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A STUDY ON THE GENUS EPISOMUS

(COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE)

S. SHANAS & V. V. RAMAMURTHY

Division of Entomology
Indian Agricultural Research Institute
New Delhi - 110 012, India

2007
PREFACE

This work forms part of the thesis entitled “Biosystematic studies on the genus

Episomus Schoenherr (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) from India and adjacent

countries.” submitted to the Post-Graduate School, Indian Agricultural Research Institute

(IARI), New Delhi, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of

Philosophy in Entomology, during the year 2003.

With deep sense of gratitude, I thank Dr. V. V. Ramamurthy, Chairman of my


Advisory committee, for his ‘proper’ guidance during the course of the present
investigation.
A bound copy of the work is deposited at the following libraries:

1. National Agriultural Library, IARI, New Delhi, INDIA


2. Jawaharlal Nehru University Library, Delhi, INDIA
3. J. R. D. TATA Memorial Library, IISC, Bangalore, INDIA
4. Delhi University Library, Delhi, INDIA
5. Natural History Museum Library, London, UK

- S. Shanas.

October 25, 2007.

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CONTENTS
(PAGE No.)

Abstract …………………………………… 04

Introduction …………………………………… 04

Material and Methods …………………………………… 05

Abbreviations …………………………………… 06

Taxonomic Characters …………………………………… 07

Annotated checklist …………………………………… 20

A. Varieties raised to subspecies 22

B. Checklist 22

Genus Episomus Schoenherr …………………………………… 33

A. Key to the species 35

B. Species studied 40

Bibliography …………………………………… 89

Figures …………………………………… 90

Plates …………………………………… (i – xix)

List of Tables:

Table
No. Page No.

1. Sexual dimorphic characters in Episomus 8

2. Number of species of Episomus described during different periods 20

3. Contributions of coleopterists to the genus Episomus 20

4. Economic Importance of the species of the genus Episomus 22

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Abstract: Twenty species of the genus Episomus of the family Curculionidae, Coleoptera
from India and nearby countries are included in the study. Two varieties are
raised to subspecific status. An annotated checklist of the 106 species known
from the world is given. The descriptions of the twenty already known species
are supplemented with the characters of elytral vestiture. Female and male
genitalic structures of nine and ten species respectively, are described. A key
to the 20 species known from the region is provided.

INTRODUCTION
Episomus belogs to the subfamily Otiorrhynchinae, which according to the
contemporary point of view is considered under Entiminae (Alonso – Zarazaga and Lyal,
1999). Since the taxonomy of the subfamily is unsettled, the concept of Marshall (1916)
is followed here. Besides the study of Marshall, other studies are few and scattered.
Episomus is distinguished from other members of the Entiminae by their scrobes,
very deep in front, but shallower near the eyes and curving inward about the middle,
prothorax usually with strong plications and distinct central furrow, elytra not soldered
together, the base covering slightly the margin of prothorax, epistome forming a sharp
acute angle behind, the lateral margin sinuate above the posterior coxae, sternum with the
front coxae nearer the anterior margin of the prosternum and venter with intercoxal piece
angulate and not broader.
Episomus is predominantly oriental in distribution. In India, E. lacerta (Fabricius)
is very important as it is a notorious as pest of cultivated crops like field beans, cotton
and pigeon pea. There are 106 species in the world of which 28 occur in India.

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MATERIAL AND METHODS
A. MATERIAL. The material procured from the following sources were utilized in the
present study:
(i) National Pusa Collection (NPC) of the Division of Entomology, 1ARI, New
Delhi: The core of the material used in the present study came from the National Pusa
Collection.
(ii) Loans: Many specimens included in the present study were obtained from the
collections available at Punjab University, Chandigarh and Zoological Survey of India,
Calcutta.
B. METHODS.
(i) Drying, mounting and preservation: All the species were studied with the help
of preserved specimens only. Specimens preserved for long were relaxed in a relaxing
fluid containing distilled water and ethyl alcohol in 7 : 3 ratio, overnight. Dirty specimens
were cleaned with xylene or glacial acetic acid by swabbing with a cotton swab before
relaxing.
(ii) Processing of different parts for morphological studies: All the major
taxonomic characters, except the ultra structure of elytral vestiture and genitalia, were
studied in intact specimens. For the study of genitalia, specimens were processed
following method of Supare et al., (1990) with slight modifications and the process
mainly involved the following steps: Relaxing the specimens in a relaxing box containing
relaxing fluid overnight; Detaching the venter by inserting a minute pin between
metasternum and its intercoxal process with a gentle jerk; Boiling in 10 per cent KOH
(Potassium hydroxide) for 20 minutes at 90 - 95° C for softening the tissues in a dry
heating block; Dissecting the genitalia and cleaning the associated muscles and other
tissues; Washing the genitalia first with distilled water, then passing through graded
alcohol series of 30, 50, 70 per cent and finally in glacial acetic acid, retaining in each for
a minute, to neutralize the excess potassium hydroxide; Staining the male genitalia with
chlorazol black in 70 per cent ethyl alcohol, then washing it in distilled water to remove
excess strain; Removing excess stain by transferring to 30 per cent alcohol; Storing the
genitalia after study, in microvials containing small drop of glycerol and then pinning on
the respective specimens and replacing the venter on to the dissected specimens.

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(iii) Methods of study: Whole specimens were examined and run through the key
(Marshall, 1916) and further confirmed by species obtained from different sources. For
studying the elytral vestiture, the method of Ramamurthy and Ghai (1988) was followed
which involved scratching of elytra with the pointed end of a minute pin, the scales and
hairs thus removed were allowed to fall on a cavity slide, having a drop of ethyl alcohol
mixed with glycerol to avoid instant drying. Glycerol medium in the cavity slide was
gently stirred with a fine needle to avoid overlapping of scales and then observed for
elytral vestiture. General taxonomic characters and genitalia were studied with the help of
Wild M8 stereozoom microscope and the elytral vestiture studied with Leitz Ortholux II
interference phase contrast, compound microscope. Illustrations were made using a
drawing tube fitted with a camera lucida. For measurements, a Nikon SMZ 10
stereozoom microscope was used. The scales of magnification are provided in the
illustrations.

ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used:

BMNH - Natural History Museum, London.


BM - Brussels Museum, Brussels, Belgium.
MCSN - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova, Italy
NPC - National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology,
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi.
NRS - Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Sweedish Museum of
Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
PU - Punjab University, Chandigarh.
SMTD - Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany.
ZMHU - Zoologische Museum, Humboldt Universitat, Berlin,
Germany.

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TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS
GENERAL STRUCTURE, SHAPE AND SIZE (Figs. 1, 2): The species of
Episomus are variable in size and shape. These are generally elongate, 2.12x to 2.81x as
long as broad, ovate; elytra always broader than prothorax; dorsal surface plane varying
from flat to even, ventral surface always flat. Smallest species is sulcicollis (8.3 mm x 3.3
mm) while the largest are arrogans, dohertyi, montanus, inermicollis, raucus and
fabriciusi (22.6-14.5 mm x 8.2-6.2 mm).

VESTITURE (Figs. 146-193): General colour of vestiture varies from brown or


metallic green in different species. The colour of these scales differs from their in situ
colour, when their structure is observed under the light microscope. They vary from
fluorescent green, fluorescent pink and brown in most species. The inner core is always
opaque and granulated. The colours vary from fluorescent pink in fabriciusi; fluorescent
pinkish and / or greenish tinge at the core of few scales in obuncus; predominant ones
fluorescent green with pink specks present in nilgirinus, pudibundus and raucus and in
guttatus; and few scales fluorescent green at the middle. In general, three kind of scales
are present, the predominant usually oval and the less predominant ones more elongate or
plumose. The shape and structure of these scales vary in different species. They are
separately rounded at base in appendiculatus, the base is slightly pedunculate in
uniformis, it is round in figulus nigrosparsus and quatuornotatus and is prominently
pedicellate in obliquus and sagax. Plumose scales can be found only in dohertyi,
humeralis, nilgirinus and sagax
COLOUR (Figs. 329-352): The colour of the dorsal surface varies from brown
(appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis,
inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, nilgirinus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus,
sagax, sulcicollis, uniformis), green (fabriciusi, raucus), black (montanus); ventrally, it
varies from light brown (dohertyi, humeralis, lacerta, lentus, obuncus, raucus, sulcicollis,
uniformis), grey with white (appendiculatus, arrogans, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus,
inermicollis, obliquus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus, sagax), black (montanus) or metallic
green (fabriciusi); some are with lateral stripes on the prothorax (appendiculatus,
arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta and obliquus) or sides of

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prothorax whitish grey (arrogans); it is pale metallic or coppery in nilgirinus below the
eye level, in raucus, dorsal part and the inflexed margins are with pale green vestiture.
Elytra bears variable spots, stripes and patches; number of spots vary from one
(montanus), two (dohertyi), three (lacerta and quatuornotatus), five (appendiculatus), six
(guttatus) while in arrogans, the sides of elytra are mottled with small irregular white
spots; the inflexed margins are light brown to chalky white in appendiculatus and pale
green in raucus, a distinct subhumeral patch in figulus nigrosparsus and humeralis, a
dark patch on the declivity in lacerta, nilgirinus and quatuornotatus, and a white stripe in
humeralis and a lateral stripe in nilgirinus, obliquus and sulcicollis are the other
variations; many irregular, small green spots on the striae are present in fabriciusi, while
the centre of sternum bears green vestiture in nilgirinus.
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM: Genus Episomus does not exhibit any striking, sexual
dimorphic characters; however, the presence of tubercles, its nature in the hind tibiae and
nature of fifth ventrite are useful in distinguishing the sexes in some species; hind tibia
granulate internally (? figulus nigrosparsus) or with a row of prominent tubercles
(? lacerta, ? quatuornotatus) or with very small tubercles and fore tibia more curved at
the apex (? guttatus) are such characters. Fifth ventrite less acuminate and shallowly
impressed (? guttatus), or not impressed (? quatuornotatus) and seventh segment of
funicle shorter than female (? figulus nigrosparsus) are the other characters (Table. 1)
Table. 1. Sexual dimorphic characters in Episomus

Character Description Diagnosis


Antennae Seventh joint of funicle shorter ? figulus nigrosparsus,
dohertyi;
? fabriciusi, inermicollis
Prothorax Sides rounded slightly ? montanus
Scutellum Sometimes scarcely perceptible ? montanus
Elytra General shape narrower ? montanus
Apex more produced ? obuncus
Suture at declivity strongly elevated ? humeralis, montanus
Intervals vs Narrower ? nilgirinus
striae Same as broad ? nilgirinus
Fore tibia Curvature more at apex ? guttatus
Hind tibia Internal Present ? figulus nigrosparsus
granulations Very small ? appendiculatus
At anterior half ? obuncus

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Narrow stria present along the inner ? arrogans
edge
Presence of Anterior ? montanus
spur One – fourth from ? pudibundus
the apex
Black tooth beyond middle and two ? arrogans
at sides (sometimes all wanting)
tubercles absent ? fabriciusi
well developed ? lacerta, sulcicollis,
small uniformis
? quatuornotatus
Hind Granulated internally ? humeralis
femora Prominence laminate at apex ? nilgirinus
blunt at inner edge ? uniformis
Fifth not impressed ? appendiculatus, dohertyi,
Ventrite fabriciusi, humeralis,
nilgirinus, quatuornotatus
impressed shallowly ? guttatus, ? sulcicollis
shallowly at apex ? inermicollis
roundedly at base ? obuncus
less acuminate ? guttatus
median furrow present ? obliquus

HEAD: Morphological features of head, namely rostrum, scrobes, eyes and


antennae are useful in identification of the species (Figs. 3-73). The presence or absence
of lateral as well as transverse impression near eyes is helpful in distinguishing species.
Both lateral and transverse impression are absent in fabriciusi, obliquus and sulcicollis;
lateral impression lies to the front of the eyes in arrogans, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus,
guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, montanus, nilgirinus, pudibundus,
quatuornotatus, raucus, sagax and uniformis; it lies behind the eyes in appendiculatus
and obuncus. Transverse impressions are absent in fabriciusi, lentus, obliquus,
quatuornotatus and sulcicollis whereas it is prominent in arrogans, guttatus, humeralis,
inermicollis, lacerta, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, pudibundus, sagax and uniformis,
and faint in appendiculatus, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus and raucus.
The length of the head compared to that of rostrum and prothorax is useful in
distinguishing some species. The length of head is 1.38x as long as the rostrum in
guttatus, 1.41x to 1.45x in humeralis, obuncus and sulcicollis, 1.47x as long as in sagax,

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1.49x as long as in arrogans and lacerta, 1.5x to 1.55x as long as the rostrum in
appendiculatus, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, lentus, uniformis, obliquus and
pudibundus, 1.56x in nilgirinus and quatuornotatus, 1.58x in inermicollis and raucus,
1.69x as in fabriciusi and 1.67x montanus. Head is as long as prothorax in fabriciusi and
nilgirinus, 1.02x to 1.04x as long in appendiculatus, obuncus, pudibundus and sagax,
1.05x to 1.08x as long in dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, lentus and montanus
and 1.1x in obliquus and uniformis. The length of prothorax as compared to that of the
head varies only slightly (1.03x to 1.07x) in humeralis, lacerta, raucus and sulcicollis, or
moderately (1.1x to 1.5x) in arrogans and inermicollis and 1.55x pudibundus.
The breadth at the base of head compared to the distance between scrobes and the
breadth of rostrum is useful in separating few species. The breadth at the base of head is
1.51x to as much as the distance between scrobes in appendiculatus; 1.58x in obliquus,
1.6x in lacerta and sulcicollis; 1.75x to 1.82x in guttatus and quatuornotatus, 1.88x in
inermicollis and sagax; 1.92x to 1.96x in dohertyi, fabriciusi and pudibundus; 2.02x to
2.18x in arrogans, figulus nigrosparsus, lentus, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, raucus
and uniformis; and 2.91x in humeralis. This breadth is 1.02x to 1.06x as broad as the
rostrum in appendiculatus, arrogans, inermicollis, lacerta and sagax; 1.1x to 1.15x in
dohertyi, guttatus, figulus nigrosparsus, nilgirinus, raucus and uniformis; 1.16x to 1.18x
in humeralis and obuncus; 1.2x to 1.25x in fabriciusi, lentus, montanus, obliquus,
pudibundus and quatuornotatus; and 1.31x to 1.33x in sulcicollis.
The central furrow on head is either deep (arrogans, guttatus, humeralis,
inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, obliquus, pudibundus,
quatuornotatus, raucus, sulcicollis, sagax and uniformis), shallow (appendiculatus,
dohertyi and fabriciusi), narrow (inermicollis, lacerta, quatuornotatus, sulcicollis), broad
(arrogans, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, lentus, montanus, obliquus, pudibundus,
uniformis and raucus) or dilated at apex (figulus nigrosparsus, montanus, obliquus,
quatuornotatus, sagax and uniformis) or dilated before middle (nilgirinus).
Additional characters like the head forming two prominent conical tubercles to
the sides of the base of central furrow in obliquus and sulcicollis (Figs. 12 and 22) are
also helpful in distinguishing these species.

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Rostrum: It includes the part of the head, which is drawn in front of the eyes in
the form of a snout. The characteristics of rostrum such as length: breadth ratio,
impression of the dorsal margin, dilation at its sides before apex, are taxonomically
important in identifying many species (Figs. 3-50).
The length of rostrum when compared with that of head (excluding the portion of
rostrum) is 1.44x in fabriciusi, 1.48x in montanus, 1.62x to 1.96x in inermicollis, lentus,
nilgirinus, obliquus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus, raucus and uniformis, 1.96x to 2.25x in
appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, lacerta, obuncus
and sagax, 2.41x in sulcicollis and 2.62x in guttatus.
Rostrum when compared for its length vs breadth ratio is 1.0x in appendiculatus;
1.1x in guttatus; 1.01x to1.08x as broad as long in arrogans, dohertyi, lacerta, humeralis,
lentus, nilgirinus, obuncus and quatuornotatus; 1.1x to 1.18x in fabriciusi, inermicollis,
montanus, raucus and uniformis; 1.2x to 1.24x in figulus nigrosparsus, sagax,
pudibundus and sulcicollis; and 1.29x in obliquus.
The two costae on dorsal surface of rostrum, which lie parallel to the central
furrow show varying degrees of impression. It may be shallowly impressed in
appendiculatus, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, pudibundus and uniformis, faintly
impressed in arrogans, inermicollis and lentus, deeply impressed in humeralis, montanus,
nilgirinus, lacerta, obliquus, obuncus and raucus, and in fabriciusi, quatuornotatus and
sagax, only a short, posterior impression may be present. Rostrum with sides almost
parallel to each other, without any dilation is observed in obliquus and sulcicollis; it is
dilated just before the apex in most of the species, varying from very slight (guttatus,
lentus and sagax) or dilated prominently (appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi,
figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus,
pudibundus, quatuornotatus, raucus and uniformis). Some other characters of rostrum by
which few species may be distinguished are, its apex being produced forwards on each
side into a very prominent, broad, jaw like process as in guttatus or subquadrate shape as
in obliquus.
Eyes: The position of eyes yields useful taxonomic characters; in addition to its
length: breadth ratio as seen from top, the ratios of distance between the anterior, middle

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and posterior margins and the distance between the eyes at middle compared to that
between scrobes are important.
The eyes are 1.07x as long as broad in obliquus, 1.46x in arrogans, 1.6 x to 1.9x
in dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, lacerta, montanus,
nilgirinus, obuncus, quatuornotatus, sagax and sulcicollis, 2.1x to 2.14x in
appendiculatus, inermicollis, lentus, raucus and uniformis and 2.33x in pudibundus. The
distance between eyes from the anterior to middle varies from 1.02x to 1.12x in all the
species except obuncus and raucus (1.16x), dohertyi (1.18x) and quatuornotatus (1.36x),
whereas in nilgirinus, the distance between the middle of eyes is greater than that
between the anterior margins (1.03x).
The distance between posterior margins of eyes as compared to that between the
anterior margin is equal in uniformis, slightly longer (1.04x to1.07x) in dohertyi,
humeralis, obuncus, quatuornotatus and sagax, 1.1x to 1.18x in appendiculatus,
arrogans, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, lacerta, lentus, nilgirinus, obliquus,
pudibundus, raucus and sulcicollis, 1.23x in montanus and 1.26x in inermicollis. This
distance compared to that between the middle of the eyes varies from very slight (1.08x
to 1.14x) in nilgirinus, montanus, sagax and uniformis, 1.16x to 1.27x in appendiculatus,
arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, lacerta, lentus,
obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus and sulcicollis, 1.3x in raucus and 1.34x
in inermicollis.
Space between the eyes at middle to the distance between the scrobes when
compared, is slightly longer (1.1x to 1.26x) in appendiculatus, fabriciusi, obliquus,
quatuornotatus and sulcicollis; 1.31x to 1.39x in dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus,
inermicollis, lacerta, obuncus, pudibundus and raucus; 1.41x to 1.51x in arrogans,
humeralis and sagax, 1.6x to 1.62x in montanus and uniformis; 1.71x in nilgirinus; and
1.81x in lentus.
Antennae: Antennae in Episomus are geniculate and consist of a scape, a seven
segmented funicle and a four segmented club (Figs. 51-73). The characters of antennae
utilized for distinguishing species are its colour; the broadening of scape from middle to
apex; the length of scape compared to that of the club; the length of funicle compared to
that of scape; relative length and breadth of funicular segments and the segments of club;

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the length and breadth of seventh funicular segment compared to club; and the dilation of
seventh segment of funicle.
The general colour varies from brown in most species to pale green in fabriciusi
and greenish brown in raucus, The club is black in appendiculatus, fabriciusi, guttatus,
quatuornotatus and raucus, The seventh segment of funicle is black from middle till apex
in raucus and is completely black in fabriciusi and quatuornotatus.
The scape is narrower at the middle in most species except lacerta where it is
narrowing from middle to apex; it is broadened 1.1x to 1.38x from middle to apex in
appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, obuncus, raucus,
sagax, sulcicollis and uniformis; 1.42x to 1.58x in inermicollis, lentus, montanus,
nilgirinus, obliquus, pudibundus and quatuornotatus; 1.83x in guttatus; and 2x in
humeralis. It is 2.32x as long as the club in lacerta, 2.63x to 2.81x in fabriciusi, figulus
nigrosparsus, inermicollis, montanus and nilgirinus, 3.05 x to 3.46x in appendiculatus,
quatuornotatus, sulcicollis and obuncus, 3.79x to 3.93x in humeralis and raucus, 4x to
4.55x in obliquus, pudibundus, sagax and uniformis, and 4.7x to 4.79x in arrogans,
dohertyi, guttatus and lentus.
The length of funicle is 1.01x as long as that of scape in obliquus, 1.1x to 1.14x
guttatus, pudibundus, raucus, sagax and uniformis, 1.17x to 1.21x in humeralis,
quatuornotatus, sulcicollis, appendiculatus and arrogans, 1.25x in figulus nigrosparsus,
1.28x in dohertyi and montanus, 1.29x in nilgirinus, 1.32x in inermicollis and lentus,
1.38x in obuncus, 1.44x in fabriciusi and 1.67x in lacerta. This length is 1.26x as that of
club in dohertyi, 3.42x in montanus, 3.47x in inermicollis, 3.5 to 3.53x in figulus
nigrosparsus and nilgirinus, 3.72x in appendiculatus and quatuornotatus, 3.88x in
lacerta, 3.93x in fabriciusi, 4.06x in sulcicollis, 4.2x in raucus, 4.31x in obliquus, 4.46x
in humeralis, 4.85x in obuncus, 4.95x in uniformis, 5.1x in pudibundus and sagax, 5.47x
in guttatus, 5.72x in arrogans and 6.23x in lentus.
The relative lengths of funicular segments when compared, the first is longest in
guttatus, lacerta, obliquus, pudibundus and quatuornotatus; first and second in fabriciusi;
first and the seventh equally long in arrogans; second the longest in appendiculatus,
inermicollis, nilgirinus and sulcicollis, second and seventh in montanus; and the seventh
the longest in dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, lentus, obuncus, raucus, sagax

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and uniformis. The relative breadths of funicular segments when compared, the first is
the broadest in arrogans; first and seventh in nilgirinus and pudibundus; first, second and
seventh in montanus and seventh in appendiculatus, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus
nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, obliquus, obuncus,
quatuornotatus, raucus, sagax, sulcicollis and uniformis. Its seventh segment is dilated in
all the species except in sagax and uniformis, where it is broadest at middle; it is 1.05x as
broad as the club in dohertyi and guttatus, 1.1x to 1.29x in pudibundus, obuncus,
dohertyi, lentus and uniformis, 1.31x in arrogans and 1.37x in sagax.
The club is as long as the seventh segment of funicle in humeralis; 1.07x to 1.38x
in guttatus, raucus, figulus nigrosparsus and lacerta; 1.4x to 1.58x in appendiculatus,
fabriciusi, montanus, obliquus, quatuornotatus and sulcicollis; 1.7x in nilgirinus and
inermicollis. It is as broad as the breadth of seventh segment in sagax and uniformis;
1.05x to 1.16x in arrogans, fabriciusi, lacerta, lentus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus,
raucus; 1.19x to 1.2x in figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis and montanus; 1.28x to 1.37x in
sulcicollis, inermicollis and quatuornotatus; 1.4x in appendiculatus and nilgirinus. Its
first segment is the longest in obliquus, first and second in sulcicollis, first, second and
third in lentus, first, third and fourth in inermicollis, second and third in obuncus; second
the longest in appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, guttatus, humeralis,
pudibundus, quatuornotatus and sagax; third longest in figulus nigrosparsus, lacerta,
montanus, nilgirinus and raucus; and fourth the longest in uniformis. Its first segment is
the broadest in dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, lentus, obliquus, pudibundus,
quatuornotatus and uniformis; first and second equally broad in arrogans, fabriciusi,
guttatus, humeralis, obuncus, raucus and sagax; second the broadest in appendiculatus,
inermicollis, lacerta, montanus, nilgirinus and sulcicollis.
PROTHORAX: The general shape, nature of plications, margins, nature of central
furrow, length: breadth ratio, ratio between the anterior, mid and posterior margins, its
length and breadth compared to that of rostrum are the characters useful for the diagnosis
of species (Figs. 74-97).
The prothorax is prominently (figulus nigrosparsus, lacerta, lentus, pudibundus,
raucus and sagax), deeply (dohertyi, montanus and obuncus), rugosely (arrogans,
guttatus and nilgirinus), shallowly plicate (appendiculatus, fabriciusi, humeralis,

14
obliquus, quatuornotatus and uniformis) or with very few plications (inermicollis and
sulcicollis). Its anterior margin is truncate in humeralis, obliquus, pudibundus, sulcicollis
and uniformis; bisinuate in appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus
nigrosparsus, guttatus, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus,
quatuornotatus, raucus and sagax whereas in sulcicollis, the anterior lateral margin bears
a small sharp projection below the eye.
Its central furrow is long but shallow in appendiculatus, arrogans, figulus
nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, obuncus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus and uniformis;
moderate in nilgirinus; deep in dohertyi, fabriciusi, lacerta, lentus, montanus, obliquus,
raucus, sagax and sulcicollis; whereas in inermicollis it is very small and located near
base.
The length of prothorax compared to its breadth, is slightly longer (1.06x) in
arrogans or broader than long in the rest of the species, varying from 1.05x to 1.07x in
appendiculatus, dohertyi, fabriciusi, humeralis, lacerta and quatuornotatus, 1.11x to
1.19x in guttatus, inermicollis, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, pudibundus, raucus and
uniformis, 1.25x to 1.27x in figulus nigrosparsus, lentus and sagax, 1.38x in sulcicollis
and 1.57x in obliquus. When it is compared to the length of rostrum it is 1.28x (guttatus)
varies from 1.36x to 1.44x (appendiculatus, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, lentus,
obliquus, obuncus, sagax and uniformis) 1.5x to 1.56 (humeralis, lacerta, montanus,
nilgirinus, quatuornotatus and sulcicollis) 1.62x to 1.69x (arrogans, fabriciusi and
raucus) or 1.81x (inermicollis and pudibundus). The breadth of prothorax compared to
that of rostrum varies from 1.5x to 1.52x in appendiculatus, arrogans, fabriciusi and
humeralis, 1.42x to 1.46x in dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, sagax and uniformis, 1.5x to
1.57x in lacerta, montanus, obuncus and quatuornotatus, 1.61x to 1.71x in guttatus,
inermicollis, lentus, nilgirinus, obliquus, pudibundus, raucus and sulcicollis.
The breadth at middle of prothorax compared to that at apex varies from 1.21x to
1.27x fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, montanus, quatuornotatus and sulcicollis, 1.3x to
1.37x in dohertyi, humeralis, lentus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus, sagax and
uniformis, 1.4x to 1.45x in appendiculatus, arrogans, nilgirinus and raucus, 1.52x in
guttatus and lacerta and1.61x in inermicollis. The prothorax is broader at middle
compared to its base, varying slightly from 1.01x to 1.08x in appendiculatus, arrogans,

15
fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, lentus, montanus, nilgirinus, obliquus,
obuncus, pudibundus, raucus, sagax and sulcicollis, and 1.13x in guttatus and
inermicollis, whereas its breadth at base compared to that at middle varying only slightly
(1.03x to 1.06x) in dohertyi, quatuornotatus and uniformis or strongly as in lacerta
(1.59x).
The breadth at the base of prothorax when compared to that at its apex varies
slightly (1.04x to 1.19x) as in lacerta and pudibundus, moderately (1.21x to 1.28x) as in
fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, montanus, obuncus and sulcicollis or
considerably (1.3x to 1.42x) as in appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, guttatus, lentus,
nilgirinus, obliquus, quatuornotatus, raucus, sagax, uniformis and inermicollis.
LEGS: The vestiture and markings on the posterior femora, presence of spur at
the tibial apex and the relative length of the first and fourth tarsal segments are important
in distinguishing species (Figs. 194-217). The posterior femora bears a pale round white
spot at the middle in guttatus, with dense green or grey vestiture in raucus, green
vestiture and with a darker patch about the middle in fabriciusi, with its base darker in
appendiculatus humeralis and nilgirinus. The tibial apex bears a prominent spur
projecting outside the margins in guttatus, lacerta, nilgirinus and raucus. The first tarsal
segment is the the longest in arrogans, sulcicollis and pudibundus whereas the fourth
segment is the longest in the rest of the species.
SCUTELLUM: The nature of scutellum and its length: breadth ratio is useful in
distinguishing some species. It is oblique (fabriciusi and uniformis), with a white spot
(guttatus), enclosed anteriorly by the sutural margin (lacerta, lentus, pudibundus,
quatuornotatus, raucus and sulcicollis) and not enclosed so (appendiculatus, arrogans,
dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, montanus,
nilgirinus, obliquus, obuncus, sagax and uniformis). It is 1.1x as broad as long in lacerta
and obuncus, as long as broad in appendiculatus, obliquus and uniformis, varying from
1.07x to 1.27x in arrogans, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, inermicollis,
montanus, nilgirinus, quatuornotatus, raucus, sagax and sulcicollis, 1.36x to 1.43x in
dohertyi and pudibundus, 1.6x in guttatus and 1.8x in lentus.

16
ELYTRA: The elytra are broadly ovate in all species of Episomus, their shape at
the base and apices, the nature of impression at base and elevation of suture on the
declivity gives valuable taxonomic characters (Figs. 98-145).
The base of elytra are jointly sinuate in arrogans, pudibundus and sulcicollis, subtruncate
in guttatus and raucus, truncate in lentus and obliquus, separately rounded in
appendiculatus, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, inermicollis,
lacerta, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, quatuornotatus, sagax and uniformis. Elytra are
acuminate at the apex bearing a short, sharp process in appendiculatus, and the apices
jointly rounded in sulcicollis. It is transversely impressed near the base in many species;
the impression may be absent (arrogans, guttatus, lacerta, lentus, montanus, obliquus,
pudibundus, raucus and sulcicollis), shallow (fabriciusi, inermicollis, obuncus and
uniformis) or distinct (appendiculatus, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis,
nilgirinus, quatuornotatus and sagax). The elytral suture on the declivity is not elevated
in lentus, obliquus and pudibundus; slightly in fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus,
humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, nilgirinus, obuncus and sulcicollis; distinctly in
appendiculatus, dohertyi, raucus and sagax; sharply into a carina in quatuornotatus and
uniformis; steep and slightly indented in montanus; sinuate before apex in sulcicollis;
roundly costate in arrogans; and bears a small conical tubercle above the apex in
guttatus.
Humeral angle and subhumeral prominence: The humeral angle is absent in
fabriciusi, humeralis, lacerta, obuncus and pudibundus, slight in dohertyi and uniformis,
moderate in lentus and nilgirinus, obtuse in figulus nigrosparsus, montanus, raucus and
sagax, prominent in inermicollis, quatuornotatus and guttatus, sharp in appendiculatus,
arrogans, obliquus and sulcicollis. The subhumeral prominence is absent in figulus
nigrosparsus, guttatus, nilgirinus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus and quatuornotatus,
very slight in arrogans, fabriciusi, lacerta, montanus, raucus, sagax, sulcicollis and
uniformis, distinct in appendiculatus dohertyi, humeralis and inermicollis and broad in
lentus.
The ratio of length of elytra to that of rostrum and prothorax helps in separation of
some species; elytra may be 2.82x as long as the rostrum (guttatus) or 3.46x to 4x
(arrogans, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, lacerta, lentus, humeralis, nilgirinus, obliquus,

17
obuncus, raucus, sagax, and sulcicollis) or 4.05x to 4.77x (montanus, fabriciusi,
inermicollis, pudibundus, quatuornotatus and uniformis) or 5.56x (appendiculatus);
Elytra may be 2.19x to 2.44x (arrogans, guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus,
nilgirinus, pudibundus, raucus and sulcicollis), 2.5x to 2.87x (dohertyi, fabriciusi,
figulus nigrosparsus, obliquus, obuncus, quatuornotatus and sagax), 3.09x (montanus)
3.16x (uniformis) or 3.85x as long as the prothorax (appendiculatus).
Stria and intervals: The elytra bear 10 rows of punctations which form the striae.
These punctations may be small as in arrogans, lentus, obliquus, fabriciusi and
inermicollis, larger as in appendiculatus figulus nigrosparsus, montanus, nilgirinus,
pudibundus, raucus, sagax and uniformis, broad as in quatuornotatus, shallow as in
appendiculatus, inermicollis and montanus, deep as in dohertyi, fabriciusi, guttatus,
humeralis, lacerta, obuncus, quatuornotatus, sagax, sulcicollis and uniformis; are
distinctly separated as in obuncus, inermicollis, pudibundus and sulcicollis, subquadrate
as in montanus and quatuornotatus and ocellated as in pudibundus; in humeralis, the first
stria terminates at the suture near the base of scutellum.
The intervals between the striae are narrower than the punctations in
appendiculatus, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, lacerta and montanus, same as broad as
the punctations in uniformis, broader than the punctations in arrogans, dohertyi, guttatus,
humeralis, inermicollis, lentus, nilgirinus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus,
quatuornotatus, raucus, sagax and sulcicollis, subcostate in appendiculatus, lacerta,
lentus, quatuornotatus, uniformis and costate in fabriciusi, relatively smooth in fabriciusi
and pudibundus.

ABDOMEN: In the dorsal aspect, it has seven tergites, but of no taxonomic value as
these are covered by elytra. The ventral aspect of abdomen is called “venter” which has
five visible ventrites which are morphologically sternites 3-7. The impression on the fifth
ventrite helps in distinguishing the sexes in some species.
FEMALE GENITALIA: These are species specific and valuable in identifying
the species. It includes spermatheca and spiculum ventrale. The spermatheca has a
proximal arm and a distal arm called cornu. The junction of spermathecal duct with body
of spermatheca is nodulus while the junction of gland with spermatheca is ramus.

18
Characters like curvature of nodulus, angle between proximal and distal arm and the apex
of spiculum ventrale are valuable in distinguishing species. In pudibundus, ramus has a
prominent projection terminating in a blunt apex. The length of the distal arm when
compared to the proximal arm is 1.03x to 1.18x as long as in fabriciusi, figulus
nigrosparsus, montanus, obliquus and pudibundus, 1.27x in guttatus and quatuornotatus,
1.34x in sagax and 1.46x in lacerta. The length of shaft of the spiculum ventrale when
compared to the length of basal plate is 1.63x to 1.77x as long as in guttatus, pudibundus
and quatuornotatus, 2.02 to 2.35x in fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, lacerta, montanus,
obliquus and sagax.
MALE GENITALIA: It consists of aedeagus and spiculum gastrale. The
aedeagus has a median lobe or penis and tegmen. The parts of median lobe like
apophyses, ratio of relative lengths of apophyses, length: breadth ratio of aedeagus is
important taxonomic characters. In tegmen, the length and shape of parameres, relative
thickness of posterior and dorsal piece, the length and apex of manubrium are useful.
Spiculum gastrale has an elongate shaft and two posterior prongs. Relative thickness of
shaft and shape of apex are important characters in identifying some species.
The relative lengths of aedeagus and apophyses when compared, the aedeagus is
1.75x to 2.0x as long as the apophyses in lentus, raucus, and sulcicollis, 2.15x - 2.25x in
arrogans, inermicollis, guttatus and lacerta, 2.41x in figulus nigrosparsus and
quatuornotatus and 2.6x in obuncus. The length of aedeagus when compared to the
length of the spiculum gastrale, is 1.17x as long as in sulcicollis, 1.21x to 1.38x in
arrogans, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, lacerta, obuncus, quatuornotatus and raucus,
1.42x in inermicollis and lentus. The length of the aedeagus compared to the length of
tegmen is 1.38x as long as in obuncus, 1.55x to 1.65x in lentus, raucus and inermicollis,
1.72x in arrogans, 1.76x in quatuornotatus, 1.81x to 1.86x in figulus nigrosparsus,
guttatus, lacerta and sulcicollis. The tegmen has a sclerotised projection between the
parameres in arrogans and inermicollis; its length when compared to the length of
manubrium, is 1.81x to 2.22x as long in figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, lacerta, lentus,
obuncus, quatuornotatus and raucus, 2.46x in inermicollis and 2.54x in sulcicollis. The
length of spiculum gastrale when compared to the length of tegmen is, 1.1x to 1.38x as

19
long as in figulus nigrosparsus, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, obuncus, quatuornotatus and
raucus, 1.5x in guttatus, and sulcicollis and 2.55x in arrogans.

ANNOTATED CHECKLIST

Episomus was first described by Schoenherr (1826) in his classical publication on


‘Genera et Species Curculionidum cum Synonymia Hujus Familiae’ and it was
redescribed by Lacordaire (1863) in his most famous publication “Genera des
Colopteres”. Pascoe (1865) described a similar genus by name Simallus with type species
S. sulcicollis, but Marshall (1916) synonymised this with Episomus based on his
extensive work on the brachyderines and otiorhynchines of the erstwhile British India.
Marshall (1916) was the first to give a detailed description for the genus and reiterate that
its type species is Curculio avarus Fabricius.

An analysis of the fauna described during the different periods indicate that most
of the species were known between 1894 to 1916. More than half of the species were
described during 1951 to 1900 (Table 2).

TABLE 2. Number of species of Episomus described during different periods

Sl. No Number of species


Period described
from to
1 1781 1800 2
2 1801 1850 9
3 1851 1900 61
4 1901 1937 34

An analysis made on the contributions of the different coleopterists indicates that Faust
and Marshall were significant contributors (Table 3). Fausts contributions were mostly
towards the Indonesian and Malaysian fauna while Marshalls were towards the Indian
fauna.

TABLE 3. Contributions of coleopterists to the genus Episomus

Sl. No Contributing coleopterists Number of species described


1 Faust 43
2 Marshall 21
3 Chevrolat 6
4 Heller, Pascoe 5 each
5 Boheman, Hartmann, Kono, Voss 3 each
6 Fabricius 2
7 Others 12

20
The zoogeographical distribution of the genus shown in figure 353 indicates that
it is predominantly Oriental. The maximum species diversity is found in Indonesia (33)
followed by India (28); Malaysia (21); Myanmar (17); China (8); Cambodia, Vietnam
(5); Japan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand (3); Bangladesh, Philippines, Singapore (2) and
Korea (1) are the fourteen countries from which Episomus had been recorded so far. In
India, it is distributed in all places except the northern regions lying above Gujarat and
Uttar Pradesh. From India, maximum species are recorded in the state of Tamil Nadu (12)
followed by Assam (7); West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh (5); Meghalaya, Manipur (4); Kerala
(3); Karnataka, Maharashtra, Nagaland (2); Sikkim, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat (1)
and from the union territories Pondicherry (2); Andaman Islands (1). Among the species
found in India, all except, andrewesi, arcuatus, arduus, avuncularius, decipiens, dejeani,
frenatus, irregularis, manipurensis, nebulosus, nigropustulatus, platina, quadrimaculatus
and versutus are studied.

Economic importance
The information available on the economic importance indicates that, some species are
occurring as pests of economically important plants including forest trees in South and
South East Asian countries. Fletcher (1914) reported Episomus sp., as an intermittent pest
on pulses in India. The large grey weevil, Episomus lacerta was found in large numbers
damaging cotton plants by feeding on the bark (Marshall, 1916; Lefroy, 1909). This
species was also recorded on field beans, Dolichos lablab (Ayyar, 1922; David and
Kumaraswamy, 1988). Ayyar (1963) categorized this as a minor pest of pigeon pea and
as a specific pest of field beans having the potential to completively denude the whole
field with severe infestations. E. lacerta had also been recorded damaging important
forest trees like Tectona grandis, Dalbergia latifolia and Erythrina sp (Ayyar, 1922).
Episomus figuratus was reported on orange, Citrus cinensis from Sri Lanka (Hutson,
1931); Episomus kwanhsiensis was reported as an important pest of mulberry, Morus sp
from China; adults feeding on leaves and the larvae damaging the roots of mulberry trees,
causing yield decrease or even die off (Zhou, 1988). Among the other species reported
are E. turritus on leguminous shrub, Lespedeza bicolor from Korea (Morimoto, 1992).

21
Venkateshan and Geetha (2003) recently reported an outbreak of E. lacerta on field lab
lab in Selam District of Tamil Nadu and described the root damage by grubs.

TABLE. 4. Economic Importance of the species of the genus Episomus


Sl. Species Host Plant Distribution Reference
No.
1 lacerta Cotton, Field beans, India Ayyar, 1922; David
Pigeon pea, Teak, Indonesia and Kumaraswami,
Dalbergia, Erythrina. 1988; Marshall,
1916; Venkateshan
and Geetha, 2003
2 figuratus Orange Sri Lanka Hutson, 1931
3 kwanhsiensis Mulberry China Zhou, 1988
4 turritus Lepedeza Korea Morimoto, 1992

A. VARIETIES RAISED TO SUBSPECIES


1. Episomus lacerta bohemani
2. Episomus lacerta nubeculosus

B. CHECKLIST

Episomus Schoenherr.
Simallus Pascoe, 1865: 420; Faust, 1897: 194; Marshall, 1916: 207.
Episomus Schoenherr, 1826: 185; 1834: 474; 1842: 88; Laporte, 1840: 325;
Blanchard, 1845: 106,120; Lacordaire, 1863: 175; Pascoe, 1871: 163;
Chevrolat, 1883: 74-76; Sharp, 1896:92; Faust, 1897: 90-201; 682 – 684;
Marshall, 1916: 205, 207.

Type Species: Curculio avarus Fabricius, 1801: 510; Faust, 1897: 159, 160;
Marshall, 1916: 207.

adumbratus Faust See chlorostigma


1. aemulus Faust Malaysia
Episomus aemulus Faust, 1897: 110, 180.

2. albarius Faust Indonesia


Episomus albarius Faust, 1897: 110, 172.

*albarius var. immaculatus Faust

22
Episomus albarius var. immaculatus Faust, 1897: 11, 173.

albostigma Faust See chlorostigma

3. andrewesi Marshall India


Episomus andrewesi Marshall, 1916: 211, 229 [BMNH ? & ? ].
annulipes Chevrolat See figuratus

4. apicalis Chevrolat Malaysia


Episomus apicalis Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 79; Faust, 1897: 200.

5. appendiculatus Faust India, China, Malaysia (1)


Episomus appendiculatus Faust, 1897: 117, 139;
Marshall, 1916: 211, 226 [? SMTD, ? BM].

6. arcuatus Marshall India


Episomus arcuatus Marshall, 1916: 209, 219 [BMNH ? & ? ].

7. arduus Marshall India


Episomus arduus Marshall, 1916: 213, 239 [BMNH ? ].

8. arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr India, Myanmar (2)


Episomus arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 90;
Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Faust, 1894: 185; Marshall, 1916: 214, 244 [NRS].
Simallus arrogans Faust, 1897: 122,198 ; Marshall, 1916:
214, 244 [NRS].
Episomus cataleucus Chevrolat, 1883: 74, 77; Faust, 1897: 198;
Marshall, 1916: 244.
auriculatus Faust See sulcicollis
aurivilliusi Faust See humeralis
avarus Fabricius See lacerta, platina

9. avuncularius Marshall India


Episomus avuncularius Marshall, 1916: 212, 232;
Lona,1938: 366 printed avuncularis in error [BMNH ? ].

10. bicuspis Marshall Myanmar


Episomus bicuspis Marshall, 1916, 208, 215 [BMNH ? & ? ].

11. bilineatus Chevrolat Malaysia, Singapore


Episomus bilineatus Chevrolat, 1883: 76-80; Faust, 1897: 106, 186.

12. binodosus Chevrolat Malaysia


Episomus binodosus Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 78;
Faust, 1897: 109, 173.

23
bohemani Faust See lacerta

13. brevipennis Faust Myanmar


Episomus brevipennis Faust, 1897: 119, 137;
Marshall, 1916: 214, 241 [SMTD ? ].

14. castelnaui Faust Malaysia


Episomus castelnaui Faust, 1897: 115, 149.
cataleucus Chevrolat See arrogans

15. celebensis Faust Indonesia


Episomus celebensis Faust, 1895: 89, 90; 1897: 104, 192.
ceylonicus Faust See figuratus
chinensis Faust See turritus

16. chlorostigma Wiedemann Indonesia


Curculio chlorostigma Wiedemann, 1819: 177.
Episomus chlorostigma Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1834: 475; 1842: 92; Faust,
1897: 109, 170.
Episomus chlorostigma pauperatus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1834: 475.

*chlorostigma var. ? & d Faust


Episomus chlorostigma pauperatus var. ? ? & d ? Faust, 1897: 170.

chlorostigma adumbratus Faust


Episomus chlorostigma adumbratus Faust, 1897: 171.

chlorostigma albostigma Faust


Episomus chlorostigma albostigma Faust, 1897: 171.
Episomus pauperatus var. ß Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1834: 475.
clathratus Boheman in Schoenherr See montanus

17. cochinchinensis Faust Vietnam


Episomus cochinchinensis Faust, 1897: 120, 130.
confinis Faust See diutinus

18. connexus Marshall Myanmar


Episomus connexus Marshall, 1916: 210, 225 [BMNH ? ].
crenatus Guerin in litt Faust See lacerta

19. decipiens Marshall India


Episomus decipiens Marshall, 1916: 212, 234 [BMNH ? ].

24
declivis Faust See turritus

20. dejeani Faust India


Episomus montanus var.dejeani Faust, 1897: 103, 126;
Marshall, 1916: 209, 220 [SMTD].

21. distans Faust Indonesia


Episomus distans Faust, 1897: 109, 175.

22. distinguendus Faust Indonesia


Episomus distinguendus Faust, 1897: 110, 172.
*distinguendus var.obsoletus Faust
Episomus distinguendus var.obsoletus Faust, 1897 : 111, 172.

23. diutinus Faust Indonesia


Episomus diutinus Faust, 1897: 116, 156.
*diutinus var.confinis Faust
Episomus diutinus var.confinis Faust, 1897: 116, 158.

24. dohertyi Marshall India (3)


Episomus dohertyi Marshall, 1916: 212, 233 [BMNH ? & ? ].

25. dorsalis Faust Indonesia


Episomus dorsalis Faust, 1897: 116, 155.
Episomus pauperatus “Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1834: 475;
Faust, 1897: 156.

26. exaratus Faust Indonesia


Episomus exaratus Faust, 1897: 115, 150.

27. fabriciusi Faust India (4)


Episomus fabriciusi Faust, 1897: 106, 187, 255;
Marshall, 1916: 212, 231 [SMTD ? & ? ].

28. fausti Hartmann Indonesia


Episomus fausti Hartmann, 1900: 175.

29. figulus Boheman in Schoenherr India, Indonesia (5)


Episomus figulus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1834: 476; 1842: 92; Chevrolat,
1883: 75; Faust, 1897: 119, 136; Marshall, 1916: 213, 236 [NRS ? ].
Episomus griseus Chevrolat, 1883: 76; Faust, 1897: 137; Indonesia
Marshall, 1916: 236 [NRS].
figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat India
Episomus figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 79;
Faust, 1897: 119, 136; Marshall, 1916: 213, 236 [NRS].

25
30. figuratus Karsch Sri Lanka
Episomus figuratus Karsch, 1882: 387; Faust, 1897: 105, 165;
Marshall, 1916: 210, 221 [ZMHU].
Episomus annulipes Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 77; Faust, 1897: 165;
Marshall, 1916: 221 [NRS].
Episomus ceylonicus Faust, 1897: 113, 161; Marshall,
1916: 221 [SMTD].

31. fimbriatus Pascoe Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia


Episomus fimbriatus Pascoe, 1871: 158; Chevrolat, 1883: 76;
Pascoe; 1885: 215; Faust, 1895: 90; 1897: 103, 190.

32. fortius Voss China


Episomus fortius Voss, 1937: 252.

33. frenatus Marshall India


Episomus frenatus Marshall, 1916, 211, 230 [BMNH ? & ? ].

34. freyi Zumpt China


Episomus freyi Zumpt, 1937: 11.
gemmeus Pascoe See gracilicornis

35. gracilicornis Ritsema Indonesia


Episomus gracilicornis Ritsema, 1882: 178; Chevrolat, 1883: 76;
Faust, 1897: 116, 158.
Episomus ?gemmeus Pascoe, 1887: 349; Faust, 1897: 158.
griseus Chevrolat See figulus

36. gryphus Faust Indonesia


Episomus gryphus Faust, 1897: 166.

37. guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr India, Myanmar, Malaysia (6)


Episomus guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1845: 435;
Faust, 1894: 185; 1897:138; Marshall, 1916: 208, 217 [NRS].
Episomus ocellatus Chevrolat, 1883: 75, Faust, 1907: 138.

38. gyllenhalli Faust Indonesia


Episomus gyllenhalli Faust, 1897: 111, 168.
*gyllenhalli var.socors Faust Indonesia
Episomus gyllenhalli var.socors Faust, 1897: 169.

39. humeralis Chevrolat Indonesia, Bangladesh, India (7)


Episomus humeralis Chevrolat, 1883: 76, 81, Faust, 1897: 118, 130;
Marshall, 1916: 214, 241 [NRS ? ].

26
Episomus aurivilliusi Faust, 1897: 119, 132; India
Marshall, 1916: 214 (var. aurivilliusi), 241 [SMTD].
Episomus schonherri Faust, 1897: 118, 132; Marshall, 1916: 241 India
[SMTD].

40. iconicus Pascoe Cambodia


Episomus iconicus Pascoe, 1871: 159, Pascoe, 1887: 350;
Chevrolat, 1883: 76; Faust, 1897: 200; Marshall, 1916: 246 (= laticollis).

41. illustris Faust Malaysia, Singapore


Episomus illustris Faust, 1897: 107, 184.
immaculatus Faust See albarius.

42. intercalaris Faust Indonesia


Episomus intercalaris Faust, 1897: 173.

43. incisipes Chevrolat Malaysia


Episomus incisipes Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 78; Faust, 1897: 109, 179.

44. incomptus Faust Philippines


Episomus incomptus Faust, 1897: 113, 142.

45. inermicollis Marshall India (8)


Episomus inermicollis Marshall, 1916: 211, 226 [BMNH ? & ? ].

46. irregularis Marshall India


Episomus irregularis Marshall, 1916: 209, 211 [BMNH ? ].
jamamurai Kono See turritus

47. kraatzi Faust Malaysia, Indonesia


Episomus kraatzi Faust, 1895: 90; 1897: 104, 192.

48. kwanhsiensis Heller China


Episomus kwanhsiensis Heller, 1923: 75.

49. lacerta (Fabricius) Indonesia, India (9)


Curculio lacerta Fabricius, 1781: 190; 1787: 117; 1792: 470;
1801: 528; Gmelin in Linnaeus, 1790: 1781; Oliver, 1790: 539;
1807: 354; Herbst, 1795: 388.
Episomus lacerta Boheman in Schoenherr, 1834: 476; 1842: 92;
Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Pascoe, 1885: 214; Faust, 1897: 112, 159;
Marshall, 1916: 210, 223; Hustache, 1928: 9 [BMNH].
Episomus nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: India
92; Marshall, 1916: 223; Lona,1938: 369 (var. nubeculosus) [NRS]
Episomus ?avarus Fabricius, 1801: 510; Faust, 1897: Indonesia
159, 160.

27
Episomus crenatus Guerin in litt Faust, 1897: 159. India
lacerta bohemani Faust India
Episomus lacerta bohemani Faust, 1897: 112, 160;
Marshall, 1916: 223 [SMTD].
*lacerta var.piger Marshall India
Episomus lacerta var. piger Marshall, 1916: 224.
laevicollis Marshall See montanus
lateralis Eydoux See lentus

50. laticollis Pascoe Thailand


Episomus laticollis Pascoe, 1887: 350; Faust, 1897: 201;
Marshall, 1916: 246.

51. lentus Erichson Philippines (10)


Episomus lentus Erichson, 1834: 263; Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 94;
Chevrolat, 1883: 76.
Simallus lentus Faust, 1897: 122, 197.
Episomus lateralis Eydoux, 1839: 266; Boheman in Schoenherr,
1842: 93; Faust, 1897: 197.

52. limbaticollis Marshall Myanmar


Episomus limbaticollis Marshall, 1916: 214, 243;
Hustache, 1928: 9 [BMNH ? ].

53. lucidus Hartmann Indonesia


Episomus lucidus Hartmann, 1900: 176.

54. malaccensis Faust Malaysia


Episomus malaccensis Faust, 1897: 151.

55. manipurensis Marshall India


Episomus manipurensis Marshall, 1916: 210, 225 [BMNH ? & ? ].

56. marshalli Heller Vietnam


Episomus marshalli Heller, 1908: 130.

57. montanus Guerin India (11)


Episomus montanus Guerin, 1843: 52; Boheman in Schoenherr,
1842: 88; Chevrolat, 1883: 74; Faust, 1897: 103, 125; Marshall,
1916: 209, 219, 220 [Type not traced].
Episomus clathratus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 89;
Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Faust, 1897: 126; Marshall, 1916: 219 [NRS].
montanus See dejeani Faust
*montanus var.laevicollis Marshall
Episomus montanus var.laevicollis Marshall, 1916: 209, 219. India

28
58. mori Kono Japan
Episomus mori Kono, 1928: 166.

59. mundus Sharp Japan


Episomus mundus Sharp, 1896: 93.

60. nebulosus Marshall India


Episomus nebulosus Marshall, 1916: 212, 232 [BMNH ? & ? ].
nigrolineatus Wiedemann See platina

61. nigropustulatus Faust Myanmar


Episomus nigropustulatus Faust, 1894: 191; 1897: 119, 135;
Marshall, 1916: 212, 235 [MCSN ? ].
nigrosparsus Chevrolat See figulus

62. nilgirinus Heller India (12)


Episomus nilgirinus Heller, 1908: 131; Marshall, 1916:
210, 222 [SMTD ? & ? ].

63. nobilis Faust Malaysia, Indonesia


Episomus nobilis Faust, 1895: 90; 1897: 104, 191.
nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr See lacerta

64. obesulus Faust Cambodia


Simallus obesulus Faust, 1897: 121, 194; Marshall, 1916: 207.

65. obliquus Marshall Myanmar (13)


Episomus obliquus Marshall, 1916: 215, 246 [BMNH ? ].

66. oblongus Marshall Myanmar


Episomus oblongus Marshall, 1916: 214, 243 [BMNH ? ].
obsoletus Faust See distinguendus

67. obstrusus Marshall Myanmar


Episomus obstrusus Marshall, 1916: 213, 240 [BMNH ? ].

68. obuncus Marshall India (14)


Episomus obuncus Marshall, 1916: 211, 231 [BMNH ? ].
ocellatus Chevrolat See guttatus

69. omisiensis Heller China


Episomus omisiensis Heller, 1923: 75.

29
70. parallelus Chevrolat Vietnam
Episomus parallelus Chevrolat, 1883: 82.

71. pauperatus (Fabricius) Indonesia, Malaysia


Curculio pauperatus Fabricius, 1801: 509; Chevrolat,
1883: 75; Pascoe, 1885: 215; Episomus pauperatus Faust,
1897: 114, 143; Heyne & Taschenberg, 1907: 226.
pauperatus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr See chlorostigma, dorsalis
piger Marshall See lacerta

72. platina (Sparrm) Indonesia, Vietnam


Curculio platina Sparrm, 1785: 55; Gmelin in Linnaeus,
1790: 1794; Oliver, 1790: 570.
Episomus platina Schoenherr, 1834: 475; Boheman in Schoenherr,
1842: 91; Laporte, 1840: 325; Chevrolat, 1883: 75.
Simallus platina Faust, 1897: 121, 195; Marshall, 1916: 207.
Episomus ?avarus Fabricius 1801: 510; Faust, 1897: 195, 197;
Curculio nigrolineatus Wiedemann, 1823: 125; Faust, 1897: 196.
pracuae Faust See quatuornotatus

73. praecanus Faust Indonesia


Episomus praecanus Faust, 1897: 107, 176.
prainae Faust See quatuornotatus

74. profanus Faust Myanmar


Episomus profanus Faust, 1894: 189; 1897: 118, 141;
Marshall, 1916: 213, 237 [MCSN].
*profanus var.punctiger Faust
Episomus profanus var.punctiger Faust, 1894: 189;
Marshall, 1916: 237 [MCSN ? & ? ].

75. pudibundus Faust Myanmar (15)


Episomus pudibundus Faust, 1894: 185;
Marshall, 1916: 214, 242 [SMTD].
Simallus pudibundus Faust, 1897: 121, 194; Marshall, 1916: 242.

76. pudicus Faust Malaysia, Indonesia


Episomus pudicus Faust, 1897: 114, 147.
punctiger Faust See profanus

77. pyriformis Marshall Sri Lanka


Episomus pyriformis Marshall, 1916: 213, 239 [BMNH ? ].

78. quadrimaculatus Marshall India

30
Episomus quadrimaculatus Marshall, 1916: 213, 237 [BMNH ? & ? ].
quadrinotatus Desbrochers des Loges See quatuornotatus

79. quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges India (16)


Episomus quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges, 1890: 212;
Faust, 1891: 266 printed “quadrinotatus” in error; 1897: 117, 141;
Marshall, 1916: 211, 228 [NPC].
Episomus prainae Faust, 1891: 265 printed “pracuae” in error;
1892: XVIII; 1897: 117, 141 [SMTD].

80. raucus Faust India (17)


Episomus raucus Faust, 1897: 113, 162; Marshall, 1916:
210, 222 [SMTD].

81. repandus Faust Myanmar, Cambodia


Episomus repandus Faust, 1894: 193; 1897: 120, 126;
Marshall, 1916: 212, 233 [MCSN ? & ? ].

82. sagax Faust India, Bangladesh (18)


Episomus sagax Faust, 1897: 119, 134;
Marshall, 1916: 212, 235 [SMTD ? & ? ].

83. saitus Faust Indonesia


Episomus saitus Faust, 1897: 115, 153.
schonherri Faust See humeralis

84. sennae Faust Myanmar


Episomus sennae Faust, 1894: 186; Marshall; 1916:
215, 245 [MCSN ? ].
Simallus sennae Faust, 1897: 122, 198; Marshall; 1916: 215, 245.

85. siamensis Faust Malaysia, Cambodia, Thailand


Episomus siamensis Faust, 1897: 120, 127; Marshall, 1916: 240.

86. simulator Faust Indonesia, Malaysia


Episomus simulator Faust, 1897: 107, 178.

87. singularis Faust Thailand


Episomus singularis Faust, 1897: 105, 163.

88. sobrinus Faust Malaysia


Episomus sobrinus Faust, 1897: 114, 145.
socors Faust See gyllenhalli

89. stellio Snellen Van Vollenhoven Indonesia

31
Episomus stellio Snellen Van Vollenhoven, 1864: 169,
Chevrolat, 1883: 76; Pascoe, 1885: 215 ; Faust, 1897: 114, 146.

90. suavis Faust Malaysia


Episomus suavis Faust, 1897: 107, 182.

91. subnitens Marshall Indonesia, Myanmar


Episomus subnitens Marshall, 1916: 215, 245 [BMNH ? & ? ].

92. sulcicollis (Pascoe) Myanmar (19)


Simallus sulcicollis Pascoe, 1865: 420; Marshall, 1916:
215, 247 [BMNH ? ].
Episomus auriculatus Faust, 1894: 187; Marshall, 1916:
247 [MCSN].
Simallus auriculatus Faust 1897: 199 ; Marshall, 1916: 215, 247.

93. subtuberculatus Heller Vietnam


Episomus subtuberculatus Heller, 1922: 3.

94. takahashii Kono Taiwan


Episomus turritus takahashii Kono, 1928: 166.
Episomus takahashii Kono, 1930: 198.

95. timidus Faust Malaysia, Indonesia


Episomus timidus Faust, 1897: 108, 182.

96. tristiculus Voss Taiwan


Episomus tristiculus Voss, 1958: 29.

97. truncatirostris (Fairmaire) China


Dermatodes truncatirostris Fairmaire, 1889: 51; Faust, 1897: 120, 128.
98. turritus (Gyllenhal in Schoenherr) Japan, China, Korea
Lagostomus turritus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1833: 613.
Dermatodes turritus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1840: 896 ;
Lacordaire, 1863: 109.
Episomus turritus Roelofs, 1873: 164; Jekel, 1875: 139;
Chevrolat, 1883: 96; Sharp, 1896: 92; Faust, 1897: 102, 123.
*turritus var. chinensis Faust China
Episomus turritus var. chinensis Faust, 1897: 102, 124; Marshall,
1916: 217.
Episomus turritus Chevrolat in Lacordaire, 1863: 176.
*turritus var.declivis Faust China
Episomus turritus var.declivis Faust, 1897: 102, 124.
Episomus turritus Pascoe, 1871: 158.
turritus yamamurai Kono Korea
Episomus turritus yamamurai Kono, 1928: 166;

32
Lona,1938: 372 printed “jamamurai” in error.

99. uncatus Faust Malaysia, Indonesia


Episomus uncatus Faust, 1897: 106, 188.

100. uniformis Pascoe India (20)


Episomus uniformis Pascoe, 1887: 349; Faust, 1897: 120, 129;
Marshall, 1916: 213, 238 [BMNH ? ].

101. versutus Faust Myanmar, India


Episomus versutus Faust, 1894: 191, 1897: 117, 141;
Marshall, 1916: 211, 227 [MCSN ? & ? ].

102. vethi Hartmann Indonesia


Episomus vethi Hartmann, 1914: 123.

103. viriosus Faust Indonesia


Episomus viriosus Faust, 1897: 109, 177.

104. watanabei Kono Taiwan


Episomus watanabei Kono, 1932: 181.

105. wiedemanni Faust Indonesia


Episomus wiedemanni Faust, 1897: 101.
yamamurai Kono See turritus

106. yunnanensis Voss China


Episomus yunnanensis Voss, 1937: 251.

* Status of subspecies could not be confirmed

Genus Episomus Schoenherr:


Type species Curculio avarus, (Fabricius, 1781).
General colour varies from different shades of brown to black, covered by varying
shades of dark / metallic greenish / white vestiture, with stripes or patches of black
vestiture and spots of white vestiture.
HEAD with the eyes convex, lateral, prominent, varying in size and curvature and
mostly acuminate inferiorly; with a central furrow and a transverse impression behind the
eyes.

33
ROSTRUM separated on each side by a sinuate transverse furrow in front of the
eyes; broader than the forehead at its base, deeply emarginate at the apex, the epistome
bare, shiny and forming a sharp acute angle behind.; scrobes dorsal, very steep in front,
but shallower near the eyes and curving inwards about the middle; the genae wrinkled,
and with a strongly curved furrow which extends to the lower surface; mandibles obtuse,
prominent and with a strongly marked scar.
ANTENNAE inserted at or before the middle of the rostrum; the scape exceeding
the hind margin of the eye, usually dilated and sometimes strongly curved; the funicle
with seven segments, with the first, second and seventh joints usually longer than the
others, the club four segmented.
PROTHORAX usually with strong transverse plications and a distinct central
furrow, the anterior margin truncate laterally (except in sulcicollis), the base either
bisinuate or subtruncate, the gular margin shallowly sinuate.
SCUTELLUM varying in size, usually well developed, but sometimes invisible
and occasionally enclosed in front by the sutural margin of the elytra.
ELYTRA not soldered together, with or without a distinct humeral angle and
subhumeral prominence, the base, slightly covering the basal margin of the prothorax, the
posterior declivity steep, the lateral margin sinuate above the posterior coxae; the striae
punctate and 10 in number; rudimentary wings present. Sternum with the front coxae
nearer the anterior margin of the prosternum; the mesosternum with the epimeron much
smaller than the episternum, the intercoxal process dilated at its apex; the metasternum is
either equal to, slightly shorter than or slightly longer than the median coxae, the
episternum is extremely narrow and usually quite concealed with the exception of the
enlarged anterior portion, the hind coxae touch the elytral margin.
VENTER with the intercoxal piece angulated and not broader than the hind
coxae; segments second, third and fourth subequal, second and first segments separated
by a deep transverse incision, fifth elongate and usually sharply pointed in the female,
shorter and broadly rounded in the male. Legs stout, elongate; the femora unarmed, the
posterior pair not reaching the apex of the elytra; the tibiae almost straight, the two front
pairs produced internally at the apex, the posterior pair with the tibial apex strongly

34
enclosed; tarsi spongy beneath, with the second segment transverse and trapeziform, third
broadly bilobate, fourth as long as second added to third; the claws connate.
A. Key to the species
This key includes all the species known from India except

1. Elytra not transversely impressed near the base. …………………..……..…2


Elytra transversely impressed near the base. ..……………………………..10

2. Rostrum with the genae not produced in front beyond the mandibles. …......3

Rostrum with the genae produced in front beyond the mandibles, 1.1x as long as
broad. Elytra bearing six white spots each, with a small, sharply conical tubercle
on the suture at some distance above the apex; the base of elytra subtruncate;
elytral vestiture with scales fluorescent green with pink specks. The length of
head 1.38x as long as the rostrum. Antennae with club black and first funicular
segment the longest, 1.31x as long as the club. Prothorax 1.28x as long as the
rostrum. Legs with tibial apex bearing a prominent spur projecting outside the
margins. ……….…….......(6) guttatus

3. Seventh segment of the funicle distinctly longer than the club (1 : 1.1-1.31) (Fig.
62). ……………………………..………………….…………………..4
Seventh segment of the funicle shorter than the club (1.11-1.6 : 1) (Fig. 63).
……………………………………………………………………………….6

4. Transverse impression near eyes present (Fig. 28). First funicular segment the
longest and broadest. First tarsal segment the longest. The base of elytra jointly
sinuate (Fig. 99). ………………………………….……………..…5

Eyes without any transverse impression (Fig. 36); its space between middle 1.81x
as the distance between the scrobes. Antennae with the seventh segment of funicle
the longest and 1.29x as long as the club. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural
margin. Elytra bearing a broad subhumeral prominence (Fig. 107) and having its
base truncate; the suture on declivity not elevated. Legs with first and fourth tarsal
segments the longest.
…………………..……………………………………..……….…(10) lentus

5. Antennae with seventh segment of funicle 1.31x as long as the club, first segment
as long as the seventh. Head with its length 1.49x as long as the rostrum. Eyes
1.46x as long as broad, 1.46x as long as broad from above. Elytra, mottled with
small irregular white spots. Prothorax 1.06x as long as broad, 1.1x as long as the
head and 1.62x as long as the rostrum; its anterior margin of bisinuate (Fig. 75).
Scutellum not enclosed. Elytra with a sharp humeral angle and roundly costate
suture. Legs with setae at posterior apical angle of hind tibiae black. Male

35
genitalia having tegmen with a sclerotised projection between the parameres (Fig.
272). .……………..…..(2) arrogans

Antennae with seventh segment of funicle 1.1x as long as the club; first the
longest and same as broad as the seventh and 1.27x as long as the club. Head with
its length 1.54x as long as the rostrum. Prothorax with its anterior margin truncate
(Fig. 88); 1.12x as broad as long; 1.55x as long as the head; 1.81x as long as the
rostrum. Eyes 2.33x as long as broad from above. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly
by sutural margin. Elytra without any humeral angle; the suture on declivity not
elevated; elytral vestiture with scales fluorescent green having pink specks.
Female genitalia having spermatheca with a prominent projection at ramus
terminating in a blunt apex (Fig. 247).
……………….………………………………..……(15) pudibundus

6. Eyes without lateral and transverse impression (Fig 12). Head forming two
prominent conical tubercles to the side of base of central furrow (Figs. 39 and 44).
Rostrum with its sides almost parallel to each other, without any dilation (Figs. 12
and 22). Prothorax with its anterior margin truncate (Fig. 86).
…………………………………………………………………………..7

Eyes with lateral and transverse impression, Head without any tubercles. Rostrum
with its sides not parallel to each other, Elytra with suture on declivity elevated
……………………………...…………………………….8

7. Antennae having the first segment of club the longest; first funicular segment the
longest, 1.59x as long as the seventh. Rostrum subquadrate (Fig. 12), 1.29x as
broad as long. Eyes 1.07x as long as broad from above. Head with a deep
transverse impression behind the eyes, forehead with two obtuse elevations in the
middle, the head 1.54x as long as the rostrum and 1.11x as long as the prothorax;
central furrow on head dilated at apex. Prothorax with shallow plications, 1.57x as
broad as long. Legs with the fourth tarsal segment the longest. Scutellum not
enclosed. Elytra with its base truncate, the suture on declivity not elevated; lateral
dark marking on elytra terminating obliquely behind; elytral vestiture with
pedicellate scales (Fig. 163).
……………………………………………….………......(13) obliquus

Antennae with first and second segment of club longest; second funicular segment
the longest, 1.18x as long as the seventh. Rostrum 1.24x as broad as long. Eyes
1.62x as long as broad from above. Head 1.41x as long as the rostrum; central
furrow on head not dilated at apex. Prothorax with a sharp projection below the
eye at anterior lateral margin, 1.07x as long as the head, bearing very few
plications, 1.38x as broad as long. Legs with the first tarsal segment the longest.
Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. Elytra with its base jointly
sinuate (Fig. 115), the suture sinuate before its
apex……………………………………………………...….. (19) sulcicollis

36
8. Legs with tibial apex without any prominent spur projecting outside the margins.
Elytra with suture on the declivity distinctly elevated. ………...... 9

Legs with tibial apex bearing a prominent spur projecting outside the margins
(Fig. 223). Elytra with suture on the declivity slightly elevated; the intervals
between the striae narrower than the punctations; without humeral angles. Head
1.49x as long as the rostrum. Prothorax 1.03x as long as the head. Antennae with
first funicular segment the longest. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural
margin. Legs with hind tibiae of male strongly tuberculate internally (Fig. 238).
Male genitalia with aedeagus having three sclerotised areas on its apex between
the apophyses (Fig. 309).
..........…………………………………………………….………...(9) lacerta

Elytra with intervals as broad as the punctations. Prothorax same as long as head.
Antennae with first and seventh funicular segments longest, 1.07x as long as the
second. Head 1.5x as long as the rostrum. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by
sutural margin. Male genitalia with aedeagus having sigle sclerotised area on its
apex between the apophyses (Fig. 290).
..…………………………………………………………lacerta nubeculosus

Elytra with intervals broader than the punctations. Prothorax 1.5x as long as the
head. Antennae with only seventh funicular segment the longest, 1.16x as long as
the second. Head 1.47x as long as the rostrum. Scutellum not enclosed anteriorly
by sutural margin. . Male genitalia with aedeagus having sigle sclerotised area on
its apex between the apophyses (Fig. 278).
………………………………………………………….…lacerta bohemani

9. Antenna with second and seventh segments of funicle the longest and broadest;
1.04x as long as the first. General colour black, with a white spot on the elytra.
Head 1.08x as long as the prothorax; with central furrow dilated at apex. Elytra
separately rounded at the base (Fig. 119); the suture more strongly elevated on the
declivity (Fig. 133). …….……(11) montanus

Antenna with seventh segment of funicle the longest and broadest, black from
middle till apex; club black. General body colour green. Prothorax 1.31x as long
as the head. Head with central furrow not dilated at apex. Legs with tibial apex
bearing a prominent spur projecting outside the margins (Fig. 241). Scutellum
enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. Elytra with its base subtruncate (Fig. 108);
the suture strongly elevated on the declivity (Fig. 145), elytral vestiture with
scales fluorescent green with pink specks. Apical process of male organ gradually
narrowed and forming a continuous downward curve.
……………………………………….…….… (17) raucus

10. Elytra shallowly impressed near the base (Fig. 140). …………..…………11
Elytra distinctly impressed near the base (Fig. 126)……………….....……14

37
11. Antennae with seventh segment of funicle shorter than the club (1.11-1.6 :
1)……………………………………………………………………………12
Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest and longer than the club (1 :
1.1-1.29). ………………………………….…….………………..13
12. Antennae with first or second segment of funicle the longest; elytra bearing
subhumeral prominence, Elytra with a slight subhumeral process. Scutellum
transverse. ……………………………...…………………………………..15

Elytra with a distinct subhumeral process (Fig. 103). Antenna with second
segment of funicle the longest, 1.64x as long as the third; club 1.7x as long as the
seventh segment of funicle. Eyes with distance between its posterior margins
longest (1.34x) as compared to that between the middle. Prothorax with very few
plications and its central furrow very small and located near its base (Fig. 81).
Elytra having shallow striae and separated punctures. Male genitalia having
tegmen with a sclerotised projection between the parameres (Fig. 304).
………………………….………………………..(8) inermicollis

* Eyes without lateral and transverse impressions (Fig. 30). General colour metallic
green. Antennae with first and second funicular segments the longest, 1.83x as
long as the third; club and seventh segment of funicle completely black. Head as
long as prothorax; its central furrow shallow. Elytra without any humeral angle;
elytral vestiture having fluorescent pink scales.
………………………………………….…..……..……(4) fabriciusi

13 Antennae with seventh funicular segment not dilated, broadest at middle, 1.25x as
long as the second; club with fourth segment the longest. Head 1.53x as long as
the rostrum; having central furrow dilated at apex. Eyes with distance between
posterior margins equal to distance between the anterior margins. Prothorax with
its anterior margin truncate (Fig. 94). Scutellum transverse. Elytra with slight
humeral angle; the suture strongly elevated into a carina on the declivity (Fig.
141); elytral vestiture with its base pedunculate (Fig. 175).
………………………………….(20) uniformis

Antennae with seventh funicular segment dilated, 1.41x as long as the second;
club with second and third segments the longest. Head with central furrow not
dilated, its length 1.45x as long as the rostrum. Eyes with distance between
posterior margins 1.23x as the distance between the anterior margins. Prothorax
with its anterior margin bisinuate (Fig. 87). Scutellum not enclosed. Elytra
without any humeral angle; elytral vestiture having fluorescent pink scales with
few having greenish core.
…………………………………....………………………….…(14) obuncus

14 Elytral vestiture with plumose scales (Fig. 166). ……………...…………. 15

38
Elytral vestiture without plumose scales. ………….………...…………….17

15 Antennae with seventh segment of funicle longer than the club. ………….16

Antennae with club 1.7x as long as the seventh segment of funicle; second
segment of funicle the longest, first and seventh the broadest. Head is same as
long as the prothorax; 1.56x as long as the rostrum; its central furrow dilated
before middle. Eyes with the distance between its middle 1.03x as that between
the anterior margins and 1.71x as the distance between the scrobes. Prothorax
with its anterior margin bisinuate (Fig.85). Legs with tibial apex bearing a
prominent spur projecting outside the margins (Fig. 229). Elytra with a slight
humeral angle; elytral vestiture with fluorescent green scales with pink specks.
..……………………………...(12) nilgirinus

Antennae with seventh segment of funicle longest and broadest and as long as the
club. Head with the central furrow deep and not dilated; its length 1.44x as long
as the rostrum. Prothorax with its anterior margin truncate (Fig. 80), 1.04x as long
as the head. Eyes with the distance between anterior and middle 1.1x as the space
between the eyes at middle; 1.45x as the distance between the scrobes. Elytra
without any humeral angle but bearing a distinct subhumeral prominence and a
basal pale stripe on interval 3; the first stria from suture terminating at the sutural
margin near the base of scutellum (Fig. 121).
……...………………………………..…(7) humeralis

16 Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest and 1.26x as long as the
club. Head with the central furrow shallow and not dilated at apex, its length 1.5x
as long as the rostrum. Elytra bearing two white spots and a distinct subhumeral
prominence; the suture elevated on the declivity (Fig. 124), and a dark brown
stripe at the base of intervals 4 and 5.
…………………..……………………………………………….(3) dohertyi

Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest, not dilated, 1.37x as long
as the club and same as broad as club. Head with a deep central furrow dilated at
apex; its length 1.47x as long as the rostrum. Elytra bearing slight subhumeral
prominence; the suture moderately elevated after the declivity, elytral vestiture
having pedicellate scales (Fig. 164). ….…………(18) sagax

17 Elytra with its apices not produced into a long process….……………….. 18

Elytra with its apices separately produced into a long sharp process (Fig. 122);
with five white spots sharply elevated. Antennae with its club black and second
funicular segment the longest. Rostrum as long as broad. Head with breadth at its
base 1.51x to as much as the distance between scrobes. Elytra with the suture
strongly elevated on the declivity; bearing a distinct subhumeral prominence (Fig.
98); elytral vestiture having scales separately rounded at base (Fig. 180).
……………………...………(1) appendiculatus

39
18 Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest. Elytra mottled with dark
and pale markings. Head with a broad central furrow. Eyes with transverse
impression near it faint and distance between from anterior to middle 1.21x.
Scutellum not enclosed. Elytral vestiture having scales with rounded base (Fig.
155). Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.1x longer than the
proximal arm, cornu bent, close towards proximal arm.
………………………………………………..(5) figulus nigrosparsus

Antennae with first segment of funicle the longest. Eyes without any transverse
impression. Elytra with three very slightly raised white spots; its apices with only
a very short inconspicuous process; each elytron usually with a large black patch
on the declivity and the suture strongly elevated into a carina on the declivity
(Fig. 144). Antennae with club and seventh segment of funicle completely black.
Head with central furrow narrow. Eyes with distance between anterior to middle
1.23x. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. Elytral vestiture with
scales bearing a rounded base (Fig. 185). Female genitalia having spermatheca
with proximal arm slightly swollen, distal arm 1.27x as long as the proximal arm,
cornu projecting towards proximal arm. …………….……………..….…(16)
quatuornotatus

B. Species studied

The following are the species studied in the present work:

1. appendiculatus Faust
2. arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr
3. dohertyi Marshall
4. fabriciusi Faust
5. figulus nigrosparsus Boheman in Schoenherr
6. guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr
7. humeralis Chevrolat
8. inermicollis Marshall
9. lacerta (Fabricius)
10. lentus Erichson
11. montanus Guerin
12. nilgirinus Heller
13. obliquus Marshall
14. obuncus Marshall

40
15. pudibundus Faust
16. quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges
17. raucus Faust
18. sagax Faust
19. sulcicollis (Pascoe)
20. uniformis Pascoe

1. Episomus appendiculatus Faust


(Figs. 10, 27, 51, 74, 98, 122, 180, 194, 218 and 330)
Episomus appendiculatus Faust, 1897: 117, 139; Marshall, 1916: 211, 226
[? SMTD, ? BM].
General colour: brown above and light brown to chalky white beneath and on the
inflexed margins of the elytra. The lateral band on the prothorax (when present) vaguely
invading the intervals 3, 4 and 5 till one third from base, each elytra bearing five elevated
white spots – one on the third interval before middle, one each on second, third and
seventh intervals behind middle and one at apex of fifth interval (Fig. 330).
Head, very slightly impressed on each side of central furrow, 1.51x as long as the
rostrum, 3.56x as long as the apical emargination and 1.04x as long as that of prothorax,
base 1.05x as broad as the rostrum, 1.51x as much as the distance between scrobes and
1.63x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow 2x as long as the apical
emargination. Rostrum as long as broad, the dorsal costae shallowly impressed, 1.96x as
long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes convex, 2.1x as long
as broad from above and 1.16 x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the
anterior margin 1.11x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between
posterior margins 1.22x as that between the middle and 1.1x as that between the anterior
margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.1x as that between the scrobes (Figs. 10 and
27). Antennae grey. Scape broadened (1.1x) from middle to apex, 3.1x as long as the
club. Funicle 1.2x as long as the scape and 3.72x times as long as the club, second
segment longest, 1.2x as long as the first, 2x as long as the third, 2.18x as long as the
fourth, fifth and sixth segments and 1.26x as the seventh, fourth to sixth equally long; in
terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.07x as broad as the

41
first, 1.27x as broad as the second, 1.16x as broad as the third, fourth, fifth and sixth
segments, third to sixth equally broad. Club black, 1.21x as long as the second and 1.52x
as long and 1.43x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, second segment longest,
1.5x as long as the first and fourth, and 1.12x as long as the third, first and fourth equally
long; in terms of breadth, second the broadest, 1.05x as broad as the first, 1.33x as the
third, 2.5x as the fourth (Fig. 51).
Prothorax with very shallow plications, posterior margin deeply bisinuate, 1.44x
as long as and 1.52x as broad as the rostrum, 1.06x broader than long at middle; breadth
at middle 1.45x as broad as at the apex and 1.04x as broad as at the base, the posterior
margin 1.38x as broad as the apex, its length at middle equal as that at the sides, 11.33x
as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 12x as broad as the breadth of
scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 74). Scutellum not enclosed, as long as broad.
Legs brownish grey. Hind femora darker from base up to middle, 4.45x as long as broad,
1.06x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.1x as broad as the breadth of tibia.
Tibia 4.6x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.92x as long as the first,
2.28x as the second and 1.55x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.43x as
broad as first and second and 4.3 x as broad as the fourth segment (Figs. 194 and 218).
Elytra ovate, separately rounded at the base, with a sharp humeral angle and
distinct subhumeral prominence, acuminate at the apex bearing a short sharp process, and
the upper surface transversely impressed near the base (Fig. 122); its length 1.14x as
much as the suture, 5.56x as long as the rostrum, 17.08x as long as the scutellum, 3.85x
as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.16x as that of its breadth at the subhumeral
prominence, 1.55x as that of prothorax and 1.62x as that of its breadth at base. Suture
elevated on the declivity, 2.11x as long as that of prothorax, 24x as long as the scutellum.
Striae with rows of large shallow punctations, each punctation 1.15x as long as broad,
1.25x as long as the length and 1.08x as broad as the breadth of scutellum and 1.3x as
broad as the breadth of intervals. Sixth striae not reaching the base. Intervals narrow and
subcostate (Fig. 98). Elytral vestiture with one type of scales, brown, elongate with 6-9
inconspicuous ridges, separately rounded at base, rounded at apex (Fig. 180).

42
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3x as long as the second, 4.8x as long as the
third, 4x as the fourth and 1.6x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first the broadest,
1.17x as broad as second, 1.41x as broad as third, 1.71x as fourth and 2.08x as fifth.
Length: 15.5 mm; Breadth: 5.8 mm.
Specimen examined: 1? Sikkim: Third mile nursery, on shrubs (4500 ft), 08.IV.1957,
Coll. Baldev P. D.
Distribution: INDIA: Uttar Pradesh: Allahabad; Sikkim. China, Malaysia

2. Episomus arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr


(Figs. 9, 28, 52, 75, 99, 123, 173, 174, 195, 219, 269-272, 317 and 329)
Episomus arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 90; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Faust, 1894:
185; Marshall, 1916: 214, 244 [NRS].
Simallus arrogans Faust, 1897: 122,198 ; Marshall, 1916: 214, 244 [NRS].
Episomus cataleucus Chevrolat, 1883: 74, 77; Faust, 1897: 198; Marshall, 1916: 244.
General colour light brown above and whitish below; prothorax with two broad,
dark brown, longitudinal stripes, elytra with the intervals 5,6 and 7 dark brown, sides of
head and thorax and elytra whitish grey, sides of elytra mottled with small irregular white
spots (Fig. 329).
Head with a projection on vertex, 1.49x as long as the rostrum and 3.72x as long
as the apical emargination, base 1.06x as broad as the rostrum, 2.05x as much as the
distance between scrobes and 2.38x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow
broad and deep, 1.72x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum with the costae faintly
impressed, 1.01x as broad as long, 2.05x as long as the distance between base of rostrum
and base of head. Eyes convex, 1.46x as long as broad from above and 1.17x as long as
broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.06x as the distance between
the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.21x as that between the middle
and 1.13x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.47x
as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 9 and 28). Antennae with scape broadened
(1.33x) from middle to apex, 4.72x as long as the club. Funicle 1.21x as long as the scape
and 5.72x as long as the club, first and the seventh segment longest, 1.31x as long as the
club, 1.72x as long as the second, 2x as long as the third, 2.37x as the fourth and sixth
and 2.23x as the fifth, first, seventh and fourth, sixth equally long; in terms of breadth,

43
first segment broadest of all, 1.04x as broad as the second, 1.18x as broad as the third and
sixth, 1.13x as broad as the fourth, fifth and seventh. Seventh dilated anteriorly, segments
third with, sixth and fourth, fifth with seventh equally broad. Club 1.08x as broad as the
seventh segment of funicle, its second segment the longest, 1.12x as long as the first and
1.5x as long as the third and fourth segments, third and fourth equally long; in terms of
breadth, first and second segments broadest, 1.47x as broad as the third and 2.5x as the
fourth (Fig. 52).
Prothorax subcylindrical. Upper surface rugose, 1.1x as long as the head, 1.62x as
long as and 1.5x as broad as the rostrum, 1.06x as long as broad at middle; breadth at
middle 1.42x as broad as at the apex and 1.06x as broad as at the base, posterior margin
truncate, posterior margin 1.33x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.04x as that at
the sides, 16x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 17.74x as broad as the
breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 75). Scutellum light brown, very small,
1.18x as long as broad and 1.08x as long as the length of punctations and 1.83x as broad
as its breadth. Legs light brown. Femora 5.1x as long as broad, 1.12x as long and its
breadth as broad as that of tibia. Tibia 4.5x as long as broad. Tarsi with first segment
longest, 2.12x as long as the second, 1.45x as the third and 1.05x as the fourth; in terms
of breadth, third broadest, 1.05x as broad as first and second and 3.27x as broad as the
fourth (Figs. 195 and 219).
Elytra ovate, jointly sinuate at the base, without humeral angles, not impressed
near base (Fig. 123), its length 1.08x as much as the suture, 3.9x as long as the rostrum,
38.46x as long as the scutellum, 2.4x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.66x as
that of prothorax and 1.76x as that of its breadth at base. Suture roundly costate on the
declivity, 2.21x as long as that of prothorax, 35.38x as long as the scutellum. Striae with
rows of small punctations, each punctation 2x as long as broad. Intervals broad, 3.33x as
broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 99). Elytral vestiture with scales of two types,
brown, equally predominant, the short and broad scales with 4-5 parallel ridges
originating from the base and terminating at the apex and sides, apex not blunt; longer
scales with irregular ridges radiating from the base and terminating at the blunt apex
(Figs. 173 and 174).

44
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.27x as long as the second, 5.14x as long as
the third, 4.5x as long as the fourth and 1.63x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth,
first the broadest, 1.14x as broad as second, 1.37x as broad as third, 1.57x as ventrite four
and 1.91x as fifth.
Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.15x as long as the apophyses, 1.82x as its median
lobe, 1.25x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.72x as long as the tegmen, median lobe
slightly narrowing at the base of apophyses, 1.76x as long as the manubrium, its base
1.07x as broad as middle and 1.26x as broad as just before the apex; breadth at middle
1.17x as broad as that just before apex, breadth from sides 2x as broad as the breadth of
apophyses. Apophyses 3.33x as broad as the manubrium and 1.39x as broad as the shaft
of spiculum gastrale (Figs. 269 and 271). Tegmen with dorsal piece 1.24x as as broad as
the basal piece; with a sclerotised projection between the parameres, manubrium slightly
curved before the apex (Fig. 272). Spiculum gastrale with shaft narrowing down till apex,
the apex being curved, 1.71x as long as the apophyses and 2.55x as long as the tegmen,
its breadth 2.4x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 317).
Length: 22.6 mm; Breadth: 8.2mm.
Specimen examined: ? , Karnataka: Dharwad: Dandeli Forests; feeding on wild legume,
12.05.1996. Coll. Shanas. S.
Distribution: INDIA: Karnataka: North Kanara; Maharashtra: Mumbai; Tamil Nadu:
Ooty. Myanmar.

3. Episomus dohertyi Marshall


(Figs. 8, 29, 53, 76, 100, 124, 177-179, 196, 220 and 334)
Episomus dohertyi Marshall, 1916: 212, 233 [BMNH ? & ? ].
General colour pale brown above and pale light brown below, the prothorax with
a dark brown lateral stripe, second and third intervals with a small white spot at the top of
declivity (Fig. 334). Head shallowly impressed on the sides of central furrow, 1.5x as
long as the rostrum, 4.04x as long as the apical emargination and 1.05x as long as that of
prothorax, base 1.1x as broad as the rostrum, 1.93x as much as the distance between
scrobes and 2.31x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow 1.96x as long as the
apical emargination. Rostrum with sides roundly dilated near apex, lateral costae

45
impressed, 1.06x as broad as long, 2x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and
base of head. Eyes 1.71 x as long as broad from above and 1.04x as long as broad from
the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.18x as the distance between the middle
of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.27x as that between the middle and 1.07x
as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.31x as the
distance between the scrobes (Figs. 8 and 29). Antennae with scape broadened (1.13x)
from middle to apex, 4.78x as long as the club. Funicle 1.28x as long as the scape and
1.26x as long as the club, seventh segment longest, 1.26x as long as the club, 1.45x as
long as the first and third, 1.07x as long as the second, 1.93x as long as the fourth fifth
and sixth; first with third and fourth to sixth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh
segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.05x as broad as the club, 1.12x as broad as
the first, second and third segments, 1.26x as broad as the fourth, 1.19x as broad as the
fifth and sixth, first to third, fifth and sixth equally broad. Club with second segment
longest, 1.16x as long as the first and fourth segments and 1.75x as long as the third
segment, first and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.11x as broad
as the second, 1.54x as the third and 2.5x as the fourth (Fig. 53).
Prothorax with upper surface deeply plicate, 1.43x as long and 1.44x as broad as
the rostrum, 1.07x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.32x as broad as the
apex, posterior margin shallowly bisinuate, 1.03x as broad as the breadth at middle and
1.35x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.11x as that at the sides, 9.41x as long as
the scutellum and its breadth at middle 14.26x as broad as the breadth of scutellum;
central furrow deep (Fig. 76). Scutellum not enclosed, 1.42x as long as broad and 1.21x
as long as the length of punctations and 1.33x as broad as its breadth. Legs brown.
Femora with faint dark markings, 4x as long as broad, as long as and 1.27x as broad as
that of tibia. Tibia 5.1x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment the longest, 1.13x as
long as the first, 2.55x as the second and 1.46x as the third; in terms of breadth, third the
broadest, 1.45x as broad as first, 1.3x as that of second and 3.7x as broad as the fourth.
Elytra separately rounded at base, with a humeral angle and without a transverse
impression (Fig. 124); its length 1.12x as much as the suture, 3.82x as long as the
rostrum, 25.17x as long as the scutellum, 2.67x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle
1.68x as that of prothorax and 1.63x as that of its breadth at base. Suture elevated on the

46
declivity, 2.37x as long as that of prothorax, 22.35x as long as the scutellum. Striae with
rows of deep punctations, each punctation 1.55x as long as broad. Intervals broad, 2x as
broad as that of punctations (Fig. 100). Elytral vestiture with scales of three types, all
brown and dark, very few scales plumose; less predominant brown, with a dark area near
base, elongate with 6-7 clear lines approximating at the rounded apex; predominant with
a dark area near base, with parallel translucent lines running from base to periphery (Figs.
177-179).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.7x as long as the second, 3.37x as long as
the third and fourth, 1.23x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in
terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.14x as broad as second, 1.43x as broad as third, 1.75x
as fourth and 2.33x as fifth.
Length: 20 mm; Breadth: 7.5 mm.
Specimen examined: Without data.
Distribution: INDIA: Arunachal Pradesh: Patkai Hills, Assam: Sibsagar.

4. Episomus fabriciusi Faust


(Figs. 7, 54, 77, 101, 125, 146-148, 197, 221, 242, 251, 260 and 333)
Episomus fabriciusi Faust, 1897: 106, 187, 255; Marshall, 1916: 212, 231
[SMTD ? & ? ].
General colour black with sparse green above, dense metallic green beneath,
prothorax with two broad subdenuded stripes, elytra dense green at apex and lateral
margins uptil seventh stria; on the disk, a large subquadrate patch at the base and a
transverse band behind middle, of dense green scales, and also many irregular, small
green spots on the striae (Fig. 333). Head without lateral impressions, as long as
prothorax, 1.69x as long as the rostrum, 4x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.21x
as broad as the rostrum, 1.95x as much as the distance between scrobes, and 2.64x as
broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow broad and shallow, 1.72x as long as the
apical emargination. Rostrum parallel sided, lateral costae having distinct short basal
impression, 1.17x as broad as long, 1.44x as long as the distance between base of rostrum
and base of head. Eyes 1.75x as long as broad from above and 1.15x as long as broad
from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.1x as the distance between the
middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.25x as that between the middle and

47
1.13x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.26x as the
distance between the scrobes (Figs. 7 and 54). Antennae pale green, with club and
seventh segment of funicle black, scape broadened (1.4x) from middle to apex, 2.71x as
long as the club. Funicle 1.44x as long as the scape and 3.93x times as long as the club;
first and second segments longest, 1.83x as long as the third and fifth, 2x as the fourth
and sixth and 1.1x as the seventh; first and second, third and fifth, and fourth and sixth,
all equally broad. In terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly,
1.5x as broad as the first, third, fourth and sixth, 1.38 x as broad as the second, 1.63x as
broad as the fifth. Club 1.4x as long and 1.05x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle,
1.27x as long as the first segment of funicle, second segment longest, 2x as long as the
first, 1.6x as long as the third and 1.42x as long as the fourth segment; in terms of
breadth, first and second broadest, 1.19x as broad as the third, 1.05x as the fourth, first
and second equally broad (Fig. 77).
Prothorax plicate, sides very slightly rounded, 1.69x as long as and 1.52x as
broad as the rostrum, 1.05x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.25x as broad
as at the apex and 1.02x as broad as at the base; the posterior margin bisinuate, 1.23x as
broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.14x as that at the sides, 10.05x as long as the
scutellum and its breadth at middle 9.92x as broad as that of scutellum; central furrow
deep. Scutellum not enclosed, transverse, 1.07x as broad as long and 1.15x as broad as the
breadth of punctations. Legs green, with a darker patch about the middle of hind femora.
Femora 3.91x as long as broad, 1.12x as long as that of tibia and its breadth 1.2x as broad
as tibia. Tibia 4.2x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.11x as long as
the first, 2x as the second and 1.38x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.3x
as that of first and second, 3.9x as broad as the fourth, first and second equally broad
(Figs. 197 and 221).
Elytra elongate-ovate, separately rounded at the base, with humeral angle rounded
and the subhumeral prominence indistinct. Upper surface with very shallow basal
impression (Fig. 125). Elytral length 1.09x as much as the suture, 4.47x as long as the
rostrum, 26.5x as long as the scutellum, 2.64x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle
1.17x as that of its breadth at the humeral angle, 1.66x as that of prothorax and 1.7x as
that of its breadth at base. Suture brownish, slightly elevated on the declivity, 2.41x as

48
long as that of prothorax, 24.2x as long as the scutellum. Striae broad with rows of small
deep punctations, each punctation 1.31x as long as broad, 1.21x as long as the length of
scutellum, and 1.08x as broad as the breadth of intervals. Intervals broad, smooth and
costate (Fig. 101). Elytral vestiture with scales of three types, all with metallic pink and a
dark core near base; less predominant elongate with incospicuous ridges approximating at
apex, the apex pointed; the other two types with parallel 8-9 clear lines, one elongate and
pointed and the other broad and rounded at apex (Figs. 146-148).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.5x as long as the second, 3.33x as long as
the third, 4x as the fourth, 1.05x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first ventrite the
broadest, 1.08x as broad as second, 1.36x as broad as third, 1.58x as fourth and 2.04x as
fifth.
Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.16x as long as proximal
arm, angle between the arms acute, nodulus projected out, ramus projecting inwards at
base, apex pointed, cornu bent, projecting away from proximal arm (Figs. 242 and 260).
Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, 2.02x as long as basal plate, basal
plate 1.26x as broad as long, with few hairs (Fig. 251).
Length: 16.6 mm; Breadth: 6.5 mm.
Specimens examined: 3? , Tamil Nadu: Palanis : Shenbaganur (6000 ft), Palanis:
Kodaikanal (7000 ft); IX.1921, Coll. Fletcher, T. B.; Valparai, 13.04.1949. Coll. ERG; ?
Palanis: Simis park (4000-8000 ft), 28.VIII.17.
Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu: Palani Hills, Kodaikanal, Valparai; Andhra Pradesh:
Cuddapah.

5. Episomus figulus Boheman in Schoenherr


Episomus figulus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1834: 476; 1842: 92; Chevrolat,
1883: 75; Faust, 1897: 119, 136; Marshall, 1916: 213, 236 [NRS ? ].
Episomus griseus Chevrolat, 1883: 8; Faust, 1897: 137; Marshall, 1916:
236 [NRS].
Episomus figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat
(Figs. 6, 31, 55, 78, 102, 126, 152-155, 198, 222, 243, 252, 262, 273-276, 319 and 335)

49
Episomus figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 79; Faust, 1897: 119, 136; Marshall,
1916: 213, 236 [NRS].
General colour light brown above and grey or white beneath, elytra bearing a
large, distinct, subhumeral patch and irregular dark brown blotches varigated with paler
spots behind the middle (Fig. 335). Head with shallow lateral impression, 1.5x as long as
the rostrum, 3.24x as long as the apical emargination and 1.06x as long as that of
prothorax, base 1.15x as broad as the rostrum, 2.02x as much as the distance between
scrobes and 2.5x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow broad, widened in
front, 1.48x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum dilated towards the apex, with
the lateral costae impressed, 1.20x as broad as long, 2x as long as the distance between
base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.8x as long as broad from above and 1.05x as
long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.1x as the distance
between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.2x as that between the
middle and 1.1x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle
1.35x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 6 and 31). Antennae with scape
broadened (1.35x) from middle to apex, 2.81x as long as the club. Funicle 1.25x as long
as the scape and 3.53x as long as the club, seventh segment longest, 1.1x as long as the
first and second, 1.84x as long as the third, 2.18x as long as the fourth and fifth and 2.4x
as the sixth, first with second and fourth with fifth equally long; in terms of breadth,
seventh broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.23x as broad as the first, second, third and
fourth, and 1.14x as broad as the fifth and sixth, first to fourth equally broad, segments
fifth and sixth equally broad. Club 1.33x as long and 1.19x as broad as the seventh
segment of funicle, third longest, 3x as long as the first, 1.87x as long as the second and
3.75x as long as the fourth; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.05x as broad as the
second, 1.36x as the third,2.71 x as the fourth (Fig. 55).
Prothorax coarsely plicate, with dividing line sharp, parallel sided from base
beyond middle and then narrowing towards the apex, 1.4x as long as and 1.46x as broad
as the rostrum, 1.25x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.26x as broad as the
apex and 1.04x as broad as the base, base bisinuate, 1.21x as broad as the apex, its length
at middle 1.04x as that at the sides, 7.6x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle
10.86x as broad as that of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 78). Scutellum broadly

50
oval and not enclosed, 1.14x as long as broad and 1.06x as long as the length of
punctations and 1.07x as broad as its breadth. Legs pale, hind femora 4.27x as long as
broad, 1.07x as long as and its breadth 1.1x as those of tibia. Tibia 4.4x as long as broad.
Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.31x as long as the first, 2.1x as the second and 1.83x
as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.52x as broad as first and second, and
4.22x as broad as the fourth, first and second equally broad (Figs. 198 and 222).
Elytra impressed and separately rounded at the base, with obtuse humeral angles,
the steep posterior declivity sloping inwards and slightly indented (Fig. 126). Elytral
length 1.11x as much as the suture, 3.79x as long as the rostrum, 20.5x as long as the
scutellum, 2.7x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.47x as that of prothorax and
1.54x as that of its breadth at base. Suture slightly raised behind, 2.43x as long as that of
prothorax, 18.5x as long as the scutellum. Striae broad with rows of large punctations,
each punctation 1.15x as long as broad and 1.86x as broad as the breadth of intervals; the
intervals narrower (Fig. 102). Elytral vestiture with scales of four types, all brown; less
predominant elongate, with 6-7 dark broad bands, its apex pointed, the other type broad
at base with inconspicuous ridges, with a round peduncle and pointed at apex;
predominant types with parallel 8-9 clear lines, one with specks of darker granulations
and the other evenly granulate and pointed (Figs. 152-155).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.5x as long as the second, 3.33x as long as
the third and fourth, 1.25x as long as the fifth, third and fourth equally long; in terms of
breadth, first the broadest, 1.19x as broad as second, 1.48x as broad as third, 1.87x as
fourth and 2.38x as fifth.
Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.41x as long as the apophyses, 1.51x as its median
lobe, 1.36x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.85x as long as the tegmen. median lobe
impressed at middle, with apex acuminate, 2.44x as long as the manubrium; its base
1.06x as broad as middle and the breadth just before apex 1.26x as broad as at middle and
1.18x as broad as at base, breadth from sides 1.62x as broad as that of apophyses.
Apophyses 5.33x as broad as that of manubrium (Fig. 273-275). Tegmen 2x as long as
manubrium, with dorsal piece 2.5x as as broad as the basal piece. Parameres acuminate
and broad, manubrium straight, slightly bent before apex (Fig. 276). Spiculum gastrale
uniformly thick and curved before apex, 1.77x as long as the apophyses and 1.36x as long

51
as the tegmen, its breadth 1.65x as broad as apophyses and 8.8x as broad as the breadth of
manubrium (Fig. 319).
Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.1x longer than the
proximal arm, the angle between the arms acute, nodulus projected out, ramus normal
and the apex blunt, cornu bent, close towards proximal arm (Figs. 243 and 262).
Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, 2x as long as basal plate, basal
plate 1.12x as broad as long, without any hairs (Fig. 252).
Length: 15.6 mm; Breadth: 6.2 mm.
Specimens examined: 1? Meghalaya: Shillong (5000 ft), 25.V.1924, Coll. Fletcher T.
B; 1? , Meghalaya: Khasi Hills (1000-3000 ft), VII.07, Coll. D.N.
Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Shillong, Khasi hills, West Behngal: Calcutta;
INDONESIA.

6. Episomus guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr


(Figs. 5, 32, 56, 79, 120, 127, 186, 187, 199, 223, 249, 253, 266, 293-296, 325 and 332)
Episomus guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1845: 435; Faust, 1894: 185; 1897:138;
Marshall, 1916: 208, 217 [NRS].
Episomus ocellatus Chevrolat, 1883: 75, Faust, 1907: 138.
General colour dark or light brown above, pale whitish beneath; elytra bearing
thirteen white spots – one on the scutellum, twelve on the elytra – three prominent
(usually surrounded by a dark ring), one each on interval 3 and 7 behind middle, third on
interval 5 before middle; two small spots on the suture, both missing sometimes; one near
the base and the other on the declivity; another prominent spot sometimes present on
interval 7 before middle (Fig. 332). Head transversely impressed behind the eyes, 1.38x
as long as the rostrum, 3.78x as long as the apical emargination and 1.07x as long as that
of prothorax, base 1.1x as broad as the rostrum, 1.75x as much as the distance between
scrobes and 3.15x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow deep, 1.69x as long
as the apical emargination, a narrow longitudinal impression present on each side of the
central furrow which are not conspicuous sometimes. Rostrum with its apex produced
forwards on each side into a very prominent, broad, jaw like process, 1.1x as long as
broad, 2.62x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes oval,

52
1.9x as long as broad from above and 1.05x as long as broad from the sides; distance
between the anterior margin 1.06x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance
between posterior margins 1.23x as that between the middle and 1.16x as that between
the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.3x as the distance between the
scrobes (Figs. 5 and 32). Antennae brown. Scape broadened (1.83x) from middle to apex,
4.79x as long as the club. Funicle 1.14x as long as the scape and 5.47x times as long as
the club, its seventh segment 1.05x as long as the club, first segment longest, 1.31x as
long as the club, 1.47x as long as the second, 2.08x as long as the third, 2.27x as the
fourth, 2.5x as the fifth, 2.77x as long as the sixth and 1.25x as the seventh; in terms of
breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.07x as broad as the first and
sixth, 1.16x as broad as the second, third, fourth and fifth, segments first and sixth,
second to fifth equally broad. Club black, 1.07x as broad as the seventh segment of
funicle, the second segment of club longest, 1.2x as long as the first and 1.25x as long as
the third and fourth segments, third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first and
second equally broad and the broadest, 1.25x as broad as the third and 2.5x as the fourth
(Fig. 56).
Prothorax with upper surface transversely rugose, sides rounded, broadest about
middle, 1.28x as long as and 1.68x as broad as the rostrum, 1.18x broader than long at
middle; breadth at middle 1.52x as broad as at the apex and 1.13x as broad as at the base,
the posterior margin truncate, 1.35x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.04x as
that at the sides, 9.25x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 12.8x as broad
as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 79). Scutellum not enclosed,
1.6x as long as broad and1.07 x as long as the length of punctations and 1.71x as broad as
its breadth. Legs brown. Femora with a pale round white spot at their middle, 3.5x as
long as broad, 1.07x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.33x as broad as the
breadth of tibia. Tibia 4.33x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.23x as
long as the first, 2.17x as the second and 1.61x as the third; in terms of breadth, third
broadest, 1.48x as broad as first, 1.62x as that of second and 3.4x as broad as the fourth
(Figs. 199 and 223).
Elytra ovate, jointly rounded and subtruncate at base, without humeral angles.
Upper surface not impressed (Fig. 127), its length 1.06x as much as the suture, 2.82x as

53
long as the rostrum, 20.28x as long as the scutellum, 2.19x as that of prothorax, its
breadth at middle 1.35x as that of prothorax and 1.53x as that of its breadth at base.
Suture narrow, with a small conical tubercle above the apex, 2.07x as long as that of
prothorax, 19.14x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of deep punctations, each
punctation 1.85x as long as broad. Intervals broad, 1.71x as broad as the breadth of
punctations (Fig. 120). Elytral vestiture with scales of two types; ovate, brown or slightly
fluorescent green at the middle of few scales, with six to seven ridges originating from a
dark area on the base and parallely converging towards the periphery; the other less
predominant brown, similar, except that the both ends pointed (Figs. 186 and 187).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.16x as long as the second, 4.75x as long as
the third, 3.8x as the fourth and 1.36x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first
ventrite the broadest, 1.29x as broad as second, 1.48x as broad as third, 1.74x as ventrite
fourth and 2x as ventrite fifth.
Male genitalia with aedeagus having anterior process sclerotised, 2.16x as long as
the apophyses, 1.8x as its median lobe, 1.21x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.86x as
long as the tegmen; median lobe elongate, only slightly broader at the junction with
apophyses, 2.05x as long as the manubrium; its base 1.06x as broad as middle and 1.21x
as broad as just before the apex, the breadth at middle, 1.14x as broad as that just before
apex, breadth from sides 2x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. Apophyses 2.66x as
broad as the manubrium (Figs. 293-295). Tegmen 1.97x as long as manubrium, with
dorsal piece 1.25x as broad as the basal piece; parameres short, broad, apices acuminate,
manubrium short, uniformly thick (Fig. 296). Spiculum gastrale 1.79x as long as the
apophyses and 1.54x as long as the tegmen, its breadth 1.2x as broad as apophyses and
3.27x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 325).
Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.27x as long as the
proximal arm, proximal arm slightly swollen, the angle between the arms acute, nodulus
with a projection, ramus ending abruptly and the apex blunt (Fig. 249 and 266). Spiculum
ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, apex conical, 1.66x as long as basal plate,
basal plate as broad as long, with tuft of hairs (Fig. 253).
Marshall discussed spots on fourth and sixth intervals of elytra but these could not
be observed. Probably he erroneously gave the location of spots as fourth and sixth

54
intervals instead of the fifth and seventh. The two small black spots at the anterior
junction of striae 3 and 6 too could not be observed on the specimens studied.
Length: 14.5; Breadth: 5.8 mm.
Specimens examined: India: Meghalaya: ? , 2? ? , Nongpoh Hills, 7.1907, Coll. D.
Nowrojee; Shillong: 1 specimen, Barapani reserved forest, 7.09.1983, Coll. Mayaram &
Ramamurthy, V. V; Assam: 1 specimen, Barpetta, 2 specimens, Jorabat , 1 specimen
Rangyia, on grass, 22-27.06.1988, Coll. Dalip. K; 1 specimen, Barapetta, 22.VI.1988,
Coll. Baljinder; Seras Umbrau, V.1988, Coll. P. C. Sharma.
Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Nongpoh hills, Shillong, Assam: Barpetta, Jorabat,
Rangya; Nagaland: Naga Hills, MAYANMAR, MALAYSIA

7. Episomus humeralis Chevrolat


(Figs: 4, 33, 57, 80, 121, 128, 149, 150, 200, 224 and 336)
Episomus humeralis Chevrolat, 1883: 76, 81, Faust, 1897: 118, 130; Marshall, 1916: 214,
241 [NRS ? ].
Episomus aurivilliusi Faust, 1897: 119, 132; Marshall, 1916: 214 (var. aurivilliusi), 241
[SMTD].
Episomus schonherri Faust, 1897: 118, 132; Marshall, 1916: 241 [SMTD].
General colour dark brown above and brown beneath, the inflexed margins grey
or whitish, prothorax with broad, dark stripe on either side, which is continued to the base
of elytra. Elytra with a distinct subhumeral brown patch, and a white stripe on the third
interval (Fig. 336). Head without lateral impressions, 1.44x as long as the rostrum and
3.39x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.17x as broad as the rostrum, 2.91x as
much as the distance between scrobes and 2.57x as broad as the apical emargination.
Central furrow deep, 1.82x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum slightly dilated
near the apex, with the lateral costae sulcate at the posterior margin, 1.05x as broad as
long, 2.25x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.72x
as long as broad from above and 1.05x as long as broad from the sides; distance between
the anterior margin 1.1x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between
posterior margins 1.16x as that between the middle and 1.05x as that between the anterior
margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.45x as the distance between the scrobes

55
(Figs. 4 and 33). Antennae with scape broadened (2x) from middle to apex, 3.79x as long
as the club. Funicle 1.17x as long as the scape and 4.46x times as long as the club,
seventh segment longest, 1.33x as long as the first and second segments, 1.84x as long as
the third, 2x as long as the fourth and fifth, 2.4x as the sixth, first with second and fourth
with fifth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated
anteriorly, 1.06x as broad as the first, second and fifth, 1.23x as broad as the third and
1.14x as broad as the fourth and sixth, first, second with fifth, fourth with sixth equally
broad. Club as long and 1.19x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, with its second
segment longest, 1.8x as long as the first, third and fourth segments, first, third and fourth
equally long; in terms of breadth, first and second broadest, 1.12x as broad as the third,
2.37x as the fourth, first and second equally broad (Fig. 57).
Prothorax with the lateral dividing line sharply defined, 1.04x as long as the head,
1.5x as long as and 1.52x as broad as the rostrum, 1.07x broader than long at middle;
breadth at middle 1.3x as broad as that of apex and 1.02x as broad as that of base, the
posterior margin 1.27x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.06x as that at the sides,
8.64x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 11.6x as broad as the breadth of
scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 80). Scutellum oval, not enclosed, 1.25x as long
as broad and 1.25x as long as the length of punctations and 2.4xas broad as its breadth.
Legs pale. Hind femora with its base darker, 3.9x as long as broad, 1.05x as long as the
length of tibia and its breadth 1.1x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 4.1x as long as
broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.48x as long as the first, 1.76x as the second
and 1.61x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.61x as broad as first and
second, 4.2x as broad as the fourth. First and second segments equally broad (Figs. 200
and 224).
Elytra elongate-ovate, separately rounded at the base, without a humeral angle
and with a slight subhumeral prominence. Upper surface with a distinct basal impression
(Fig. 128); its length 1.14x as much as the suture, 3.65x as long as the rostrum, 21x as
long as the scutellum, 2.43x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle same as that of its
breadth at the humeral prominence, 1.52x as that of prothorax and 1.56x as that of its
breadth at base. Suture 2.13x as long as that of prothorax, 18.4x as long as the scutellum.
Striae with rows of deep punctations, each punctation 2.4x as long as broad. Intervals

56
broad, 2.6x as broad as the breadth of punctations. First stria terminating at suture near
the base of scutellum (Fig. 121). Elytral vestiture with two types of scales. Predominant
ones dark, with 14-15 dark ridges, not sharply pointed at apex, less predominant brown,
plumose (Figs. 149 and 150).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.33x as long as the second, 5x as long as
the third and fourth, 1.54x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in
terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.26x as broad as second, 1.52x as broad as
third, 2x as ventrite four and 2.31x as ventrite five.
Length: 14.2 mm; Breadth: 5.6 mm.
Specimens examined: 1? , Meghalaya: Khasi Hills.
Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Khasi Hills; Uttar Pradesh: Saharanpur.
Bangladesh, Indonesia.

8. Episomus inermicollis Marshall


(Figs. 3, 34, 58, 81, 103, 129, 157, 158, 213, 225, 301-304, 321 and 337)
Episomus inermicollis Marshall, 1916: 211, 226 [BMNH ? & ? ].
General colour uniform dark brown above, whitish beneath, prothorax light
brown with a darker lateral stripe (Fig. 337). Head without lateral impressions,1.58x as
long as the rostrum and 5.8x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.04x as broad as
the rostrum, 1.88x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.83x as broad as the
apical emargination. Central furrow deep and narrow, 3.2x as long as the apical
emargination. Rostrum with the lateral costae having faint impression, 1.18x as broad as
long, 1.72x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 2.1x
as long as broad from above and 1.2x as long as broad from the sides; distance between
the anterior margin 1.06x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between
posterior margins 1.34x as that between the middle and 1.26x as that between the anterior
margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.3x as that between the scrobes (Figs. 3 and
37). Antennae with scape broadened (1.57x) from middle to apex, 2.63x as long as the
club. Funicle 1.32x as long as the scape and 3.47x as long as the club, second segment
longest, 1.16x as long as the first, 1.64x as long as the third, 2x as long as the fourth and
fifth, 2.5x as the sixth and 1.27x as the seventh, fourth and fifth equal; in terms of

57
breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.06x as broad as the first,
1.14x as broad as the second, 1.33x as broad as the third and 1.23x as broad as fourth,
fifth and sixth; fourth, fifth and sixth equally broad. Club 1.73x as long and 1.31x as
broad as the seventh segment of funicle, 1.36x as long as the second segment of funicle,
first, third and fourth segments longest, 1.22x as long as the second; first, third and fourth
equally long; in terms of breadth, second broadest, 1.05x as broad as the first, 1.16x as
the third, 2.1x as the fourth (Fig. 58).
Prothorax with very few plications on upper side, two transverse impressed lines
on each side one near apex and the other behind middle, apex narrower than base, sides
slightly rounded, broadest before middle, its length 1.15x as long as the head, 1.81x as
long as and 1.69x as broad as the rostrum, 1.1x broader than long at middle; breadth at
middle 1.61x as broad as at the apex and 1.13x as broad as at the base; posterior margin
bisinuate, 1.42x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.18x as that at the sides, 11.4x
as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 13.5x as broad as scutellum; central
furrow very small and located near base (Fig. 81). Scutellum not enclosed, small and
round, 1.07x as long as broad, 1.27x as long and 1.44x as broad as those of punctations.
Legs with femora 3.78x as long as broad, 1.1x as long as the length of tibia and its
breadth 1.07x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 3.69x as long as broad. Tarsi with
fourth segment longest, 1.12x as long as the first, 2.12x as the second and 1.71x as the
third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.56x as that of first, 1.42x as that of second and
5x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 213 and 225).
Elytra separately rounded at the base, with prominent humeral angle and distinct
subhumeral prominence. Upper surface transversely impressed (Fig. 129). Elytral length
1.07x as much as the suture, 4.18x as long as the rostrum, 26.28x as long as the
scutellum, 2.3x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.05X as that of its breadth at
the subhumeral prominence, 1.34x as that of prothorax and 1.52x as that of its breadth at
base. Suture slightly elevated at declivity, 1.95x as long as that of prothorax, 26.46x as
long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of shallow, separated, small punctations, each
punctation 1.22x as long as broad. Intervals 1.11x as broad as the breadth of punctations
(Fig. 103). Elytral vestiture with two types of scales, equally predominant, with a darker

58
area near base, one with 6-8 inconspicuous ridges approximating near apex and the other
with 6 ridges parallel to each other (Figs. 157 and 158).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.22x as long as the second, 2.86x as long as
the third and fourth, 1.05x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in
terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.11x as broad as second, 1.35x as broad as
third, 1.66x as fourth and 1.85x as fifth.
Male genitalia with aedeagus having a subanterior projection, 2.25x as long as the
apophyses, 1.63x as its median lobe, 1.42x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.62x as long
as the tegmen. median lobe 2.44x as long as the manubrium; its base 1.37x as broad as
middle and 1.46x as broad as just before the apex; breadth at middle 1.06x as broad as
that just before apex, breadth from sides 2.86x as broad as the breadth of apophyses.
Apophyses 2.33x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. 301-303). Tegmen 2.46x as long as
manubrium, with dorsal piece 3.33x as broad as the basal piece; parameres narrow, with
an acuminate projection in between (Fig. 304). Spiculum gastrale with straight shaft,
blunt at apex, 1.57x as long as the apophyses, 1.13x as long as tegmen, its breadth 1.71x
as broad as apophyses and 4x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 321).
Length: 17.3 mm; Breadth: 6.2 mm.
Specimen examined: 1? , Laitlyngkot, 16.X.1920, Coll. Fletcher, T. B.
Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Khasi Hills.

9. Episomus lacerta (Fabricius)


(Figs. 19, 47, 59, 95, 104, 142, 188, 214, 238, 246, 257, 267, 309-312, 323 and 338)
Curculio lacerta Fabricius, 1781: 190; 1787: 117; 1792: 470; 1801: 528; Gmelin in
Linnaeus, 1790: 1781; Oliver, 1790: 539; 1807: 354; Herbst, 1795: 388.
Episomus lacerta Boheman in Schoenherr, 1834: 476; 1842: 92; Chevrolat, 1883: 75;
Pascoe, 1885: 214; Faust, 1897: 112, 159; Marshall, 1916: 210, 223; Hustache, 1928: 9
[BMNH].
Episomus nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 92; Marshall, 1916: 223;
Lona,1938: 369 (var. nubeculosus) [NRS]
Episomus ?avarus Fabricius, 1801: 510; Faust, 1897: 159, 160.
Episomus crenatus Guerin in litt Faust, 1897: 159.

59
lacerta bohemani Faust, 1897: 112, 160; Marshall, 1916: 223 [SMTD].
lacerta var. piger Marshall, 1916: 224.
General colour variable, greyish brown above, pale brown beneath, prothorax
with darker lateral stripe, and rarely two broad whitish dorsal stripes continued on the
base of the elytra. Elytra with not that well defined broad oblique paler stripe behind
middle, followed by a large darker patch on the declivity. Small pale round, slightly
raised spots present: one on top of declivity at the third interval, another on interval seven
beyond the first spot and the third at apex of fifth interval (Fig. 338). Head 1.49x as long
as the rostrum, 2.63x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.02x as broad as the
rostrum, 1.63x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.37x as broad as the apical
emargination. Central furrow deep and narrow, 1.43x as long as the apical emargination.
Rostrum 1.05x as broad as long, slightly dilated towards the apex, 2.04x as long as the
distance between base of rostrum and base of head, the dorsal costae distinctly sulcate.
Eyes 1.9x as long as broad from above and 1.35x as long as broad from the sides;
distance between the anterior margin 1.08x as the distance between the middle of eyes;
distance between posterior margins 1.19x as that between the middle and 1.1x as that
between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.31x as the distance
between the scrobes (Figs. 19 and 47). Antennae with scape broader at middle and
narrowing at apex, 2.32x as long as the club. Funicle 1.67x as long as the scape and 3.88x
times as long as the club, first segment longest, 1.33x as long as the second, 1.66x as long
as the third, 1.81x as long as the fourth and sixth, 2x as the fifth, 1.11x as the seventh.
Fourth and sixth segments equal; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all,
dilated anteriorly, 1.36x as broad as the first and second, 1.25x as broad as the third,
fourth, fifth and sixth; first and second equally broad and third to sixth equally broad.
Club 1.38x as long and 1.13x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, 1.38x as long as
the first segment of funicle, third longest, 1.14x as long as the first, 1.33x as long as the
second and 2x as long as the fourth; in terms of breadth, second broadest, 1.06x as broad
as the first, 1.21x as the third, 2.43x as the fourth (Fig. 59).
Prothorax plicate, subparallel from base to middle and narrow at the apex, 1.03x
as long as the head, 1.54x as long as and 1.55x as broad as the rostrum, 1.06x broader
than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.52x as broad as the apex. The posterior margin
shallowly bisinuate, 1.59x as broad as the breadth at middle, 1.04x as broad as the apex,

60
its length at middle 1.26x as that at the sides, 11.9x as long as the scutellum and its
breadth at middle 11.6x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow broad and
deep (Fig. 95). Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by the sutural margin, 1.09x as broad as
long and 1.09x as broad as the breadth of punctations. Legs with femora 3.66x as long as
broad, 1.1x as long as tibia and its breadth 1.2x as broad as tibia. Tibia 4x as long as
broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.18x as long as the first, 1.9x as the second
and 1.52x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.46x as that of first, 1.4x as
that of second and 3.5x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 214 and 238).
Elytra without humeral angle, broadly ovate, shoulders rounded, not acuminate at
the apex. Upper surface without any distinct basal impression (Fig. 142). Elytral length
1.14x as much as the suture, 3.77x as long as the rostrum, 29x as long as the scutellum,
2.44x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.72x as that of prothorax and 1.65x as
that of its breadth at base. Suture very slightly elevated on the declivity, 2.13x as long as
prothorax, 25.45x as long as scutellum. Striae with rows of deep and close punctations,
the sixth stria not reaching the base, each punctation 1.45x as long as broad, 1.45x as long
as scutellum, and 1.1x as broad as the intervals; intervals narrow and subcostate (Fig.
104). Elytral vestiture with single type of scales, opaque, brown, elongate, rounded at
apex, bearing many inconspicuous ridges (Fig. 188).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3x as long as the second, 3.6x as long as the
third and fourth, 1.28x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in
terms of breadth, first and second ventrites equal and broadest, 1.2x as broad as third,
1.4x as ventrite fourth, 1.75x as ventrite fifth.
Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.15x as long as the apophyses, 1.64x as its median
lobe and 1.37x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.86x as long as the tegmen; median lobe
almost parallel sided, 2.06x as long as the manubrium; its base as broad as at middle and
1.13x as broad as just before the apex, breadth from sides 3.75x as broad as the breadth of
apophyses. Apophyses 1.78x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. 309-311). Tegmen 1.81x
as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 1.53x as as broad as the basal piece. Parameres
short and acuminate (Fig. 312). Spiculum gastrale 1.57x as long as apophyses and 1.36x
as long as tegmen, its breadth 1.5x as broad as apophyses and 2.66x as broad as that of
manubrium, with shaft gradually bending and broadly bent at apex (Fig. 323).

61
Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.46x longer than the
proximal arm, angle between arms acute, nodulus and ramus normal, cornu long and bent
(Figs. 246 and 267). Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, 2.18x as
long as basal plate, basal plate 1.42x as broad as long, with tuft of hairs (Fig. 257).
Length: 14.5 mm; Breadth: 6.3 mm.
Specimens examined: Coll. Chintamani, 29.2.1912; on Thupra, Coll. Arsikatti Kaval; 7
specimens (3? , 2? ), without location, date and collectors name., Tamil Nadu: Gudalur:
Nilgiri Hills (3000 ft), 13.IX.17, Coll. Rao, Y. R; Madras, XI.06, on Tur, Coll. Sarnal
Kot; on field bean, Coimbatore, Coll. T.V.R; Selam Dist, Athornuppam, 26-28. VIII.18,
Coll. T.V.R; Yercaud: Shervaroys (8-5000 ft), 6.VIII.1917, Coll. Nagnath; Outer Madras,
Samalkot, XI.06; 2 specimens Mangrakpass, 13.X.1979; 1? Madras: N. Selam:
Dankanikota, 09.X.1947; Karnataka: Bangalore, 38 specimens (1? ,1? ), without date
and collectors name; 1? 12.X.1979, Coll. Maugri; on bean seedlings, 18.VII.1933;
Hebbal (916m), 27.VIII.1977, on cabbage, 11.IX.1962; Hebbal Farm, 8.IX.1936, Coll.
Haahubb, H.A.A; On Dolichos Sp., Sidlaghatta, 16.VII.1976, Coll. Veeraraju. P. V; On
bushes, Bhanerghatta, 04.01.1977; Coorg, Pollibetta, 24.X.16., XI,15, Coll. Fletcher. T.
B; South Coorg, 15-26.V.1914, Coll. Fletcher, T. B; 2 specimens eating Erythrina leaves,
Coorg: Polibetta, 24.X-XI.15; North Coorg, Mercara, 1-11.V.1914, Coll. Fletcher. T. B;
South Coorg, Pollibetta, 16-26.V.1914, Coll. Fletcher; on Erythrina lithosperma, Hassan,
Manjanabad, 18.X.1925; Malur, 20.VIII.1909, 21.IX.1909, Coll. Coleman, L. C ;
Davangere, 12.IX.1908, Coll. Coleman, L. C. Gujarat: 3 specimens, Surat, 17.IX.30 on
Bajra; Orissa: Cuttack, XI.05, Coll. C.M.S.
Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujrat, Orissa, Maharashtra, West
Bengal. Indonesia

Episomus lacerta bohemani Faust


(Figs. 18, 48, 60, 96, 105, 143, 181, 182, 215, 239, 277-280, 326 & 339); (24, 42, 90,
114, 139, 167, 209, 233 & 349); (21, 45, 70, 93, 117, 140, 168, 169, 211, 236 & 351)

Head, 3.39x as long as the apical emargination, its base I .16x as broad as the
rostrum, 2.12x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.7x as broad as the apical

62
emargination; central furrow 2x as long as the apical emargination. Eyes, 1.63x as long as
broad from above and 1.06x as long as broad from the sides, space between the eyes at
middle 1.51x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 18 and 48). Antennae with scape
3.46x as long as the club. Funicle 1.08x as long as the scape, its seventh segment longest;
first and second, fourth and filth equally long; in terms of breadth, first and seventh
segment broadest of all, second to sixth equally broad. Club 1.24x as long as the seventh
segment of funicle, second and third segments the longest, 1.6x as long as the first and
fourth segments; first and second broadest (Fig. 60).
Prothorax with its breadth at middle 1.33x as broad as at the apex and 1.02x as
broad as at the base, the posterior margin 1.3x as broad as the apex, its length at middle
9.38x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 13.52x as broad as the breadth of
scutellum; Scutellum 1.36x as long as broad and 1.36x as long as the length of
punctations.
Eaytra with very slight humeral angle (Fig. 143); its length 21.33x as long as the
scutellum, 2.27x as that of prothorax and its breadth at middle 1.56x as that of prothorax.
Suture 18.6x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of large punctuations, each
punctuation 1.1x as long as broad. Intervals broad, 1.2x as broad as the breadth of
punctations (Fig. 105). Elytral vestiture with two types of scales, one less predominant,
elongate with dark base and parallel ridges; the other predominant, with a dark basal area,
opaque, rounded at apex, bearing many inconspicuous ridges (Figs. 181 and 182).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 4.4x as long as the third and fourth, ventrites
third and fourth equally long.
Male genitalia with adeagus 1.93x as long as the: apophyses and median lobe;
median lobe elongate, I .7x as long as the manubrium; equally long from base to the
apex, its breadth from sides I .27x as broad as the breadth of apophyses; apophyses 3.66x
as broad as the manubrium (Fig. 277-279). Tegmen with dorsal piece 2.73x as as broad as
the basal piece. Spiculum gastrale with its breadth 4.8x as broad as the breadth of
manubrium (Fig. 326).
Length: 10.5 - 14.6 mm; Breadth: 4.5 - 6.0 mm.
Specimens examined: 1? ,1? without data; 1? , Tamil Nadu: Yarcaud (8000-5000 feet),
6.VIII.1917, Coll. Nagnath.

63
Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu.

Episomus lacerta nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr


(Figs. 17, 35, 61, 82, 106, 130, 151, 201, 226, 289-292, 318 & 340)
Head, as long as that of prothorax, 3.53x as long as the apical emargination, base
1.96x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.94x as broad as the apical
emargination. Central furrow 2.05x as long as the apical emargination. Eyes 1.06x as
long as broad from the sides. Antennae with scape 2.8x as long as the club, Funicle 1.25x
as long as the scape, first and seventh segments longest, 1.07x as long as the second;
third, fourth, fifth and sixth equally long; Club 1.6x as long and 1.54x as broad as the
seventh segment of funicle, with its second segment the longest.
Prothorax 1.5x as long as the rostrum, the posterior margin 1.28x as broad as the
apex. Legs with tibia 4.66x as long as broad with a prominent projection at apex (Fig.
226).
Elytra ovate, plicate, with slight humeral angle (Fig. 130). Striae with each
punctation 1.1x as long as broad and 1.25x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. Elytral
vestiture with single types of scales, with a dark core and indistinct dark lines, rounded at
apex (Fig. l 51).
Venter with the first ventrite 1.5x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first
ventrite the broadest, 1.6 Ix as ventrite four and 1.85x as ventrite five.
Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.25x as its median lobe; median lobe 1.63x as long
as the manubrium. Tegmen 2.22x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 2.25x as broad
as the basal piece, the breadth of manubriurn 1.31x as broad as the breadth of apophyses
(Fig. 292). Spiculum gastrale with its breadth 2.1 x as broad as apophyses and 1.6x as
broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 318).
Length: 11.5 mm; Breadth: 5.0 mm.
Specimens examined: 1? , Karnataka: Belgaum.
Distribution: INDIA: Karnataka: Belgaum.

10. Episomus lentus Erichson


(Figs. 16, 36, 62, 83, 107, 131, 159, 202, 227, 281-284, 320 and 341)

64
Episomus lentus Erichson, 1834: 263; Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 94; Chevrolat,
1883: 76.
Simallus lentus Faust, 1897: 122, 197.
Episomus lateralis Eydoux, 1839: 266; Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 93; Faust, 1897:
197.
General colour brown above and below (Fig. 341). Head without lateral
impressions, 1.55 x as long as the rostrum, 2.92x as long as the apical emargination and
1.08x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.25x as broad as the rostrum, 2.03x as much as
the distance between scrobes and 2.5x as broad as the apical emargination. Central
furrow broad and deep, 3.06x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum with the lateral
costae slightly impressed at the posterior margin, 1.06x as broad as long, 1.81x as long as
the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 2x as long as broad from
above and 1.06x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin
1.04x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins
1.19x as that between the middle and 1.14x as that between the anterior margins; space
between the eyes at middle 1.81x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 16 and 36).
Antennae brown. Scape broadened (1.53x) from middle to apex, 4.7x as long as the club.
Funicle 1.32x as long as the scape and 6.23x as long as the club, seventh segment longest,
1.29x as long as the club, 1.15x as long as the first, 1.37x as long as the second, 1.46x as
long as the third, 2x as the fourth and sixth, 1.83x as the fifth, fourth and sixth equal; in
terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.12x as broad as the
first, 1.28x as broad as the second and third, 1.38x as broad as the fourth, fifth and sixth;
segments second and third, fourth to sixth equally broad. Club 1.11x as broad as the
seventh segment of funicle, with its first three segments longest, 2.5x as long as the
fourth segment, first to third equally long; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.05x as
broad as the second, 1.25x as the third, 2.86x as the fourth (Fig. 62).
Prothorax plicate, with one transverse impressed line near apex, slightly
cylindrical from base to beyond middle and narrowed at the apex, the posterior margin
slightly bisinuate, 1.42 x as long as and 1.71x as broad as the rostrum, 1.27x broader than
long at middle; breadth at middle 1.36x as that of apex and 1.06x as broad as the base, the
posterior margin 1.3 x as broad as the apex, its length at middle equal as that at the sides,
12.4x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 28.48x as broad as the breadth of
scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 83). Scutellum small, enclosed, 1.8x as long as

65
broad. Legs with femora 4.2x as long as broad, 1.1x as long as the length of tibia and as
broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 3.2x as long as broad with a spur at apex not
extending beyond margins (Fig. 227). Tarsi with first and fourth segments longest, 2x as
long as the second and 1.4x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.1x as broad
as first, 1.3x as that of second and 3.5x as broad as the fourth (Fig. 202).
Elytra obovate, not impressed and truncate at base (Fig. 131), with a distinct blunt
humeral angle and a broad subhumeral prominence. Upper surface with a transverse basal
impression; its length 1.1x as much as the suture, 3.46x as long as the rostrum, 10.88x as
long as the scutellum, 2.43x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.1x as that of the
subhumeral prominence, 1.49x as that of prothorax and 1.57x as that of its breadth at base
(Fig. 107). Suture 2.21x as long as that of prothorax, 27.55x as long as the scutellum.
Striae with rows of large punctations, each punctation 1.87x as long as broad, 1.66x as
long as and 1.6x as broad as those of scutellum. Intervals broad, 1.5x as broad as the
breadth of punctations. Elytral vestiture with a single type of scale, dark, with 6-8
scarcely visible ridges parallel to each other originating from a dark area near base (Fig.
159).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.83x as long as the second, 3.5x as long as
the third and fourth,1.31x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in
terms of breadth, second the broadest, 1.12x as broad as the first, 1.23x as broad as third,
1.48x as fourth and 1.68x as fifth.
Male genitalia with aedeagus having a subanterior projection, 1.75x as long as the
apophyses, 2x as its median lobe, 1.42x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.55x as long as
the tegmen. Median lobe broad, with sides almost parallel, 1.55x as long as the
manubrium; its breadth from sides 2.42x as broad as that of apophyses. Apophyses 1.86x
as broad as the manubrium (Figs. 281-283). Tegmen 2x as long as manubrium, with
dorsal piece 3.88x as as broad as the basal piece. Parameres thin and acuminate (Fig.
284). Spiculum gastrale with the shaft progressively decreasing in breadth and curved at
apex, 1.23x as long as the apophyses, 1.1x as long as tegmen, its breadth 1.37x as broad
as apophyses and 2.56x as broad as that of manubrium (Fig. 320).
Length: 13.3 mm; Breadth: 5.8 mm.
Specimen examined: 1? , Philippines: Los Banos, 18.IX.1909, Coll. Ledyard, E. M.

66
Distribution: Philippines

11. Episomus montanus Guerin


(Figs. 15, 37, 72, 84, 119, 133, 170, 204, 228, 248, 258, 264 and 342)
Episomus montanus Guerin, 1843: 52; Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 88; Chevrolat,
1883: 74; Faust, 1897: 103, 125; Marshall, 1916: 209, 219, 220 [Type not traced].
Episomus clathratus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 89; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Faust,
1897: 126; Marshall, 1916: 219 [NRS].
General colour dull black above and beneath, light brown in the fovea, a small
pale spot present at apex of the fifth interval (Fig. 342). Head with lateral impressions,
1.67x as long as the rostrum, 3.68x as long as the apical emargination and 1.08x as long
as that of prothorax, base 1.25x as broad as the rostrum, 2.16x as much as the distance
between scrobes and 2.76x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow very
broad and deep, with a rounded dilation in the front, 1.8x as long as the apical
emargination, on each side of which, a short backword indendation from the transverse
ante-ocular furrow present. Rostrum slightly dilated near the apex, with the lateral costae
bearing a deep curved impression, 1.16x as broad as long, 1.48x as long as the distance
between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.6x as long as broad from above and
equally long as well as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.1x as
the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.13x as that
between the middle and 1.23x as that between the anterior margins; space between the
eyes at middle 1.62x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 18 and 40). Antennae
with scape broadened (1.58x) from middle to apex, 2.66x as long as the club. Funicle
1.28x as long as the scape and 3.42x as long as the club, second and seventh segments
longest, 1.04x as long as the first, 1.77x as long as the third, 2.1x as long as the fourth
and sixth and 2.3x as the fifth, second and seventh equally long and fourth and sixth
equally long; in terms of breadth, first, second and seventh segments broadest of all,
seventh parallel till middle and dilated anteriorly, 1.07x as broad as the third and sixth,
1.15x as broad as the fourth and fifth; first, second with seventh, third with sixth and
fourth with fifth equally broad. Club 1.43x as long and 1.2x as broad as the seventh
segment of funicle, third segment longest, 2.3x as long as the first, 1.75x as long as the
second and 2.8x as long as the fourth segments; in terms of breadth, second broadest,
1.06x as broad as the first, 1.38x as the third, 2.57x as the fourth (Fig. 77).

67
Prothorax with deep plications on upper side, base bisinuate and broader than
apex, sides slightly rounded, broadest before middle, 1.54x as long as and 1.56x as broad
as the rostrum, 1.17x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.25x as broad as the
apex and 1.01x as broad as the base, posterior margin 1.23x as broad as the apex, its
length at middle 1.09x as that at the sides, 9.71x as long as the scutellum and its breadth
at middle 12.3x as broad as that of scutellum; central furrow deep. Scutellum small, 1.07x
as long as broad. Legs with femora 4.38x as long as broad, 1.18x as long as and its
breadth 1.08x as broad as those of tibia. Tibia 4x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth
segment longest, 1.3x as long as the first and third, 2.2x as the second; in terms of
breadth, third broadest, 3.7x as broad as first, 1.4x as that of second and 4.8x as broad as
the fourth (Figs. 215 and 240).
Elytra ovate, separately rounded at the base, with obtuse humeral angles, the steep
posterior declivity sloping inwards and slightly indented, not impressed at base (Fig.
140); its length 1.07x as much as the suture, 4.77x as long as the rostrum, 6x as long as
the scutellum, 3.09x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.22 as that of humeral
angle, 1.67x as that of prothorax and 1.69x as that of its breadth at base. Suture sharply
raised at top of declivity, 2.88x as long as that of prothorax, 28x as long as the scutellum.
Striae shallow, with large subquadrate punctations, equally as long as broad, 1.28 x as
long as the length and 1.38x as broad as the breadth of scutellum and 1.8x as broad as the
breadth of intervals. Intervals narrow (Fig. 126). Elytral vestiture with single type of
scales, opaque, dark, elongate, not sharply pointed at apex, bearing many inconspicuous
ridges (Fig. 178).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.4x as long as the second, 3x as long as the
third, 3.4x as long as the fourth and 1.1x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first the
broadest, 1.12x as broad as second, 1.32x as broad as third, 1.58x as fourth and 1.9x as
fifth.
Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm almost parallel to the
proximal, 1.18x as long as the proximal arm, the angle between the arms acute, nodulus,
ramus impressed, cornu long, bent, close towards proximal arm (Figs. 262 and 275);
spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, 2.11x as long as basal plate, basal
plate 1.51x as broad as long (Fig. 271).

68
Length: 17.6 mm; Breadth: 7.0 mm.
Specimen examined: 1? , without locality, date and collectors name; 1? Tamil Nadu:
Nilgiri Hills (7000 ft), VIII.04, Coll. C.S.R.
Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu: Nilgiris, Coonoor, Ooty

12. Episomus nilgirinus Heller


(Figs. 13, 38, 73, 85, 113, 134, 160, 161, 205, 229 and 331)
Episomus nilgirinus Heller, 1908: 131; Marshall, 1916: 210, 222 [SMTD ? & ? ].
General colour brown above with a darker lateral stripe which continues on the
base of intervals four to seven, and brown beneath, sides of prothorax below the eye level
pale metallic or coppery, the same continued till the elytral apex. Intervals three and four
with a pale patch at the top of the declivity (Fig. 331). Centre of sternum green. Head
without lateral impressions, as long as that of prothorax, 1.56x as long as the rostrum and
3.41x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.14x as broad as the rostrum, 2.08x as
much as the distance between scrobes and 2.21x as broad as the apical emargination.
Central furrow deep, dilated anteriorly and before middle, 1.74x as long as the apical
emargination. Rostrum dilated towards apex, with the lateral costae deeply impressed at
the posterior margin, 1.08x as broad as long, 1.79x as long as the distance between base
of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.75x as long as broad from above and 1.1x as long as
broad from the sides; distance between the middle of eyes 1.03x as the distance between
the anterior margins, distance between posterior margins 1.08x as that between the
middle and 1.12x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle
1.71x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 13 and 38). Antennae with scape
broadened (1.66x) from middle to apex, 2.72x as long as the club. Funicle 1.29x as long
as the scape and 3.53x times as long as the club, second segment longest, 1.22x as long as
the first, 1.55x as long as the third, 2.33x as long as the fourth and sixth, 2.15x as the fifth
and 1.33x as the seventh, fourth and sixth equal; in terms of breadth, first and seventh
segments broadest of all, seventh dilated anteriorly, 1.15x as broad as the second and
sixth, 1.07x as broad as the third, 1.25x as broad as the fourth and fifth, first with seventh,
second with sixth and fourth with fifth equally broad. Club 1.71x as long and 1.4x as
broad as the seventh segment of funicle, 1.28x as long as the second segment of funicle,

69
club with third segment longest, 1.5x as long as the first, 1.2x as long as the second and
2x as long as the fourth segment; in terms of breadth, second broadest, 1.05x as broad as
the first and third and 2.33x as the fourth, first and third equally broad (Fig. 73).
Prothorax roughly plicate, slightly cylindrical from base to beyond middle and
narrowed at the apex, the posterior margin slightly bisinuate, 1.56x as long as and 1.6x as
broad as the rostrum, 1.11x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.4x as broad
as at the apex and 1.06x as broad as at the base, the posterior margin 1.31x as broad as
the apex, its length at middle 1.11x as that at the sides, 10.5x as long as the scutellum and
its breadth at middle 12.5x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow deep (Fig.
85). Scutellum small, obovate, not enclosed, 1.07x as long as broad and 1.16x as long as
and 1.3x as broad as those of punctations. Legs pale. Hind femora with its base darker,
3.2x as long as broad, 1.04x as long as and 1.36x as broad as those of tibia. Tibia 4.18x as
long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.16x as long as the first, 1.91x as the
second and 1.31x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.63x as broad as first,
1.18x as that of second and 4.88x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 205 and 229).
Elytra ovate, separately rounded at the base, with a distinct blunt humeral angle.
Upper surface with a transverse, basal impression (Fig. 134). Elytral length 1.1x as much
as the suture, 3.56x as long as the rostrum, 24x as long as the scutellum, 2.28x as that of
prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.11x as that of its breadth at the humeral angle, 1.44x as
that of prothorax and 1.53x as that of its breadth at base. Suture slightly elevated on the
declivity, 2.1x as long as that of prothorax, 22x as long as the scutellum. Striae broad
with rows of large punctations, each punctation 1.2x as long as broad. Intervals broad,
1.1x as broad as those of punctations (Fig. 113). Elytral vestiture with two types of
scales, equally predominant, one plumose and the other metallic green with specks of
pink, broadening from base to apex, with wavy, inconspicuous ridges.
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.14x as long as the second, 4.4x as long as
the third, 3.66x as long as the fourth and 1.46 as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth,
first ventrite broadest, 1.16x as broad as second, 1.35x as broad as third, 1.56x as fourth
and 1.85x as fifth (Figs. 160 and 161).
Length: 15.2 mm; Breadth: 6.2 mm.
Specimen examined: 1? , Tamil Nadu: Palur; Coll. Lund, G.

70
Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu: South Arcot, Nilgiri hills

13. Episomus obliquus Marshall


(Figs. 12, 39, 63, 86, 109, 135, 162, 163, 206, 230, 244, 259, 265 and 350)
Episomus obliquus Marshall, 1916: 215, 246 [BMNH ? ].
General colour light brown above, whitish beneath, prothorax with broad lateral
dark brown stripe continued on to the base of elytra on interval 4-7, extending from there
till the declivity where it terminates obliquely and abruptly (Fig. 350). Head with a deep
transverse impression behind the eyes, 1.54x as long as the rostrum, 2.95x as long as the
apical emargination and 1.11x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.24x as broad as the
rostrum, 1.58x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.36x as broad as the apical
emargination; central furrow broad and deep, dilated anteriorly, 1.74x as long as the
apical emargination, forehead roundly elevated at its side. Rostrum subquadrate, parallel
sided, with the lateral costae distinctly impressed, 1.29x as broad as long, 1.83x as long
as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.07x as long as broad
from above and equally long as well as broad from the sides; distance between the
anterior margin 1.07x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between
posterior margins 1.22x as that between the middle and 1.13x as that between the anterior
margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.22x as the distance between the scrobes
(Figs. 12 and 39). Antennae light brown with scape broadened (1.5x) from middle to
apex, 4x as long as the club. Funicle 1.08x as long as the scape and 4.31x times as long as
the club, first segment the longest, as long as the club, 1.26x as long as the second, 1.73x
as long as the third, 2.11x as the fourth and sixth, 2.71x as the fifth and 1.59x as the
seventh, fourth and sixth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of
all, dilated anteriorly, 1.08x as broad as the first, 1.3x as broad as the second, 1.18x as
broad as the third, fourth, fifth and sixth; third to sixth equally broad. Club 1.58x as long
and 1.15x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle and with its first segment longest,
1.2x as long as the second and 1.5x as long as the third and fourth segments, third and
fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.07x as broad as the second,
1.36x as the third, 2.5x as the fourth (Fig. 63).

71
Prothorax transverse, shallowly plicate, base truncate, 1.38x as long as and 1.68x
as broad as the rostrum, 1.57x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.35x as
broad as the apex and 1.03x as broad as the base, posterior margin 1.31x as broad as the
apex, its length at middle 1.02x as that at the sides, 9.76x as long as the scutellum and its
breadth at middle 15.36x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow deep (Fig.
86). Scutellum small, as long as broad, 1.43x as long as the length of punctations and
3.33x as broad as its breadth. Legs light brown. Femora 3.7x as long as broad, 1.15x as
long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.25x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 4x
as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.36x as long as the first, 1.87x as
the second and 1.43x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.28x as broad as
first, 1.59x as that of second and 3.86x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 206 and 230).
Elytra oblong-ovate, truncate at base. Upper surface not impressed at base,
without any humeral angle (Fig. 135). Elytral length 1.12x as much as the suture, 3.75x
as long as the rostrum, 26.4x as long as the scutellum, 2.7x as that of prothorax, its
breadth at middle 1.38x as that of prothorax and 1.42x as that of its breadth at base.
Suture 2.42x as long as that of prothorax, 23.6x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows
of small punctations, each punctation 2.33x as long as broad. Intervals broad, 2.28x as
broad as the punctations (Fig. 109). Elytral vestiture brown with scales of two types, one
with a prominent pedicel and blunt apex, seven to eight ridges originating from the base
and terminating at the apex. The other kind of scales without a pedicel, with dark
irregular ridges and a darker area at the base (Figs. 162 and 163).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.6x as long as the second, 4.5x as long as
the third and fourth, 1.63x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in
terms of breadth, first the broadest, 1.33x as broad as second, 1.6x as broad as third, 2x as
fourth and 2.5x as fifth.
Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.1x as long as the proximal
arm, angle between the arms acute, nodulus and ramus without any projection (Figs. 244
and 265); spiculum ventrale with shaft uniformly thick, apex blunt, 2.35x as long as basal
plate, basal plate 1.45x as broad as long, without any hairs at apex (Fig. 259).
Length: 11.6 mm ; Breadth: 5.5 mm.
Specimens examined: ? Myanmar: Maymyo (3500 ft), 19-31-VII, 1914; Coll.

72
M. H. Fletcher.
Distribution: Myanmar

14. Episomus obuncus Marshall


(Figs. 11, 40, 64, 87, 110, 136, 191-193, 207, 231, 297-300, 327 and 345)
Episomus obuncus Marshall, 1916: 211, 231 [BMNH ? ].
General colour dark brown above, with pale brown markings (Fig. 345). Head
with longitudinal impression shorter and deeper, 1.45x as long as the rostrum, 3.2x as
long as the apical emargination and 1.04x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.18x as
broad as the rostrum, 2.13x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.36x as broad
as the apical emargination; central furrow deep, 1.48x as long as the apical emargination.
Rostrum with the lateral costae more elevated and the longitudinal impression on them
shorter and deeper, 1.02x as broad as long, 2.2x as long as the distance between base of
rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.8x as long as broad from above and 1.11x as long as
broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.16x as the distance between
the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.23x as that between the middle
and 1.06x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.39x
as that between the scrobes (Figs. 11 and 40). Antennae light brown with short and stout
scape, broadened (1.25x) from middle to apex, 3.5x as long as the club, Funicle 1.38x as
long as the scape and 4.85x times as long as the club, seventh segment longest, 1.2x as
long as the club, 1.5x as long as the first, 1.41x as long as the second, 2.4x as long as the
third and fourth, 2.66x as the fifth and 2.18x as the sixth, third and fourth equally long; in
terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.14x as broad as the
first, 1.33x as broad as the second, fourth and fifth, 1.45x as broad as the third and 1.23x
as broad as the sixth; second, fourth and fifth equally broad. Club 1.12x as broad as the
seventh segment of funicle, with its second and third segments the longest, 1.5x as long
as the first and fourth segments, second, third and first, fourth equally long; in terms of
breadth, first and second the broadest, 1.38x as broad as the third and 3x as the fourth,
first and second equally broad (Fig. 64).
Prothorax deeply plicate, 1.4x as long as and 1.57x as broad as the rostrum, 1.14x
broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.33x as broad as at the apex and 1.07x as

73
broad as at the base, posterior margin 1.24x as broad as the apex, its length at middle
1.04x as that at the sides, 10.26x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 10.08x
as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow, with its edges more raised,
without any median carina (Fig. 87). Scutellum prominent, not enclosed, 1.08x as broad
as long and 1.62x as broad as that of punctations. Legs light brown. Femora 3.82x as long
as broad, 1.05x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.1x as broad as the breadth
of tibia. Tibia 4x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.03x as long as the
first, 1.65x as the second and 1.32x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.33x
as broad as first, 1.38x as that of second and 4x as broad as the fourth.
Elytra broadly ovate. Upper surface shallowly impressed near base; without any
humeral angle (Fig. 136). Elytral length 1.08x as much as the suture, 3.63x as long as the
rostrum, 26.66x as long as the scutellum, 2.6x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle
1.5x as that of prothorax and 1.61x as that of its breadth at base. Suture scarcely elevated
posteriorly, 2.4x as long as that of prothorax, 24.66x as long as the scutellum. Striae with
rows of deep separated punctations, each punctation 1.75x as long as broad and 1.16x as
long as the length of scutellum. Intervals broad, 1.37x as broad as that of punctations (Fig.
110). Elytral vestiture with scales of three types, less predominant brown, elongate with 6-9
ridges, rounded at apex and with blunt pedicel; predominant ones without a pedicel, with
metallic pinkish and / or greenish tinge at the core of few scales, inner core opaque,
granulated; third longer scales with irregular ridges radiating from the base and terminating
at the blunt anterior periphery (Figs. 191-193).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 4.83x as long as the second, 5.8x as long as
the third and fourth, 2.05x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in
terms of breadth, first the broadest, 1.19x as broad as second, 1.42x as broad as third, 1.76x
as fourth and 2x as fifth.
Male genitalia with aedeagus having median lobe elongate, slightly broadening at
the base before apophyses, 2.6x as long as the apophyses, 1.62x as its median lobe, 1.32x
as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.38x as long as the tegmen; median lobe 2.48x as long as
the manubrium. Its base 1.06x as broad as middle and 1.5x as broad as just before the apex;
breadth at middle 1.41x as broad as that just before apex, breadth from sides 1.37x as broad
as that of apophyses. Apophyses 2.66x as broad as the manubrium and 1.33x as broad as

74
the shaft of spiculum gastrale (Figs. 297-299). Tegmen 2.2x as long as manubrium, with
dorsal piece 1.04x as broad as the basal piece. Parameres with apices acuminate,
manubrium uniformly thick and straight (Fig. 300). Spiculum gastrale 1.96x as long as the
apophyses and 1.38x as long as the tegmen, its breadth 2x as broad as that of manubrium
(Fig. 327).
Length: 14.3 mm; Breadth: 5.6 mm.
Specimens examined: ? , (paratype) Kerala: Thiruvananthapuram, IX.1890.
Distribution: INDIA: Kerala.

15. Episomus pudibundus Faust


Figs. 14, 41, 65, 88, 111, 137, 171, 172, 208, 232, 247, 254, 261 and 346)
Episomus pudibundus Faust, 1894: 185; Marshall, 1916: 214, 242 [SMTD].
Simallus pudibundus Faust, 1897: 121, 194; Marshall, 1916: 242.
General colour light to dark brown above and pale sandy to white beneath,
rarely with a distinct greenish tinge. Elytra with irregular pale markings (Fig. 346).
Head with a shallow, transverse impression on vertex, two elevated tubercles present.
Its length 1.54x as long as the rostrum and 3.85x as long as the apical emargination,
base 1.24x as broad as the rostrum, 1.92x as much as the distance between scrobes and
2.33x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow deep, 2.5x as long as the
apical emargination. Rostrum with costae on each side of central furrow shallowly
impressed, 1.24x as broad as long, 1.85x as long as the distance between base of
rostrum and base of head. Eyes 2.33x as long as broad from above and 1.1x as long as
broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.05x as the distance
between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.18x as that between
the middle and 1.12x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at
middle 1.37x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 14 and 41). Antennae brown.
Scape broadened (1.42x) from middle to apex, 4.54x as long as the club. Funicle 1.13x
as long as the scape and 5.13x as long as the club, its seventh segment 1.1x as long as
the club; first segment the longest, 1.27x as long as the club, 1.75x as long as the
second, 2.33x as long as the third and fifth, 2.54x as long as the fourth, 2.8x as the sixth
and 1.16x as the seventh; third and fifth equal; in terms of breadth, first and seventh

75
segments broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.2x as broad as the second, 1.12x as broad
as the third, 1.06x as broad as the fourth, fifth and sixth; fourth to sixth equally broad.
Club1.16x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, with its second segment the
longest, 1.33x as long as the first, 1.6x as long as the third and 2.66x as long as the

fourth segment; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.05x as broad as the second, 1.61x as
the third, 3x as the fourth (Fig. 65).
Prothorax transversely plicate, posterior margin truncate, sides gently rounded, its
length 1.55x as long as the head, 1.78x as long as and 1.61x as broad as the rostrum,
1.12x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.3x as broad as at the apex and
1.08x as broad as at the base, the posterior margin 1.19x as broad as the apex, its length at
middle 1.15x as that at the sides, 14.24x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle
22.86x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 88). Scutellum
enclosed, very small, 1.43x as long as broad and 1.4x as broad as the breadth of
punctations. Legs brown. Femora 4.7x as long as broad, 1.14x as long and broad as tibia.
Tibia 4.1x as long as broad. Tarsi with first segment longest, 1.84x as long as the second,
1.3x as the third and 1.06x as the fourth; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.4x as broad
as first and second and 3.5x as broad as the fourth, first and second equally broad (Figs.
208 and 232).
Elytra elongate-ovate, posterior margin jointly and shallowly sinuate, without any
humeral angle and not transversely impressed near base (Fig. 137). Its length 1.05x as
much as the suture, 4.05x as long as the rostrum, 32.4x as long as the scutellum, 2.27x as
that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.32x as that of prothorax and 1.44x as that of its
breadth at base. Suture 2.16x as long as that of prothorax, 30.8x as long as the scutellum.
Striae with rows of large, separated and often ocellated punctations, each punctation 2.2x
as long as broad and 1.11x as long as the length of scutellum. Intervals broad, 2.8x as
broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 111). Elytral vestiture with two types of scales;
predominant metallic green, sometimes with pink specks, with 9-10 transparent ridges,
inner core dark, apex not sharply pointed, less predominant brown, elongate with
irregular ridges (Figs. 171 and 172).

76
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.33x as long as the second and fourth, 4x as
long as the third, 1.25x as long as the fifth, ventrites second and fourth equally long; in
terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.13x as broad as second, 1.3x as broad as
three, 1.59x as ventrite four and 1.95x as ventrite five.
Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.03x as long as the
proximal arm, the angle between the arms slightly acute, ramus with a prominent
projection terminating in a blunt apex (Fig. 247 and 261). Spiculum ventrale with shaft
elongate, uniformly thick, slightly dilated before apex, 1.77x as long as basal plate, basal
plate 1.05x as broad as long with prominent hairs at the apex (Fig. 254).
Length: 15.8 mm; Breadth: 5.6 mm.
Specimen examined: 1 ? , Coll. Andrewes.
Distribution: Myanmar.

16. Episomus quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges


(Figs. 26, 49, 66, 89, 112, 144, 183-185, 216, 240, 250, 255, 263, 305-308, 322 and 347)
Episomus quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges, 1890: 212; Faust, 1891: 266 printed
“quadrinotatus” in error; 1897: 117, 141; Marshall, 1916: 211, 228 [NPC].
Episomus prainae Faust, 1891: 265 printed “pracuae” in error; 1892: XVIII; 1897: 117,
141 [SMTD].
General colour earth brown or pale brown above, pale brown to pale grey
beneath; bearing 6 white spots, three on each elytra. Two distinct spots on interval 3, one
before and one behind middle, and a less distinct spot on the apex of fifth interval; on the
declivity a large, irregular, blackish – brown patch, much variable in size and tint, and
with ill defined blackish markings on the disk too (Fig. 347). Head without lateral
impressions, 1.56x as long as the rostrum, 3.56x as long as the apical emargination and
1.02x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.21x as broad as the rostrum, 1.77x as much as
the distance between scrobes and 2.38x as broad as the apical emargination. Central
furrow narrow and deep, 2.08x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum with costae
having a short basal impression, 1.07x as broad as long, 1.83x as long as the distance
between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.9x as long as broad from above and
1.16x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.36x as the
distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.18x as that

77
between the middle and 1.04x as that between the anterior margins; space between the
eyes at middle 1.13x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 26 and 49). Antennae
brown with seventh segment of funicle black, scape broadened (1.44x) from middle to
apex, 3.14x as long as the club. Funicle 1.18x as long as the scape and 3.72x times as
long as the club, first segment longest, 1.05 x as long as the second, 1.57x as long as the
third, 2x as the fourth, 2.2x as the fifth and sixth, and 1.1x as the seventh, fifth and sixth
equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly,
1.23x as broad as the first, third and sixth segments, 1.33x as broad as the second, fourth
and fifth; first, third and sixth, second, fourth and fifth equally broad. Club black, 1.32x
as long as the first segment of funicle and 1.45x as long and 1.37x as broad as the seventh
segment of funicle, the second segment of club the longest, 1.25x as long as the first, 2x
as long as the third and 1.66x as long as the fourth segments; in terms of breadth, first
broadest, 1.05x as broad as the second, 1.31x as the third, 2.2x as the fourth (Fig. 66).
Prothorax with posterior margin deeply bisinuate, 1.51x as long as and 1.49x as
broad as the rostrum, 1.06x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.23x as broad
as the apex, the posterior margin 1.06x as broad as the breadth at middle, 1.3x as broad as
the apex, its length at middle 1.06x as that at the sides, 8.53x as long as the scutellum and
its breadth at middle 11.33x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow broad
and shallow (Fig. 89). Scutellum brown, slightly enclosed, 1.25x as long as broad and
1.15x as long as the length of punctations and 1.1x as broad as its breadth. Legs greyish
brown with some vague, darker markings on the hind femora, 4.36x as long as broad,
1.1x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth same as broad as the breadth of tibia.
Tibia 4x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment the longest, 1.02x as long as the
first, 1.8x as the second and 1.61x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.61x
as broad as first, 1.68x as that of second and 3.7x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 216 and
240).
Elytra oblong-ovate. Upper surface transversely impressed near base and
separately rounded, humeral angles well developed (Fig. 144); its length 1.15x as much
as the suture, 4.34x as long as the rostrum, 9.81x as long as the scutellum, 2.87x as that of
prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.67x as that of prothorax and 1.58x as that of its breadth
at base. Suture distinctly carinate at the declivity, 2.5x as long as that of prothorax,

78
21.33x as long as the scutellum. Striae broad and deep with large subquadrate
punctations, each punctation 1.18x as long as broad. Intervals narrow, subcostate, 1.1x as
broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 112). Elytral vestiture with scales of three types,
brown, less predominant elongate, dark, with 4-5 inconspicuous ridges, rounded at the
apex; predominant ones with a distinct rounded pedicel, median area of some with 7-9
indistinct ridges originating from the periphery and converging towards the apex, with
inner core at base dark; other without a dark core with the ridges running parallel to each
other (Figs. 183-185).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3x as long as the second, 3.5x as long as the
third and fourth, 1.4x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in terms
of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.18x as broad as second, 1.45x as broad as three,
1.73x as ventrite four and 2.14x as ventrite five.
Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.48x as long as the apophyses, 1.67x as its median
lobe, 1.31x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.76x as long as the tegmen; median lobe
elongate, slightly constricted at the middle, broadest after mid distance from the base and
broadening at base before apophyses, 1.91x as long as the manubrium; broadest at
middle, its breadth at middle 1.66x as broad as that just before apex and 1.53x as broad as
at the base, its base 1.08x as broad as the breadth just before apex, breadth from sides
1.5x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. Apophyses 3.33x as broad as the manubrium
and 1.66x as broad as the shaft of spiculum gastrale (Figs. 305-307). Tegmen 1.82x as
long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 1.1x as as broad as the basal piece. parameres long,
with apices acuminate, manubrium long, uniformly thick (Fig. 308). Spiculum gastrale
with shaft straight, bent and rounded at the apex, 1.9x as long as the apophyses and 1.34x
as long as the tegmen, its breadth 2x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 322).
Female genitalia having spermatheca with proximal arm slightly swollen, distal
arm 1.27x as long as the proximal arm, the angle between the arms acute, cornu
projecting towards proximal arm (Figs. 250 and 263); spiculum ventrale with shaft
elongate, uniformly thick, apex conical, 1.63x as long as basal plate, basal plate 1.3x as
broad as long with tuft of hairs (Fig. 255).
Length: 16.5 mm; Breadth: 6.3 mm.

79
Specimens examined: India: Assam, Kurseong; ? ,? (5000 ft), April, June 1922; Ging
Lebong: 2? (4500 ft), VI.1909, Coll. H. M. Fletcher.
Distribution: INDIA: Assam; Lakhimpur, West Bengal: Ging Libong, Gopaldhara, Uttar
Pradesh: Allahabad

17. Episomus raucus Faust


(Figs. 25, 50, 67, 97, 108, 145, 156, 217, 241, 313-316, 324 and 348)
Episomus raucus Faust, 1897: 113, 162; Marshall, 1916: 210, 222 [SMTD].
General colour greenish to brown above, pale brown beneath, prothorax with
dorsal part green, inflexed margins of prothorax and elytra with pale green vestiture,
lateral green vestiture extending up to the fourth stria; sutural area pale fawn (Fig. 348).
Head, without transverse impression behind eyes, 1.58x as long as the rostrum and 3.68x
as long as the apical emargination, base 1.12x as broad as the rostrum, 2.11x as much as
the distance between scrobes and 2.17x as broad as the apical emargination. Central
furrow broad and deep near base, 2.16x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum
1.17x as broad as long, 1.7x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of
head. Eyes 2.2x as long as broad from above and 1.15x as long as broad from the sides;
distance between the anterior margin 1.16x as that between the middle of eyes; distance
between posterior margins 1.3x as that between the middle and 1.12x as that between the
anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.38x as that between the scrobes
(Figs. 25 and 50). Antennae greenish brown with scape dilated (1.38x) from middle to
apex, 3.83x as long as the club. Funicle with seventh segment black from middle till
apex, 1.12x as long as the scape and 4.2x times as long as the club, seventh segment
longest, 1.13x as long as the first, 1.3x as long as the second, 1.73x as long as the third,
1.86x as the fourth and fifth, 2.16x as the sixth, fourth and fifth equal; in terms of
breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.36x as broad as the first,
fifth and sixth, 1.26x as broad as the second,third and fourth; first, fifth and sixth equally
broad and second to fourth, equally broad. Club black, 1.11x as long and 1.1x as broad as
the seventh segment of funicle, third segment longest, 1.5x as long as the first, 1.28x as
long as the second and fourth segments, second and fourth equally long; in terms of

80
breadth, first and second broadest, 1.23x as broad as the third, 1.1x as the fourth, first and
second equally broad (Fig. 67).
Prothorax plicate, subparallel from base to middle and narrow at the apex, 1.03x
as long as the head, 1.63x as long and 1.6x as broad as the rostrum, 1.15x broader than
long at middle; breadth at middle 1.43x as broad as the apex and 1.07x as broad as the
base, the posterior margin 1.34x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.16x as that at
the sides, 10.85x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 15.8x as broad as the
breadth of scutellum; central furrow deep (Fig. 97). Scutellum enclosed in front by the
sutural margin, 1.27x as long as broad and 1.45x as long as the length of punctations and
as broad. Legs with dense green or grey vestiture. Femora 3x as long as broad, 1.06x as
long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.06x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 3x
as long as broad, with a projection at apex (Fig. 241). Tarsi with fourth segment longest,
1.22x as long as the first, 3.54x as the second and 1.3x as the first; in terms of breadth,
third broadest, 1.41x as that of first, 1.37x as that of second and 4.8x as broad as the
fourth (Fig. 316).
Elytra elongate, ovate, without a distinct humeral angle, less acuminate at the
apex and less rounded at base. Upper surface without any basal impression (Fig. 145), its
length 1.11x as much as the suture, 3.87x as long as the rostrum, 25.71x as long as the
scutellum, 2.36x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.35x as that of prothorax and
1.44x as that of its breadth at base. Suture distinctly elevated on the declivity, 2.13x as
long as that of prothorax, 23.14x as long as the scutellum. Striae broad, with rows of
large punctations, each punctation 1.45x as long as broad. Intervals narrow, five, six and
seven are narrowly carinate posteriorly. 1.1x as broad as the punctation (Fig. 108). Elytral
vestiture with two types of scales, differing only in colour. Predominant ones metallic
pink with indistinct dark lines, pointed at apex, the other metallic green with pink specks
(Fig. 156).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.62x as long as the second, 3x as long as
the third and fourth, 1.05x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in
terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.16x as broad as second, 1.36x as broad as
three, 1.48x as ventrite four and 1.69x as ventrite five.

81
Male genitalia with aedeagus having a sub anterior projection, 2.05x as long as
the apophyses and median lobe, 1.21x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.58x as long as
the tegmen. median lobe 1.54x as long as the manubrium; its base 1.22x as broad as the
breadth at middle, breadth from sides 2.18x as broad as the breadth of apophyses.
Apophyses 1.33x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. 313-315). Tegmen 2.01x as long as
manubrium, with dorsal piece as broad as the basal piece, its apex slightly bent (Fig.
316). Spiculum gastrale elongate, 1.7x as long as the apophyses and 1.31x as long as
tegmen, its breadth 1.42x as broad as the breadth of apophyses and 1.89x as broad as the
breadth of manubrium, bent near apex and blunt (Fig. 324).
Length: 17.00 mm; Breadth: 6.20 mm.
Specimens examined: 2? : Palanis: Shenbaganur (6000 ft); Kodaikanal, Coll. Newton,
L. W., ? Karnataka: Chettali.
Distribution: INDIA: Kerala: Thiruvanthapuram; Tamil Nadu: Tiruchirapalli,
Kodaikanal; Karnataka: Coorg.

18. Episomus sagax Faust


(Figs: 23, 43, 68, 91, 116, 138, 164-166, 210, 234, 245, 256, 268 and 343)
Episomus sagax Faust, 1897: 119, 134; Marshall, 1916: 212, 235 [SMTD ? & ? ].
General colour brown above, greyish beneath (Fig. 343). Head transversely
impressed behind the eyes without lateral impression, 1.47x as long as the rostrum, 3.75x
as long as the apical emargination and 1.04x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.06x as
broad as the rostrum, 1.88x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.44x as broad
as the apical emargination. Central furrow deep, dilated at apex, 2.15x as long as the
apical emargination. Rostrum 1.21x as broad as long, 2.12x as long as the distance
between base of rostrum and base of head, its sides roundly dilated near the apex. Eyes
1.6x as long as broad from above and 1.06x as long as broad from the sides; distance
between the anterior margin 1.08x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance
between posterior margins 1.13x as that between the middle and 1.05x as that between
the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.45x as the distance between the
scrobes (Figs. 23 and 43). Antennae with scape slightly broadened (1.18x) from middle to
apex, 4.47x as long as the club. Funicle 1.14x as long as the scape and 1.37x times as

82
long as the club; seventh segment longest, 1.37as long as the club, 1.44x as long as the
first, 1.62x as long as the second, 2.6x as long as the third and sixth, 2.88x as the fourth
and 3.25x as the fifth; third and sixth equal; in terms of breadth, seventh segment
broadest of all. 1.26x as broad as the first and second, 1.36x as broad as the third and
fourth, 1.26x as broad as the fifth and sixth; first and second, third and fourth, fifth and
sixth equally broad. Club as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, with its second
segment longest, 1.2x as long as the first, 1.5x as long as the third and fourth segments,
third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first and second broadest and equally
broad, 1.36x as broad as the third, 2.7x as the fourth (Fig. 68).
Prothorax with sides subparallel from base to middle, then narrowed to the apex,
coarsely plicate above, 1.41x as long and 1.43x as broad as the rostrum, 1.23x broader
than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.34x as broad as the apex and 1.02x as broad as
the base. The posterior margin broadly bisinuate, posterior margin 1.31x as broad as the
apex, its length at middle 1.14x as that at the sides, 6.4x as long as the scutellum and its
breadth at middle 8.9x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow broad and
deep (Fig. 91). Scutellum not enclosed, large and circular, 1.12x as long as broad and
1.1.5x as long and 2.28x as broad as the length and breadth of punctations. Legs
brownish. Femora 3.81x as long as broad, 1.05x as long and 1.22x as broad as tibia. Tibia
4.44x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.12x as long as the first, 2.05x
as the second and 1.48x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.34x as that of
first, 1.4x as that of second and 3.88x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 210 and 234).
Elytra with humeral angle distinct, ovate, separately rounded at the base. Upper
surface with distinct basal impression (Fig. 138). Elytral length 1.11x as much as the
suture, 3.97x as long as the rostrum, 18x as long as the scutellum, 2.81x as that of
prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.23x as that of its breadth at the humeral angle, 1.51x as
that of prothorax and 1.55x as that of its breadth at base. Suture moderately elevated after
the declivity, 2.53x as long as that of prothorax, 16.2x as long as the scutellum. Striae
with rows of large deep punctations, each punctation 1.71x as long as broad. Intervals
2.41x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 116). Elytral vestiture with scales of
three types, less predominant plumose, elongate, clothed with hairs, the other less

83
predominant one with inconspicuous lines. Predominant ones with a prominent pedicel
and 8-9 ridges parallel to each other (Fig. 164-166).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3x as long as the second and third, 3.6x as
long as the fourth, 1.2x as long as the fifth, ventrites second and third equally long; in
terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 2.6x as broad as second, 1.53x as broad as
three, 1.8x as ventrite four and 2.26x as ventrite five.
Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.34x longer than the
proximal arm, angle between the arms obtuse, nodulus, ramus normal, cornu projecting
away from proximal arm (Figs. 245 and 268). Spiculum ventrale 2.02x as long as basal
plate, basal plate 1.35x as broad as long, with shaft elongate, slightly thinning from base
to apex, apex blunt, basal plate with tuft of hairs (Fig. 256).
Length: 14.0 mm; Breadth: 5.6 mm.
Specimens examined: 2? , Bangladesh: Dhaka: Madhyapura, XII.08. Coll. P.C.S.
Distribution: INDIA: Assam: Naga Hills, Dilkusha, Bangladesh: Dhaka, Sylhet.

19. Episomus sulcicollis (Pascoe)


(Figs. 22, 44, 69, 92, 115, 132, 189, 190, 203, 235, 285-288, 328 and 352)
Simallus sulcicollis Pascoe, 1865: 420; Marshall, 1916: 215, 247 [BMNH ? ].
Episomus auriculatus Faust, 1894: 187; Marshall, 1916: 247 [MCSN].
Simallus auriculatus Faust 1897: 199 ; Marshall, 1916: 215, 247.
General colour light brown above and beneath, with a broad white to fawn lateral
stripe extending from rostrum and widening out indefinitely at apex of elytra; above this
stripe, a dark brown stripe extends along intervals 4 to 6 till the top of the declivity (Fig.
352). Head with a strong transverse impression on the vertex; median costae with a small
basal impression, elevated posteriorly and forming two prominent conical tubercles;
1.41x as long as the rostrum and 2.93x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.33x as
broad as the rostrum, 1.6x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.4x as broad as
the apical emargination; central furrow narrow and very deep posteriorly, 2x as long as
the apical emargination. Rostrum parallel sided, 1.24x as broad as long, 2.41x as long as
distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.62x as long as broad from
above and 1.16x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin

84
1.12x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins
1.27x as that between the middle and 1.13x as that between the anterior margins; space
between the eyes at middle 1.1x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 22 and 44).
Antennae light brown. Scape broadened (1.1x) from middle to apex, 3.41x as long as the
club. Funicle 1.19x as long as the scape and 4.06x times as long as the club; second
segment longest, 1.18x as long as the first and seventh, 1.44x as long as the third and
fourth, 1.62x as long as the fifth and sixth segments; first and seventh, third and fourth,
fifth and sixth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated
anteriorly, 1.22x as broad as the first, second, third, fourth and fifth, 1.1x as broad as the
sixth, first to fifth equally broad. Club 1.54x as long and 1.27x as broad as the seventh
segment of funicle, 1.31x as long as the second segment of funicle; its first and second
segments the longest, 1.25x as long as the third and 1.66x as long as the fourth segment;
segments first and second equally long; in terms of breadth, second the broadest, 1.07x as
broad as the first, 1.16x as the third and 2.33x as the fourth (Fig. 69).
Prothorax slightly transverse. Anterior lateral margin with a small, sharp
projection below the eye level. Upper surface with few irregular plications. 1.07x as long
as the head, 1.52x as long as and 1.69x as broad as the rostrum, 1.38x broader than long
at middle; breadth at middle 1.27x as broad as at the apex and 1.05x as broad as at the
base, the posterior margin truncate, 1.21x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.1x
as that at the sides, 10.06x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 16.2x as
broad as the breadth of scutellum. Central furrow deep, not reaching base or apex (Fig.
92). Scutellum very small, enclosed, 1.16x as long as broad and 3.33x as long as the
length of punctations and 1.5x as broad as its breadth. Legs light brown. Femora 4.83x as
long as broad, 1.45x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 2x as broad as the
breadth of tibia. Tibia 6.66x as long as broad. Tarsi with first segment longest, 1.66x as
long as the second, 1.33x as the third and 1.05x as the fourth; in terms of breadth, third
broadest, 1.33x as broad as first, 1.43x as that of second and 4x as broad as the fourth
(Figs. 203 and 235).
Elytra broadly ovate. Upper surface not transversely impressed near base,
posterior margin shallowly sinuate, without a humeral angle and with a slight subhumeral
prominence (Fig. 132). Apices jointly rounded. Elytral length 1.07x as much as the

85
suture, 3.71x as long as the rostrum, 24.57x as long as the scutellum, 2.44x as that of
prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.27x as that of prothorax and 1.33x as that of its breadth
at base. Suture very slightly elevated posteriorly, sinuate before apex when viewed
laterally, 2.27x as long as that of prothorax, 22.86x as long as the scutellum. Striae
narrow with rows of round deep separated punctations, each punctation 1.33x as broad as
long. Sixth stria reaching the base. Intervals broad, 2.25x as broad as the breadth of
punctations (Fig. 115). Elytral vestiture with scales brown, of two types, less predominant
elongate with 5-6 inconspicuous ridges, rounded at apex; predominant ones without a
pedicel, the prominent ones with apex acuminate, core opaque and granulated, with eight
ridges scarcely visible, four originating from the periphery, two from the base and two
roundedly approximated just before the basal area (Figs. 189 and 190).
Venter with the first ventrite the longest, 2.5x as long as the second, 3.33x as long
as the third and fourth, 1.25x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long;
in terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.2x as broad as second, 1.41x as broad as
third, 1.6x as fourth and 1.84x as fifth.
Male genitalia with aedeagus 1.93x as long as apophyses, 1.97x as its median
lobe, 1.17x as long as spiculum gastrale, 1.81x as long as tegmen; median lobe slightly
broadening at base before apophyses, 2.33x as long as the manubrium; its base 1.07x as
broad as middle and 1.25x as broad as just before the apex; breadth at middle 1.16x as
broad as that just before apex, breadth from sides 2x as broad as the breadth of
apophyses. Apophyses 3.33x as broad as manubrium and 1.04 as broad as the shaft of
spiculum gastrale (Fig. 285-287). Tegmen 2.54x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece
2.85x as as broad as the basal piece. Parameres with apices acuminate, manubrium
uniformly thick (Fig. 288). Spiculum gastrale with straight shaft, bent at apex, 1.64x as
long as apophyses and 1.55x as long as tegmen, 3.2x as broad as the breadth of
manubrium (Fig. 328).
Length: 8.3 mm; Breadth: 3.3 mm.
Specimen examined: ? , 3.V.1909, Mandalay.
Distribution: Myanmar.

20. Episomus uniformis Pascoe

86
(Figs. 20, 46, 71, 94, 118, 141, 175-176, 212, 237 and 349)
Episomus uniformis Pascoe, 1887: 349; Faust, 1897: 120, 129; Marshall, 1916: 213, 238
[BMNH ? ].
General colour light brown and below (Fig. 349). Head with transverse shallow
impression behind the eye, 1.53x as long as the rostrum, 4.2x as long as the apical
emargination and 1.1x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.1x as broad as the rostrum,
2.18x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.33x as broad as the apical
emargination; central furrow broad and deep, dilated at apex, 2x as long as the apical
emargination, epistome not carinate at the sides. Rostrum dilated towards apex, 1.16x as
broad as long, 1.9x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head.
Eyes 2.1x as long as broad from above and 1.15x as long as broad from the sides;
distance between the anterior margin 1.12x as the distance between the middle of eyes;
distance between posterior margins equal to that between anterior margins and 1.12x as
that between the middle; space between the eyes at middle 1.6x as that between the
scrobes (Figs. 20 and 46). Antennae brown. Scape broadened (1.37x) from middle to
apex, 4.55x as long as the club. Funicle 1.1x as long as the scape and 4.95x times as long
as the club, seventh segment longest, 1.25x as long as the club, 1.31x as long as the first,
1.25x as long as the second, 2.5x as long as the third, 3.12x as the fourth and sixth and
2.77x as the fifth, fourth and sixth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment
broadest of all, broadest at its middle, 1.54x as broad as the first, 1.33x as broad as the
second, third, fourth and fifth, 1.25x as broad as the sixth, second to fifth equally broad.
Club as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, with fourth segment the longest, 1.5x as
long as the first, 1.2x as long as the second and third segments, second and third equally
long; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.05x as broad as the second, 1.33x as the third,
2.22x as the fourth (Fig. 71).
Prothorax with shallow plications on upper surface, 1.38x as long as and 1.42x as
broad as the rostrum, 1.19x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.3x as broad
as the apex, the posterior margin deeply bisinuate, 1.04x as broad as that at middle and
1.36x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.07x as that at the sides, 5.53x as long as
the scutellum and its breadth at middle 6.62x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central
furrow shallow (Fig. 94). Scutellum transverse, as long as broad and 1.83x as long and 2x

87
as broad as those of punctations. Legs brown. Femora 3.91x as long as broad, 1.1x as
long as and 1.2x as broad as those of tibia. Tibia 4.3x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth
segment longest, 1.76x as long as the first, 2.31x as the second and 1.52x as the third; in
terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.48x as broad as first, 1.38x as that of second and 3.63x
as broad as the fourth (Figs. 212 and 237).
Elytra elongate ovate, separately rounded at the base, transversely impressed near
the base, without any humeral angle (Fig. 141); its length 1.11x as much as the suture,
4.36x as long as the rostrum, 17.45x as long as the scutellum, 3.16x as that of prothorax,
its breadth at middle 1.94x as that of prothorax and 1.55x as that of its breadth at base.
Suture sharply elevated into a carina on the declivity, 2.83x as long as that of prothorax,
15.53x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of large, deep punctations, each
punctation 1.1x as long as broad. Intervals subcostate, as broad as those of punctations
(Fig. 118). Elytral vestiture with scales of two types, dark, equally predominant, one
elongate with 8-9 inconspicuous, parallel ridges, with the apex rounded, the other with a
slight peduncle and 4-5 ridges approximating before apex (Figs. 175 and 176).
Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.75x as long as the second, 4.4x as long as
the third, 5.5x as long as the fourth and 1.37x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth,
first ventrite broadest, 1.23x as broad as second, 1.56x as broad as third, 1.95x as fourth
and 2.47x as fifth.
Length: 15.8 mm; Breadth: 6.2 mm.
Specimen examined: Without data.
Distribution: INDIA: Andaman Islands.

88
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