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AEREATION

Types Characteristics Obligatory Aerobes -Need O2 -Have a purely oxidative metabolism -Oxygen is the final hydrogen acceptor Facultative Anaerobes -Able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen (more vigorous during presence of oxygen because of higher energy yield) -Possess 2 respiratory enzymes (aerobic & anaerobic with fermentation) Enterobacteria, staphylococci Obligatory Anaerobes -Absence of O2 -Require other than oxygen for hydrogen acceptor -Oxygen may produce poisonous substances (superoxide & peroxide) Micro-aerophilics -Need very little amount of oxygen -Usually prefer a higher concentration of CO2

Example

M. tuberculosis, pseudomonas aeruginosa

Clostridia, some spirochetes, anaerobic streptococci

Campylobacter, helicobacter

Created by Qosru Iskandariah

Medical helminthology
Types General Morphology Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flat worms) -Dorsoventrally flattened, leaf-like or ribbon-like -Alimentary canal is absent -No body cavity -Most are hermaphrodites (have both male & female genital systems) Phylum Nematoda (Rounded worms) -Unsegmented, bilaterally symmetrical, elongated, cylindrical -Patent digestive tract -Have body cavity -Sexes are separate (males are always smaller than females) -Free living in soil or water -The body is covered by cuticle (smooth or various thickness or expansion) made of scleroprotein (to resist the digestive enzymes of the host)

Body Systems of Phylum Nematoda (General morphology of Phylum Nematoda)


Systems Digestive Excretory Nervous Reproductive Morphology -Mouth Oesophagus (has chitnized lumen which identifies the nematode, may be cylindrical or filariform, club shaped, double bulbed, rhabditiform and stichosome or cellular) Anus (female) or cloacal opening (male) -Consists of 2 lateral longitudinal canals connected by transverse tube which opens in cervical region -Consists of a nerve ring surrounding oesophagus where nerve trunks extend anteriorly, posteriorly and laterally -Some posses a pair of chemoreceptor situated on minute papillae behind the anus called phasmids, others lack of it -Both sexes consist of a series of long tubules coiled around the intestine #Females may lay eggs or give birth to larvae

Created by Qosru Iskandariah

Phylum Platyhelminthes
Class Morphology Trematoda (flukes) -Leaf-like, pear-shaped, elongated, covered externally by cuticle (may be smooth, spiny or tuberculated) -Posses at least 2 suckers (attachment organs on cuticle) 3 layers of muscle fibres bulk body consists of spongy tissue (embedded internal organs) Cestoidea -Flat, ribbon-like, segmented -Variable lengths -No body cavity and alimentary canal -Body is divided into 3 parts: 1. Head/scolex (provided with bothria or suckers for attachment with or without rostellum and hooks 2. Neck (region of growth) 3. Proglottids or segments (differentiated into immature, mature, gravid segments) Digestive: Nutrients are absorbed through cuticle or tegument of segments (segments also have protective function by secreting substances that inhibit digestive enzymes of host) Excretion: Flame cells collecting dorsal and ventral tubules (running lateral) bladder (at terminal proglottid)

Digestive: Mouth (at bottom of oral sucker) pharynx short oesophagus 2 long blind intestinal caeca Excretion: Excretory cells excretory tubules excretory duct excretory bladder (discharges its content through a pore at posterior end of the fluke) Nervous: Ring of nerve ganglia around pharynx Reproductive: Most are hermaphrodites except bilharzia worms Life Cycle

Nervous: scolex/head Reproductive: Hermaphrodites by self fertilization in the same segment or different segments

Created by Qosru Iskandariah

Phylum nematoda
Class Morphology Adenophorea (Aphasmidea) -Devoid (absent) of phasmids and caudal papillae -The anterior is very thin containing oesophagus (stichosome type) -Females posses a single set of genitalia -Laid eggs are usually with polar plugs -Trichuris trichiura -Capillaria philippinensis -Trichinella spiralis Secernentea (Phasmidea) -Provided with phasmids and caudal papillae -Females posses a double genitalia -Laid eggs are lack of polar plugs -Includes the most of parasitic nematode -Ascaris lumbricoides -Strongyloides stercolaris -Toxocara spp. -Ancylostoma duodenale -Filarial worms

Example

Created by Qosru Iskandariah