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Review Test 2 Neuro

1) Alzhiemers Disease i) Causes (1) Disruptions in multiple neurotransmitters (a) Ach (b) Glutamate (c) Serotonin (d) Norephinephrine (2) Controversies of causes (a) Deodorant with aluminum (b) X (3) Risk Factors (a) Not literacy (b) Cardiovascular disease (c) Type II Diabetes (d) Oxidative damage and inflammation (e) Age (f) Family history (g) Genetics ii) Indications that point to AD (1) Memory loss that disrupts daily life (2) Challenges planning and solving problems (3) Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home at work or at leisure (4) Confusion with time or place (5) Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships (6) New problems with words in speaking or writing (7) Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps (8) Decreased or poor judgment (9) Withdrawal from work or social activities (10) Changes in moor or personality iii) Manifestation of AD (1) Shows itself in late adulthood iv) Distribution/Epidemiology of AD (1) Autopsy only way to diagnose (a) Neurofibrillary tangles seen (b) Amyloid plaques seen (2) AD was first named in 1907 v) Distinguishing characteristics (1) Interferes with intellectual function, there will be a decline in decision making

(a) Affects the part of the brain that controls memory, language, and thought (limbic system) (2) Decline in Activities of Daily Living (3) Increased Agitation (4) A CT scan will show the brain is actually shrinking, canals getting larger vi) Treatment Goals (1) To live within the limits of AD (2) AD not reversible so treatment to prevent further injury (Safety) (3) Light therapy is not an essential treatment (4) Group therapy with simple ex. That use imagery or demonstration (5) Exercises short and simple, same order, same time every day (6) Balance training (7) Gait training and if needed selection of appropriate AD (8) Appropriate orthotic selection if needed vii) Similarities and Differences between other neurological diseases (1) Part of brain affected by AD-Limbic System

2) Parkinsons Disease i) Causes (1) Exhaustion of dopamine which is an endorphine (2) Free radicals-oxidants (a) Drink water! To rid of oxidants (3) Risk factors (a) Environmental toxins (b) Genetic mutations (c) Drugs (d) High levels of Iron (e) High level of oxidants (free radicals released by cells) ii) Indications that point to PD (1) Bradykinesia (2) Masked face (3) Festinating gait (4) Freezing (5) Pill Rolling (6) Resting tremor (7) Rigidity (8) Unstable posture (9) Personality change (10) Difficulty with movement due to dopamine low level produced in substantia nigra, released by hypothalamus (limbic system)

iii) Manifestation of PD (1) Clinical picture of PD- progresses slowly with the emergence of secondary impairments and then permanent disability iv) Distribution/Epidemiology of PD (1) Upper Motor Neuron Disease (2) PD named in 1817 v) Distinguishing characteristics (1) Diadodyskinesia- unable to perform rapid alternating movement vi) Similarities and Differences between other neurological diseases (1) Basal Ganglia most involved in PD (2) Parkinsons are able to do more ADLs than AD


ALS Disease i) Causes ii) Indications that point to ALS iii) Manifestation of ALS iv) Distribution/Epidemiology of ALS v) Distinguishing characteristics vi) Similarities and Differences between other neurological diseases 4) GBS Disease i) Causes ii) Indications that point to GBS iii) Manifestation of GBS iv) Distribution/Epidemiology of GBS v) Distinguishing characteristics vi) Similarities and Differences between other neurological diseases

Function of Lobes of the brain: 1. Frontal a. initiation of movement-, starting and stopping an activity b. executive functioning- decision making c. reasoning d. attention deficits e. planning and organization-sequence of activities

f. problem solving and flexibility (not able to adapt to the situation) g. poor judgment and leads to unsafe decisions 2. Temporal lobea. involved primarily with hearing b. Understanding speech. c. Memory problems-short term memory d. Music and sound comprehension 3. Occipital lobea. interpretation of visual info i. understanding and identification of what you are actually seeing 4. Parietal lobea. perception of touch b. body orientation, where you are in space (spatial relation) c. face recognition d. arithmetic calculations (check book balancing) I. Cerebellum- controls balance of body, coordination, damage to this one difficulty would be walking properly or maintaining balance Brainstem- takes care of basic bodily functions such as


a) Cardiac function b) Respiration c) Sleep wake d) Movement e) Touch f) Sensation