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36
Map 4
PopuIation, 2001 (5tateslUnion Territories)
Arunachal Pradesh
10,97,968

PopuIation, 2001
(5tateslUnion Territories)
PopuIation
1, 00,00,000 ahd below
1, 00,00,001 - 2, 50,00,000
2, 50,00,001 - 5, 00,00,000
5, 00,00,001 - 10, 00,00,000
10, 00,00,001 ahd above
Jammu & Kashmir
1,01,43,700
Punjab
2,43,58,999
Pajaslhan
5,65,07,188
Cujaral
5,06,71,017
Maharashlra
9,68,78,627
Coa
13,47,668
Karnalaka
5,28,50,562
Kerala
3,18,41,374
Tamil Nadu
6,24,05,679
Andhra Pradesh
7,62,10,007
Chhallisgarh
2,08,33,803
Orissa
3,68,04,660
Tripura
31,99,203
Jharkhand
2,69,45,829
(P)Puducherry
9,74,345
(P)
(P)
(P)
Lakshadweep
60,650
Andaman & Nicobar lslands
3,56,152
lndira Poinl
8arren l.
(lndia)
Narcondam l.
(lndia)
Daman & Diu
1,58,204
Himachal Pradesh
60,77,900
Chandigarh
9,00,635
Ullarakhand
84,89,349
Haryana
2,11,44,564
Ullar Pradesh
16,61,97,921
Dadra & Nagar Haveli
2,20,490
Wesl 8engal
8,01,76,197
Madhya Pradesh
6,03,48,023
Sikkim
5,40,851
8ihar
8,29,98,509
NCT ol Delhi
1,38,50,507
Meghalaya
23,18,822
Assam
2,66,55,528
Mizoram
8,88,573
Manipur
22,93,896
Nagaland
19,90,036
0 100 500 50
KilomeIres
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 37
Map 5
PopuIation, 2011 (5tateslUnion Territories)
1, 00,00,000 ahd below
1, 00,00,001 - 2, 50,00,000
2, 50,00,001 - 5, 00,00,000
5, 00,00,001 - 10, 00,00,000
10, 00,00,001 ahd above
Arunachal Pradesh
13,82,611

PopuIation, 2011
(5tateslUnion Territories)
PopuIation
Jammu & Kashmir
1,25,48,926
Punjab
2,77,04,236
Pajaslhan
6,86,21,012
Cujaral
6,03,83,628
Maharashlra
11,23,72,972
Coa
14,57,723
Karnalaka
6,11,30,704
Kerala
3,33,87,677
Tamil Nadu
7,21,38,958
Andhra Pradesh
8,46,65,533
Chhallisgarh
2,55,40,196
Orissa
4,19,47,358
Tripura
36,71,032
Jharkhand
3,29,66,238
(P)Puducherry
12,44,464
(P)
(P)
(P)
Lakshadweep
64,429
Andaman & Nicobar lslands
3,79,944
lndira Poinl
8arren l.
(lndia)
Narcondam l.
(lndia)
Daman & Diu
2,42,911
Himachal Pradesh
68,56,509
Chandigarh
10,54,686
Ullarakhand
1,01,16,752
Haryana
2,53,53,081
Ullar Pradesh
19,95,81,477
Dadra & Nagar Haveli
3,42,853
Wesl 8engal
9,13,47,736
Madhya Pradesh
7,25,97,565
Sikkim
6,07,688
8ihar
10,38,04,637
NCT ol Delhi
1,67,53,235
Meghalaya
29,64,007
Assam
3,11,69,272
Mizoram
10,91,014
Manipur
27,21,756
Nagaland
19,80,602
0 100 500 50
KilomeIres
38
3
Size, Crowlh Rale aud
0islribuliou o Populaliou
ABSOLUTE NUMBERS
population totals of Census 2011, is 1,210,193,422 compared to a total
of 1,028,737,436 in 2001
1
. In absolute terms, the population of India has
addition to the population during the decade 2001-2011 is slightly lower than
INDIA IN WORLD POPULATION
2
relative share in the global population is shown in Figure 1. Population of these
10 countries have all grown over the last decade, except in Russian Federation,
which has declined. At present, these ten countries account for nearly three-
India and USA, together account for four of every ten persons of the world.
At present, a little more than one out of every six persons in the world is from
India.
NoIes
1 For comparabiliIy wiIh earlier
resulIs, Ihe 2011 ahd 2001
IoIals ihclude esIimaIed
populaIioh o! Purul, Pao MaIa
ahd Mao Marah sub-divisiohs
o! SehapaIi disIricI o! Mahipur.
Source
2 PopulaIioh Divisioh o! Ihe
DeparImehI o! Lcohomic ahd
Social A!!airs o! Ihe UhiIed
NaIiohs SecreIariaI, World
PopulaIioh ProspecIs: 1he 2008
Revisioh.
Figure 1
India in WorId PopuIation
1he popuIation of India has
increased by more than 181
miIIion during the decade
2001-2011. 1he absoIute
addition is sIightIy Iower
than the popuIation of 8raziI,
country in the worId!
1he popuIation of India, at
1210.2 miIIion, is aImost
equaI to the combined
popuIation of u.S.A.,
Indonesia, 8raziI, Pakistan,
8angIadesh and Japan put
together- the popuIation of
these six countries totaIs
1214.3 miIIion!
apau 1.9% u.S.^ 4.5%
Nigeria 2.3% Brazil 2.8%
Russiau |ed 2.0% |udouesia 3.4%
|udia 17.5% 0lher
Couulries
41.2%
Chiua 19.4%
Baugladesh 2.4% Pakislau 2.7%
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 39
world and China, the country with the largest population in the world has
narrowed from 238 million in 2001 to nearly 131 million in 2011. On the other
hand, the gap between India and the United States of America, which has
the third largest population, has now widened to about 902 million from 741
million in 2001. In 1930, China with 22 percent share of the world population
was the world's most populous country, followed by India, which had a share
population of U.S.A., Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan put
together- the population of these six countries totals 1214.3 million!
A point that is striking is that while India accounts for a meagre 2.4 percent of
the world surface area of 133.79 million square kms, it supports and sustains
a whopping 17.3 percent of the world population. In contrast, the USA
accounts for 7.2 percent of the surface area with only 4.3 percent of the world
population. As such, among the ten most populous countries of the world, only
Bangladesh has a higher population density compared to India
9
.
rate of 1.23 percent during 2000-2010. China registered a much lower annual
growth rate of population (0.33 percent) during 2000-2010, as compared to
India (1.64 percent during 2001-2011). In fact, the growth rate of China is
now third lowest among the ten most populous countries, behind Russian
Federation and Japan and it is substantially lower than the USA (0.7 percent).
SIaIemehI 1
PopuIation o! seIected countries
NoIes
1. For Chiha
3
, USA
4
, Ihdohesia
5
, 8razil
6
ahd 1apah
7
, populaIioh are
Ihe populaIioh o! 1apah be!ore ad|usImehI has beeh cohsidered.
2. Source !or oIher couhIries: World PopulaIioh ProspecIs
8
: 2008 updaIed
ih May 2010 by UhiIed NaIiohs PopulaIioh Divisioh. 1he esIimaIes are
medium VariahI.
3. 1he percehI decadal chahges !or Chiha, Ihdohesia ahd 8razil have
beeh ad|usIed Io Iake care o! Ihe chahge ih re!erehce daIes o! Iwo
cohsecuIive cehsuses o! 2000 ahd 2010.
Sources
3 hIIp://www.sIaIs.gov.ch/
ehglish/hewsahdcomihgevehIs/
I20110228_402705764.hIm
paragraph XI, accessed oh 14Ih
March 2011
4 hIIp://www.cehsus.gov/
populaIioh.
5 hIIp://dds.bps.go.id/
ehg/Iab_sub/view.
php?Iabel=1&da!Iar=1&id_
subyek=12&hoIab=1 accessed
oh 23rd March 2011.
6 hIIp://www.ibge.gov.br/
cehso2010/primeiros_dados_
divulgados/ihdex.php?u!=00
accessed oh 9Ih March 2011.
7 hIIp://www.sIaI.go.|p/ehglish/
daIa/kokusei/ihdex.hIm
accessed oh 17Ih March 2011.
8 PopulaIioh Divisioh o! Ihe
DeparImehI o! Lcohomic ahd
Social A!!airs o! Ihe UhiIed
NaIiohs SecreIariaI, World
PopulaIioh ProspecIs: 1he 2008
Revisioh, hIIp://esa.uh.org/
UNPP/p2k0daIa.asp accessed
oh 17Ih March 2011
9 Ibid.
SI. Nc Ccuntry keference date FcpuIaticn
(In miIIicns)
ecadaI change
(in %)
1 Chiua 01.11.2010 1,341.0 S.43
2 |udia 01.03 2011 1,210.2 17.64
3 u.S.^ 01.04.2010 308.7 7.26
4 |udouesia 31.0S.2010 237.6 1S.0S
S Brazil 01.08.2010 190.7 9.39
6 Pakislau 01.07.2010 184.8 24.78
7 Baugladesh 01.07.2010 164.4 16.76
8 Nigeria 01.07.2010 1S8.3 26.84
9 Russiau |ed. 01.07.2010 140.4 4.29
10 apau 01.10.2010 128.1 1.1
0lher Couulries 01.07.2010 2844.7 1S.43
world 01.07.2010 6908.7 12.97
40
Sources
10 World PopulaIioh ProspecIs:
1he 2008 Revisioh, hIIp://esa.
uh.org/uhpp accessed oh 8Ih
March 2011.
11 PopulaIioh Re!erehce
8ureau, 1rahsiIioh ih
world populaIioh, hIIp://
www.prb.org/PublicaIiohs/
PopulaIioh8ulleIihs/2004/
sihWorldPopulaIiohPDF249K8.
aspx pp6
growth in China, it is now estimated that by 2030, India will most likely
overtake China to become the most populous country on the earth with 17.9
percent population living here
10
.
World population was transformed in the 20th century as technological and
social changes brought steep declines in birth rates and death rates around the
by this population growth may carry the world population past 7 billion by
2013. It is almost certain that nearly all future population growth will occur in
the developing regions of the world. Urban areas in these regions will absorb
most of the additional people
11
.
Figure 2
PopuIation grovth rate, India and seIected Countries. 2000-2010
0 S0
1.00
1.S0
2.00
2.S0
world ^verage
1.00
0.S0
0.00
0.S0
Data shows that the poor tend to have larger families
12
. In the developing
countries, a youth bulge" ensures that the absolute number of births will
rise even as couples are having fewer children. At the other extreme, most
Stagnant growth or even population decline is challenging more countries as
fewer workers must support expanding pension and social security systems for
to address these and other issues over the last half-century. In developing
countries, policies include support for family planning and reproductive health
the number of children they want. In developed countries, particularly Japan
and parts of Europe, Governments have implemented policies to promote
gender equality in the workplace and ease the burden of childrearing-all to
Source
12 1ahsahkhya SIhiraIa Kosh,
(NaIiohal PopulaIioh
SIabilisaIioh Fuhd), PoverIy
ahd PopulaIioh, hIIp://
www.|sk.gov.ih/poverIy_ahd_
populaIioh.asp accessed oh
17Ih March 2011.
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 41
SIaIemehI 2
PopuIation and its grovth, India . 1901-2011
AbscIute Fercent AbscIute Fercent
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 2 3 , 6 9 , 3 8 , 3 2 1 0 9 1
1911 2S,20,93,390 1,36,97,063 S.7S 0.S6 S.7S
1921 2S,13,21,213 7,72,177 (0.31) 14469240 6.0S 0.03 S.42
1931 27,89,77,238 2,76,S6,02S 11.00 28428202 11.31 1.04 17.02
1941 31,86,60,S80 3,96,83,342 14.22 12027317 3.22 1.33 33.67
19S1
1
36,10,88,090 4,24,27,S10 13.31 2744168 0.91 1.2S S1.47
1961
1
43,92,34,771 7,81,46,681 21.64 3S719171 8.33 1.96 84.2S
1971 S4,81,S9,6S2 10,89,24,881 24.80 30778200 3.16 2.20 129.94
1981
2
68,33,29,097 13,S1,69,44S 24.66 26244S64 0.14 2.22 186.64
1991
3
84,64,21,039 16,30,91,942 23.87 2,79,22,497 17.12 2.16 2SS.0S
2001
4
1,02,87,37,436 18,23,16,397 21.S4 1,92,24,4SS 10.S4 1.97 331.S2
2011
S
6
6
1,21,01,93,422 18,14,SS,986 17.64 8,60,411 0.47 1.64 407.64
ecadaI grcwth Change in decadaI
grcwth
Average annuaI
expcnentiaI
grcwth rate
(percent)
Frcgressive grcwth
rate cver 1901
(percent)
FcpuIaticn Census
ears
(with the exception of 1911-
1921) which has actuaIIy
added Iesser popuIation
compared to the previous
decade.
trends-such as the economy, education, gender relations, and access to family
planning-are numerous and complex, and public policies and programs to
in childbearing trends today have huge implications for future population
size.
13

POPULATION GROWTH: INDIA 1901 TO 2011
one hundred and ten years to reach 1210 million in 2011. Interestingly, the
century, while in the later half it recorded a phenomenal three-fold increase.
Statement 2 presents the population of India as recorded in each decadal
Census since 1901. Some other indicators of growth rate such as decadal
growth rate, change in decadal growth, average annual exponential growth
rate and progressive growth rate over 1901 during each decade have also been
presented in this statement. Figure 3 shows the decadal growth of population
for India during 1901-2011.
Source
13 PopulaIioh Re!erehce
8ureau, 1rahsiIioh ih
world populaIioh, hIIp://
www.prb.org/PublicaIiohs/
PopulaIioh8ulleIihs/2004/
sihWorldPopulaIiohPDF249K8.
aspx, pp 4
NoIes
1. Ih workihg ouI'Decadal GrowIh' ahd 'PercehIage Decadal GrowIh'
For Ihdia 1941-51 ahd 1951 -61 Ihe populaIioh o! 1uehsahg disIricI !or
1951 (7,025) ahd Ihe populaIioh o! 1uehsahg (83,501) ahd Moh (5,774)
disIricIs !or 1961 Cehsus o! Nagalahd sIaIe have hoI beeh Iakeh ihIo
same are hoI comparable.
2. 1he 1981 Cehsus could hoI be held owihg Io disIurbed cohdiIiohs
Assam have beeh worked ouI by 'ihIerpolaIioh.
3. 1he 1991 Cehsus could hoI be held owihg Io disIurbed cohdiIiohs
!or 1991 Cehsus o! 1ammu ahd Kashmir have beeh worked ouI by
'ihIerpolaIioh.'
4. Ihcludes esIimaIed populaIioh o! PaomaIa, Mao Maram ahd Purul sub-
divisiohs o! SehapaIi DisIricI o! Mahipur !or 2001.
5. Ihcludes esIimaIed populaIioh o! PaomaIa, Mao Maram ahd Purul sub-
divisiohs o! SehapaIi DisIricI o! Mahipur !or 2011.
6. 1he percehIage decadal growIh showh ih columh 4 o! SIaIemehI 2
ihdicaIes a declihe !rom 24.80 percehI durihg Ihe decade 1961-71 Io
24.66 percehI durihg Ihe decade 1971-81, while Ihe average ahhual
expohehIial growIh raIe presehIed ih columh 7 o! Ihis sIaIemehI
shows ah ihcrease !rom 2.20 Io 2.22. 1his is because Ihe percehI
decadal variaIioh has hoI beeh ad|usIed !or Ihe shi!I ih re!erehce daIa
ih 1971. 1he decadal variaIioh !or 1961-71 relaIes Io 121 mohIhs while
IhaI 1971-81 relaIes Io 119 mohIhs. I! we ad|usI !or Ihis di!!erehce, Ihe
percehIage decadal growIh works ouI Io 24.59 percehI !or 1961-71 ahd
24.87 percehI !or Ihe decade 1971-81.
42
Map 6
Grovth o! PopuIation, 1991-2001 (5tateslUnion Territories)
Arunachal Pradesh
27.0

Grovth o! PopuIation,1991-2001
(5tateslUnion Territories)
Grovth o! PopuIation (in %)
10 15 20 25 0
NaIiohal Average : 21.5
Jammu & Kashmir
29.4
Punjab
20.1
Pajaslhan
28.4
Cujaral
22.7
Maharashlra
22.7
Coa
15.2
Karnalaka
17.5
Kerala
9.4
Tamil Nadu
11.7
Andhra Pradesh
14.6
Chhallisgarh
18.3
Orissa
16.3
Tripura
16.0 Jharkhand
23.4
(P)Puducherry
20.6
(P)
(P)
(P)
Lakshadweep
17.3
Andaman & Nicobar lslands
26.9
lndira Poinl
8arren l.
(lndia)
Narcondam l.
(lndia)
Daman & Diu
55.7
Himachal Pradesh
17.5
Chandigarh
40.3
Ullarakhand
20.4
Haryana
28.4
Ullar Pradesh
25.9
Dadra & Nagar Haveli
59.2
Wesl 8engal
17.8
Madhya Pradesh
24.3
Sikkim
33.1
8ihar
28.6
NCT ol Delhi
47.0
Meghalaya
30.7
Assam
18.9
Mizoram
28.8
Manipur
24.9
Nagaland
64.5
0 100 500 50
KilomeIres
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 43
Map 7
Grovth o! PopuIation, 2001-2011 (5tateslUnion Territories)
Arunachal Pradesh
25.9

Grovth o! PopuIation, 2001-2011


(5tateslUnion Territories)
Grovth o! PopuIation (in %)
10 15 20 25 0
NaIiohal Average : 17.6
Loss
Jammu & Kashmir
23.7
Punjab
13.7
Pajaslhan
21.4
Cujaral
19.2
Maharashlra
16.0
Coa
8.2
Karnalaka
15.7
Kerala
4.9
Tamil Nadu
15.6
Andhra Pradesh
11.1
Chhallisgarh
22.6
Orissa
14.0
Tripura
14.7
Jharkhand
22.3
(P)Puducherry
27.7
(P)
(P)
(P)
Lakshadweep
6.2
Andaman & Nicobar lslands
6.7
lndira Poinl
8arren l.
(lndia)
Narcondam l.
(lndia)
Daman & Diu
53.5
Himachal Pradesh
12.8
Chandigarh
17.1
Ullarakhand
19.2
Haryana
19.9
Ullar Pradesh
20.1
Dadra & Nagar Haveli
55.5
Wesl 8engal
13.9
Madhya Pradesh
20.3
Sikkim
12.4
8ihar
25.1
NCT ol Delhi
21.0
Meghalaya
27.8
Assam
16.9
Mizoram
22.8
Manipur
18.7
Nagaland
-0.5
0 100 500 50
KilomeIres
44
Figure 3
India
PopuIation (in miIIions). 1901-2011
1210.19
1200.00
1400.00
2S2 09 2S1 32
278.98
318.66
361.09
439.23
S48.16
683.33
846.42
1028.74
400.00
600.00
800.00
1000.00
238.40
2S2.09 2S1.32
0.00
200.00
1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 19S1 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 45
One of the important features of the present decade is that, 2001-2011 is the
the combination of population momentum and somewhat impeded fertility,
although India continues to grow in size, its pace of net addition is on the
decrease.
In absolute terms, the population of India has increased by about 181 million
during the decade 2001-2011. Although, the net addition in population during
each decade has increased consistently, the changes in net addition has shown a
steady declining trend over the decades starting from 1961. While 27.9 million
more people were added between the decade 1981-1991 than between 1971-
1981, this number declined to 19.2 million for the decades between 1981-1991
2011, the net addition is less than that of the previous decade by 0.86 million.
POPULATION GROWTH RATES
registered the sharpest decline since independence. It declined from 23. 87
percent for 1981-1991 to 21.34 percent for the period 1991-2001, a decrease of
2.33 percentage point. For 2001-2011, this decadal growth has become 17.64
percent, a further decrease of 3.90 percentage points.
Similarly, the average exponential growth rate for 2001-2011 has declined to
average annual exponential growth rate during 1981-1991 was 2.16. Figure 4
depicts the percentage decadal growth rate of independent India.
Figure 4
Percentage decadaI grovth rates o! popuIation, India. 1951-1961 to 2001-2011
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
14
|udia
1he percentage decadaI
growth during 2001-2011
has registered the sharpest
decIine since independence.
for 2001-2011, this decadaI
growth has become 17.64
percent, a decrease of 3.90
percentage points from
21.54 percent for the period
1991-2001.
46
POPULATION: STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES
Uttar Pradesh continues to be the most populous State in the country with
almost 200 million people living here, which is more than the population of
of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra (the second most populous State), at 312
million, is substantially greater than the population of USA, the third most
populous country of the world. Twenty States and Union Territories now have
Union Territories in the country that are yet to reach the one million mark.
Statement 3 and Figure 3 show the relative share of population of the States
statement also provides the ranking of these States and Union Territories by
Population size in 2001 and 2011.
While Uttar Pradesh (199.6 million), Maharashtra (112.4 million), Bihar (103.8
million), West Bengal (91.3 million) and Andhra Pradesh (84.7 million) have
to 2001, Madhya Pradesh (72.6 million), which has moved on to take the sixth
position from its seventh position, pushing Tamil Nadu (72.1 million) now to
the seventh spot. A little more than six of every ten Indians live in one of these
seven States.
Figure 5
PopuIation share o! 5tates and Union Territories, India. 2011
uttar Pradesh continues to
be the most popuIous State
in the country with aImost
200 miIIion peopIe Iiving
here, which is more than the
popuIation of 8raziI.

1he combined popuIation
of uttar Pradesh and
Maharashtra (the second
most popuIous State), at
312 miIIion, is substantiaIIy
greater than the popuIation
of uSA.

A IittIe more than six of
every ten Indians Iive in one
of the seven States:
uttar Pradesh:
Maharashtra:
8ihar:
West 8engaI:
Andhra Pradesh:
Madhya Pradesh:
1amiI hadu:
199.6 miIIion
112.4 miIIion
103.8 miIIion
91.3 miIIion
84.7 miIIion
72.6 miIIion
72.1 miIIion
Jauil Nadu 6%
Rajaslhau 6%
Bihar 9%
Karualaka 5%
Maharashlra 9%
0rissa 3%
Kerala 3%
harkhaud 3%
^ssau 3%
Puujab 2%
Cujaral 5%
ullar Pradesh 16%
Madhya Pradesh 6%
^ud ra Pradesh 7%
wesl Beugal 8%
haryaua 2%
Chhallisgarh 2%
ullarakhaud 1%
auuu & Kashuir 1%
0elhi 1%
0lher Slales & uJs 2%
h
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 47
SIaIemehI 3
anking o! 5tates and Union Territories by popuIation. 2001 and 2011
kank
In
2011
IndialStatelunicn 1erritcry
#
2011 2001
1 2 3 4 5 6
INIA 1,21,01,93,422 100.00 100.00
1 ullar Pradesh 19,9S,81,477 16.49 16.16 1
2 Maharashlra 11,23,72,972 9.29 9.42 2
3 Bihar 10,38,04,637 8.S8 8.07 3
4 wesl Beugal 9,13,47,736 7.SS 7.79 4
S ^udhra Pradesh 8,46,6S,S33 7.00 7.41 S
6 Madhya Pradesh 7,2S,97,S6S 6.00 S.87 7
7 Jauil Nadu 7,21,38,9S8 S.96 6.07 6
8 Rajaslhau 6,86,21,012 S.67 S.49 8
9 Karualaka 6,11,30,704 S.0S S.14 9
10 Cujaral 6,03,83,628 4.99 4.93 10
11 0rissa 4,19,47,3S8 3.47 3.S8 11
12 Kerala 3,33,87,677 2.76 3.10 12
13 harkhaud 3,29,66,238 2.72 2.62 13
14 ^ssau 3,11,69,272 2.S8 2.S9 14
1S Puujab 2,77,04,236 2.29 2.37 1S
16 Chhallisgarh 2,SS,40,196 2.11 2.03 17
17 haryaua 2,S3,S3,081 2.09 2.06 16
18 NCJ o 0elhi
#
1,67,S3,23S 1.38 1.3S 18
19 auuu & Kashuir 1,2S,48,926 1.04 0.99 19
20 ullarakhaud 1,01,16,7S2 0.84 0.83 20
21 hiuachal Pradesh 68,S6,S09 0.S7 0.S9 21
22 Jripura 36,71,032 0.30 0.31 22
23 Meghalaya 29,64,007 0.24 0.23 23
24 Mauipur 27,21,7S6 0.22 0.22 24
2S Nagalaud 19,80,602 0.16 0.19 2S
26 Coa 14,S7,723 0.12 0.13 26
27 ^ruuachal Pradesh 13,82,611 0.11 0.11 27
28 Puducherry
#
12,44,464 0.10 0.09 28
29 Mizorau 10,91,014 0.09 0.09 30
30 Chaudigarh
#
10,S4,686 0.09 0.09 29
31 Sikkiu 6,07,688 0.0S 0.0S 31
32 ^udauau & Nicobar |slauds
#
3,79,944 0.03 0.03 32
33 0adra & Nagar haveli
#
3,42,8S3 0.03 0.02 33
34 0auau & 0iu
#
2,42,911 0.02 0.02 34
3S Lakshadweep
#
64,429 0.01 0.01 3S
Fercent tc tctaI
pcpuIaticn cf
India
FcpuIaticn 2011 kank in
2001
NoIes: See hoIes 4 & 5 below SIaIemehI 2
48
Gangetic plain
14
pattern similar to those observed in this area. To analyse this a bit more closely,
the growth rates of eight States popularly referred to in administrative parlance
as the eight Empowered Action Group (EAG) States, namely, Rajasthan, Uttar
Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and
group, from 1931 till 2011, have hosted between forty three to forty six percent
of India's population. Figure 6 depicts the growth trajectory of India, the EAG
group and the non-EAG group during the decades 1931-1961 to 2001-2011.
Figure 6
Grovth rates o! India, EAG 5tates and non-EAG 5tates and Union Territories,
1951-1961 to 2001-2011
Between 1931 and 1971, both the EAG and non-EAG States and Union
Territories have grown resulting in an increase in the overall population of
India. During this phase, the growth rate for the non-EAG States and Union
Territories was more than that of the EAG States. From 1971 onwards, as a
result of fertility decline in the non-EAG States and Union Territories there was
four percent. During 1991-2001, the growth rate for the EAG States remained
same as that in the previous decade, whereas there was continuous reduction
Sources
14 1im Dysoh, Ihdia's PopulaIioh -
1he PasI,
lndia, Population, Lconomy,
Human Development, and the
Lnvironment, ediIed by 1im
Dysoh, RoberI Casseh & Leela
Visaria, Ox!ord UhiversiIy Press,
pp16
Census 2011 marks
a miIestone in the
demographic history of
the country as it is perhaps
rate of popuIation in the
LAC States after decades of
stagnation.
NoIes: See hoIes 1 Io 6
below SIaIemehI 2

EAG 5tates. ajasthan, Uttar
Pradesh, Uttarakhand, ihar,
1harkhand, Madhya Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh and Orissa
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
19.91
23.01
25.43
25.12
24.99
20.92
23.00
26.17
24.08
22.92
18.90
14.99
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
|udia
E^C Slales
NouE^C
Slales/uJs
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 49
momentum for the EAG States has given the signal of slowing down, falling
non-EAG States and Union Territories, has brought down the rate of growth
for the country by 3.9 percent.
Census 2011 marks a milestone in the demographic history of the country,
percentage decadal growth of each of the States and Union Territories starting
are depicted in Figure 7.
Figure 7
Grovth rates o! India and EAG 5tates, 1951-1961 to 2001-2011
Uttar Pradesh
Uttarakhand
ihar
1harkhand
30
32
34
|udia
ullar
Pradesh
21.64
24.8 24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
16.38
19.S4
2S.39
2S.61
2S.8S
20.09
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
32
34 |udia
ullarakh
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
22.S7
24.42
27.4S
23.13
20.41 19.17
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
ullarakhaud
32
34 |udia
Bihar
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
19.79
20.91
24.16
23.38
28.62
2S.07
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
28
30
32
34
|udia
harkhaud
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
19.69
22.S8
23.79 24.03
23.36
22.34
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
50
Among the EAG States, Uttarakhand and Orissa seem to be performing better
than the rest, with the latter registering consistently lower growth rates than
the Nation since 1971.
During 2001-2011, the growth rates of almost all States and Union Territories
namely, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and
Madhya Pradesh have all fallen during 2001-2011 compared to 1991-2001, the
fall being the lowest for Andhra Pradesh (3.3 percentage points) and highest
for Maharashtra (6.7 percentage points). Tamil Nadu (3.9 percentage points)
and Puducherry (7.1 percentage points) have registering some increase during
2001-2011 over the previous decade. Growth rates for some of the more
populous non-EAG States and Union Territories are represented in Figure 8.
ajasthan
Orissa
Figure 7
Grovth rates o! India and EAG 5tates, 1951-1961 to 2001-2011
1he percentage decadaI
growth rates of the six most
popuIous States, nameIy,
uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra,
8ihar, West 8engaI, Andhra
Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
have aII faIIen during
2001-2011 compared to
1991-2001, the faII being the
Iowest for Andhra Pradesh
(3.5 percentage points) and
highest for Maharashtra (6.7
percentage points).
Madhya Pradesh
Chhattisgarh
29.28
27 16
27 24
28
30
32
34
|udia
Madhya
Pradesh
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
24.73
27.16
27.24
24.26
20.3
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
32
34
|udia
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
22.77
27.12
20.39
2S.73
18.27
22.S9
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
Chhallisgarh
32
34 |udia
R j lh
21.64
24.8 24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
26.2
27.83
32.97 28.44
28.41
21.44
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
Rajaslhau
32
34
|udia
0rissa
21.64
24.8 24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64 19.82
2S.0S
20.17
20.06
16.2S
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
0rissa
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 51
Maharashtra
Gujarat
Figure 8
Grovth rates o! India and some o! the more popuIous non-EAG 5tates and
Union Territories, 1951-1961 to 2001-2011
Andhra Pradesh
TamiI Nadu
Karnataka
KeraIa
40
|udia
Maharashl
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4 17.64
23.6
27.4S
24.S4
2S.73
22.73
1S.99
S
10
1S
20
2S
30
3S
Maharashlra
0
S
40
|udia
Cujaral
21.64
24.8 24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
26.88
29.39
27.67
21.19
22.66
19.17
S
10
1S
20
2S
30
3S
Cujaral
0
S
40
|udia
21.64
24.8 24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
1S.6S
20.9
23.1
24.2
14.S9 11.1
10
1S
20
2S
30
3S
^udhra Pradesh
0
S
40 |udia
Karualaka
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
21.S7
24.22
26.7S
21.12
17.S1
1S.67
S
10
1S
20
2S
30
3S
Karualaka
0
S
3S
40
|udia
Jauil Nadu
21.64
24.8 24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
11.8S
22.3
17.S
1S.39
11.72 1S.6
S
10
1S
20
2S
30
3S
Jauil Nadu
0
S
3S
40
|udia
Kerala
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
24.76
26.29
19.24
14.32
9.43
4.86
0
S
10
1S
20
2S
30
0
52
Figure 8
Grovth rates o! India and some o! the more popuIous non-EAG 5tates and
Union Territories, 1951-1961 to 2001-2011
West engaI
Assam
Punjab
DeIhi
Haryana
1ammu & Kashmir
3S
40 |udia
wesl
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
32.8
26.87
23.17
24.73
17.77
13.93
10
1S
20
2S
30
3S
wesl
Beugal
0
S
34.9S
3S
40
|udia
^
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
34.98
23.36
24.24
18.92
16.93
10
1S
20
2S
30
3S ^ssau
0
S
3S
40
|udia
21.64
24.8
24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64 21.S6 21.7
23.89
20.81
20.1
13.73
10
1S
20
2S
30
3S
Puujab
0
S
33 9 3S
40
|udia
haryaua
21.64
24.8 24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
33.79
32.22
28.7S
27.41
28.43
19.9
10
1S
20
2S
30
3S
haryaua
0
S
60
|udia
0elhi
21.64
24.8 24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
S2.44 S2.93 S3
S1.4S
47.02
20.96
10
20
30
40
S0
0elhi
0
40
|udia
auuu &
K h i
21.64
24.8 24.66
23.87
21.S4
17.64
9.44
29.6S 29.69 30.34 29.43
23.71
S
10
1S
20
2S
30
3S
Kashuir
0
S
3
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 53
Figures 7 and 8 also show that among the EAG States, the growth of Orissa
started to fall from 1971, and its growth rate during 2001-2011, at fourteen
percent, is lower than the average of the non-EAG States. On the other, among
the more populous non-EAG States, the growth rates of Gujarat, Haryana,
POPULATION GROWTH: ALL STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES
Exactly half of the twenty most populous States, each with a population of ten
million or more, have added lesser persons in the decade 2001-2011 compared
to the previous one. Had these ten States added the same number of persons
during 2001-2011 as they did in the previous decade, everything else remaining
the same, India would have added another 9.7 million more persons during
the boundaries of the Southern States during 2001-11, where in addition to
Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka in the South, Himachal Pradesh
and Punjab in the North, West Bengal and Orissa in the East, and Maharashtra
in the West have registered a growth rate between eleven to sixteen percent
Census 2001 predicted this: It is also obvious that in the contiguous four
major South Indian States fertility decline appears to have well established,
stretching to neighbouring Maharashtra on the west and Orissa and West
Bengal in the east, whereas in other regions it is rather scattered
13
."
Among the smaller States and Union Territories, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and
percentage points. In contrast, Lakshadweep, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and
Goa have registered single digit decadal growth. Nagaland is the only State
growths in all the previous decades.
population in the inter-Censal period 2001-2011, among the more populous
States and Union Territories, varied from a low of 4.86 in Kerala to a very high
23.07 in Bihar. Jammu & Kashmir with 23.71 percent, Chhattisgarh with 22.39
and Jharkhand with 22.34 also registered very high growth rates.
2011 as compared to the previous census decade in all the States and Union
Territories except Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, which together
constitute about 8.17 percent of India's population.
namely, for the States Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar
Pradesh, Sikkim, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Goa,
and also for the Union Territories of Delhi, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and
together account for more than thirty nine per cent of the country's population.
Among the larger States and Union Territories, Delhi has registered the
sharpest drop of twenty six percentage points during the said period followed
by Haryana (8.33), Rajasthan (6.97) and Maharashtra (6.74).
Source
15 Cehsus o! Ihdia 2001,
Provisiohal PopulaIioh 1oIals,
Paper 1 o! 2001, pp 50.
More than nine out of every
ten Indians Iive in States and
union 1erritories which have
shown a decIining trend in
popuIation growth.
54
2001 2011 1991
-2001
2001
-2011
1991
-2001
2001
-2011
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
INIA 1,02,87,37,436 1,21,01,93,422 21.54 17.64 -3.9 1.97 1.64
1 auuu & Kashuir 10143700 12S48926 29.43 23.71 S.72 2.61 2.1S
2 hiuachal Pradesh 60,77,900 68,S6,S09 17.S4 12.81 4.73 1.63 1.21
3 Puujab 2,43,S8,999 2,77,04,236 20.1 13.73 6.37 1.8S 1.3
4 Chaudigarh
#
9,00,63S 10,S4,686 40.28 17.1 23.18 3.44 1.S9
S ullarakhaud 84,89,349 1,01,16,7S2 20.41 19.17 1.24 1.87 1.77
6 haryaua 2,11,44,S64 2,S3,S3,081 28.43 19.9 8.S3 2.S3 1.83
7 NCJ o 0elhi
#
1,38,S0,S07 1,67,S3,23S 47.02 20.96 26.06 3.93 1.92
8 Rajaslhau S,6S,07,188 6,86,21,012 28.41 21.44 6.97 2.S3 1.96
9 ullar Pradesh 16,61,97,921 19,9S,81,477 2S.8S 20.09 S.76 2.33 1.8S
10 Bihar 8,29,98,S09 10,38,04,637 28.62 2S.07 3.SS 2.SS 2.26
11 Sikkiu S,40,8S1 6,07,688 33.06 12.36 20.7 2.9 1.17
12 ^ruuachal Pradesh 10,97,968 13,82,611 27 2S.92 1.08 2.42 2.33
13 Nagalaud 19,90,036 19,80,602 64.S3 0.47 6S S.11 0.0S
14 Mauipur 22,93,896 27,21,7S6 24.86 18.6S 6.21 2.2S 1.72
1S Mizorau 8,88,S73 10,91,014 28.82 22.78 6.04 2.S7 2.07
16 Jripura 31,99,203 36,71,032 16.03 14.7S 1.28 1.S 1.39
17 Meghalaya 23,18,822 29,64,007 30.6S 27.82 2.83 2.71 2.49
18 ^ssau 2,66,SS,S28 3,11,69,272 18.92 16.93 1.99 1.7S 1.S8
19 wesl Beugal 8,01,76,197 9,13,47,736 17.77 13.93 3.84 1.6S 1.31
20 harkhaud 2,69,4S,829 3,29,66,238 23.36 22.34 1.02 2.12 2.04
21 0rissa 3,68,04,660 4,19,47,3S8 16.2S 13.97 2.28 1.S2 1.32
22 Chhallisgarh 2,08,33,803 2,SS,40,196 18.27 22.S9 4.32 1.69 2.06
23 Madhya Pradesh 6,03,48,023 7,2S,97,S6S 24.26 20.3 3.96 2.2 1.87
24 Cujaral S,06,71,017 6,03,83,628 22.66 19.17 3.49 2.06 1.77
2S 0auau & 0iu
#
1,S8,204 2,42,911 SS.73 S3.S4 2.19 4.S3 4.38
26 0adra & Nagar haveli
#
2,20,490 3,42,8S3 S9.22 SS.S 3.72 4.76 4.S1
27 Maharashlra 9,68,78,627 11,23,72,972 22.73 1S.99 6.74 2.07 1.49
28 ^udhra Pradesh 7,62,10,007 8,46,6S,S33 14.S9 11.1 3.49 1.37 1.06
29 Karualaka S,28,S0,S62 6,11,30,704 17.S1 1S.67 1.84 1.63 1.47
30 Coa 13,47,668 14,S7,723 1S.21 8.17 7.04 1.43 0.79
31 Lakshadweep
#
60,6S0 64,429 17.3 6.23 11.07 1.61 0.61
32 Kerala 3,18,41,374 3,33,87,677 9.43 4.86 4.S7 0.9 0.48
33 Jauil Nadu 6,24,0S,679 7,21,38,9S8 11.72 1S.6 3.88 1.11 1.46
34 Puducherry
#
9,74,34S 12,44,464 20.62 27.72 7.1 1.89 2.48
3S ^udauau & Nicobar |slauds
#
3,S6,1S2 3,79,944 26.9 6.68 20.22 2.41 0.6S
Average annuaI
expcnentiaI
grcwth rate
1ctaI FcpuIaticn Fercentage
decadaI
grcwth
IndialStatelunicn
1erritcry
#
Statel
u1
Ccde
Change in
percentage
decadaI
grcwth
SIaIemehI 4
PopuIation, percentage decadaI grovth and average annuaI exponentiaI grovth rates
1991-2001 and 2001-2011
NoIes: See hoIes 3,4 & 5 below SIaIemehI 2
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 55
nine out of every ten Indians live in States and Union Territories which have
shown a declining trend in population growth.
Statement 3 gives the distribution of States and Union Territories by ranges of
percentage decadal growth and the percentage of population of these States/
Union Territories by the ranges of growth rates between 1991-2001 and 2001-
growth below eighteen percent, the current National average, has increased
substantially from ten in 1991-2001 to seventeen in the decade 2001-2011,
whereas the number of States/Union Territories with percentage decadal
that registered less than the national growth rate has shown an impressive
increase from about thirty four percent in 2001 to forty seven percent in 2011.
Twelve States and Union Territories, with a combined population amounting
Union Territories in terms of decadal growth rates can be seen at Figure 9.
ullarakhaud
Mauipur
|N0|^
Chaudigarh #
^ssau
Maharashlra
Karualaka
Jauil Nadu
Jripura
0rissa
wesl Beugal
Puujab
hiuachal Pradesh
Sikkiu
^udhra Pradesh
Coa
^udauau & Nicobar |slauds #
Lakshadweep #
Kerala
Nagalaud
10 S 0 S 10 1S 20 2S 30 3S 40 4S S0 SS 60
0adra & Nagar haveli #
0auau & 0iu #
Meghalaya
Puducherry #
^ruuachal Pradesh
Bihar
auuu & Kashuir
Mizorau
Chhallisgarh
harkhaud
Rajaslhau
NCJ o 0elhi #
Madhya Pradesh
ullar Pradesh
haryaua
Cujaral
FkCN1A6 INCkAS
Figure 9
DecadaI grovth rate o! popuIation, India, 5tates and Union Territories. 2001-2011
56
SIaIemehI 5
Number o! 5tates and Union Territories by range o! percentage decadaI grovth rates.
1991-2001 and 2001-2011
Fercentage
decadaI
grcwth
Number cf States
lunicn 1erritcries
1991-2001
Fercentage cf
pcpuIaticn tc
tctaI pcpuIaticn
2001
Number cf States
lunicn 1erritcries
2001-2011
Fercentage cf
pcpuIaticn tc
tctaI pcpuIaticn
2011
1 2 3 4 5
<12 2 9.16 6 10.08
121S 1 7.41 6 14.22
1S18 7 17.SS S 22.96
1821 S 7.9 7 32.02
2124 3 16.96 S 11.63
2427 4 22.28 2 8.69
2730 6 16.8 2 0.3S
30+ 7 1.94 2 0.0S
A similar inference could be drawn from Statement 6 in which the States
of the States and Union Territories in each of these categories to the total
and Union Territories, with a share of about forty two percent of India's
population, registered an annual growth rate of less than two percent. During
Territories have grown by less than 1.3 percent per annum during 2001-2011,
while the number of such States and Union Territories was only four during
the previous decade.
SIaIemehI 6
Number o! 5tates and Union Territories by range o! average annuaI exponentiaI
grovth rates. 1991-2001 and 2001-2011
Average
annuaI
expcnentiaI
grcwth rate
Number cf Statesl
unicn 1erritcries
1991-2001
Fercentage
cf pcpuIaticn
tc tctaI
pcpuIaticn
Number cf Statesl
unicn 1erritcries
2001-2011
Fercentage
cf pcpuIaticn
tc tctaI
pcpuIaticn
1 2 3 4 5
<1.0 1 3.10 S 3.08
1.01.4 3 13.61 10 41.S2
1.S1.9 11 2S.32 10 40.3S
2.02.4 8 39.3S 8 1S
2.S2.9 7 16.97 0 0
3.0+ S 1.66 2 0.0S
uring 2001-2011, as many
union 1erritories with a share
registered an annuaI growth
rate of Iess than two percent.
uring the period 1991-2001,
1erritories, with a share of
about forty two percent of
India's popuIation, were in
this category.
NoIes: See hoIes 3,4 & 5 below SIaIemehI 2
NoIes: See hoIes 3, 4 & 5 below SIaIemehI 2
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 57
SIaIemehI 7
DecadaI grovth o! popuIation and percentage contribution to totaI grovth o! India.
1991-2001 and 2001-2011
1991-2001 2001-2011 1991-2001 2001-2011
6 5 4 3 2 1
INIA 18,23,16,397 18,14,55,986 100.00 100.00
3 3 . 1 7 2 . 1 6 2 2 , S 0 , 4 2 9 4 6 , 6 0 , 3 2 r i u h s a K & u u u a 1
3 4 . 0 S . 0 9 0 6 , 8 7 , 7 3 2 0 , 7 0 , 9 h s e d a r P l a h c a u i h 2
4 8 . 1 4 2 . 2 7 3 2 , S 4 , 3 3 0 3 0 , 7 7 , 0 4 b a j u u P 3
4 Chaudigarh
#
2,S8,620 1,S4,0S1 0.14 0.08
9 . 0 9 7 . 0 3 0 4 , 7 2 , 6 1 S 1 7 , 8 3 , 4 1 d u a h k a r a l l u S
2 3 . 2 7 S . 2 7 1 S , 8 0 , 2 4 6 1 9 , 0 8 , 6 4 a u a y r a h 6
7 NCJ o 0elhi
#
44,29,863 29,02,728 2.43 1.60
8 6 . 6 6 8 . 6 4 2 8 , 3 1 , 1 2 , 1 8 9 1 , 1 0 , S 2 , 1 u a h l s a j a R 8
0 4 . 8 1 2 7 . 8 1 6 S S , 3 8 , 3 3 , 3 8 6 2 , 6 3 , 1 4 , 3 h s e d a r P r a l l u 9
7 4 . 1 1 3 1 . 0 1 8 2 1 , 6 0 , 8 0 , 2 S S 9 , 7 6 , 4 8 , 1 r a h i B 0 1
4 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 7 3 8 , 6 6 4 9 3 , 4 3 , 1 u i k k i S 1 1
6 1 . 0 3 1 . 0 3 4 6 , 4 8 , 2 0 1 4 , 3 3 , 2 h s e d a r P l a h c a u u r ^ 2 1
1 0 . 0 3 4 . 0 4 3 4 , 9 0 9 4 , 0 8 , 7 d u a l a g a N 3 1
4 2 . 0 S 2 . 0 0 6 8 , 7 2 , 4 7 4 7 , 6 S , 4 r u p i u a M 4 1
1 1 . 0 1 1 . 0 1 4 4 , 2 0 , 2 7 1 8 , 8 9 , 1 u a r o z i M S 1
6 2 . 0 4 2 . 0 9 2 8 , 1 7 , 4 8 9 9 , 1 4 , 4 a r u p i r J 6 1
6 3 . 0 3 . 0 S 8 1 , S 4 , 6 4 4 0 , 4 4 , S a y a l a h g e M 7 1
9 4 . 2 3 3 . 2 4 4 7 , 3 1 , S 4 6 0 2 , 1 4 , 2 4 u a s s ^ 8 1
6 1 . 6 4 6 . 6 9 3 S , 1 7 , 1 1 , 1 2 3 2 , 8 9 , 0 2 , 1 l a g u e B l s e w 9 1
2 3 . 3 8 . 2 9 0 4 , 0 2 , 0 6 8 1 9 , 1 0 , 1 S d u a h k r a h 0 2
4 2 9 , 4 4 , 1 S a s s i r 0 1 2 S1,42,698 2.82 2.83
S 7 8 , 8 1 , 2 3 h r a g s i l l a h h C 2 2 47,06,393 1.77 2.S9
1 8 7 , 1 8 , 7 1 , 1 h s e d a r P a y h d a M 3 2 1,22,49,S42 6.46 6.7S
S 3 4 , 1 6 , 3 9 l a r a j u C 4 2 97,12,611 S.13 S.3S
2S 0auau & 0iu
#
S6,618 84,707 0.03 0.0S
26 0adra & Nagar haveli
#
82,013 1,22,363 0.04 0.07
0 4 4 , 1 4 , 9 7 , 1 a r l h s a r a h a M 7 2 1,S4,94,34S 9.84 8.S4
9 9 9 , 1 0 , 7 9 h s e d a r P a r h d u ^ 8 2 84,SS,S26 S.32 4.66
1 6 3 , 3 7 , 8 7 a k a l a u r a K 9 2 82,80,142 4.32 4.S6
S 7 8 , 7 7 , 1 a o C 0 3 1,10,0SS 0.10 0.06
31 Lakshadweep
#
8,943 3,779 0
6 S 8 , 2 4 , 7 2 a l a r e K 2 3 1S,46,303 1.S0 0.8S
3 3 7 , 6 4 , S 6 u d a N l i u a J 3 3 97,33,279 3.S9 S.36
34 Puducherry
#
1,66,S60 2,70,119 0.09 0.1S
3S ^udauau & Nicobar |slauds
#
7S,491 23,792 0.04 0.01
ecadaI grcwth cf pcpuIaticn
(AbscIute)
Fercentage ccntributicn
tc tctaI grcwth cf India
IndialStatelunicn 1erritcry
#
Statel
u1
Ccde
NoIes: See hoIes 3, 4 & 5 below SIaIemehI 2
58
Statement 7 presents the absolute increase in population of the States/Union
percentage contributions of each of the States and Union Territories to the
total growth of India for the decades 1991-2001 and 2001-2011 have also been
shown in Statement 7.
It took four decades for Kerala to reach a decadal growth of less than ten
percent from a high growth rate of 26.29 percent during 1961-71 to 9.43
during 1991-2001. Although Kerala has continued with this impressive show to
register a growth rate of just above 4.9 percent during 2001-2011, the decadal
growth rates in Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and
Madhya Pradesh are still above 20 percent, a level where Kerala and Tamil
Nadu were forty years ago. However, the International experience is (European
Fertility Project) that once the fertility transition had been established in
a linguistic or cultural area, it spread rapidly and independently of socio-
economic level achieved
16
. Perhaps the policy measures taken in the decade
have prepared the basic ground for a similar situation in India and, one may
expect a faster rate of fall in growth rates in the remaining States and Union
Territories with increase in literacy and child care facilities and a reduction in
17
.
THE WAY FORWARD
Demographic transition" is a model that describes population change over
theory mainly describes and analyses the transition from a stable population
with high mortality and high fertility to a stable population with low mortality
18
Stage 1 : Typically seen in less developed countries where birth rates are high
but a large number of people die of preventable causes leading to a
stable population.
Stage 2 : Death rates fall steeply as deaths from preventable causes are reduced
by better food supply and improved public health, but birth rates
remain high due to high fertility, poor social development and limited
in population.
Stage 3 : Birth rates fall but population continues to grow because there are a
large number of people in the reproductive age group due to the high
fertility of the previous generations.
Stage 4 : Countries achieve a stable population once again with low birth
and low death rates but at a higher level of social and economic
development. Population is stable but higher than in stage one.
fertility to a stable population with low mortality and low fertility is called
demographic transition. India is currently at the third stage
19
, with some of the
States and Union territories already into stage 4.
of India states that 'the long-term objective is to achieve a stable population
by 2043, at a level consistent with the requirements of sustainable economic
NoIes
16 Dudley Kirk, Demographic
1rahsiIioh 1heory, PopulaIioh
SIudies, 50 (1996), pp 379.
17 M. K. Premi, Ihdia's Chahgihg
204.
Source
18 1ahsahkhya SIhiraIa Kosh
(NaIiohal PopulaIioh
SIabilisaIioh Fuhd), WhaI is
demographic IrahsiIioh, hIIp://
www.|sk.gov.ih/!aq.asp#b1
accessed oh 17Ih March 2011.
19 ibid.
fifteen States and union
1erritories have grown by
Iess than 1.5 percent per
annum during 2001-2011,
whiIe the number of such
States and union 1erritories
was onIy four during the
previous decade.
5ize, Grovth ate and Distribution o! PopuIation
PROVISIONAL POPULA1ION 1O1ALS - INDIA 59
question is when will this objective be achieved: It has been assumed in the
policy document that the medium-term objective of bringing down the Total
Fertility rate (TFR) to replacement level of 2.1 by 2010 will be achieved. It
was envisaged that if the NPP is fully implemented, the population of India
objectives set out for the XIth 3-year plan also envisaged achieving a Total
Fertility Rate of 2.1 by the year 2012
20
. However, in 2001 itself, India exceeded
the estimated population for the year 2002 by about 14 million and, the
provisional population in 2011 is higher by about 110 million compared to
the target set for the year 2010. It will no doubt be an uphill task on the part of
the Government and the people to achieve the much cherished goal of a stable
population.
Population variables are both determinants and consequences of the
development process. Figure 10 attempts to compare the decadal growth of
population, Gross Domestic product at factor cost at constant prices and food
grain production over time starting from 1930-31. It helps to understand
whether country's economic development and food grain production has been
able to keep pace with its burgeoning population. On the economic front, the
GDP at factor cost at constant prices has grown annually by more than 10.2
percent during 2001-10. As a result, the per capita Net National Product has
more than doubled during this period, from `16,172 in 2000-01
21
to `33,731 in
2009-10. During the same period, the food grain production has reached 218.2
million tonnes in 2009-10 from 196.8 million tonnes in 2000-01, showing an
annual exponential growth rate of food grain production during 2001-2010 at
1.13 per cent, still a shade lower than the population growth rate during 2001-
2011. However, if the targeted improvement in food-grain production of 8.3,
as envisaged in the Union Budget document 2011-12, is actually achieved for
the two successive years of 2010-11 and 2011-12, the average annual growth in
food-grain production for 2001-12 would touch about 1.3 per cent, making it
somewhat similar to the growth in population during this period. However, a
comparison among the ten most populous countries of the World, in terms of
both the Human Development Index and the per capita GDP in PPP$
22
shows
India has a long way to go.
decline in fertility as evidenced by the declining proportion of child population
Commissioner Shri R.A. Gopalaswami, who referred to improvident
maternity"
23
country in 1932 to establish a policy for population control. For the world
this century we will be ending one unique era in history - the population
explosion - and entering another, in which population will level out or even
fall. Population pessimists have warned the congenital optimists, not to believe
themselves or families, frequently awaken faculties that might otherwise
have lain for ever dormant, and it has been commonly remarked that new
and extraordinary situations generally create minds adequate to grapple
24
. A feature of both mortality
and fertility transitions has been their increasingly faster tempo
23
. Targeted
programmes like those on female literacy, improving general health care,
Sources
20 Plahhihg Commissioh o! Ihdia,
LlevehIh Five Year Plah 2007-
12, Volume 2, Social SecIor,
Paragraph 3.1.48.
21 LsIimaIed GDP, NNP ahd
!ood-graih producIioh are
!rom Lcohomic Survey 2010-11,
SIaIisIical appehdix 0.1 SelecI
IhdicaIors.
NoIes
22 UhiIed NaIiohs DevelopmehI
Programme, Humah
DevelopmehI ReporI 2009
23 AdmihisIraIive ReporI o!
Cehsus o! Ihdia 1951
24 QuoIed by RoberI Kuhzig,
NaIiohal Geographic, 1ahuary
2011, Seveh 8illioh special issue
25 Dudley Kirk, Demographic
1rahsiIioh 1heory, PopulaIioh
SIudies, 50(1996), pp 368
60
improving female employment rates, minimum years of schooling, advocacy
to child rearing. Census 2011 is perhaps an indication that the country has
Year Populaliou
(iu uillious)
C0P al aclor cosl
(al couslaul prices iu ` Crore)
0ulpul o oodgraius
(uilliou lous)
19501951 3o1 224,78o 50.8
19o019o1 439 329,825 82.0
19701971 548 474,131 108.4
19801981 o83 o41,921 129.o
19901991 84o 1,083,572 17o.4
20002001 1,028.7 1,8o4,300 19o.8
20102011 1,210.2 4,493,743 218.2
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1S00
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
0
100
200
300
400
S00
600
700
800
900
Figure 10
Grovth o! popuIation, GDP and !oodgrain production,
India. 1950-1951 to 2010-2011
NoIes
1. See hoIes 1 Io 6 below
SIaIemehI 2
2. Source: GDP ahd OuIpuI o!
!oodgraihs !rom Lcohomic
Survey, 2010-11. GDP (quick
esIimaIe) ahd !oodgraih
producIioh (4Ih advahce
esIimaIe) correspohd Io 2009-
2010
Populaliou
C0P
al aclor cosl
(al couslaul prices)
0ulpul o
oodgraius