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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011

Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

EXP No12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

Principle and task The Hall Effect in thin zinc and copper foils is studied and the Hall coefficient determined. The effect of temperature on the Hall voltage is investigated. The resistivity and Hall voltage of a rectangular germanium sample are measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The band spacing, the specific conductivity, the type of charge carrier and the mobility of the charge carriers are determined from the measurements. Purpose and aim of the experiment The suggested experiment was implemented as a demonstration experiment in the Modern physics course and as well as a laboratory exercise conducted by students Individually. It has been used to demonstrate the existence of positive charge carriers in a p-type semiconductor and contributes to better understanding not only of the hole concept, but also of other physical quantities and phenomena included in the proposed experiment: intrinsic conductivity, extrinsic conductivity, electrons, holes, band theory, forbidden zone, valence band, conduction band, conductivity, mobility, magnetic resistance, Hall constant, Lorentz force Physics textbooks intended for the fourth year in the high schools in Croatia are extremly rich in subjects covering different fields of modern physics [1]. Concepts mentioned above (except mobility, magnetic resistance and Hall constant) appear in the investigated sample of physics textbooks. In view of this, the proposed experiment can also be adapted for the high school level. The Hall voltage and the voltage across the sample of p-Ge are measured as a function of current, temperature and magnetic field. From the measurements, the following quantities can be determined: band spacing, magneto resistance, conductivity, the sign of the charge carriers, their mobility and concentration, Hall constant. Equipment 1-Hall effect, Cu, carrier board 11803.00 1 2-Hall effect, zinc, carrier board 11804.01 1 3-Coil, 300 turns 06513.01 2
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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011

4-Iron core, U-shaped, laminated 06501.00 1 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS 5-Pole pieces, plane, 30330348 mm, 2 06489.00 1 6-Power supply 0-30 VDC/20 A, stabil 13536.93 1 7-Power supply, universal 13500.93 1 8-Hall probe, tangent, prot. cap 13610.02 1 9-Digital multimeter 07134.00 1 10-Meter, 10/30 mV, 200 deg.C 07019.00 1 Set-up and procedure The experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 1. The plate must be brought up to the magnet very carefully, so as not to damage the crystal In particular, avoids bending the plate. 1. The control current is derived from the alternating voltage output of the power unit, using a bridge rectifier. To do this, the rectifier is connected on the one hand to the lower socket of the power supply unit and on the other to the socket marked 15 V on the selector ring above it (see Fig. 1). An electrolytic condenser is connected to the rectifier output for smoothing. (Note the polarity). The control current is set with the aid of a potentiometer. A 330 V resistor is connected in series to limit the current and so prevent accidental overstepping of the maximum permissible current (50 mA). In this measurement, the crystal is connected directly (terminals A and B in Fig. 1); hence the constant-current source and the defect voltage compensation are inactive.

Exp no 12

University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

Fig. 1 Experimental set-up of the Hall effect in the metals. The magnetic field is produced by the two series-connected coils fed from the DC outlet of the main supply unit. It is advisable for this purpose to set the voltage to the maximum value and to adjust the magnetic field to the desired value by use of the current control knob. The power supply unit then acts as a constant-current source, so ensuring that temperature-induced resistance changes have no effect on the field strength. The magnetic induction of the field is measured by the teslameter, the Hall probe of which is placed at the centre of the field (after the apparatus has been adjusted). The Hall voltage is measured by the high-resistance digital multimeter. 2. The control-current supply is now connected to the outer terminals A and C (Fig. 2), so that the incorporated constant current source becomes effective. The 560 V potentiometer is set to the maximum voltage. The control current should now e about 30 mA. (If it is not, the value can be readjusted using the trimmer on the supplementary board). The voltage across the sample is measured between the

University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

terminals A and B using the digital multimeter (see Fig. 2). The sample resistance in the absence of the magnetic field, R0, is calculated and the change in resistance R=
RB R0 R0

is plotted as a function of the magnetic induction B (RB sample resistance with the magnetic field). 3. The sample is heated to temperatures up to 175C using the heating coil. The heating current required is taken from the 6 V AC output of the power supply unit. The sample temperature T can be determined by the built-in Cu/CuNi thermocouple, using the voltmeter : T= UT + T0

(UT = voltage across the thermocouple; = 40 V/K; T0 = room temperature). CAUTION: The sample temperature must in no case rise above 190C.

University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

Fig. 2:

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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

4. With the magnetic field switched off and the pole pieces removed (remanence!), the control current is switched on (terminals A and C in Fig. 2) and the Hall voltage set to zero by the compensating potentiometer. The pole pieces are replaced and the Hall voltage is measured as a function of the magnetic induction for both field directions. 5. With the magnetic field constant, the sample temperature is slowly raised to the maximum temperature and the Hall voltage measured. The Hall probe of the Teslameter is removed from the heating zone during heating up.The layout follows Fig. 1 and the wiring diagram in Fig. 2. Arrange the field of measurement on the plate midway between the pole pieces. Carefully place Hall probe in the centre of the magnetic field. The measuring amplifier takes about 15 min. to settle down free from drift and should therefore be switched on correspondingly earlier. To keep interfering fields at a minimal level, make the connecting cords to the amplifier input as short as possible. Take the transverse current I for the Hall probe from the power supply unit 13536.93. It can be up to 15 A for short periods. The Hall probe will show a voltage at the Hall contacts even in the absence of a magnetic field, because these contacts are never exactly one above the other but only within manufacturing tolerances. Before measurements are made, this voltage must be compensated with the aid of the potentiometer as follows: Disconnect the transverse current I. Set the measuring amplifier to an output voltage of 1 V, for example, by adjusting the compensation-voltage. he = 104 , amplification = 105) Connect the transverse current. Twist the connecting cords between hall voltage sockets and amplifier input in order to avoid as much as possible stray voltages. Adjust the compensating potentiometer, using a screwdriver, until the instrument again shows an output voltage of 1 V. Repeat this operation several times to obtain a precise adjustment. The determination of the Hall voltage is not quite simple since Voltages in the microvolt range are concerned where the Hall voltages are superposed by parasitic voltages such as thermal voltages, induction voltages due to stray fields, etc. The following procedure is recommended:
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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

Set the transverse current I to the desired value. Set the field strength B to the desired value (on the power supply, universal, and 13500.93). Set the output voltage of the measuring amplifier to about 1.5 V by adjusting the compensation-voltage. Using the mains switch on the power supply unit, switch the magnetic field on and off and read the Hall voltages at each on and off position of the switch (after the measuring amplifier and the multi-range meter have recovered from their peak values). The difference between the two values of the voltage, divided by the gain factor 105, is the Hall voltage UH to be determined. Hall Effect Theory The Hall Effect, discovered by Edwin Hall in 1879, consists of the generation of a ifference in electric potential between the sides of a conductor through which a current is flowing while in a magnetic field perpendicular to the current. This was later predicted for semiconductors and the transistor soon after its development in the late 1950s.

Figure 5 An illustration of the electromagnetic theory behind the Hall Effect. The figure above illustrates a conductor subjected to a magnetic field. The magnetic field is at a right angle to the current flowing through the material. An electron enters the right electrode and travels towards the left electrode (Note* the
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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

convention that electrons move opposite to the current flow is being used). A force known as the Lorentzforce acts upon the electron. Lorenz Force: F= q*v*B Where F= Lorenz Force q= Charge of electron (1.6 X 10-19 C) v= Velocity of electron (m/s) B= Flux density of magnetic field [Wb/m2 or tesla (T)] This force causes the electron to move towards the bottom of the conductor. This means that all electrons traveling as shown in the slab of conductor will congregate towards the bottom of the conductor. As a result, the lower edge of the conductor will become negatively charged while the upper edge will become positively charged. In other words, an EMF (electromotive force, potential, Ey) will develop across the width of the slab that is in proportion to the amount of flux, current, and resultant charge separation, t. The amount of generated voltage due to the Hall Effect, VH, can be calculated using the relationship VH = [B*KH*I]/z Where B= Flux density of magnetic field [Wb/m2 or tesla (T)] KH= Hall Effect constant (m3/number of electrons-C) I= Current flowing through the conductor (A) z= Thickness of conductor (m) The Hall Effect constant, KH, is a factor of the number of electrons per unit volume and the electron charge. Up to this point we have been using a conductor to illustrate the behavior of the Hall Effect. Actually, semi conducting material is used to manufacture Hall effect devices, but the explanation of how electrons are deflected at right angles to the magnetic flux remains the same. The only difference is that with semi conducting materials you are working with charge carriers and holes instead of electrons. Hall Effect devices can be manufactured from either p-type or n-type semi conducting materials. The only difference between the way these two materials behave is in the internal flow direction of electrons. When you are using n-type material, you are dealing with a flow of electrons whereas when you are working with p-type material, you are working with a flow of hole carriers. For all practical purposes these
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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

are the same as positively charged particles, or positrons, that flow in the opposite direction from the n-type electrons. Consequently, the outward results of using these two types of material are identical; only the polarities of the biasing currents are reversed. The Hall voltage generated VH depends upon the thickness of the material and the electrical properties of the material (charge density and carrier mobility). The behavior described by the Hall Effect equation above is somewhat ideal. The Hall voltage depends in practice on other factors such as the mechanical pressure and the temperature. The dependence on the mechanical pressure (piezoresistive effect) is a factor to be considered mainly for the manufacturer when encapsulating the device. It is not of much concern for the user. The temperature has a double influence. On one hand it affects the electrical resistance of the element. On the other hand, the temperature affects the mobility of majority carriers thus also the sensitivity. So if we keep a constant supply voltage and the device heats up, the bias current will decrease with temperature. Thus VH goes down. The sensitivity (gain) of the device goes up because of the increased mobility of the charge carriers. Since these two effects have opposite signs, it is possible to compensate for them. Nevertheless it is always useful to limit the supply current so that self-heating is negligible. It is much better to apply a constant current. With a constant current supply you get an error of 0.12%/K. With a constant voltage supply you get an error of 0.4%/K If a current I flows through a strip conductor of thickness d and if the conductor is placed at right angles to a magnetic field B, the Lorenz force F = Q (v x B ) acts on the charge carriers in the conductor, n being the drift velocity of the charge carriers and Q the value of their charge. This leads to the charge carriers concentrating in the upper or lower regions of the conductor, according to their polarity, so that a voltage the so-called Hall voltage UH is eventually set up between two points located one above the other in the strip: UH=
RH .B.I . d

RH is the Hall coefficient. The type of charge carrier can be deduced from the sign of the Hall coefficient: a negative sign implies carriers with a negative charge (normal Hall effect), and a
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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

positive sign, carriers with a positive charge (anomalous Hall effect). In metals, both negative carriers, in the form of electrons, and positive carriers, in the form of defect electrons, can exist. The deciding factor for the occurrence of a Hall voltage is the difference in mobility of the charge carriers: a Hall voltage can arise only if the positive and negative charge carriers have different nobilities. The measurements for copper shown in Fig. 3 are related by the expression UH, B. Linear regression using the relation UH = a + bB shows these values to be represented by a Straight line with the slope b = -0.0384 10-6m2/s and a standard deviation sb = 0.0004 06m/s. From this, with d = 18 10-6m and I = 10 A, we derive the Hall coefficient RH = (0.576 0.006) 10-10 m3/As.
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Fig. 6
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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

Fig. 7

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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

Fig. 8
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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

Fig. 9: Problems 1. The Hall voltage is measured in thin copper and zinc foils. 2. The Hall coefficient is determined from measurements of the current and the magnetic induction.
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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Optoelectronic Engineering Branch Detector lab 2010-2011
Exp no 12 HALL EFFECT AS EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

3. The temperature dependence of the Hall voltage is investigated on the copper sample. 4. The Hall voltage is measured at room temperature and constant magnetic field as a function of the control current and plotted on a graph (measurement without compensation for defect voltage). 5. The voltage across the sample is measured at room temperature and constant control current as a function of the magnetic induction B. 6. The voltage across the sample is measured at constant control current as a function of the temperature. The band spacing of germanium is calculated from the measurements. 7. The Hall voltage UH is measured as a function of the magnetic induction B, at room temperature. The sign of the charge carriers and the Hall constant RH together with the Hall mobility mH and the carrier concentration p are calculated from the measurements. 8. The Hall voltage UH is measured as a function of temperature at constant magnetic induction B and the values are plotted on a graph.

Materials used in Hall-effect The material used in the manufacture of Hall-effect devices is a p-type or an n-type semiconductor. Typical examples are indium arsenide, indium arsenide phosphide, indium antimony, gallium arsenide, germanium, and doped silicon. Silicon has the advantage that signal conditioning circuits can be integrated on the same chip. One type of Hall effect integrated circuit yields a differential output superimposed on a common mode output. Whereas a second type yields a single ended output superimposed on a quiescent output. Hall elements are manufactured in different shapes; rectangles, butterfly (which concentrates the flux in the central zone), and also as a symmetrical cross, which permits the interchange of electrodes. Hall devices can be manufactured to fit into a variety of packages. Most packages are similar to those used with transistors and other solid state devices. In many cases it is very difficult to single out the Hall device within a transducer system because of the integral design packaging that is often used.

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