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P. Nyssen , C. Marique , 2) 2) 2) C. Prm , P. Bintner , L. Savini

1) 1) 1)

2. THE EAF FURNACE OF ARES ESCHSCHIFFLANGE A twin shell vessel with shaft designed for melting 110 t of scrap is installed at ARES Schifflange. A total of 98 t of liquid steel is tapped at each heat through an EBT tapping hole. The scrap charging is performed in three successive steps : a first "round" basket is used for charging scrap through the roof, the n two rectangular baskets are feeding scrap in the shaft. The electric arc ignition is always realised on a fully charged vessel. The AC furnace has a maximum power capacity of 70 MW (990 V - 65 kA). Six natural gas burners of 3 MW each allow a preheating of the scrap in the waiting vessel, while the other one is operating. The carbon and oxygen are injected through the furnace door by three water-cooled lances. The performance data of the furnace referring to October 1998 are listed in Table 1. Tab. 1 : Main performance data (1998)
Tap-to-tap Productivity Yearly production Metallic yield Injected coal Lance oxygen Natural gas Lime Dust Deslagged gas Electrode consumption 48 119.3 694 1104 8.1 8.5 5.8 41.9 14 110 1.4 min t liq/h kt b kg scrap/t liq kg/t Nm/t Nm/t kg/t kg/t kg/t kg/t

Centre de Recherches Mtallurgiques, Lige, Belgium A.R.E.S., Schifflange, G.D. Luxembourg


SUMMARY Based on a previous experience gained in the oxygen steelmaking, CRM has developed a metallurgical model dedicated to control the EAF operations. At the scrap charging step, the model allows to pre-set the operating parameters taking into account the scrap charge, the previous heat data and the aimed steel temperature and composition. The model is run again during the refining phase in order to give a better appraisal of the end point, the electrical energy and the oxygen volume still to supply ; these on-line calculations are based on the actual operating parameters (electrical energy input, blown oxygen volume, injected carbon weight, power off time,...). At the completion of the heat, an adjustment module assesses for the operators the evolution of several characteristic parameters: hot heel volume, recycled slag weight, scrap sterile content, oxygen yield,... This model, implemented at the ARES Schifflange steelshop, has been submitted to a long duration testing. Gains on productivity, energy consumption and lime addition will be discussed.

3. THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE MODEL The steelplant of ARES Schifflange is characterized by a high productivity, i.e. an average of 30 heats per day, calculated on a monthly basis. The good results can still be improved as only one third of the heats are realized in one step. The first aim of the model is to increase that rate. Based on the computation of the mass and thermal balances, the model has to determine the main operating parameters considering that the target is reached in one step i.e. without intermediate stop between the arc start-up and the first temperature measurement. It uses data resulting from the previous heats and those available during the running heat for defining and adjusting the working scheme. In this prospect, the model is composed of three distinct parts : - a static module, used before the start-up of the considered heat, - a pseudo-dynamic module executed during the last minutes of the heat, - an adjustment module, used ad posteriori when the heat is completed.

1. INTRODUCTION In EAF where the major part of the metallic input is made of scrap characterized by diverse qualities and origins, the process is generally controlled following a fixed scheme. Correction phases, overheating or oxygen reblow are often required when the aimed temperature or carbon level is not reached at the first stop. It induces additional energy consumption and decreases the plant productivity. Based on the experience gained in the modelling of the oxygen converter refining, CRM has undertaken the development of a metallurgical model adapted to the EAF steelmaking and able to help the operator for selecting the most appropriate working scheme. The first site of application has been the steelshop of ARES Schifflange in Luxembourg.

4. WORKING PRACTICE AT ARES As shown in Fig. 1, the EAF process at Schifflange is split into the following steps : - the scrap charging ; - scrap preheating with only the burners ; - the melting phase for reaching a fully liquid state with a melt having a chemical composition, corresponding to that of the metallic inputs ; - the refining phase where the oxidation reactions and the slag formation take place. In fact, the oxidation relations are initiated at the end of the melting step when the oxygen injection start up. It generally occurs at a time t1 depending on the selected practice. The carbon injection for foaming the slag is realized at t2 ; - the measurement of the melt temperature and the sampling of steel and slag ; - a correction phase if the melt temperature or the steel composition are out of the specifications ; - the steel tapping in ladle.

A list of the main module data is given in table 2. Tab. 2 : List of the model inputs DATA BASED ON DATA
Scraps weights Cold iron weight Cold iron composition Waiting time Start of O2 blowing (melting) t1 Start of C injection (melting) t2

Dust weight per heat Dust composition Electrodes wear Refractory lining wear


Previous heat steel composition Previous heat slag composition Previous heat steel temperature Previous heat coal input Previous heat oxygen input Previous heat electricity input Previous heat NG input Previous heat lime input

Scraps composition O2 blowing yield Liquid heel weight Recycled slag weight

Aimed steel [C] Aimed steel [P] Aimed steel T Aimed slag (MgO)

P max melting phase P max refining phase max. NG flow rate max. C injection rate max. O2 flow rate min. slag (Fe) max. slag (Fe) min. slag basicity max. slag basicity

5. DESCRIPTION OF THE STATIC MODULE The objective of the static module (algorithm described in Fig.2) is to determine a first operating scheme and more especially the following parameters : - the amount of burnt lime and of dolomitic lime for assuming the required slag basicity ratio (proper phosphorus removal). When the slag CaO saturation is reached, the slag iron content is increased following a law depending on the aimed steel carbon content and of the slag basicity ; - the steel weight and the slag volume contained in the vessel at the end of the refining step ; - the chemical composition of the liquid steel and of the slag ; - the weight of carbon to be injected for promoting a good slag foaming, a given CO production rate is also aimed at ; - the needed O2 volume to be blown ; - the volume of natural gas burnt during the scrap preheating. That volume is often predetermined before the heat ; - the melting and refining times. 5.1. The module data Four types of data are used in the static module : - the data : they result either from various measurements (scrap weight, chemical composition,...) or from prefixed rules (scrap preheating time with burner,...) - the adjusted data : they are generated by the adjustment module described hereunder and are deduced from a statistical analysis of the results of the previous heats (oxygen yield, hot heel volume,...) - the targets : aimed carbon and phosphorus content, steel temperature level - the constraints : for technical or economical reasons, maximum values are imposed for several factors such as the slag iron content, the tolerable electric power input, the maximum carbon and oxygen flow rates.


Actual coal input Actual oxygen input Actual electricity input Actual NG input Actual thermal losses

5.2. Determination of the lime addition The lime addition must neutralize the silica products introduced with the scrap steriles and with the recycled slag or resulting from the melt silica oxidation. The determination of the lime addition results from an iterative computation : - a first basicity ratio CaO/SiO2 is selected, - the steel phosphorus content is assessed via the mass, thermal and thermodynamic balances, - if the steel phosphorus target is not reached, the basicity ratio is incremented as well as the slag iron content according to a lime saturation relationship. The option to add dolomitic lime is also included in the model if a minimum MgO content must be generated in the slag for reducing the wear of the refractory walls. The relationship for computing the lime addition is as follows :
r r r r QCaO = B a Q SiO 2 + Ql . ( SiO 2 )sl - Q sl (CaO )sl (1)

where QCaO is Bv QSiO2 Qslr (SiO2)slr

the lime addition the aimed slag basicity the silica input (scrap sterile and cold iron) the recycled slag weight the SiO2 content of the recycled slag

(CaO)slr the CaO content of the recycled slag. In this relationship, the recycled slag weight and silica input from the scrap are assessed heats after heats by the adjustment module. As an example, the Figure 3 gives the operators lime addition as a function of the values calculated by the static module. The static calculation aims the formation of a slag characterized by a basicity index from 1.8 to 2. An important number of industrial heats are characterized : either by an excess of lime compared to the ratio calculated by the model, this leads to the formation of an excessive slag volume, highly basic (basicity > 2.4) and inadequate for a good foaming ; or by a lack of lime producing an acid slag (basicity < 1.6) aggressive to the refractory lining and leading to a poor dephosphorization capability. The use of the model should improve this situation. 5.3. Determination of the slag weight The slag is made up from the following components : the charged lime, the oxidation of the elements (Fe, Si, P, Mn) of the charge ; it is anticipated : a complete silicon oxidation, a partial oxidation of metallic iron, limited to the aimed slag iron content, partial oxidation of phosphorus and manganese according to the metal/slag equilibrium, the steriles (mainly SiO2) and iron oxide present in the scrap charge, the wear of the refractory lining.

5.4. Determination of the steel weight The liquid steel comes from the melting of the scrap charge and from the hot heel remaining from the previous heat. A part of the metallic iron is converted into oxide by the oxygen blowing. The liquid steel weight present in the furnace is assessed by substracting this last quantity. The adjustment module calculates the remaining hot heel weight. 5.5. Determination of the slag and steel composition At this stage, the slag and steel weights being determined, the slag and steel composition can be calculated from the charge taking into account the equilibria involved. The slag CaO, SiO2 and MgO contents can be deduced directly from the charged materials. For the steel manganese, chromium, phosphorus and sulphur levels, it is necessary to take into account the charge inputs, the metal/slag equilibrium, depending on the temperature and the slag composition. If the calculated steel phosphorus level is higher than the target, the slag basicity is increased to cope with the specifications. The phosphorus targets are not severe (P < 0.040%) at ARES Schifflange, this test is then never activated. It can be nevertheless helpful for the furnaces charging hot metal for example. Concerning the sulphur, such a test has not been considered taking into account the low metal/slag distribution ratio ( 5) ; in an economical point of view a ladle desulphurization treatment is always preferred compared to an increase of the lime addition in the furnace. 5.6. Determination of the weight of coal to inject (2) During the refining phase, when liquid steel is present and slag is formed, the addition of coal aims to promote the production of CO and to bring heat oxidizing carbon into Co and CO2. The carbon comes from two main sources : the carbon already present in the charge (scrap, coal charged in the baskets, cold iron, ) the coal injected through the lance. We aim at a ratio of CO production defined by this equation consisting of a sum of two terms : the first is related to the combustion of the coal, on which we can react, the second one to the oxidation of the carbon present in the charge.


The slag weight is given by the following relationship :

Q sl =

Q sl + Q oxyd 1 - (Fe )v sl


where Qch is the amount of non-metallic oxides brought by the oxyd charge (Fe)vsl the aimed slag iron content. The aimed slag iron level must be compatible with the lime slag saturation law :

(Fe )* = sl

function B a , [C ] a


where [C]a is the aimed steel carbon content. Figure 4 shows that a high slag iron content is required to reach low steel carbon levels, this phenomenon is emphasized by high slag basicity.

Q Q - QC dCO ( )mean = coal + C dt tc tO2




Qcoal is the coal weight to inject the carbon input from the charge Qch C a the amount of carbon in the final steel QC the coal injection time tC the oxygen blowing time. tO2 These two last durations being function of the melting and refining times, this calculation is an iterative procedure. The quantity of coal to inject can be deduced from this equation (4). 5.7. Determination of the natural gas volume burnt The natural gas volume is preset (constant value per heat) or is proportional to the charge melting time. 5.8. Determination of the oxygen volume blown The blown oxygen aims : to oxidize the silicon, manganese, phosphorus, carbon and iron present in the charge to the target values, to insure the slag foaming by the formation of CO from the combustion of the injected coal, to perform a post-combustion of the gas (transformation of CO into CO2). The necessary oxygen volume is given by the following relationship :

time to raise the charge from the liquid state (liquidus temperature Tf ) to the aimed temperature Ta. These melting and refining times are deduced from the necessary electrical energies, a maximum power being fixed for each phase. The necessary electrical energy in the melting phase is given by the following relationship :

E melt + E + E


+ E oxyd = E T ch + E CaO + Lth melt melt melt f


where Emelt is the electrical energy for the melting phase, the enthalpy of the liquid heel and of the recycled EO slag, the energy of the burners, Eburn Eoxyd the combustion of the thermogenious elements in the melt melting phase, the melting energy of the charge, Ech Tf the melting energy of the lime in the melting phase, ECaO melt the thermal losses in the melting phase. Lth melt The necessary electrical energy in the refining phase is given by the following relationship :
th oxyd s CaO sl E ref + E ref = E Ta + E ref + E Ta + L ref


VO 2 . O2 =

X = Si, Mn, P, Cr

k X . Q

scrap i

[X ]i

s ETa is the energy to heat the liquid steel from Tf to Ta

dCO oxyd + kc + K Fe Q Fech dt mean

E Ta


the energy to heat the slag from Tf to Ta.

where Kx is the stoechiometric ratio of the considered oxydation reaction, the scrap weight of class i, Qiscrap the content of the element X in the scrap class [X]i oxyd Q Fech the amount of metallic iron of the charge which will be oxidized in the slag. An oxygen yield factor O2, calculated by the adjustment module which will take into account the air inlets in the furnace. It can be then greater than unity. In practice, the operator controls the oxygen flow rate on the basis of visual observation of the foaming slag formation. Some heats are prolonged due to incidents occurring during melting (late scrap falling down, presence of unmelted scrap,) and are then characterized by a higher oxygen volume blown. Figure 5 shows the relationship between the power on time and the oxygen volume blown. 5.9. Determination of the melting and refining times The melting time is defined as the necessary time to raise the charge at the liquid state. The refining time is the necessary

In industrial practices, the border between these two periods is not clear : unmelted scrap subsist during the refining phase as well as oxidation reactions already started in the melting phase with oxygen blowing. Only the total electrical energy is available industrially.



The adjustment module is run ad posteriori when all the data related to the charge are known. It determines : the slag weight which will be recycled at the next charge on the basis of the deslagged slag amount ; the sterile input (soil charged with the scrap) ; the hot heel weight remaining in the furnace after the pouring of the liquid steel in the ladle ; the oxygen volume coming from the air inputs of the furnace. 6.1. Determination of the recycled slag weight At the end of the charge, a part of the formed slag is deslagged, the slag remaining in the furnace is recycled at the following heat.

The deslagged slag amount is weighted at ARES - Schifflange. It can vary strongly from heat to heat depending on its viscosity and the operator practice. Figure 6 shows the frequency distribution of the slag weight. The recycled slag quantity
r Q sl , n is determined by the

5 to 15 tons) to avoid any divergence of the computation in case of bad weighing. 6.2. Determination of the steriles input The steriles, mainly constituted of silica, come from the scrap gangue. This silica input can be calculated by the following relationship (SiO2 balance for the previous heat n-1) : Q n -1 . (ster )n -1 . ( SiO 2 )ster = Q ln -1 . ( SiO 2 )n -1
r - Qln -2 . ( SiO 2 )n- 2 sc sc

difference between the calculated slag at the previous charge

Q sl , n 1

d r d Q sl , n 1 (Q sl , n = Q sl Q sl , n 1 ) .





weight (10)

The slag weight is deduced from a CaO balance for the previous charge :

- Q ci.,. n -1 (Si )ci ,. n -1

where (SiO2)n-1 and (SiO2)n-2 are slag SiO2 contents, Qci,. n-1 is the weight of cold iron carged, (Si)ci,. n-1 is the silicon content of the cold iron. The recycled slag weight

Q sl , n -1 (CaO )n -1 = QCaO , n -1 + Qlim e , n -1 + Q r , n - 2 (CaO )n - 2 sl




QCaO, n-1 is the CaO amount brought by the charged scrap, Qlim e , n-1 the lime addition,
(CaO)n-1 and (CaO)n-2 are the slag CaO contents for the heats n -1 and n-2. The CaO amount present in the charge comes from the steriles of the scrap. The steriles composition has been assessed from a material sampling at the hall of baskets preparation ; the analysis is given in table 3. Tab. 3 : Average scrap sterile content Fe % 28,2 CaO SiO2 Al2O3 MnO MgO % % % % % 15,5 35,9 8,2 1,8 2,4


Q sl , n 1 and the scrap steriles content

sternsc1 can be determined at this stage solving the equation (8) and (10).
This sterile input moves in a cyclical way, as shown in figure 7 (curve a). It is then possible, using the static module, to determine the lime addition (figure 7, curve d), taking into account the evolution of the recycled slag weight and the sterile input. The basicity index of the obtained slag (figure 7, curve c) reveals more constant when the operator follows the information of the model. Nevertheless, it is difficult to break entirely away from the pinpoints variations of the steriles. 6.3. Determination of the hot heel weight The determination of the hot heel weight is based on an iron balance by difference between the liquid steel weight present in the furnace at the elaboration end and the liquid steel poured in the ladle. On the figure 8, we have plotted the weights of the charged scrap and of the liquid steel poured with ladle ; it shows an example of the evolution of the hot heel. This information allows the operator to react on the aimed scrap weight at the next charge. The use of this calculation allows a rapid detection of weighing drifts. 6.4. Determination of the oxygen volume coming from the air ingress In the EAF, the reactive oxygen comes from three sources : - the blowing lance, - the burners working in oxidizing conditions, - the air ingress. The two first ones are measured. The reactive oxygen coming from the air ingress can be determined by the following relationship :

The steriles are characterized by a high iron oxide content and a high acidity (basicity = 0.4) which will have to be neutralized in the furnace. The CaO amount brought by the charged scrap is given by the following relationship :

QCaO, n -1 = (CaO )s . (ster )n -1 . Q n -1

where (CaO )s (st e r )sc1 nis the steriles CaO content, the steriles content of the scrap.





The recycled slag weight is then assessed from heat to heat as illustrated in figure 7 (curve b) for a given campaign. The values calculated by the adjustment module are limited (from

V n -1 = V O 2 n -1 - V O 2 n -1 = (1 - ) V O 2 n -1
a nec




where n c V Oe n-1 is the necessary oxygen volume which has reacted 2

The completed model is installed in the control computer of the ARES-Schifflange furnace since more than a year. It rapidly appears that the accuracy of the prediction of the model is a function of the quality of the measurements performed : the weighing of the scrap, of the poured steel and of the deslagged slag as well as the slag analysis. It is the reason why, since the six last months of use by the operators, a continuous effort has been given by ARES to improve the fiability of these data. The daily application of the model has brought a smoother work of the furnace by a better follow-up of its operating conditions. The number of one phase heats has also progressed as illustrated in figure 12. Despite the fact that it is difficult to make the real part of the gain from the model, the energy consumption as well as the furnace productivity have progressed since the installation of the model as shown in table 4. Tab. 4 : Evolution of the performances after model application 1997 1998 Fossil energy (kWh/t) 190 170 Electrical energy (kWh/t) 369 372 Productivity (t/h) 106.8 111.9 The use of an on-line metallurgical model in an electrical arc furnace leads to gains in productivity and electrical consumption by a reduction of the number of the intermediate stops. The development of the model is continuing taking into account dynamic phenomena such as the release of the panels, the falling of the scrap in the shaft,...


during the previous heat n-1, is the oxygen volume blown by the lance.

n The necessary oxygen volume V Oe c 1 is determined using the 2 n-

relation (5) described in paragraph 5.8. The oxygen yield can be then assessed. In industrial .. , this factor can vary from heat to heat ; an average value of 1.7 has been fixed. This means that the air ingresses are in the order of magnitude of the oxygen blowing. A gas analysis installation with an exhaust gas flow measurement would improve these calculations.



At the beginning of the heat, the static module provides to the operator a first working scheme. During the melting, the different instructions could have not been applied following different possible incidents (electromechanical faults, early stop of the burners,...) ; the pseudo-dynamic module, run during the refining phase, takes into account the actual operating parameters (natural gas volume burnt, coal weight injected,...) to get a better appraisement of the end point of the charge (mainly the electrical energy to supply). This module has been grafted on the static module as shown in figure 9. It takes also into account the thermal loss measured in the cooling water. It provides to the operator a last prediction of the electrical energy to supply. 7.1. New prediction of the electrical energy The total electrical energy can be assessed using the same equations described in the static part (paragraph 5.9) taking into account the actual values for : - the natural gas volume burnt, - the injected coal weight, - the real operation sequences (start of coal injection, idle times, ), - the thermal losses in the cooling water. This loss, as well as the electrical energy, is a function of the power-on time as illustrated in figure 10. Taking into account the thermal loss in the cooling water enhances the prediction as shown in figure 11.

Natural gas combustion


Combustion of the carbon materials charged in melting phase

Oxydation of elements (Fe,Si,Mn,C,P in the charge + injected C) in melting phase


Oxydation of elements (Fe,Si,Mn,C,P in the charge + injected C) in refining phase





Melting of the charge STATIC MODULE START

Slag formation

Slag formation



DATA KNOWN AT CHARGING ADJUSTED DATA TARGETS CONSTRAINTS lime calculation domomitic lime calculation slag weight calculation liquid steel weight calculation slag (MgO) loop

slag composition calculation liq. steel compos. calculation

slag (Fe) increase (slag saturation)

slag basicity steel [P] checking no increase

injected C weight calculation O2 volume blown calculation NG volume burnt

melting time calculation refining time calculation

weight of coal C injection time checking (min. flow rate) insufficient corresponding to the minimum amount

C injection time checking (max. flow rate) insufficient

injected carbon weight decrease

O2 blowing time checking (max. flow rate) insufficient

refining duration increase (P refining decrease)

visualization of the results




Actual lime addition (kg)



Excess of lime

slag basicity < 1.6 slag basicity > 2.4


Lack of lime

0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Calculated lime addition (kg)


45 40 35 Slag iron content (Fe) (%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.02

Slag basicity 5 4 3 2






Steel carbon content [C] (%)


Actual lance oxygen volume (Nm3) 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Power on time (min.)

100 90 80 Cumulative frequency (%) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Deslagged weight (ton)






Frequency (%)

80 70 60 50 40 30 recycled slag weight (ton) 20 10 0 11000 3 11050 11100 11150 11200 11250 11300

scrap sterile content (kg/t)

2.5 slag basicity 2



0 11000 50 11050 11100 11150 11200 11250 11300

actual lime addition (kg/t) 40



predicted lime addition


0 11000 11050 11100 11150 charge number 11200 11250 11300


120 scrap weight


ladle steel weight 80

furnace n 1


liquid heel weight 20

0 10700



10850 charge number





DATA KNOWN AT CHARGING ADJUSTED DATA TARGETS CONSTRAINTS NG volume burnt STATIC coal weight injected oxygen volume blown MODULE actual thermal losses

visualization of the results


50 Electrical energy consumption (MWh) 40


Cooling water thermal losses (MWh) 20


0 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Power on time (min)



Actual electrical energy consumption (MWh)




1/1 1 phase charges 2 phases charges


25 25 30 35 40 45 50 Predicted electrical energy (based on thermal losses) (MWh)


Evolution of the charges frequency after model application (%) 15

Application of the CRM model at ARES Schifflange


three phases and more

0 one phase two phases




Figure 12 - Evolution of the number of phases after the application of the model at ARES Schifflange.