociologists now ________ a single broad conception
of the field.
different . . share
uncontroversial . . champion
limited . . reject
divergent . . dispute
concordant . . acknowledge

36. By forcing our surrender to the authority of the


clock, systematic timekeeping has imposed a
form of _______ on society.
anarchy
permanence
provincialism
tyranny

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autonomy

37. The meeting seemed _______, not just because deci-


sions were made with excessive deliberation, but also
because the director was so ________ as to provoke
extremely lengthy debate.
abbreviated . . distracted
interminable . . tendentious
methodical . . persuasive
endless . . amenable
overwhelming . . withdrawn

38. The reception given to Kimura's radical theory of


molecular evolution shows that when _______ fights
orthodoxy to a draw, then novelty has seized a good
chunk of space from convention.
imitation
reaction
dogmatism
invention
caution

39. Although they were not direct _______, the new a


arts of the Classical period were clearly created
in the spirit of older Roman models and thus
_______ many features of the older style.

impressions … introduced
translations . . accentuated
copies . . maintained
masterpieces . . depicted
borrowings . . improvised

40. Overall, the evidence was inconclusive as to whether


the adjustment to the inflated estimates would __________
their accuracy or instead________ the actual amount.
compromise . . magnify
confirm . . validate
disprove . . pinpoint
verify . . distort
improve . . understate

41. Perhaps there is a shortcoming in the script, but the


film's poor reviews may also be a function of one

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or two _______ casting decisions in an otherwise


_______ production.
fitting . . magnificent
faulty . . solid
deliberate . . cautious
has y . . mediocre
confusing . . perplexing

42. As a means of _______ a tempestuous confrontation,


the labor arbitrator advised the opposing parties to
_______ their positions.
promoting . . qualify
calming . . reinforce
neglecting . clarity
appraising . . soften
defusing . . moderate

43. One of archaeology's central dilemmas is how to


reconstruct the_______ of complex ancient societies
from meager and often _______ physical evidence.

riddles . . obsolete
details . . irrefutable
intricacies . . equivocal
patterns . . flawless
configurations . . explicit

44. That she seemed to prefer _______ to concentrated


e fort is undeniable; nevertheless, the impressive
quality of her finished paintings suggests that her
actual relationship to her art was anything but _______.__
preparation . . passionate
artfulness . . disengaged
dabbling . . superficial
caprice . . considered
indecision . . lighthearted

45. Unenlightened authoritarian managers rarely recognize a crucial


reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of
democratically run work groups: a modicum of tolerance for
dissent often prevents _______.__
demur
schism
cooperation

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compliance
shortsightedness

46. The natures of social history and lyric poetry are _______, social history always
recounting the __________ and lyric poetry speaking for unchanging human
nature, that timeless essence beyond fashion and economics.
predetermined . . bygone
antithetical . . evanescent
interdependent . . unnoticed
irreconcilable . . unalterable
indistinguishable . . transitory

47. Despite the fact that it is almost universally _______, the practice
of indentured servitude still_______ in many parts of the world.
condemned . . abates
tolerated . . survives
proscribed . . persists
mandated . . lingers
disdained . . intervenes
48. Ironically, the proper use of figurative language
must be based on the denotative meaning of the
words, because it is the failure to recognize this
_____ meaning that leads to mixed metaphors
and their attendant incongruity.
esoteric
literal
latent
allusive
symbolic

49. Having sufficient income of her own constituted for


Alice _______ independence that made possible
a degree of _______ in her emotional life as well.
a material . . security
a profound . . conformity
a financial . . economy
a psychological . . extravagance
an unexpected . . uncertainty

50. The credibility of her _______ description of the


conflicts experienced by many contemporary
women in their everyday lives was undermined by
her _______ conclusions.
even-handed . . partisan

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biased . . lopsided
detailed . . careful
general . . far-reaching
realistic . . valid

51. Her tone of voice _______ him: he could not tell


whether she was being ________ or whether he was
to take her comment literally.
offended . . genuine
puzzled . . direct
comforted . . kind
reassured . . condescending
perplexed . . sarcastic

52. Mathematics consists of a group of languages


that are more stable than any _______ language;
mathematical symbols do not _______ their
meanings as words do.
developed . . substitute
written . . translate
traditional . . require
verbal . . change
explicit . . conceal

53. While many people utilize homeopathic


remedies to treat health problems, other
people do not _______ such alternative
treatments, _______ conventional medical
treatments instead.
distrust . . employing
embrace . . eschewing
reject . . envisioning
countenance . . relying on
recommend . . turning from

54. From Neolithic pottery to twentieth-century posters, the


extent and variety of the arts in China_______ those
who search for continuity; nonetheless, certain __________
values are reflected in China's artistic traditions.
confound . . enduring
abet . . pervasive
inform . . intangible
entice . . diverse
alienate . . distinctive

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55. Paleontologists' assumptions about the equable nature of


the climate on the primeval island of Pangaea are __________
computer simulations indicating that the island's temperatures
tended to _______ during the course of a year.
based on . . cool
confirmed by . . vary
challenged by . . stabilize
bolstered by . . soar
undermined by . . fluctuate

56. Whereas historians once maintained that science is


________ other enterprises, they have come to realize
that science is actually_______ the values, social
assumptions, and intellectual traditions of a particular
historical period.
related to . . informed by
ancillary to . . secondary to
tantamount to . . equivalent to
distinct from . . intertwined with
dependent on . . influenced by

57. Chinese art has no _______ the powerfully explicit


antiwar paintings of the West, but_______ subtlety
and indirection to express political thought.
panacea for . . passes by
diversion from . . defers to
counterpart for . . relies on
intimation of . . alludes to
derivative of . . refrains from

58. Breakdowns in communication between intimates


may occur because the _______ of the relationship,
ironically, may________ openness.
depth . . necessitate
closeness . . discourage
reciprocity . . foster
juxtaposition . . offset
precariousness . . facilitate

59. Often the argument against philanthropy has the


effect of_______ the character of philanthropists but
not necessarily _______ their work: they may have
done good in spite of themselves.

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describing . . explaining
aggrandizing . . acknowledging
emphasizing . . citing
impugning . . discrediting
obscuring . . attacking

60. The novelist devotes so much time to avid descriptions


of his characters' clothes that the reader soon feels that
such ________ concerns, although worthy of attention,
have superseded any more directly literary aims.
didactic
syntactical
belletristic
sartorial
frivolous

61. Ecologists who believe that naturally occurring fires


can o ten _______ an ecosystem are worried by calls
for a policy of _______ all forest fires.
alter . . investigating
damage . . fighting
benefit . . suppressing
unbalance . . extinguishing
rejuvenate . . studying

62. Mathematicians have a distinctive sense of beau y:


they strive to present their ideas and results in a
clear and compelling fashion, dictated by __________
as well as by logic.
caprice
aesthetics
obligation
methodologies
intellect

63. Carruthers' latest literary criticism_______ her reputation


for trenchant commentary; despite its intriguing title and the
fulsome praise on its dust jacket, it is nothing more than a
collection of _______.
reinforces . . pronouncements
belies . . platitudes
prejudices . . insights
advances . . aphorisms
undermines . . judgments

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64. The ________ of gamblers' unsuccessful


decision strategies is one _______ of
the illusions built into games of chance
in order to misguide players and take
their money.
distortion . . outcome
restriction . . result
maintenance . . function
prediction . . accomplishment
demonstration . . prerequisite

65. That the new group was unable to weather its first staff
meeting without evidence of the same _______ that its
creation was intended to abolish did not ________ future
harmony among coworkers.
cooperation . . ensure
facade . . realize
factions . . augur
diligence . . subdue
ventures . . suggest

66. The prevailing union of passionate interest in detailed


facts with equal devotion to abstract_______ is a
hallmark of our present society; in the past this union
appeared, at best, _______ and as if by chance.
data . .e xtensively
philosophy . .cyclically
generalization . . sporadically
evaluation . . opportunely
intuition . . selectively

67. The author did not see the _______ inherent


in her scathing criticism of writing style so
similar to her own.
disinterest
incongruity
pessimism
compliment
symbolism

68. The author is _______ to identify any particular prin-


ciple as fundamental, insisting instead that it is only
when viewed within specific contexts that principles

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can be _______.__
reluctant . . modified
unable . . relinquished
loathe . . assessed
unlikely . . violated
wrong . . justified

69. As _______ as she was to the widespread dissatisfaction


with her performance on the job, it is no wonder that she
greeted the news of her dismissal with _______.__
receptive . . disdain
acquiescent . . temerity
oblivious . . astonishment
vulnerable . . uncertainty
responsive . . apathy

70. The scientist found it puzzling that his


rival's theory retained its_______ despite
widespread suggestions that it was now _______.__
perspective . . dated
currency . . moribund
appeal . . accepted
complexity . . unfathomable
credibility . . recognized

71. In keeping with the well-established custom that


even the most favorable review should include
some _______, the reviewer follows her _______ the
book's prose with some objections to its
implementations of theory.
equivocations . . quibbles with
accolades . . attack on
reservations . . praise of
disparagements . . criticism of
compliments . . consideration of

72. Even among those findings in the field of


nuclear physics that have _______, many
have been subject to repeated challenges
on the basis of new evidence.
arisen
survived
declined
been proposed

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been questioned

73. The economists were _______ to find that the


theory that they had considered __________
crumbled when modern techniques for
economic modeling made it possible to make
new kinds of observation that contradicted its
fundamental assumptions.
surprised . . problematic
overjoyed . . useful
stunned . . invulnerable
disappointed . . faulty
astonished . . suspect

74. One reason for the development of junior high


schools in the United States was _______:
these schools provided an efficient and
inexpensive way to avoid overcrowding in the
high schools.
inequality
parity
expediency
ineptitude
instability

75. Even though some of the variables identified


in Chang's study of personality types are
inherently _______, the application of that
study's results predicts human behavior with
considerable _______.__
reliable . . accuracy
common . . universality
nebulous . . specificity
abstruse . . error
interesting . . sophistication

76. Just as the authors' book on eels is often a key text


for courses in marine vertebrate zoology, their ideas
on animal development and phylogeny _______ teach-
ing in this area.
prevent
defy
replicate
inform

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use

77. Many more eighteenth-century novels were written by


women than by men, but this dominance has, until very
recently, been regarded merely as ________ fact, a bit
of arcane knowledge noted only by bibliographers.
a controversial
a statistical
an analytical
an explicit
an unimpeachable

78. Often the difficulties of growing up in the public eye cause


child prodigies to_______ the world of achievement before
reaching adulthood; happily, they sometimes later return to
competition and succeed brilliantly.
ridicule
conquer
retire from
antagonize
examine

79. That many lawyers have acquired a reputation


for________ even the most solemn and binding
undertakings does not _______ discovery of
attorneys devoted to both legal and ethical right.
enforcing . . promote
articulating . . ensure
repudiating . . permit
disapproving . . produce
subverting . . preclude

80. While some argue that imposing tolls on highway


users circumvents the need to raise public t axes
for road maintenance, the phenomenal expense
of maintaining a vast network of roads __________
reliance on these general taxes.
avoids
diminishes
necessitates
discourages
ameliorates

81. The skeleton of ________ bird that was recently discovered

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indicated that this ancient creature________ today's birds


in that, unlike earlier birds and unlike reptilian ancestors, it
had not a tooth in its head.
a primeval . . obscured
a unique . . preempted
a primitive . . anticipated
a contemporary . . foreshadowed
an advanced . . differed from

82. According to one political theorist, a regime that has as


its goal absolute ______, without any_______ law or
principle, has declared war on justice.
respectability . . codification of
supremacy . . suppression of
autonomy . . accountability to
fairness . . deviation from
responsibility . . prioritization of

83. The remark was only slightly _______, inviting a chuckle,


perhaps, but certainly not a_______.__
audible . . reward
hostile . . shrug
amusing . . rebuke
coherent . . reaction
humorous . . guffaw

84. Estimating the risks of radiation escaping from a nuclear


power plant is _______ question, but one whose answer
then becomes part of a value-laden, emotionally charged
policy debate about whether to construct such a plant.
an incomprehensible
an undefined
an irresponsible
a divisive
a technical

85. Our highly _______ vocabulary for street crime contrasts sharply to
our _______ vocabulary for corporate crime, a fact that corresponds
to the general public's unawareness of the extent of corporate crime.
nuanced . . subtle
uninformative . . misleading
euphemistic . . abstract
differentiated . . limited
technical . . jargon-laden

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86. In modern English very few verb forms can be surely


identified as subjunctives, and the use of those few is
so irregular that_______ criteria for appropriate usage
are hard to infer.
obscure
irrelevant
alternative
definite
independent

87. Professional photographers generally regard inadvertent


surrealism in a photograph as a curse rather than a
blessing; magazine photographers, in particular, consider
themselves _______ to the extent that they ca__________
its presence in their photographs.
skillful . . enhance
inadequate . . eliminate
original . . demonstrate
fortunate . . minimize
conventional . . highlight

88. Doors were closing on our past, and soon the values we
had lived by would become so obsolete that we would seem
to people of the new age as _______ as travelers from an
ancient land.
elegant
ambitious
interesting
comfortable
quaint

89. Mechanisms develop whereby every successful


species can _______ its innate capacity for population
growth with the constraints that arise through its
interactions with the natural environment.
enhance
replace
produce
surpass
reconcile

90. It was not the _______ of great wealth--jewels,


limousines, palatial houses --that enticed him; rather,

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he was ________ by the illusion of complete freedom


that unlimited financial resources created.
grandeur . . unconvinced
responsibilities . . intimidated
trappings . . seduced
pageant . . appalled
rewards . . distressed

91. Ability to _______ is the test of the perceptive historian;


a history, after all, consists not only of what the historian
has included, but also, in some sense, of what has been
left out.
defer
select
confer
devise
reflect

92. Although the _______ of cases of measles has _______, _


researchers fear that eradication of the disease, once
believed to be imminent, may not come soon.
occurrence . . continued
incidence . . declined
prediction . . resumed
number . . increased
study . . begun

93. Although it seems _______ that there would be a greater


risk of serious automobile accidents in densely populated
areas, such accidents are more likely to occur in sparsely
populated regions.
paradoxical
axiomatic
anomalous
irrelevant
portentous

94. Because art is a_______ form of human expression,


the artist's approach to creation is_______ personal
experience.
dispassionate . . influenced by
typical . . detached from
unique . . detrimental to
subjective . . colored by

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figurative . . irrelevant to

95. When a person suddenly loses consciousness,


a bystander is not expected to _______ the problem
but to attempt to _______ its effects by starting vital
functions if they are absent.
cure . . precipitate
minimize . . predict
determine . . detect
diagnose . . counter
magnify . . evaluate

96. To label the 1950's in the United States a “golden age”


is somewhat _______; general prosperity increased
but the gains made by women in the workplace during
the Second World War were _______.
nostalgic . . perpetuated
facetious . . substantiated
disingenuous . . modified
misleading . . eroded
hyperbolic . . distributed

97. Many of the towns that have voted to keep incinerators


in the county's solid waste plan have done so not
because they necessarily _______ incinerators, but
because they are _______ to narrow their waste-
disposal options.
disdain . . expecting
favor . . inclined
dote on . . eager
approve of . . loath
deplore . . unwilling

98. It was lack of ecological awareness


that initially allowed physicians to view
the new “miracle-cure” antibiotics as
a permanent _______ to bacterial infections
rather than_______ victory over such diseases.
alternative . . a major
solution . . an interim
reaction . . a strategic
answer . . a hard-won
stimulus . . an ephemeral

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99. The senator's attempt to convince the public that he is not


interested in running for a second term is _______ given
the extremely _______ fund-raising activities of his
campaign committee.
futile .clandestine
sincere . . visible
specious . . apathetic
disingenuous . . public
straightforward . . dubious

100. The essays gathered in the volume are characterized


by ________ that________ their disparate origins.
a standard . . undermines
a permanence . . distorts
a similarity . . reinforces
a unity . . belies
an incompatibility . . disguises

101. Though he refused any responsibility for the


failure of the negotiations, Stevenson had no
right t_______ himself: it was his__________
that had caused the debacle.
blame . . skill
congratulate . . modes y
berate . . largesse
accuse . . obstinacy
absolve . . acrimony

102. To this reviewer, Esterman's play was a thoroughly


_______ exercise: both its laughter and its tears
seemed equally _______.
plausible . . improbable
trivial . . solemn
sentimental . . understated
artificial . . specious
creative . . stilted

103. Although a change in management may appear


to________ a shift in a company's fortunes,
more often than not its impact is _______.__
hinder . . measurable
promote . . demonstrable
accelerate . . profound
betray . . fundamental

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augur . . inconsiderable

104. Journalists often described the incumbent


senator as politically _______, despite the fact
that his record had established him as a more
_______ assessor of political possibilities and
personalities than either of his opponents had
shown themselves to be.
pragmatic . . efficient
opportunistic . . seasoned
naive . . shrewd
inept . . inexperienced
astute . . reliable

105. During a period of protracted illness, people who are sick


can become infirm, _______ both the strength to work and
many of the specific skills they once possessed.
regaining
denying
pursuing
insuring
losing

106. For centuries animals have been used as __________for


people in experiments to assess the effects of therapeutic
and other agents that might later be used in humans.
benefactors
companions
examples
precedents
surrogates

107. Candidates who oppose the present state income t ax


must be able to propose ________ ways to __________
the financing of state operations.
intelligent . . initiate
individual . . diversify
innovative . . alleviate
arbitrary . . maintain
alternate . . continue

108. Social tensions among adult factions can be __________


by politics, but adolescents and children have no such
_______ for resolving their conflict with the exclusive

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world of adults.
intensified . attitude
complicated . . relief
frustrated . . justification
adjusted . . mechanism
revealed . . opportunity

109. Exposure to low-intensity gamma radiation slows


the rate of growth of the spoilage microorganisms
in food in much the same way that the low heat
used in pasteurization _______ the spoilage action
of the microorganisms in milk.
precludes
initiates
inhibits
isolates
purifies

110. In some cultures the essence of magic is its


traditional integrity: it can be efficient only if it
has been _______ without loss from primeval
times to the present practitioner.
conventionalized
realized
transmitted
manipulated
aggrandized

111. Kagan maintains that an infant's reactions to its


first stressful experiences are part of a natural
process of development, not harbingers of child-
hood unhappiness or _______ signs of adolescent
anxiety.
prophetic
normal
monotonous
virtual
typical

112. Physicists rejected the innovative experimental


technique because, although it _______ some
problems, it also produced new ________._
clarified . . data
eased . . interpretations

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resolved . . complications
caused . . hypotheses
revealed . . inconsistencies

113. Marison was a scientist of unusual ________ and imagination


who had startling success in_______ new and fundamental
principles well in advance of their general recognition.
restiveness . . acknowledging
precision . . coordinating
aggression . . resisting
candor . . dispelling
insight . . discerning

114. Documenting science's ________ philosophy would be


____,since it is almost axiomatic that many philosophers use scientific
concepts as the foundations for their speculations.
distrust of . . elementary
influence on . . superfluous
reliance on . . inappropriate
dependence on . . difficult
differences from . . impossible

115. Her ________ should not be confused with miserliness; as


long as I have known her, she has always been willing to
assist those who are in need.
intemperance
intolerance
apprehension
diffidence
frugality

116. Although ancient tools were _______ preserved,


enough have survived to allow us to demonstrate
an occasionally interrupted but generally __________
progress through prehistory.
partially . . noticeable
superficially . . necessary
unwittingly . . documented
rarely . . continual
needlessly . . incessant

117. In parts of the Arctic, the land grades into the


landfast ice so _______ that you can walk off the
coast and not know you are over the hidden sea.

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permanently
imperceptibly
irregularly
precariously
slightly

118. It is puzzling to observe that Jones's novel has recently been


criticized for its________ structure, since commentators have
traditionally argued that its most obvious_______ is its
relentlessly rigid, indeed schematic, framework.
attention to . . preoccupation
speculation about . . characteristic
parody of . . disparity
violation of . . contradiction
lack of . . flaw

119. The spellings of many Old English words have


been _______ in the living language, although
their pronunciations have changed.
preserved
shortened
preempted
revised
improved

120. In the machinelike world of classical physics,


the human intellect appears _______, since the mechanical
nature of classical physics does not _______ creative
reasoning, the very ability that had made the formulation of classical
principles possible.
anomalous . . allow for
abstract . . speak to
anachronistic . . deny
enduring . . value
contradictory . . exclude

121. For some time now, _______ has been presumed not to
exist: thc cynical conviction that everybody has an angle
is considered wisdom.
rationality
flexibility
diffidence
disinterestedness
insincerity

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122. Unfortunately, his damaging attacks on the ramifications of


the economic policy have been _______ by his wholehearted
acceptance of that policy's underlying assumptions.
supplemented
undermined
wasted
diverted
redeemed

123. The characterization of historical analysis as a form of fiction is


not likely to be received_______ by either historians or literary
critics, who agree that history and fiction deal wit__________
orders of experience.
quietly . . significant
enthusiastically . . sting
passively . . unusual
sympathetically . . distinct
contentiously . . realistic

124. The state is a network of exchanged benefits and


beliefs, _______ between rulers and citizens
based on those laws and procedures that are
________ to the maintenance of community.
a compromise . . inimical
an interdependence . . subsidiary
a counterpoint . . incidental
an equivalence . . prerequisite
a reciprocity . . conducive

125. An investigation that is_______ can occasionally


yield new facts, even notable ones, but typically
the appearance of such facts is the result of a
search in a definite direction.
timely
unguided
consistent
uncomplicated
subjective

126. It comes as no surprise that societies have codes


of behavior; the character of the codes, on the other
hand, can often be _______.__
predictable

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unexpected
admirable
explicit
confusing

127. In a _______ society that worships efficiency, it is


difficult for a sensitive and idealistic person to make
the kinds of _______ decisions that alone spell
success as it is defined by such a society.
bureaucratic . . edifying
pragmatic . . hardheaded
rational . . well-intentioned
competitive . . evenhanded
modern . . dysfunctional

128. During the 1960's assessments of the family shifted


remarkably, from general endorsement of it as a
worthwhile, stable institution to widespread__________
it as an oppressive and bankrupt one whose
_______ was both imminent and welcome.
flight from . . restitution
fascination with . . corruption
rejection of . . vogue
censure of . . dissolution
relinquishment of . . ascent

129. The _______ of mass literacy coincided with


the first industrial revolution; in turn, the new
expansion in literacy, as well as cheaper
printing, helped to nurture the_______ of
popular literature.
building . . mistrust
reappearance . . display
receipt . . source
selection . . influence
emergence . . rise

130. The pressure of population on available resources is the key to


understanding history; consequently, any historical writing that
takes no cognizance of ________ facts is_______ flawed.
demographic . . intrinsically
ecological . . marginally
cultural . . substantively
psychological . . philosophically

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political . . demonstratively

131. Like many eighteenth-century scholars who lived


by cultivating those in power, Winckelmann
neglected to neutralize, by some ________ gesture
of comradeship, the resentment his peers were bound
to feel because of his _______ the high and mighty.
quixotic . . intrigue with
enigmatic . . familiarity with
propitiatory . . involvement with
salutary . . questioning of
unfeigned . . sympathy for

132. During the opera's most famous aria the tempo chosen by the
orchestra's conductor seemed _______, without necessary
relation to what had gone before.
tedious
melodious
capricious
compelling
cautious

133. The sheer diversity of tropical plants represents a


seemingly _______ source of raw materials, of which
only a few have been utilized.
exploited
quantifiable
controversial
inexhaustible
remarkable

134. Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened


intellectual, historians of th1960's portrayed him as __________
thinker, eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while
censuring ideas he did not like.
an adventurous
a doctrinaire
an eclectic
a judicious
a cynical

135. Natural selection tends to eliminate genes that cause


inherited diseases, acting most strongly against
the most severe diseases; consequently, hereditary

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diseases that are _______ would be expected to be very _______,


but, surprisingly, they are not.
lethal . . rare
untreated . . dangerous
unusual . . refractory
new . . perplexing
widespread . . acute

136. To have true disciples, a thinker must not be too _______:


any effective intellectual leader depends on the
ability of other people to _______ thought processes that
did not originate with them.
popular . . dismiss
methodical . . interpret
idiosyncratic . . reenact
self-confident . . revitalize
pragmatic . . discourage

137. In the midst of so many evasive comments, this


forthright statement, whatever its intrinsic merit,
plainly stands out as _______.__
a paradigm
a misnomer
a profundity
an inaccuracy
an anomaly

138. Our biological uniqueness requires that the effects of a


substance must be verified by ________ experiments, even
after thousands of tests of the effects of that substance
on animals.
controlled
random
replicated
human
evolutionary

139. For years manufacturers have tried to make chocolate


synthetically, wit_______ success, because chocolate
contains hundreds of substances and no one knows
which are responsible for its _______ flavor.
commercial . . special
average . . true
little . . distinctive

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meager . . artificial
considerable . . specific

140. Mathematics consists of a group of languages


that are more stable than any _______ language;
mathematical symbols do not _______ their
meanings as words do.
developed . . substitute
written . . translate
traditional . . require
verbal . . change
explicit . . conceal

141. While many people utilize homeopathic


remedies to treat health problems, other
people do not _______ such alternative
treatments, _______ conventional medical
treatments instead.
distrust . . employing
embrace . . eschewing
reject . . envisioning
countenance . . relying on
recommend . . turning from

142. From Neolithic pottery to twentieth-century posters, the


extent and variety of the arts in China_______ those
who search for continuity; nonetheless, certain __________
values are reflected in China's artistic traditions.
confound . . enduring
abet . . pervasive
inform . . intangible
entice . . diverse
alienate . . distinctive

143. Paleontologists' assumptions about the equable nature of


the climate on the primeval island of Pangaea are __________
computer simulations indicating that the island's temperatures
tended to _______ during the course of a year.
based on . . cool
confirmed by . . vary
challenged by . . stabilize
bolstered by . . soar
undermined by . . fluctuate

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144. Whereas historians once maintained that science is


________ other enterprises, they have come to realize
that science is actually_______ the values, social
assumptions, and intellectual traditions of a particular
historical period.
related to . . informed by
ancillary to . . secondary to
tantamount to . . equivalent to
distinct from . . intertwined with
dependent on . . influenced by

145. Before the Second World War, academics still ques-


tioned whether the body of literature produced in the
United States truly _______ a________ literature, or
whether such literature was only a provincial branch
of English literature.
symbolized . . local
constituted . . national
defined . . historical
outlined . . good
captured . . meaningful

146. In today's world, manufacturers' innovations are easily


copied and thus differences between products are
usually ________; advertisers, therefore, are forced
to _______ these differences in order to suggest the
uniqueness of their clients' products.
crucial . . downplay
minimal . . reduce
slight . . exaggerate
common . . emphasize
intrinsic . . create

147. The critics' evident_______ the new production


was somewhat _______ by their high regard for
the playwright's previous work.
admiration for . .offset
curios ity about . . dampened
hostility toward . . tempered
disappointment in . . disguised
awareness of . . frustrated

148. There is hardly a generalization that can be made about


people's social behavior and the values informing it that

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cannot be _______ from one or another point of view,


or even ________ as simplistic or vapid.
accepted . . praised
intuited . . exposed
harangued . . retracted
defended . . glorified
challenged . . dismissed

149. What these people were waiting for would not have been apparent
to others and was perhaps not very _______ their own minds.
obscure to
intimate to
illus ory to
difficult for
definite in

150. Today water is more _______ in landscape architecture


than ever before, because technological advances have
made it easy, in some instances even _______, to install
water features in public places.
conspicuous . . prohibitive
sporadic . . effortless
indispensable . . intricate
ubiquitous . . obligatory
controversial . . unnecessary

Answer:
C D A BE C B E E A B A E C E B C B E A C E E C C C C D A B C B C D A
D B D CE B E C C B BCBA A E D D A E D C B DD C B B CC C B CCB
C B CC C D B C E C C C EED DDEE C B BB DD D D B DD E D E C E
EE D CC A C E B E D B E A A D B D E B B B D E A CC D B A C E D C D
D A E DB C C E ED

34
1991 년 10 월 4. The eradication of pollution is not merely a matter of
___ , though the majestic beauty of nature is indeed an

Section 1 important consideration.


(A) economics
1. Contrary to the popular conception that it is powered (B) legislation
by conscious objectivity, science often operates (C) cleanliness
through error, happy accidents, ______ and persistence (D) aesthetics
in spite of mistakes. (E) restoration
(A) facts
(B) controls 5. Despite an agreement between labor and management
(C) hunches to keep the print and electronic media ______
(D) deductions developments, the details of the negotiations were
(E) calculations ______ all but a few journalists from the major
metropolitan newspapers.
2. The transition from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic era (A) abreast of.. disclosed to
is viewed by most art historians as a ____ , because, (B) involved in.. leaded to
instead of an increasingly ______ pictorial art, we find (C) apprised of.. withheld from
degeneration. (D) speculating about.. denied to
(A) milestone.. debased (E) ignorant of .. suppressed by
(B) consolidation.. diverse
(C) calamity.. aberrant 6. Word order in a sentence was much freer in Old French
(D) regression.. sophisticated than it is in French today, this _______ disappeared as
(E) continuation.. improved the French language gradually lost its case distinctions.
(A) restriction
3. Salazar's presence in the group was so _____ the others (B) license
that they lost most of their earlier ______ ; failure, for (C) similarity
them, became all but unthinkable. (D) rigidity
(A) reassuring to .. trepidation (E) imperative
(B) unnoticed by.. curiosity
(C) unusual to.. harmony 7. Whereas biologists must maintain a _____ attitude
(D) endearing to.. confidence toward the subjects of their research, social scientists
(E) unexpected by.. exhilaration must, paradoxically, combine personal involvement
and scholarly _____.
(A) scrupulous.. sympathy
(B) careful.. abandon
(C) casual.. precision
(D) passive.. passion
(E) disinterested.. detachment

1
Section 2

1. Read's apology to Heflin was not exactly abject and 5. An obvious style, easily identified by some superficial
did little to _____ their decades-long quarrel, which quirk, is properly_____ as a mere mannerism, whereas
had been as _____ as the academic etiquette of a complex and subtle style_____ reduction to a
scholarly journals permitted. formula.
(A) encourage.. sporadic (A) avoided.. risks
(B) dampen.. courteous (B) decried.. resists
(C) obscure.. ceremonious (C) prized.. withstands
(D) resolve.. acrimonious (D) identified ..consists of
(E) blur.. sarcastic (E) cultivated.. demands

2. Certain weeds that flourish among rice crops resist 6. If efficacious new medicines have side effects that are
detection until maturity by ______ the seedling stage commonly observed and ____, such medicines are too
in the rice plant's life cycle, thereby remaining often considered _____, even when laboratory tests
indistinguishable from the rice crop until the flowering suggest caution.
stage. (A) unremarkable.. safe
(A) deterring (B) unpredictable.. reliable
(B) displacing (C) frequent.. outdated
(C) augmenting (D) salutary.. experimental
(D) imitating (E) complicated.. useful
(E) nurturing
7. Although a few delegates gave the opposition's
3. Although the architect's concept at first sounded too suggestions a ______ response, most greeted the
_____ to be ____ , his careful analysis of every aspect statement of a counterposition with ______.
of the project convinced the panel that the proposed (A) favorable.. approval
building was indeed, structurally feasible. (B) dispirited.. reluctance
(A) mundane.. attractive (C) surly.. resentment
(B) eclectic.. appealing (D) halfhearted.. composure
(C) grandiose.. affordable (E) vitriolic.. civility
(D) innovative.. ignored
(E) visionary.. practicable 1 C 1 D
2 D 2 D
4. Gould claimed no ______ knowledge of linguistics, 3 A 3 E
but only a hobbyist's interest in language. 4 D 4 C
(A) manifest 5 C 5 B
(B) plausible 6 B 6 A
(C) technical 7 E 7 E
(D) rudimentary
(E) insignificant
2
1992 년 10 월

Section 1

1. A good doctor knows that knowledge about medicine (A) idealism.. cynicism
will continue to ----- and that, therefore, formal (B) individualism.. escapism
professional training can never be an ------- guide to (C) sectarianism.. recklessness
good practice. (D) assertiveness.. ambition
(A) vary.. adaptable (E) righteousness.. egalitarianism 답:(A)
(B) change.. absolute
(C) ossify.. inflexible 5. Old age, even in cultures where it is -------, is often
(D) pertain.. invaluable viewed with -------.
(E) intensify.. obsolescent 답:(B) (A) venerated.. ambivalence
(B) rare.. surprise
2. Foucault's rejection of the concept of continuity in (C) ignored.. condescension
Western thought, though radical, was not unique; he (D) feared.. dismay
had ------- in the United States who, without (E) honored.. respect 답:(A)
knowledge of his work, developed parallel ideas.
(A) critics 6. Unlike the easily studied neutral and ionized ------
(B) counterparts that compose the primary disk of the Milky Way itself,
(C) disciples the components of the ------- surrounding our galaxy
(D) readers have proved more resistant to study.
(E) publishers 답:(B) (A) figments.. envelope
(B) essences.. fluctuations
3. In retrospect. Gordon's students appreciated her ----- (C) elements.. problems
assignments, realizing that such assignments were (D) calculations.. perimeter
specifically designed to ----- original thought rather (E) materials.. region 답:(E)
than to review the content of her course.
(A) didactic.. ingrain 7. Although normally -------, Alison felt so strongly about
(B) intimidating.. thwart the issue that she put aside her reserve and spoke up at
(C) difficult.. discourage the committee meeting.
(D) conventional.. explicate (A) diffident
(E) enigmatic.. stimulate 답:(E) (B) contentious
(C) facetious
4. In sharp contrast to the intense ------- of the young (D) presumptuous
republic, with its utopian faith in democracy and hopes (E) intrepid 답:(A)
for eternal human progress, recent developments
suggest a mood of almost unrelieved ------

3
Section 4

1. Contrary to the antiquated idea that the eighteenth (A) honor


century was a ------- island of elegant assurance, (B) repudiate
evidence reveals that life for most people was filled (C) condone
with uncertainty and insecurity. (D) placate
(A) clannish (E) emulate 답:(B)
(B) declining
(C) tranquil 5. Although ----- is usually thought to spring from regret
(D) recognized for having done something wrong, it may be that its
(E) sprawling 답:(C) origin is the realization that one's own nature is
irremediably ------.
2. The insecticide proved -------, by killing the weak (A) contrition.. resilient
adults of a species, it assured that the strong ones would (B) certitude.. confident
mate among themselves and produce offspring still (C) skepticism.. innocent
more ------ to its effects. (D) remorse.. flawed
(A) ineffective.. hostile (E) resignation. frivolous 답:(D)
(B) cruel.. vulnerable
(C) feasible.. susceptible 6. Numerous historical examples illustrate both the
(D) necessary.. immune overriding influence that scientists' ------ have on their
(E) counterproductive.. resistant 답:(E) interpretation of data and the consequent -------of their
intellectual objectivity.
3. Many industries are so ------ by the impact of (A) prejudices.. impairment
government sanctions, equipment failure, and foreign (B) instruments.. abandonment
competition that they are beginning to rely on industrial (C) theories.. independence
psychologists to ------- what remains of employee (D) conclusions.. coloration
morale. (E) suppositions.. reinforcement 답:(A)
(A) estranged.. guard
(B) beleaguered.. salvage 7. From the outset, the concept of freedom of the seas
(C) overruled.. undermine from the proprietary claims of nations was challenged
(D) encouraged.. determine by a contrary notion-that of the ------ of the oceans for
(E) restrained.. confirm 답:(B) reasons of national security and profit.
(A) promotion
4. Fashion is partly a search for a new language to (B) exploration
discredit the old, a way in which each generation can (C) surviving
------ its immediate predecessor and distinguish itself. (D) conservation
(E) enclosure 답:(E)

4
1993 년 2 월

Section 2

1. The corporation expects only ------- increases in sales (A) lauded.. censure
next year despite a yearlong effort to revive its retailing (B) influenced.. analysis
business. (C) simulated.. ambivalence
(A) unquestionable (D) disparaged.. approbation
(B) sequential (E) honored.. adulation 답:(D)
(C) modest
(D) exaggerated 5. She writes across generational lines, making the past so
(E) groundless 답:(C) ------- that our belief that the present is the true locus of
experience is undermined.
2. No computer system is immune to a virus, a (A) complex
particularly malicious program that is designed to (B) distant
------- and electronically -------- the disks on which data (C) vivid
are stored. (D) mysterious
(A) prepare.. improve (E) mundane 답:(C)
(B) restore.. disable
(C) infect.. damage 6. Individual freedom of thought should be ------- more
(D) preserve.. secure absolutely than individual freedom of action, given that
(E) invade.. repair 답:(C) the latter, though also desirable, must be ------- the
limits imposed by the rights and freedom of others.
3. Recent research indicates that a system of particles (A) protected.. subject to
which has apparently decayed to randomness from (B) assessed.. measured by
------- state can be returned to that state; thus the system (C) valued.. superior to
exhibits a kind of memory of its ------- condition. (D) exercised.. indifferent to
(A) an equilibrium.. lesser (E) curtailed.. conscious of 답:(A)
(B) an ordered.. earlier
(C) an unusual.. settled 7. Their ----- was expressed in quotidian behavior: they
(D) a chaotic.. last worshipped regularly, ---- all the regenerative processes
(E) a higher.. present 답:(B) of nature respect, and even awe.
(A) selflessness.. reserving to
4. A number of writers who once greatly ------- the (B) moderation.. extending to
literary critic have recently recanted, substituting ------- (C) reverence.. exacting from
for their former criticism. (D) piety.. according
(E) serenity.. refusing 답:(D)

5
Section 5

1. My family often found others laughable, but I learned (A) intensification


quite early to be ——- while people were present, (B) authorization
laughing only later at what was funny and mocking (C) centralization
what to us seemed ——- (D) improvisation
(A) polite.. bizarre (E) elimination 답:(E)
(B) impatient.. unfortunate
(C) facetious.. enviable 5. The "impostor syndrome" often afflicts those who fear
(D) wistful.. extraordinary that true self-disclosure will lower them in others'
(E) superficial.. deplorable 답:(A) esteem; rightly handled, however, ------- may actually
------ one's standing.
2. The technical know-how, if not the political ------- (A) willfulness.. consolidate
appears already at hand to feed the world's exploding (B) imposture.. undermine
population and so to ----- at last the ancient scourges of (C) affectation.. jeopardize
malnutrition and famine. (D) candor. .enhance
(A) will.. weaken (E) mimicry.. efface 답:(D)
(B) expertise.. articulate
(C) doubt.. banish 6. The pungent verbal give-and-take among the characters
(D) power.. denounce makes the novel ------ reading, and this very -------
(E) commitment.. eradicate 답:(E) suggests to me that some of the opinions voiced may be
the author's.
3. In small farming communities, accident victims rarely (A) disturbing.. flatness
sue or demand compensation: transforming a personal (B) tedious.. inventiveness
injury into a ------- someone else is viewed as an (C) lively.. spiritedness
attempt to ------- responsibility for one's own actions. (D) necessary.. steadiness
(A) conspiracy against.. assume (E) rewarding.. frivolousness 답:(C)
(B) claim against.. elude
(C) boon for. .minimize 7. The fortresslike facade of the Museum of Cartoon Art
(D) distinction for.. shift seems calculated to remind visitors that the comic strip
(E) trauma for.. proclaim 답:(B) is an art form that has often been—— by critics.
(A) charmed
4. Dominant interests often benefit most from ------- of (B) assailed
governmental interference in business, since they are (C) unnoticed
able to take care of themselves if left alone. (D) exhilarated
(E) overwhelmed 답:(B)

6
1993년 4월

Section 2 (A) spectacular.. conventional


(B) blundering.. artistic
(C) marginal.. inept
1. The fact that a theory is ------- does not necessarily (D) steady.. .accomplished
------- its scientific truth, which must be established by (E) dazzling.. unskilled 답:(D)
unbiased controlled studies.
(A) plausible.. ensure 5. Even though political editorializing was not -------
(B) popular.. limit under the new regime, journalists still experienced -----,
(C) venerable.. override though perceptible, governmental pressure to limit
(D) cohesive. Undermine dissent.
(E) cumbersome.. alleviate 답:(A) (A) restricted.. clear
(B) encouraged.. strong
2. It is difficult to distinguish between the things that (C) forbidden.. discreet
charismatic figures do ------- and those that are (D) commended.. overt
carefully contrived for effect. (E) permitted.. regular 답:(C)
(A) formally
(B) publicly 6. The trick for Michael was to ----- his son an illusory
(C) prolifically orderliness; only alone at night, when the boy was
(D) spontaneously asleep, could Michael ----- the chaos he kept hidden
(E) willfully 답:(D) from his son.
(A) explore with.. demonstrate
3. The development of containers, possibly made from (B) conjure for.. acknowledge
bark or the skins of animals, although this is a matter of (C) conceal from.. dispel
-------, allowed the extensive sharing of forage foods in (D) demystify for.. escape
prehistoric human societies. (E) endure with.. abandon 답:(B)
(A) record
(B) fact 7. The ------- costumes of Renaissance Italy, with their
(C) degree gold and silver embroidery and figured brocades, were
(D) importance the antithesis of Spanish -------, with its dark muted
(E) conjecture 답:(E) colors, plain short capes, and high collars edged with
small ruffs.
4. Although the young violinist's ------- performance, with (A) striking.. obliqueness
the orchestra demonstrated his technical competence, (B) extravagant.. profligacy
his uninspired style and lack of interpretive maturity (C) austere.. informality
labeled him as a novice musician rather than as a truly - (D) unpretentious.. asceticism
------ performer. (E) sumptuous.. sobriety 답:(E)

7
Section 5

1. The academic education offered to university students (A) echoes.. agreed on


is essential and must not be -------, but that does not (B) precludes.. under consideration
mean universities should -------- the extracurricular, yet (C) reflects.. in dispute
still important, aspects of university life. (D) obviates.. in doubt
(A) impeded.. promote (E) encourages. Confirmed 답:(C)
(B) debated.. victimize
(C) protected.. broaden 5. For someone as ------- as she, who preferred to speak
(D) maximized.. continue only when absolutely necessary. his relentless chatter
(E) compromised. neglect 답:(E) was completely -------.
(A) ingenuous.. ignorant
2. To understand fully the impact of global warming on (B) curt.. enchanting
the environment, one must recognize that the (C) cheerful. Idle
components of the problem are -------- and, therefore, a (D) laconic.. maddening
change in any one component will ------ the others. (E) forward.. pointless 답:(D)
(A) distinct.. influence
(B) unique.. clarify 6. Future generations will probably consider current
(C) linked.. affect speculations about humanity's place in the universe to
(D) cyclical.. negate be ------- omissions and errors; even rigorous scientific
(E) growing.. exacerbate 답:(C) views change, sometimes overnight.
(A) immune from
3. Although the Impressionist painters appeared to earlier (B) marred by
art historians to be ------- in their methods, recent (C) uncorrupted by
analyses of their brushwork suggest the contrary that, in (D) correct despite
fact, their technique was quite ------- (E) abridged by 답:(B)
(A) unstudied.. sophisticated
(B) idiosyncratic.. effective 7. Marshal Philippe Petain, unlike any other French
(C) eclectic.. naïve citizen of this century, has been, paradoxically, the
(D) lax.. fashionable object of both great veneration and great -------
(E) careless.. unpremeditated 답:(A) (A) reverence
(B) interest
4. Increased governmental alarm about global warming (C) empathy
----- the concerti among scientists that such warming is (D) contempt
occurring, though when to expect major effects is still (E) praise 답:(D)
-------.

8
1993 년 10 월 4. Many more eighteenth-century novels were written by
women than by men, but this dominance has, until very

Section 2 recently, been regarded merely as ------- fact, a bit of


arcane knowledge noted only by bibliographers.
(A) a controversial
1. In some cultures the essence of magic is its traditional (B) a statistical
integrity; it can be efficient only if it has been ------- (C) an analytical
without loss from primeval times to the present (D) an explicit
practitioner. (E) an unimpeachable 답:(B)
(A) conventionalized
(B) realized 5. All ------- biological traits fall into one of two
(C) transmitted categories: those giving their possessors greater -------
(D) manipulated the environment and those rendering them more
(E) aggrandized 답:(C) independent of it.
(A) widespread.. detachment from
2. Although skeptics say financial problems will probably (B) beneficial.. control over
--------- our establishing a base on the Moon. (C) successful.. freedom from
Supporters of the project remain ------, saying that (D) neutral.. compatibility with
human curiosity should overcome such pragmatic (E) harmful.. advantage in 답:(B)
constraints.
(A) beset.. disillusioned 6. One of archaeology's central dilemmas is how to
(B) hasten.. hopeful reconstruct the ------- of complex ancient societies from
(C) postpone.. pessimistic meager and often ------- physical evidence.
(D) prevent.. enthusiastic (A) riddles.. obsolete
(E) allow.. unconvinced 답:(D) (B) details.. irrefutable
(C) intricacies.. equivocal
3. Before the Second World War, academics still (D) patterns.. flawless
questioned whether the body of literature produced in (E) configurations.. explicit 답:(C)
the United States truly ------- a ------- literature, or
whether such literature was only a provincial branch of 7. Just as the authors' book on eels is often a key text for
English literature. courses in marine vertebrate zoology, their ideas on
(A) symbolized.. local animal development and phylogeny ------- teaching in
(B) constituted.. national this area.
(C) defined.. historical (A) prevent
(D) outlined.. good (B) defy
(E) captured.. meaningful 답:(B) (C) replicate
(D) inform
(E) use 답:(D)

9
Section 5

1. In some cultures the essence of magic is its traditional (A) a controversial


integrity; it can be efficient only if it has been ------- (B) a statistical
without loss from primeval times to the present (C) an analytical
practitioner. (D) an explicit
(A) conventionalized (E) an unimpeachable 답:(B)
(B) realized
(C) transmitted 5. All ------- biological traits fall into one of two
(D) manipulated categories: those giving their possessors greater -------
(E) aggrandized 답:(C) the environment and those rendering them more
independent of it.
2. Although skeptics say financial problems will probably (A) widespread.. detachment from
--------- our establishing a base on the Moon. (B) beneficial.. control over
Supporters of the project remain ------, saying that (C) successful.. freedom from
human curiosity should overcome such pragmatic (D) neutral.. compatibility with
constraints. (E) harmful.. advantage in 답:(B)
(A) beset.. disillusioned
(B) hasten.. hopeful 6. One of archaeology's central dilemmas is how to
(C) postpone.. pessimistic reconstruct the ------- of complex ancient societies from
(D) prevent.. enthusiastic meager and often ------- physical evidence.
(E) allow.. unconvinced 답:(D) (A) riddles.. obsolete
(B) details.. irrefutable
3. Before the Second World War, academics still (C) intricacies.. equivocal
questioned whether the body of literature produced in (D) patterns.. flawless
the United States truly ------- a ------- literature, or (E) configurations.. explicit 답:(C)
whether such literature was only a provincial branch of
English literature. 7. Just as the authors' book on eels is often a key text for
(A) symbolized.. local courses in marine vertebrate zoology, their ideas on
(B) constituted.. national animal development and phylogeny ------- teaching in
(C) defined.. historical this area.
(D) outlined.. good (A) prevent
(E) captured.. meaningful 답:(B) (B) defy
(C) replicate
4. Many more eighteenth-century novels were written by (D) inform
women than by men, but this dominance has, until very (E) use 답:(D)
recently, been regarded merely as ------- fact, a bit of
arcane knowledge noted only by bibliographers.

10
1994 년 2 월
4. Calculus, though still indispensable to science and

Section 1 technology, is no longer ----- ; it has an equal partner


called discrete mathematics.
1. If those large publishers that respond solely to popular (A) preeminent
literary trends continue to dominate the publishing (B) pertinent
market, the initial publication of new writers will (C) beneficial
depend on the writers' willingness to ------- popular (D) essential
tastes. (E) pragmatic 답 : (A)
(A) struggle against
(B) cater to 5. Demonstrating a mastery of innuendo, he issued several
(C) admire ----- insults in the course of the evening's conversation.
(D) flout (A) blunt
(E) elude 답 : (B) (B) boisterous
(C) fallacious
2. Candidates who oppose the present state income tax (D) veiled
must be able to propose ----- ways to ---- the financing (E) embellished 답 : (D)
of state operations.
(A) intelligent.. initiate 6. The ----- of gamblers' unsuccessful decision strategies
(B) individual.. diversify is one ----- of the illusions built into games of chance in
(C) innovative.. alleviate order to misguide players and take their money.
(D) arbitrary.. maintain (A) distortion.. outcome
(E) alternate.. continue 답 : (E) (B) restriction.. result
(C) maintenance.. function
3. Although strong legal remedies for nonpayment of (D) prediction.. accomplishment
child support are ---- , the delay and expense associated (E) demonstration.. prerequisite 답 : (C)
with these remedies make it ------- to develop other
options. 7. The natures of social history and lyric poetry are ------ ,
(A) unpopular.. useful social history always recounting the ------- and lyric
(B) required.. impossible poetry speaking for unchanging human nature, that
(C) available.. imperative timeless essence beyond fashion and economics.
(D) unavailing.. impractical (A) predetermined.. bygone
(E) nonexistent.. ridiculous 답 : (C) (B) antithetical.. evanescent
(C) interdependent.. unnoticed
(D) irreconcilable.. unalterable
(E) indistinguishable.. transitory 답 : (B)

11
Section 4

1. Exposure to low-intensity gamma radiation slows the (A) impressive.. inaccurate


rate of growth of the spoilage microorganisms in food (B) realistic.. detailed
in much the same way that the low heat used in (C) traditional.. progressive
pasteurization ------- the spoilage action of the (D) precise.. inexact
microorganisms in milk. (E) distinctive.. sophisticated 답 : (D)
(A) precludes
(B) initiates 5. Experienced and proficient, Susan is a good, ------
(C) inhibits trumpeter her music is often more satisfying than
(D) isolates Carol's brilliant but ------- playing.
(E) purifies 답 : (C) (A) virtuoso.. inimitable
(B) mediocre.. eccentric
2. In today's world, manufacturers' innovations are easily (C) competent.. influential
copied and thus differences between products are (D) amateur.. renowned
usually -------; advertisers, therefore, are forced to ------ (E) reliable.. erratic 답 : (E)
these differences in order to suggest the uniqueness of
their clients' products. 6. In the midst of so many evasive comments, this
(A) crucial.. downplay forthright statement, whatever its intrinsic merit, plainly
(B) minimal.. reduce stands out as --------
(C) slight.. exaggerate (A) a paradigm
(D) common.. emphasize (B) a misnomer
(E) intrinsic.. create 답 : (C) (C) a profundity
(D) an inaccuracy.
3. To avoid annihilation by parasites, some caterpillars are (E) an anomaly 답 : (E)
able to ----- periods of active growth by prematurely
entering a dormant state, which is characterized by the 7. Marshall's confrontational style could alienate almost
-------- of feeding. anyone: he even antagonized a board of directors that
(A) curtail.. suspension included a number of his supporters and that had a
(B) foster.. continuation reputation for not being easily ------
(C) prevent.. stimulation (A) intimidated
(D) mediate.. synthesis (B) mollified
(E) invert.. simulation 답 : (A) (C) reconciled
(D) provoked
4. Prior to the work of Heckel, illustrations of fish were (E) motivated 답 : (D)
often beautiful but rarely -------; this fact, combined
with the ---- nature of most nineteenth-century
taxonomic descriptions, often kept scientists from
recognizing differences between species.

12
1994 년 4 월

Section 1
(A) different.. disconnected
1. Paradoxically, England's colonization of North America (B) incompetent.. abysmal
was ----- by its success: the increasing prosperity of the (C) famous.. systematic
colonies diminished their dependence upon, and hence (D) mediocre.. unexciting
their loyalty to, their home country. (E) various.. coherent 답:(A)
(A) demonstrated
(B) determined 5. Although some consider forcefulness and ------- to be
(C) altered two traits desirable to the same degree, I think that
(D) undermined making a violent effort is much less useful than
(E) distinguished 답:(D) maintaining a steady one.
(A) promptness
2. Although Harry, Stack Sullivan is one of the most (B) persistence
influential social scientists of this century, his ideas are (C) aggression
now so ----- in our society that they seem almost (D) skillfulness
-------- (E) lucidity 답:(B)
(A) novel.. antiquated
(B) revolutionary.. fundamental 6. The popularity of pseudoscience and quack medicines
(C) commonplace .. banal in the nineteenth century suggests that people were very
(D) disputed.. esoteric ----- but the gullibility of the public today makes
(E) obscure.. familiar 답:(C) citizens of yesterday look like hard-nosed -------
(A) cautious.. educators
3. Her first concert appearance was disappointingly (B) sophisticated.. realists
perfunctory and derivative, rather than the-------- (C) rational.. pragmatists
performance in the -------style we had anticipated. (D) naive.. idealists
(A) talented.. tenuous (E) credulous.. skeptics 답:(E)
(B) prosaic.. classic
(C) artistic.. mechanical 7. Though extremely ------ about his own plans, the man
(D) inspired.. innovative allowed his associates no such privacy and was
(E) literal.. enlightened 답:(D) constantly ------- information about what they intended
to do next.
4. As is often the case with collections of lectures by ------ (A) idiosyncratic .. altering
authors, the book as a whole is ------, although the (B) guarded.. eschewing
individual contributions are outstanding in themselves. (C) candid.. uncovering
(D) reticent. . soliciting
(E) fastidious.. ruining 답:(D)

13
Section 4

1. Having sufficient income of her own constituted for (A) causality.. experimentation
Alice _____ independence that made possible a degree (B) empiricism.. facts
of _____ in her emotional life as well. (C) objectivity.. preconceptions
(A) a material.. security (D) creativity.. observation
(B) a profound.. conformity (E) conservatism.. assumptions 답:(C)
(C) a financial.. economy
(D) a psychological.. extravagance 5. James had idolized the professor so much for so long
(E) an unexpected.. uncertainty 답:(A) that even after lunching with her several times he
remained quite ______ in her presence, and as a result,
2. Copyright and patent laws attempt to encourage he could not really be himself.
innovation by ensuring that inventors are paid for (A) pleased
creative, so it would be_______ if expanded protection (B) disregarded
under these laws discouraged entrepreneurial (C) heartened
innovation by increasing fears of lawsuits. (D) relaxed
(A) desirable (E) inhibited 답:(E)
(B) coincidental
(C) ironic 6. However _____ they might be, Roman poets were
(D) natural bound to have some favorite earlier author whom they
(E) sensible 답:(C) would _____
(A) subservient.. imitate
3. Unfortunately, since courses in nutrition are often (B) independent .. inspire
_______ medical school curriculums. a family (C) original.. emulate
physician is __________ to be an enlightening source (D) creative.. admire
of general information about diet. (E) talented.. neglect 답:(C)
(A) questioned by.. encouraged
(B) encountered among.. unable 7. Human nature and long distances have made exceeding
(C) unappreciated by.. expected the speed limit a ____ tradition in the state, so the
(D) neglected in.. unlikely legislators surprised no one when, acceding to public
(E) squeezed into.. intended 답:(D) practice, they _____ increased penalties for speeding.
(A) disquieting.. endorsed
4. The success of science is due in great part to its (B) long-standing.. considered
emphasis on ________ : the reliance on evidence rather (C) controversial.. suggested
than _______ and the willingness to draw conclusions (D) cherished.. rejected
even when they conflict with traditional beliefs. (E) hallowed.. investigated 답:(D)

14
1994 년 10 월 4. Roman historians who study the period 30 B.C. to A.D.
180 can ------- the "Augustan peace" only by failing to

Section 1 recognize that this peace in many respects resembled


that of death.
(A) decry
1. Though environmentalists have targeted some (B) applaud
herbicides as potentially dangerous, the manufacturers, (C) ridicule
to the environmentalists' dismay, ------ the use of these (D) demand
herbicides on lawns. (E) disprove 답:(B)
(A) defy
(B) defer 5. Although Tom was aware that it would be ------ to
(C) defend display annoyance publicly at the sales conference, he
(D) assail could not -------- his irritation with the client's
(E) disparage 답:(C) unreasonable demands.
(A) inadvisable.. evince
2. To believe that a culture's achievement can be measured (B) efficacious.. suppress
by the ------- of its written material requires one to (C) pragmatic.. counter
accept that a page of junk mail is as ------- as a page of (D) captious.. express
great literature. (E) impolitic.. hide 답:(E)
(A) nature.. readable
(B) quality.. prevalent 6. It is no accident that most people find Davis' book
(C) timelessness.. understandable disturbing, for it is ------ to undermine a number beliefs
(D) applicability.. eloquent they have long ------- .
(E) volume.. valuable 답:(E) (A) calculated.. cherished
(B) annotated.. assimilated
3. Given the failure of independent laboratories to (C) intended.. denied
replicate the results of Dr. Johnson's experiment, only (D) anxious.. misunderstood
the most ------- supporters of her hypothesis would be (E) reputed.. anticipated 답:(A)
foolish enough to claim that it had been adequately
------- 7. One virus strain that may help gene therapists cure
(A) fastidious.. defined genetic brain diseases can enter the peripheral nervous
(B) partisan.. verified system and travel to the brain, ------- the need to inject
(C) vigilant.. publicized the therapeutic virus directly into the brain.
(D) enlightened.. researched (A) suggesting
(E) fervent.. undermined 답:(B) (B) intensifying
(C) elucidating
(D) satisfying
(E) obviating 답:(E)

15
Section 4

1. Artificial light _______ the respiratory activity of some (A) scarred by.. vitriolic
microorganisms in the winter but not in the summer, in (B) dominated by.. intimate
part because in the summer their respiration is already (C) filled with.. truculent
at its peak and thus cannot be _______ . (D) replete with.. competitive
(A) stimulates.. lessened (E) devoid of.. tolerant 답:(B)
(B) inhibits.. quickened
(C) reflects.. expanded 5. Because they have been so dazzled by the calendars
(D) elevates.. measured and the knowledge of astronomy possessed by the
(E) enhances.. increased 답:(E) Mayan civilization, some anthropologists have -------
achievements like the sophisticated carved calendar
2. Doreen justifiably felt she deserved recognition for the sticks of the Winnebago people.
fact that the research institute had been _____ a (A) described
position of preeminence, since it was she who had (B) acknowledged
______ the transformation. (C) overlooked
(A) reduced to.. controlled (D) defended
(B) raised to.. observed (E) authenticated 답:(C)
(C) mired in.. imagined
(D) maintained in.. created 6. Aptly enough, this work so imbued with the notion of
(E) returned to.. directed 답:(E) changing times and styles has been constantly _______
over the years, thereby reflecting its own mutability.
3. The prospects of discovering new aspects of the life of (A) appreciated
a painter as thoroughly studied as Vermeer are not, on (B) emulated
the surface_______ . (C) criticized
(A) unpromising (D) revised
(B) daunting (E) reprinted 답:(D)
(C) encouraging
(D) superficial 7. The sea was not an ______ the _____ of the windmill;
(E) challenging 답:(C) on the contrary, while the concept of the new invention
passed quickly from seaport to seaport, it made little
4. Even those siblings whose childhood was ------- headway inland.
familial feuding and intense rivalry for their parents' (A) element in.. evolution
affection can nevertheless develop congenial and even (B) issue in . . acceptance
----------- relationships with each other in their adult (C) aid to.. designers
lives. (D) obstacle to.. diffusion
(E) impediment to.. creation 답:(D)

16
최신기출 1 (95/4) 4. Though ---- in her personal life, Edna St. Vincent
Millay was nonetheless ---- about her work, usually
Section 1 producing several pages of complicated rhyme in a
day.
(A) jaded.. feckless
1.A computer program can provide information in ways (B) verbose.. ascetic
that force students to --- learning instead of being (C) vain.. humble
merely ---- of knowledge. (D) impulsive.. disciplined
(A) shore up .. reservoirs (E) self-assured.. sanguine
(B) accede to .. consumers
(C) participate in .. recipients 5. The children's ---- natures were in sharp contrast
(D) compensate for.. custodians to the even-tempered dispositions of their parents.
(E) profit from .. beneficiaries (A) mercurial
(B) blithe
2. The form and physiology of leaves vary according to (C) phlegmatic
the ---- in which they develop: for example, leaves (D) introverted
display a wide range of adaptations to different (E) artless
degrees of light and moisture.
(A) relationship 6. By ---- scientific rigor with a quantitative approach,
(B) species researchers in the social sciences may often have ---
(C) sequence their scope to those narrowly circumscribed topics that
(D) patterns are well suited to quantitative methods.
(E) environment (A) undermining.. diminished
(B) equating.. enlarged
3. One theory about intelligence sees ---- as the (C) vitiating.. expanded
logical structure underlying thinking and insists that (D) identifying.. limited
since animals are mute, they must be ---- as well. (E) imbuing.. broadened
(A) behavior.. inactive
(B) instinct.. cooperative 7. As early as the seventeenth century, philosophers
(C) heredity.. thoughtful called attention to the ---- character of the issue,
(D) adaptation.. brutal and their twentieth-century counterparts still approach
(E) language.. mindless it with ----.
(A) absorbing.. indifference
(B) unusual.. composure
(C) complex.. antipathy
(D) auspicious.. caution
(E) problematic.. uneasiness

17
Section 4

1. Since most if not all learning occurs through----, 4. The author argues for serious treatment of such arts
relating one observation to another, it would be as crochet and needlework, finding in too many art
strange indeed if the study of other cultures did not historians a cultural blindness --- to their ----
also illuminate the study of our own. textiles as a medium in which women artists pre-
(A) assumptions dominate.
(B) experiments (A) traceable.. prejudice against
(C) comparisons (B) opposed.. distrust of
(D) repetitions (C) referring.. need for
(E) impressions (D) reduced.. respect for
(E) corresponding.. expertise in
2. The new ---- of knowledge has created ----
people: everyone believes that his or her subject 5. Those who fear the influence of television deliberately
cannot and possibly should not be understood by ------ its persuasive power, hoping that they
might keep knowledge of its potential to effect social
others.
change from being widely disseminated.
(A) specialization.. barriers between (A) promote
(B) decline.. associations among (B) underplay
(C) redundancy.. complacency in (C) excuse
(D) disrepute.. concern for (D) laud
(E) suspect
(E) promulgation.. ignorance among

6. Because the high seriousness of their narratives


3. If a species of parasite is to survive, the host organ- resulted in part from their metaphysics, Southern
isms must live long enough for the parasite to writers were praised for their ---- bent.
---- ; if the host species becomes----, so do its (A) technical
(B) discursive
parasites.
(C) hedonistic
(A) atrophy.. healthy (D) philosophical
(B) reproduce.. extinct (E) scientific
(C) disappear.. widespread
(D) succumb.. nonviable 7. Far from being ----, Pat was always ---- to
appear acquiescent.
(E) mate.. infertile
(A) unctuous.. loath
(B) brazen.. reluctant
(C) ignoble.. concerned
(D) obsequious.. eager
(E) gregarious.. willing

18
4. The President reached a decision only after lengthy
최신기출 2 (95/10) ------, painstakingly weighing the ----opinions
expressed by cabinet members.
Section 2 (A) deliberation.. divergent
(B) confrontation.. unanimous
(C) relegation.. consistent
1. Though ---- to some degree, telling a small lie (D) speculation.. conciliatory
sometimes enables one to avoid ---- another's (E) canvassing.. arbitrary
feelings.
(A) necessary.. mollifying 5. Although just barely ---- as a writer of lucid prose,
(B) regrettable.. harming Jones was an extremely ---- editor who worked
(C) unfortunate.. exaggerating superbly with other writers in helping them improve
(D) attractive.. considering the clarity of their writing.
(E) difficult.. resisting (A) deficient.. muddling
(B) proficient.. contentious
2. Perhaps because scientists have been so intrigued by (C) adequate.. capable
dogs' superior senses of smell and hearing, researchers (D) appalling.. competent
have long ---- their eyesight, assuming that they (E) engaging.. inept
inhabit a drab, black-and-white world, devoid of
color. 6. The accusations we bring against others should be
(A) studied ---- ourselves; they should not ---- complacency
(B) coveted and easy judgments on our part concerning our own
(C) appreciated moral conduct.
(D) resented (A) definitions of.. produce
(E) underestimated (B) instructions to.. equate
(C) denigrations of.. exclude
3. Despite a string of dismal earnings reports, the (D) warnings to.. justify
two-year-old strategy to return the company to (E) parodies of.. satirize
profitability is beginning to ----.
(A) falter 7. Although the meanings of words may necessarily be
(B) disappoint liable to change, it does not follow that the lexicog-
(C) compete rapher is therefore unable to render spelling, in a
(D) work great measure, ----.
(E) circulate (A) arbitrary
(B) superfluous
(C) interesting
(D) flexible
(E) constant

19
Section 6 4. Before adapting to changes in values, many prefer to
----, to ---- the universally agreed-on principles
that have been upheld for centuries.
1. Some activists believe that because the health-care (A) innovate .. protect
system has become increasingly---- to those it (B) resist ..defend
serves, individuals must ---- bureaucratic impedi- (C) ponder .. subvert
ments in order to develop and promote new therapies. (D) vacillate ..publicize
(A) attuned.. avoid (E) revert .. ignore
(B) inimical.. utilize
(C) unresponsive ..circumvent 5. Although the records of colonial New England are
(D) indifferent.. supplement ---- in comparison with those available in France
(E) sensitized.. forsake or England, the records of other English colonies in
America are even more ----.
2. The acts of vandalism that these pranksters had (A) sporadic .. irrefutable
actually ---- were insignificant compared with those (B) sparse.. incontrovertible
they had ---- but had not attempted. (C) ambiguous.. authoritative
(A) hidden .. renounced (D) sketchy.. fragmentary
(B) advocated .. meditated (E) puzzling .. unquestionable
(C) inflicted .. dismissed
(D) committed .. effected 6. High software prices are frequently said to -------
(E) perpetrated .. contemplated widespread illegal copying, although the opposite
--- that high prices are the cause of the copying -- is
3. Though one cannot say that Michelangelo was an equally plausible.
impractical designer, he was, of all nonprofessional (A) contribute to
architects known, the most ---- in that he was the (B) result from
least constrained by tradition or precedent. (C) correlate with
(A) pragmatic (D) explain
(B) adventurous (E) precede
(C) empirical
(D) skilled 7. Because early United States writers thought that the
(E) learned mark of great literature was grandiosity and elegance
not to be found in common speech, they ---- the
vernacular.
(A) dissected
(B) avoided
(C) misunderstood
(D) investigated
(E) exploited

20
최신기출 3 (96/4A) 4. The documentary film about high school life was so
realistic and ---- that feelings of nostalgia flooded
Section 3 over the college-age audience.
(A) logical
(B) pitiful
1. It is assumed that scientists will avoid making ---- (C) evocative
claims about the results of their experiments because (D) critical
of the likelihood that they will be exposed when (E) clinical
other researchers cannot ---- their findings.
(A) hypothetical.. evaluate 5. Although Georgia O'Keeffe is best known for her
(B) fraudulent.. duplicate affinity with the desert landscape, her paintings of
(C) verifiable.. contradict urban subjects ---- her longtime residency in New
(D) radical.. contest York City.
(E) extravagant.. dispute (A) condemn
(B) obfuscate
2. As long as the nuclear family is ---- a larger kinship (C) attest to
group through contiguous residence on undivided (D) conflict with
land, the pressure to ---- and thus to get along with (E) contend with
relatives is strong.
(A) nurtured among.. abstain 6. Even though the survey was designated as an inter-
(B) excluded from.. compromise disciplinary course, it involved no real ---- of
(C) embedded in .. share subject matter.
(D) scattered throughout.. reject (A) encapsulation
(E) accepted by .. lead (B) organization
(C) synthesis
3. In contrast to the substantial muscular activity (D) discussion
required for inhalation, exhalation is usually a ---- (E) verification
process.
(A) slow 7. The failure of many psychotherapists to ---- the
(B) passive results of pioneering research could be due in part to
(C) precise the specialized nature of such findings: even ----
(D) complex findings may not be useful.
(E) conscious (A) understand.. baffling
(B) envision.. accessible
(C) utilize.. momentous
(D) reproduce.. duplicated
(E) affirm.. controversial

21
Section 7 4. The value of Davis' sociological research is com-
promised by his unscrupulous tendency to use
materials---- in order to substantiate his own
1. In the nineteenth century, novelists and claims, while ---- information that points to other
unsympathetic travelers portrayed the American possible conclusions.
West as a land of ---- adversity, whereas promoters (A) haphazardly.. deploying
and idealists created ---- image of a land of (B) selectively.. disregarding
infinite promise. (C) cleverly.. weighing
(A) lurid.. a mundane (D) modestly.. refuting
(B) incredible.. an underplayed (E) arbitrarily.. emphasizing
(C) dispiriting.. an identical
(D) intriguing.. a luxuriant 5. Once Renaissance painters discovered how to ----
(E) unremitting.. a compelling volume and depth, they were able to replace the
medieval convention of symbolic, two-dimensional
2. Honeybees tend to be more ---- than earth bees: space with the more ---- illusion of actual space.
the former, unlike the latter, search for food together (A) reverse.. conventional
and signal their individual findings to one another. (B) portray.. abstract
(A) insular (C) deny.. concrete
(B) aggressive (D) adumbrate.. fragmented
(C) differentiated (E) render.. realistic
(D) mobile
(E) social 6. He had expected gratitude for his disclosure, but
instead he encountered ---- bordering on hostility.
3. Joe spoke of superfluous and ---- matters with (A) patience
exactly the same degree of intensity, as though for (B) discretion
him serious issues mattered neither more nor less (C) openness
than did ----. (D) ineptitude
(A) vital.. trivialities (E) indifference
(B) redundant.. superficialities
(C) important.. necessities 7. The diplomat, selected for her demonstrated patience
(D) impractical.. outcomes and skill in conducting such delicate negotiations,
(E) humdrum.. essentials ---- to make a decision during the talks because any
sudden commitment at that time would have been ---.
(A) resolved.. detrimental
(B) refused.. apropos
(C) declined.. inopportune
(D) struggled.. unconscionable
(E) hesitated.. warranted

22
최신기출 4 (96/10) 4. Unlike many recent interpretations of Beethoven's
piano sonatas, the recitalist's performance was a
Section 1 delightfully free and introspective one; nevertheless,
it was also, seemingly paradoxically, quite ----.
(A) appealing
1. Because the monkeys under study are ---- the (B) exuberant
presence of human beings, they typically ---- (C) idiosyncratic
human observers and go about their business (D) unskilled
(A) ambivalent about .. welcome (E) controlled
(B) habituated to .. disregard
(C) pleased with .. snub 5. Species with relatively ---- metabolic rates, including
(D) inhibited by .. seek hibernators, generally live longer than those whose
(E) unaware of .. avoid metabolic rates are more rapid.
(A) prolific
2. Give he previously expressed interest and the (B) sedentary
ambitious tone of her recent speeches, the senator's (C) sluggish
attempt to convince the public that she is not inter- (D) measured
ested in running for a second term is ----. (E) restive
(A) laudable
(B) likely 6. Belying his earlier reputation for ---- as a negotiator,
(C) authentic Morgan had recently assumed a more ---- stance
(D) futile for which many of his erstwhile critics praised him.
(E) sincere (A) intransigence.. conciliatory
(B) impropriety.. intolerant
3. Many of her followers remain ---- to her, and (C) inflexibility.. unreasonable
even those who have rejected her leadership are (D) success.. authoritative
unconvinced of the ---- of replacing her during (E) incompetence.. combative
the current turmoil.
(A) opposed.. urgency 7. Although Irish literature continued to flourish after
(B) friendly.. harm the sixteenth century, a ---- tradition is ----
(C) loyal.. wisdom in the visual arts: we think about Irish culture in terms of
(D) cool.. usefulness the word, not in terms of pictorial images.
(E) sympathetic.. disadvantage (A) rich.. superfluous
(B) lively.. found
(C) comparable.. absent
(D) forgotten.. apparent
(E) lost.. extant

23
Section 4 4. Although Simpson was ingenious at ---- to appear
innovative and spontaneous, beneath the ruse he
remained uninspired and rigid in his approach to
1. Although sales have continued to increase since last problem-solving.
April, unfortunately the rate of increase has ----. (A) intending
(A) resurged (B) contriving
(B) capitulated (C) forbearing
(C) retaliated (D) declining
(D) persevered (E) deserving
(E) decelerated
5. She was criticized by her fellow lawyers not because
2. Although the mental process that creates a fresh and she was not ----, but because she so ---- pre-
original poem or drama is doubtless ---- that which pared her cases that she failed to bring the expected
originates and elaborates scientific discoveries, there number to trial.
is clearly a discernible difference between the crea- (A) well versed.. knowledgeably
tors (B) well trained.. enthusiastically
(A) peripheral to (C) congenial.. rapidly
(B) contiguous with (D) hardworking.. minutely
(C) opposed to (E) astute.. efficiently
(D) analogous to
(E) inconsistent with 6. Schlesinger has recently assumed a conciliatory atti-
tude that is not ---- by his colleagues, who con-
3. It is disappointing to note that the latest edition of tinue to ---- compromise.
the bibliography belies its long-standing reputation (A) eschewed.. dread
for ---- by ---- some significant references to (B) shared.. defend
recent publications. (C) questioned.. reject
(A) imprecision.. appropriating (D) understood.. advocate
(B) relevance.. adding (E) commended.. disparage
(C) timeliness.. updating
(D) meticulousness.. revising 7. The National Archives contain information so ----
(E) exhaustiveness.. omitting that researchers have been known never to publish
because they cannot bear to bring their studies to an
end.
(A) divisive
(B) seductive
(C) selective
(D) repetitive
(E) resourceful

24
4. Doors were closing on our past, and soon the values
최신기출 5 (97/4) we had lived by would become so obsolete that we
would seem to people of the new age as ----as
Section 1 travelers from an ancient land.
(A) elegant
(B) ambitious
1. We first became aware that her support for the new (C) interesting
program was less than---- when she declined to (D) comfortable
make a speech in its favor. (E) quaint
(A) qualified
(B) haphazard 5. Ability to ---- is the test of the perceptive historian,
(C) fleeting a history, after all, consists not only of what the
(D) unwarranted historian has included, but also, in some sense, of
(E) wholehearted what has been left out.
(A) defer
2. When a person suddenly loses consciousness, a (B) select
bystander is not expected to ---- the problem but to (C) confer
attempt to ---- its effects by starting vital functions (D) devise
if they are absent (E) reflect
(A) cure.. precipitate
(B) minimize.. predict 6. Some artists immodestly idealize or exaggerate the
(C) determine.. detect significance of their work; yet others, ---- to exalt
(D) diagnose.. counter the role of the artist, reject a transcendent view of art
(E) magnify.. evaluate (A) appearing
(B) disdaining
3. The remark was only slightly ----, inviting a (C) seeking
chuckle, perhaps, but certainly not a ----. (D) failing
(A) audible.. reward (E) tending
(B) hostile.. shrug
(C) amusing.. rebuke 7. Estimating the risks of radiation escaping from a
(D) coherent.. reaction nuclear power plant is ---- question, but one whose
(E) humorous.. guffaw answer then becomes part of a value-laden,
emotionally charged policy debate about whether to
construct such a plant.
(A) an incomprehensible
(B) an undefined
(C) an irresponsible
(D) a divisive
(E) a technical

25
Section 5
4. Although they were not direct------,the new arts of
the Classical period were clearly created in the spirit
1. Because modern scientists find the ancient Greek of older Roman models and thus------many features
view of the cosmos outdated and irrelevant, they of the older style.
now perceive it as only of --------- interest. (A) impressions .. introduced
(A) historical (B) translations .. accentuated
(B) intrinsic (C) copies .. maintained
(C) astronomical (D) masterpieces .. depicted
(D) experimental (E) borrowings .. improvised
(E) superfluous
5. In spite of the increasing--------of their opinions, the
2. Religious philosopher that he was. Henry More group knew they had to arrive at a consensus so that
derived his conception of an infinite universe from the award could be presented
the Infinite God in whom he believed, a benevolent (A) impartiality
God of -------whose nature was to create--------- (B) consistency
(A) plenitude ..abundance (C) judiciousness
(B) vengeance .. justice (D) incisiveness
(C) indifference .. suffering (E) polarity
(D) indulgence .. temperance
(E) rectitude .. havoc 6. By forcing our surrender to the authority of the clock
systematic timekeeping has imposed a form of-------
3. While some argue that imposing tolls on highway on society.
users circumvents the need to raise public taxes (A) anarchy
for road maintenance, the phenomenal expense of (B) permanence
maintaining a vast network of roads------reliance (C) provincialism
on these general taxes. (D) tyranny
(A) avoids (E) autonomy
(B) diminishes
(C) necessitates 7. Our high-------vocabulary for street crime contrasts
(D) discourages sharply with our------vocabulary for corporate crime,
(E) ameliorates a fact that corresponds to the general public's
unawareness of the extent of corporate crime.
(A) nuanced ..subtle
(B) uninformative ..misleading
(C) euphemistic ..abstract
(D) differentiated ..limited
(E) technical ..jargon-laden

26
최신기출 6 (96/4B)

Section 1 4. With the ---- of scientific knowledge, work on


the new edition of a textbook begins soon after
completion of the original.
1.While scientists dismiss as fanciful the idea of (A) limitation
sudden changes in a genetic code (spontaneous (B) culmination
mutation), it is possible that nature, like some master (C) veneration
musician, ---- on occasion, departing from the (D) certainty
expected or predictable. (E) burgeoning
(A) repeats
(B) improvises 5. She is most frugal in matters of business, but in her
(C) ornaments private life she reveals a streak of ----.
(D) corrects (A) antipathy
(E) harmonizes (B) misanthropy
(C) virtuosity
2. Despite the ---- of time, space, and history, human (D) equanimity
societies the world over have confronted the same (E) prodigality
existential problems and have come to remarkably
---- solutions, differing only in superficial details. 6. If the state government's latest budget problems
(A) continuity.. identical were ----, it would not be useful to employ them as
(B) uniformity.. diverse ----examples in the effort to avoid the inevitable
(C) actualities.. varied effects of shortsighted fiscal planning in the future.
(D) contingencies.. similar (A) typical.. representative
(E) exigencies.. unique (B) exceptional.. aberrant
(C) anomalous.. illuminating
3. Although he was known to be extremely ---- in his (D) predictable.. helpful
public behavior, scholars have discovered that his (E) solvable.. insignificant
diaries were written with uncommon ----.
(A) reserved.. frankness 7. Just as some writers have ---- the capacity of
(B) polite.. tenderness language to express meaning, Giacometti ---- the
(C) modest.. lucidity failure of art to convey reality.
(D) reticent.. vagueness (A) scoffed at .. abjured
(E) withdrawn.. subtlety (B) demonstrated.. exemplified
(C) denied.. refuted
(D) proclaimed.. affirmed
(E) despaired of .. bewailed

27
Section 5
4. I am often impressed by my own ---- other
people's idiocies: what is harder to ---- is that they,
1. In spite of the fact that it is convenient to divide the in their folly, are equally engaged in putting up with
life span of animals into separate stages such as pre- mine.
natal, adolescent, and senescent, these periods are (A) analysis of.. justify
not (B) forbearance toward.. underestimate
really----. (C) exasperation with .. credit
(A) advanced (D) involvement in .. allow
(B) variable (E) tolerance of .. appreciate
(C) repeatable
(D) connected 5. Despite vigorous protestations, the grin on the teen-
(E) distinct ager's face ----her denial that she had known
about the practical joke before it was played on her
2. Although the number of reported volcanic eruptions parents.
has risen exponentially since 1850, this indicates not (A) belied
---- volcanic activity but rather more widespread (B) illustrated
and ---- record keeping. (C) reinforced
(A) abating..detailed (D) exacerbated
(B) increasing..systematic (E) trivialized
(C) substantial..erratic
(D) stable..superficial 6. Far from undermining the impression of permanent
(E) consistent..meticulous decline, the ---- statue seemed emblematic of its
---- surroundings.
3. The challenge of interpreting fictional works written (A) indecorous.. opulent
under politically repressive regimes lies in distin- (B) grandiose.. ramshackle
guishing what is ---- to an author's beliefs, as (C) pretentious.. simple
opposed to what is ---- by political coercion. (D) ungainly.. elegant
(A) innate.. understood (E) tawdry.. blighted
(B) organic.. imposed
(C) contradictory.. conveyed 7. Despite the fact that it is almost universally ----,
(D) oblique.. captured the practice of indentured servitude still ---- in
(E) peripheral.. demanded many parts of the world.
(A) condemned… abates
(B) tolerated.. survives
(C) proscribed.. persists
(D) mandated.. lingers
(E) disdained.. intervenes

28
4. Despite its ---, the book deals---with a number of
최신기출 7 (97/11) crucial issues.
(A) optimism .. cursorily
Section 1 (B) importance .. needlessly
(C) virtues .. inadequately
(D) novelty .. strangely
1. What these people were waiting for would not (E) completeness .. thoroughly
have been apparent to others and was perhaps not
very---their own minds. 5. Although frequent air travelers remain
(A) obscure to unconvinced, researchers have found that,
(B) intimate to paradoxically, the---disorientation inherent in jet
(C) illusory to lag also may yield some mental health---.
(D) difficult for (A) temporal.. benefits
(E) definite in (B) acquired.. hazards
(C) somatic .. disorders
2. The attempt to breed suitable varieties of jojoba (D) random .. deficiencies
by using hybridization to---favorable traits was (E) typical .. standards
finally abandoned in favor of a simpler and much
faster---: the domestication of flourishing wild 6. Ironically, the proper use of figurative language
strains. must be based on the denotative meaning of the
(A) eliminate.. alternative words, because it is the failure to recognize this---
(B) reinforce.. method meaning that leads to mixed metaphors and their
(C) allow.. creation attendant incongruity.
(D) reduce.. idea (A) esoteric
(E) concentrate.. theory (B) literal
(C) latent
3. According to one political theorist, a regime that (D) allusive
has as its goal absolute---, without any---law or (E) symbolic
principle, has declared war on justice.
(A) respectability.. codification of 7. Although it seems---that there would be a greater
(B) supremacy .. suppression of risk of serious automobile accidents in densely
(C) autonomy .. accountability to populated areas, such accidents are more likely to
(D) fairness .. deviation from occur in sparsely populated regions.
(E) responsibility .. prioritization of (A) paradoxical
(B) axiomatic
(C) anomalous
(D) irrelevant
(E) portentous

29
Section 6

1. If the theory is self-evidently true, as its 5. Whereas the Elizabethans struggled with the
proponents assert, then why does---it still exist transition from medieval---experience to modern
among well-informed people? individualism, we confront an electronic
(A) support for technology that seems likely to reverse the trend,
(B) excitement about rendering individualism obsolete and
(C) regret for interdependence mandatory.
(D) resignation about (A) literary
(E) opposition to (B) intuitive
(C) corporate
2. Although the --- of cases of measles has ---, (D) heroic
researchers fear that eradication of the disease, (E) spiritual
once believed to be imminent, may not come
soon. 6. Our biological uniqueness requires that the effects
(A) occurrence.. continued of a substance must be verified by---experiments,
(B) incidence.. declined even after thousands of tests of the effects of that
(C) prediction.. resumed substance on animals.
(D) number.. increased (A) controlled
(E) study.. begun (B) random
(C) replicated
3. Nothing---his irresponsibility better than his--- (D) human
delay in sending us the items he promised weeks (E) evolutionary
ago.
(A) justifies.. conspicuous 7. Today water is more---in landscape architecture
(B) characterizes.. timely than ever before, because technological advances
(C) epitomizes.. unnecessary have made it easy, in some instances even ---to
(D) reveals.. conscientious install water features in public places.
(E) conceals.. inexplicable (A) conspicuous.. prohibitive
(B) sporadic.. effortless
4. The author did not see the---inherent in her (C) indispensable.. intricate
scathing criticism of a writing style so similar to (D) ubiquitous.. obligatory
her own. (E) controversial.. unnecessary
(A) disinterest
(B) incongruity
(C) pessimism
(D) compliment
(E) symbolism

30
4. In spite of ----reviews in the press, the
최신기출 8 (98/4) production of her play was ----almost certain
oblivion by enthusiastic audiences whose

Section 1 acumen was greater than that of the critics.


(A) lukewarm.. condemned to
(B) scathing.. exposed to
1. While many Russian composers of the (C) lackluster.. rescued from
nineteenth century contributed to an emerging (D) sensitive.. reduced to
national style, other composers did not---- (E) admiring.. insured against
idiomatic Russian musical elements, ---- instead
the traditional musical vocabulary of Western 5. The passions of love and pride are often found
European Romanticism. in the same individual, but having little in
(A) utilize ..rejecting common, they mutually ----, not to say destroy,
(B) incorporate.. preferring each other.
(C) exclude.. avoiding (A) reinforce
(D) repudiate.. expanding (B) annihilate
(E) esteem.. disdaining (C) enhance
(D) weaken
2. Because the painter Albert Pinkham Ryder was (E) embrace
obsessed with his ----perfection, he was rarely
----a painting, creating endless variations of a 6. The necessity of establishing discrete categories
scene on one canvas, one on top of another. for observations frequently leads to attempts to
(A) quest for.. satisfied with make absolute ----when there are in reality
(B) insistence on .. displeased with only----.
(C) contempt for.. disconcerted by (A) analyses.. hypotheses
(D) alienation from.. immersed in (B) correlations.. digressions
(E) need for.. concerned with (C) distinctions.. gradations
(D) complications.. ambiguities
3. Objectively set standards can serve as a ----for (E) conjectures.. approximations
physicians, providing them ----unjustified
malpractice claims. 7. A unique clay disk found at the Minoan site of
(A) trial.. evidence of Phaistos is often ----as the earliest example of
(B) model.. experience with printing by scholars who have defended its claim
(C) criterion.. reasons for to this status despite equivalent claims put
(D) test.. questions about forward for other printing artifacts.
(E) safeguard.. protection from (A) questioned
(B) overlooked
(C) adduced
(D) conceded
(E) dismissed
31
Section 4

1. Punishment for violating moral rules is much 5. The senator’s remark that she is ambivalent
more common than reward for following them; about running for a second term is -----given
thus, ----- the rules goes almost ---- in society. the extremely ----- fund-raising activities of
(A) association with .. undefended her campaign committee.
(B) adherence to .. unnoticed (A) disingenuous .. reluctant
(C) affiliation of .. uncorrected (B) futile .. clandestine
(D) opposition to .. unchecked (C) sincere .. visible
(E) ignorance of .. unresolved (D) persuasive .. apathetic
(E) straightforward .. energetic
2. Compassion is a great respecter of justice: we
pity those who suffer ----. 6. Until quite recently research on diabetes had, as
(A) shamelessly a kind of holding action, attempted to refine
(B) unwittingly the -----of the disease, primarily because no
(C) vicariously preventive strategy seemed at all likely to
(D) intensively be ----- .
(E) undeservedly (A) definition .. necessary
(B) anticipation .. acceptable
3. No work illustrated his disdain for a systematic (C) understanding .. costly
approach to research better than his (D) treatment .. practicable
dissertation, which was rejected primarily (E) symptoms .. feasible
because his bibliography constituted, at best,
----- survey of the major texts in his field. 7. Most plant species exhibit ----- in their
(A) an unimaginative geographical distribution: often, a given species
(B) an orthodox is found over a large geographical area, but
(C) a meticulous individual populations within that range are
(D) a comprehensive widely ----- .
(E) a haphazard (A) discontinuity .. separated
(B) density .. dispersed
4. In contrast to the----- with which the (C) symmetry .. observed
acquisition of language by young children was (D) uniformity .. scattered
once regarded, the process by which such (E) concentration .. adaptable
learning occurs has now become the object
of ----- .
(A) intensity .. fascination
(B) incuriosity .. scrutiny
(C) anxiety .. criticism
(D) reverence .. admiration
(E) impatience .. training
32
최신기출 9 (98/11)
4. The prevailing union of passionate interest in
Section 1 detailed facts with equal devotion to abstract ------is
a hallmark of our present society; in the past this
union appeared, at best, ------and as if by chance.
1. There is hardly a generalization that can be made
(A) data … extensively
about people’s social behavior and the values
(B) philosophy … cyclically
informing it that cannot be ------from one or another
(C) generalization …sporadically
point of view, or even ------as simplistic or vapid.
(D) evaluation … opportunely
(A) accepted …praised
(E) intuition ….selectively
(B) intuited … exposed
(C) harangued …retracted 5. A century ago the physician’s word was ------ to
(D) defended …glorified doubt it was considered almost sacrilegious
(E) challenged … dismissed
(A) inevitable
(B) intractable
2. Although any destruction of vitamins caused by food
(C) incontrovertible
irradiation could be ------ the use of diet supplements,
(D) objective
there may be no protection from carcinogens that
(E) respectable
some fear might be introduced into foods by the
process.
6. So much of modern fiction in the United States is
(A) counterbalanced by autobiographical, and so much of the autobiography
(B) attributed to fictionalized, that the ------sometimes seem largely
(C) inferred from ------.
(D) augmented with
(A) authors … ignored
(E) stimulated by
(B) needs … unrecognized
(C) genres … interchangeable
3. Though he refused any responsibility for the failure
(D) intentions … misunderstood
of the negotiations, Stevenson had no right to ------
(E) misapprehensions … uncorrected
himself: it was his ------that had caused the debacle.

(A) blame … skill 7. Robin’s words were not without emotion: they
(B) congratulate … modesty retained their level tone only by a careful ------
(C) berate … largesse imminent extremes.
(D) accuse …obstinacy
(A) equipoise between
(E) absolve … acrimony
(B) embrace of
(C) oscillation between
(D) limitation to
(E) Subjection to

33
Section 4 4. The senator's attempt to convince the public that he
is not interested in running for a second term is ------
given the extremely------ fund-raising activities of
1. That she seemed to prefer ------ to concentrated
his campaign committee.
effort is undeniable; nevertheless, the impressive
(A) futile...clandestine
quality of her finished paintings suggests that her
(B) sincere...visible
actual relationship to her art was anything but------.
(C) specious...apathetic
(A) preparation … passionate
(D) disingenuous...public
(B) artfulness … disengaged
(E) straightforward... dubious
(C) dabbling … superficial
(D) caprice …considered 5. Although a change in management may appear to ---
(E) indecision … lighthearted ---- a shift in a company's fortunes, more often than
not its impact is --------
2. Because of the excellent preservation of the fossil,
(A) hinder...measurable
anatomical details of early horseshoe crabs were ----
(B) promote...demonstrable
for the first time, enabling experts to ---- the
(C) accelerate...profound
evolution of the horseshoe crab.
(D) betray...fundamental
(A) scrutinized...ensure
(E) augur...inconsiderable
(B) verified...advance
(C) identified...distort 6. The skeleton of ------- bird that was recently
(D) obscured...illustrate discovered indicated that this ancient creature ------
(E) clarified...reassess today's birds in that, unlike earlier birds and unlike
reptilian ancestors, it had not a tooth in its head.
3. The philosopher claimed that a person who must
(A) a primeval... obscured
consciously ------ his or her own indifference before
(B) a unique... preempted
helping another is behaving more nobly than one
(C) a primitive...anticipated
whose basic disposition allows such an act to be
(D) a contemporary... foreshadowed
performed without------.
(E) an advanced...differed from
(A) feign...enthusiasm
(B) censure...comment 7. While many people utilize homeopathic remedies to
(C) embrace...duplicity treat health problems, other people do not ------such
(D) suffer...effort alternative treatments, -------- conventional medical
(E) overcome...deliberation treatments instead.

(A) distrust...employing
(B) embrace...eschewing
(C) reject...envisioning
(D) countenance... relying on
(E) recommend... turning from

34
최신기출 10 (99/4)

Section 2 4. A number of scientists have published articles


------- global warming, stating ------- that there
is no solid scientific evidence to support the
1. As businesses become aware that their advertising must
theory that the Earth is warming because of
------ the everyday concerns of consumers, their
increases in greenhouse gases.
commercials will be characterized by a greater degree
(A) debunking...categorically
of ------.
(B) rejecting...paradoxically
(A) allay...pessimism (C) deploring...optimistically
(B) address...realism (D) dismissing...hesitantly
(C) evade....verisimilitude (E) proving...candidly
(D) engage … fancy
(E) change...sincerity 5. The senator's attempt to convince the public that
she is not interested in running for a second term
is as -------- as her opponent's attempt to disguise
2. Because the lawyer's methods were found to
his intention to run against her.
be ------, the disciplinary committee ------- his
(A) biased
privileges. (B) unsuccessful
(A) unimpeachable...suspended (C) inadvertent
(B) ingenious...withdrew (D) indecisive
(E) remote
(C) questionable...expanded
(D) unscrupulous...revoked
6. MacCrory’s conversation was --------: she could
(E) reprehensible...augmented never tell a story, chiefly because she always
forgot it, and she was never guilty of a witticism,
3. People of intelligence and achievement can none- unless by accident.
(A) scintillating
theless be so ------ and lacking in ------ that they
(B) unambiguous
gamble their reputations by breaking the law to
(C) perspicuous
further their own ends. (D) stultifying
(A) devious...propensity (E) facetious
(B) culpable...prosperity
7. Despite its many --------, the whole-language
(C) obsequious...deference
philosophy of teaching reading continues to
(D) truculent... independence
gain -------- among educators.
(E) greedy... integrity (A) detractors...notoriety
(B) adherents...prevalence
(C) critics … currency
(D) enthusiasts...popularity
(E) practitioners … credibility

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Section 5

1. That she was _____ rock climbing did not diminish


her _____to join her friends on a rock-climbing 4. The term “modern”has always been used broadly
expedition.
by historians, and recent reports indicate that its
(A) attracted to ...eagerness meaning has become more ____ than ever.
(B) timid about ... reluctance
(A) precise
(C) fearful of ... determination
(B) pejorative
(D) curious about ... aspiration
(C) revisionist
(E) knowledgeable about ... hope
(D) acceptable
(E) amorphous
2. Data concerning the effects on a small population of
high concentrations of a potentially hazardous
5. He would ____ no argument, and to this end he
chemical are frequently used to ____ the effects on a
enjoined us to ____.
large population of lower amounts of the same
(A) brook ... silence
chemical.
(B) acknowledge ... neglect
(A) verify
(C) broach ... abstinence
(B) redress
(D) fathom ... secrecy
(C) predict
(E) tolerate ... defiance
(D) realize
(E) augment 6. Originally, most intellectual criticism of mass culture
was ____ in character, being based on the
3. Conceptually, it is hard to reconcile a defense
assumption that the wider the appeal, the more ____
attorney's ____ to ensure that false testimony is not
the product.
knowingly put forward with the attorney's mandate
(A) unpredictable ... undesirable
to mount the most ____ defense conceivable for the
(B) ironic ... popular
client.
(C) extreme ... outlandish
(A) efforts ... cautious
(D) frivolous ... superfluous
(B) duty ... powerful
(E) negative ... shoddy
(C) inability ... eloquent
(D) failure ... diversified 7. Surprisingly, given the dearth of rain that fell on the
(E) promises ... informed com crop, the yield of the harvest was ____;
consequently, the corn reserves of the country have
not been ____.

(A) inadequate ... replenished


(B) encouraging ... depleted
(C) compromised ... salvaged
(D) abundant ... extended

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(E) disappointing ... harmed

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最新练习题七
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