Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (Cardiovascular and Lymphatic systems)

I. Blood

Plasma and Serum Interstitial fluid


Formed elements
Albumins
Globulins
Immunoglobulins
Fibrinogen
Erytrocytes
Leukocytes
Lymphocytes
Platelets

II. Blood vessels and circulation


Pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary arteries and veins
Systemic circulation
Arteries, Veins and Capillaries
Vessel’s Wall: tunica externa or adventitia, media and interna or intima
Elastic and Muscular arteries
Differences between arteries and veins
Aorta: ascending, arch and descending parts
Main arteries of different parts of aorta
Coronary arteries
Cardiac veins
Coronary sinus
Brachiocepahlic artery and veins
Subclavian arteries and veins
Common, Internal and External Carotid arteries
Common, Internal and External Iliac arteries
Midline anterior arteries
Esophageal, Celiac, Superior and Inferior Mesenteric arteries
Posteriolateral group of arteries
Intercostal arteries and veins
Anterolateral group of arteries
Bronchial, renal, adrenal, gonadal arteries
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
Main veins creating Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
Internal and External Jugular veins
Hepatic portal circulation
Hepatic veins
Superior and Inferior Mesenteric veins
Spleenic vein
Azygos system
Important to know the main differences between arterial and venous networks
Anastomoses: collateral, end-to-end
Fetal circulation

Umbilical arteries and veins

III. Lymphatic system and vessels

Lymph

Lymphatic nodes, spleen

Lymphatic capillaries

Cisterna chili

Gastrointestinal lymphatic trunk

Lumbar lymphatic trunks

Thoracic duct

Right lymphatic duct

Bronchomediastinal lymphatic trunk

Subclavian and jugular lymphatic trunks


IV. Heart and Pericardium

Parietal and visceral pericardium


Fibrous and serous pericardium
Epicardium, myocardium and endocardium
Right and left atria
Right and left ventricles
The base and apex of the heart
Sternocostal and diaphragmatic surfaces
Coronary sinus
Pectinate muscles
Papillary muscles
Trabeculae carneae
Interatrial and interventricular septum
Foramen and fossa ovale
)Atrioventricular valves: tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral
Chorda tendineae
:Conducting system of the heart
Sinoatrial (SA) and Atrioventricular (AV) nodes
AV bundle, Purkinje fibers
Systole and Diastole

RESPIRATORY System (RS)


Respiratory tract (RT) and accessory tissues/organs
Conducting and respiratory portions of RT
Nasal complex and paranasal sinuses
Mucus and mucous epithelium
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea and tracheal cartilages
Primary, lobar and segmental bronchi
Terminal and respiratory bronchioles
Alveolar duct and alveoli
Bronchopulmonary segment
Bronchial tree
Lobes of the right and left lungs
Apex and base of lung
Costal and mediastinal surfaces of lung
Fissures of right and left lungs
Hilus and root of lung
Cardiac notch
Pleura and pleural cavity
Parietal and visceral pleura
Respiratory muscles:
Diaphragm
Internal and external intercostals
The accessory muscles
DIGESTIVE System
The oral cavity
The pharynx
The esophagus
The stomach:
Cardia, Fundus, Body; Pylorus; Lesser and Greater Curvature; Pyloric Sphincter
The Small Intestine
Duodenum; Jejunum; Ileum
Mesentery;
Esophageal arteries
Celiac trunk
Superior and Inferior Mesenteric Arteries and Veins
Hepatic portal circulation
Hepatic veins
Splenic vein
Inferior Vena Cava
Gastrointestinal lymphatic trunk
The Large Intestine
Cecum; Vermiform Appendix; Ascending, Descending, Transverse and
Sigmoid Colon; Rectum, Anal canal and sphincter
Main features of large intestinum
Pancreas and Pancreatic Duct
Liver
Lobes; Hepatic Ducts; Gall Bladder; Cystic Duct;
Common Bile Duct; Inferior Vena Cava
Hepatic Portal Vein; Hepatic Artery and Vein
Main histological layers of the wall of the digestive tract
Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscular layer, Serosa
Intestinal Villi
Peristalsis and Segmentation
The Peritoneum
‫מערכת השתן‬
:‫תפקידים‬
Filtration – ‫סינון‬
Reabsorption – ‫ספיגה חוזרת‬
Secretion – ‫הפרשה‬

Kidney – ‫כליה‬
Adrenal gland – ‫יותרת הכליה‬
Renal cortex – ‫קליפת הכליה‬
Renal medulla – ‫ליבת הכליה‬
Renal pyramid – ‫פירמידה‬
Renal papilla – ‫פיטמת הפירמידה‬
Renal calyx – ‫גביעי הכליה‬
Renal pelvis – ‫אגן הכליה‬

Ureter – ‫שפכן‬
Kidney stone – ‫אבן בכליה‬

- ‫כלי דם‬
Vessels
Abdominal aorta – ‫אבי העורקים הבטני‬
Inferior vena cava – ‫וריד נבוב תחתון‬
Renal artery/vein – ‫וריד הכליה‬/‫עורק‬

Urinary bladder – ‫שלפוחית השתן‬


Transitional epithelium – ‫אפיתל מעבר‬
Urethral sphincters – ‫סוגרי השלפוחית‬
Urethra – ‫ שפכה‬, Trigone – ‫משולש‬

Nephron – ‫נפרון‬
Glomerulus – ‫פקעית‬
Bowman’s capsule – ‫קופסית באומן‬
Proximal convoluted tubule – ‫צינורית מקורבת‬
Distal convoluted tubule – ‫צינורית מרוחקת‬
Collecting duct – ‫צינורית מאספת‬
‫קצב סינון הפקעית – ‪Glomerular filtration rate‬‬
‫אלדוסטרון – ‪Aldosteron‬‬
‫רנין – ‪Renin‬‬

‫מערכת הרבייה‬
‫גונדה –‬
‫‪Gonad‬‬
‫תאי מין‪/‬גמטות – ‪Gametes‬‬

‫מערכת המין הזכרית‬


‫‪Testis‬‬‫אשך –‬
‫שק האשכים – ‪Scrotum‬‬
‫צינוריות האשך – ‪Semineferous tubules‬‬
‫תאי זרע – ‪Spermatozoa‬‬
‫תאי לידיג – ‪Leydig cells‬‬
‫יותרת האשך – ‪Epididymis‬‬
‫חבל הזרע – ‪Spermatic cord‬‬
‫צינור הזרע – ‪Vas deferens‬‬
‫שלפוחית הזרע – ‪Seminal vesicle‬‬
‫בלוטת הערמונית – ‪Prostate‬‬
‫פין – ‪Penis‬‬
‫גוף מחילתי – ‪Corpus cavarnosum‬‬
‫גוף ספוגי – ‪Corpus spongiosum‬‬
‫בסיס הפין – ‪Bulb of penis‬‬
‫נוזל הזרע – ‪Semen‬‬
‫הורמונים –‬
‫‪ ,LH, FSH‬טסטוסטרון‬
‫מערכת המין הנקבית‬

‫שחלה – ‪Ovary‬‬
‫זקיקים – ‪Follicles‬‬
‫ביוץ – ‪Ovulation‬‬
‫רחם – ‪Uterus‬‬
‫חצוצרות – ‪Fallopian tubes,‬‬
‫רצועה עגולה – ‪Round ligament‬‬
‫סיסי החצוצרה – ‪Fimbria‬‬
‫צוואר הרחם – ‪Cervix‬‬
‫‪ – Menstruation‬וסת‬
‫אברי המ ין הח יצוניים‬
‫שפתיים גדולות – ‪Labia majora‬‬
‫שפתיים קטנות – ‪Labia minora‬‬
‫דגדגן – ‪Clitoris‬‬
‫נרתיק – ‪Vagina‬‬
‫קרום בתולים – ‪Hymen‬‬
‫בלוטות ברטולין – ‪Bartolin’s glands‬‬
‫הורמונים‬
‫‪ ,FSH, LH‬אסטרוגן ופרוגסטרון‬