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Matilda Stella Pradnya XIIF / 21

TENSES
Present Tenses Past ( v-2) ( v-1) Aspect Future Perfect Continuous ( will + v-1) ( have/has + v-3) (to be + v-ing)

1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE S + v-1 (s/es) +.... Use a. Facts and generalization b. Habits and routines c. Permanent situations d. State verbs (e.g. be, have, think, know) e. Fixed / official arrangement that we can't change f. Narrations (e.g. telling a story or a joke) Example a. Berlin is the capital city of Germany. b. She studies English twice a week. c. When does the plane take off? Adverbs of frequency ex : always, never, frequently/often, usually, seldom/rarely, nowadays, every week/year, sometimes/occasionally, from time to time 2. SIMPLE PAST TENSE S + v-2 +.... Use a. Events in the past that are now finished b. Situation in the past c. A series of actions in the past Example - I met my music teacher yesterday. - My mother bought a new carpet last Sunday. - He entered a room, lit a cigarette and smiled at the guests. - He married a woman who lived in the same village. Time Expressions ex : yesterday, the other day, just now, the day before yesterday 3. PRESENT FUTURE TENSE S + will + v-1 +.... Use a. Promises

b. Unplanned actions (spontaneous decisions) c. Predictions based on experience or intuition d. Habits (obstinate insistence, usually habitual) Example - It will rain in a moment - He will always make noise when we are sleeping. - I will close the window. It's starting to rain. - I promise I will buy you this toy. We often use "will" with: probably, most likely I think I'm sure I wonder (if, what, when, etc.) I expect 4. PAST FUTURE TENSE S + would + v-1 +.... Use : Stating that the act will be done in the past Example - They would go to Balik Papan the following day - He would buy a car the previous day - He wouldnt come if invited him. 5. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE S + have/has + v-3 +.... Use a. Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now b. Actions in the past which have an effect on the present moment c. Actions which began in the past and continue in the present Example a. I have already had a breakfast. b. He has finished his work. c. Mary has worked as a teacher for over 25 years "For" and "Since"... "Since" and "for" are very common time expressions used with the Present Perfect. I'll probably drop in on uncle. This gift is great. I think we'll love it. It's not going to be boring there. I'm sure there will bea lot of boys at your age It's a bit late. I wonder if he'll come. I haven't seen Matthew today. I expect he'll call today.

We use "for" with a period of time, for example: o I have lived here for 20 years. When talking about a starting point, we use "since", for example: o I have lived here since 1960. 6. PAST PERFECT TENSE S + had + v-3 +.... Use a. A completed action before another action in the past b. Third conditional sentences c. Reported speech d. Dissatisfaction with the past Example o o o o I had finished my homework before I went playing football. If we had gone by taxi, we wouldn't have been late. Mary said she had already seen this film. I wish I had taken more food. I'm hungry now.

7. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE S + is/am/are + v-ing +.... Use a. Present actions b. Temporary actions c. Longer actions in progress d. Future (personal) arrangements and plans e. Irritation over something or somebody in the present Example o Mary is talking with her friend. o They are working hard to earn money. o They are not talking with each other after the last argument. (They will soon make up) 8. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE S + was/were + v-ing +.... Use a. Actions in progress (in the past) b. Interrupted actions in progress (in the past)

c. Actions in progress at the same time (in the past) d. Irritation over something or somebody (in the past) e. Timid / polite question Example o o o o I was watching TV yesterday in the evening. The plane crashed when Angelica was playing tennis. The family was eating the dinner and talking. I was thinking you might help me with this problem.

9. PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT TENSE S + will + have + v-3 +.... Use Stating that the act had begun in the past and soon will be completed in time to come. Example o o o o 10. You can call me at work at 8am. I will have arrived at the office by 8. They will be tired when they arrive. They will not have slept for a long time. By next week, I shall have read this book Shinta will have done this work by the end of this week PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE S + would + have + v-3 +.... Use Stating assumptions that might not happen because the conditions are certainly not be met, but only as an assumption that the requirements are fulfilled in the past. Example o o o o 11. He would have graduated, if he had studied hard. He would have became president if his party had won in generalelection. Mrs. Anisa Munif would have been walking here for seventeen years Rianawati wouldnt have been speaking English for two years PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE S + have/has been + v-ing +.... Use a. Actions that started in the past and continue in the present

b. Actions that have recently stopped Example o o o o 12. He has been painting the house for 5 hours. (He's still painting it) Look at her eyes! I'm sure she has been crying. (She stopped crying when she saw them) My sister has been studying English for three months. The students have been doing the test since 11 oclock. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE S + had been + v-ing +.... Use a. Duration of a past action up to a certain point in the past b. Third conditional sentences c. Reported speech Example o o o o 13. I had been running for an hour when it started raining. Mary said she had never been swimming so much in one day. Kathy put on weight because she had been eating too much sugar. Everything had been going well in my life until my world fell apart several months ago. PRESENT FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE S + will be + v-ing +.... Use a. Future actions in progress. b. Guesses about the present or the future. c. Polite questions about somebody's intentions Example o o o o 14. In the evening, I will be baking a birthday cake. He won't be coming any time soon. He is still at the office. Will you be coming home before or after 10 p.m.? I will be studying tomorrow night. PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE S + would be + v-ing +.... Use Stating that will act being done in the past.

Example o I should be taking an examination at this time the following day o I would be swimming at this time the following day. o I would be sleeping at 10 oclock tomorrow. 15. PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE S + will + have been + v-ing +.... Use Actions that will be in progress at a definite moment in the future. Example o o o o o 16. Before they come, we will have been cleaning the house for 5 hours. By the next year, Ben and his wife will have been living together for 50 years. By the end of this year, we shall have been studying Korean language for three years I will have been reading a news paper He will have been listening music. PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE S + would + have been + v-ing +.... Use Like Future Perfect Tense, but in the past. Example a. b. c. d. e. I would have been swimming for 30 minutes when You called me yesterday. At this time yesterday, I would have been wating for you for more than two hours In May 2007, I would have been living in Tanggulangin for 3 years When she decided to get married, she would have been working there for 1 year By the end of the month last semester, Zahra would have been studying computeritation at Gunadarma University for three years