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A Survey on the Applications of Petri Net

Theory in Power Systems *

Zhenzhi Lin, Fushuan Wen, C.Y. Chung, Member, IEEE and K.P. Wong, Fellow, IEEE

dynamic systems, and has found extensive applications in the

Abstract—Petri net (PN) is a modeling tool for describing and late 1980s. However, research work on the applications of PN
analyzing discrete-event dynamic systems, and could find in power systems was just initiated in 1992. In the first
applications in many areas such as computer systems, reported application of PN in power systems, two Indian
manufacturing systems and power systems. Since 1992, PN has scholars, L. Jenkins and H.P. Khincha, proposed a PN based
been applied to power systems and paid much attention. So far, power system modeling method in [2]. Since then, PN has
many papers associated with PN applications in power systems
been widely applied to many specific areas in power systems,
have been published with many specific areas involved, such as
fault diagnosis, power system restoration, distribution network including fault diagnosis, power system restoration,
reconfiguration, unit commitment, power network topology distribution network reconfiguration, unit commitment, power
analysis, reliability analysis, protective relay modeling and network topology analysis, reliability analysis, protective relay
hybrid power systems. In this paper, an effort is made to have a modeling and hybrid power system.
concise and systematic survey on the applications of PN in power In this paper, an effort is made to have a brief and
systems. systematic survey on the applications of PN in power systems.
Index Terms—Petri net, power systems, fault diagnosis, power II. PN THEORY
system restoration, hybrid power system
A. Petri Net
A PN is not only a combined graphical model, but also an
T he modern power system is a multi-dimensional dynamic
system. It is not always possible to build accurate
object strictly defined in mathematics. PN could be used to
analyze static performances as well as dynamic behaviors. The
mathematic models for many problems encountered in power major research aim of a PN system is the organizational
systems, or in other words, these problems cannot be well
structures and dynamic behaviors in a system. It focuses on
solved by only using available mathematical methods. As a
various changes that may happen in the system and their
result, various artificial-intelligence based techniques, such as
relationships. It only concerns about the conditions and
expert systems, fuzzy set theory, artificial neural networks,
genetic algorithms and PNs, have been widely applied to solve consequent impacts on the results, but not their physical and
some problems in power systems [1]. chemical properties.
The PN was originally developed by Carl Adam Petri, A triple (S, T; F) is called a net, if and only if it satisfies
German, in his doctoral dissertation “Communication with the following conditions:
automata” in 1962. Then through the further research effort by (1) S∩T=Φ
Peterson and Hack, PN became an asynchronous and (2) S∪T≠Φ
concurrent state transition model. PN was mainly developed (3) F ⊆ (S×T)∪(T×S)
for describing logical relationships of discrete event dynamic
(4) dom(F)∪cod(F)=S∪T
systems exhibiting various concurrent and sequential
activities. Hence, PN is an ideal tool for analyzing the with dom(F)={x| ∃ y: (x,y)∈F}, cod(F)={y| ∃ x: (x,y)∈F}
behaviors of many different systems such as computer Where, S and T are finite nonempty sets of states and
systems, manufacturing systems and power systems. transitions, respectively; F is the flow relationship between S
Initially, PN was applied to the parallel processing of and T; “×” is the Cartesian product; dom(F) and cod(F),
computer systems. With further research effort in many areas, respectively called the domain and codomain of F, could be
it has become a powerful tool for analyzing discrete event interpreted as the first and the last element of each individual
set of F [3].
A PN includes places, transitions, arcs and tokens. A
This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science
Foundation of China (No. 50477029), Research Grant Council of Hong Kong
simple PN model is shown in Figure 1. In the figure, each
(No. PolyU 5214/03E) and Hong Kong Polytechnic University. cycle “○” represents one place, P; the vertical line “│”
Zhenzhi Lin and Fushuan Wen are with the Department of Electrical represents one transition, T; each arc “→” represents a flow
Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640,
China (e-mails: lin_zhenzhi@163.com; fushuan.wen@gmail.com). relationship, F; and each dot “•” in the place represents one
C.Y. Chung and K.P. Wong are with the Department of Electrical token.
Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (e-
mails: eecychun@polyu.edu.hk; eekpwong@polyu.edu.hk).

1-4244-0493-2/06/$20.00 ©2006 IEEE.


P1 t P2 uncertainties of protective relays and circuit breakers was

analyzed, and standard templates for identifying the
malfunctioning and uncertainties were developed. However,
only a main protective relay is considered for each device in
Fig. 1. A PN Model this model, and backup protective relays are not taken into
account. The PN-based fault diagnosis method is further
The topological structure of a PN can be represented by a
developed in [10-13], with back-up protective relays included.
incidence matrix, C, which is a s×t matrix defined by
A fault tree PN based fault diagnosis model was proposed in
⎧W (t , s ), iff (t,s) ∈ F [14], with the time characteristics of alarm information taken
⎪ into account.
C ( s , t ) = ⎨ −W ( s , t ),iff (s,t) ∈ F (1)
⎪0, An embedding PN, which combines the models proposed
⎩ otherwise
in [6-9] with the coding theory, is used to solve the fault
Where, W(s, t) is the weight of the arc from s to t, and (s, t)∈ diagnosis problem of a simple transmission line in [15,16].
F means that there exists a flow relationship from s to t. This method is very fast and could be used for on-line fault
Two vectors, M0 and M, which are used to describe the diagnosis, once the offline pre-processing work is done.
initial and final marking states respectively, correspond to the However, this method could not handle all possible fault
place set S, and the vector U corresponds to the transition set types. Based on the method developed in [15,16], some
T. Then the dynamic process of a system can be represented as improvements are made in [17,18]. Particularly, in [18] a fast
M=M0+C•U (2) model revision algorithm was presented so as to adapt to
This means that, according to the logical relationship of C, M0 topological changes, and an on-line fault diagnosis scheme for
can be used to deduce M through firing transitions. large-scale power system developed.
There are different ways of matrix representation and A fault diagnosis method based on PN and probability
operational reasoning for the PN model. For example, an information was presented in [19]. Uncertain and incomplete
alternative method is described in [4]. information of protective relays and circuit breakers was
B. Advanced PNs represented by using the probability method. A probability
was first assigned to the initial marking of the PN, and then
If the basic PN model as described before is employed to
the fault diagnosis could be carried out. To improve the
model a large-scale power system, the size of the PN model is
method developed in [19], a FPN based modeling method was
exponentially increased with that of the power system. Hence,
developed in [20,21], and the fault diagnosing process is
some simplifications are necessary. In addition to the
mainly implemented by the fuzzy reasoning mechanism based
conventional simplifying measures such as layering and the
on certainty factors. As a result, more accurate diagnosis
abstract synthesis of modules, replacing the basic PN by an
results could be obtained.
advanced one is also a choice.
A PN-based method for the fault section locating was
To describe a system better, a basic PN could be extended
proposed in [22] which is adaptable to any topology
to an advanced PN, such as the predicate/transition net,
structures. Furthermore this method, which combined the
colored PN (CPN), object-oriented PN (OPN), fuzzy PN
redundant correcting technique with the PN, could overcome
(FPN), hybrid PN (HPN), PN with changeable structure (PN-
the PN limitation, and enhance the fault tolerant performance
CS), timed PN (TPN), stochastic PN (SPN), generalized
and the accuracy of the fault section locating.
stochastic PN (GSPN), timed CPN (TCPN), stochastic CPN
2) Substation Fault Diagnosis
(SCPN) and timed OPN (TOPN). The detailed definitions and
Substations in power systems are liable to expose to
modeling methods of these advanced PNs can be found in [5].
disturbances or faults, so it is important to diagnose faults
quickly and accurately. The purpose of the fault diagnosis in
substations is to find out where the fault is, such as faults in
A. Fault Diagnosis feeders, transformers and bus-bars [23].
In [24], PN was used to diagnose faults in substations. In
1) Power System Fault Diagnosis
the developed fault diagnosis model, both primary protective
Power system fault diagnosis aims at identifying faulty
relays and backup protective relays are taken into account, and
sections or components in a power system, by using
the impacts of the malfunctioning and operating uncertainties
information on operations of protective relays and circuit
of protections and circuit breakers are analyzed. Another PN
based fault diagnosis method with object-oriented technology
In [6], PN was applied to solve the fault diagnosis problem
embedded was proposed in [4], and the mathematic model
in power systems for the first time. In [6-9], a PN system,
developed was novel. Based on the object-oriented
which is a combination of a PN model for the fault clearance
technology, the PN model was divided into four classes, i.e.,
process and a reverse PN model for fault diagnosis, was
respectively for buses, feeders, transformers and transmission
proposed. The method is clear in physical concept, easy to
lines. Hence, the dimension of each class was relatively small,
realize, and rapid in diagnosing faults. Particularly, the impact
and hence the computation could be speeded. A method for
on the PN model by the malfunctioning and operating

solving the error adjoint matrix using the PN and the coding understand, fast and accurate.
theory was proposed in [25,26], which could improve the
B. Power System Restoration
diagnosis accuracy. A method combining the PN and the
combination optimization of fault-masses was proposed in 1) Transmission System Restoration
[23,27]. The PN model was established based on the The problem of restoration after service interruption is a
protection schemes and the operation modes of the substation, complex decision and control problem for the system operator.
and all pairs of fault-masses and symptom-masses could then The problem may be viewed conceptually as a multi-
be obtained. Hence the problem was transformed into the one objective, multi-stage, combinatorial, nonlinear constrained
of searching the combination of the pairs that leads to the optimization problem. The objective of restorative control is
known symptoms. Then fault components, error signals and the speedy restoration of all customer service, which involves
the malfunctioning of protective relays and circuit breakers the minimization of restoration time and the maximization of
were identified by using an optimization approach. This customer load restoration at each stage. With the continuous
method could be used to diagnose complicated faults, and the increase of generation installed capacities in large-scale power
uncertainties could be taken into account. In [28], the systems and more enhanced system interconnections, the
multizone property of protection schemes was expressed with complexity of system operation, management and
different weights in transition vectors, and different templates maintenance as well as the risk to wide area outages increase.
from [24] are developed to identify the malfunctioning and The experience gained from several power outages even
operating uncertainties of protection devices. The weights blackout suggests that with a predetermined restoration plan
have to be reset when the system operation mode is changed. and dispatch strategies the system restoration procedure could
3) Equipment Fault Diagnosis be significantly speeded. Consequently, a sophisticated
In power systems, there are several kinds of power restoration plan is indispensable to shorten the restoration time
equipment, such as transformers, generators, motors, power and reduce the economic loss caused by system outages [34].
cables and circuit breakers. So far, the applications of PN to A PN based algorithm for scheduling a generic restoration
equipment fault diagnosis are mainly focused on transformers actions (GRAs) in the restoration process was proposed in
and motors. [34,35]. The operators’ experience, the objective of every
Power transformers are one of the most important kinds of restoration stage and the estimated time required for each
equipment in power systems. The failure rate of a large-scale operating measure were considered. The process could be
transformer is about 0.085 time per year [29]. Surely, it is done in parallel and conflicts could be dealt with flexibly, and
important to the secure operation of a power system if hence lead to an accurate and clear restoration plan. However,
transformer faults could be diagnosed quickly and accurately. it was difficult to describe and analyze complicated faults in
A method for the graphical knowledge representation and this methodological framework. In [36], a method based on
reasoning of an expert system based on the PN was proposed the hierarchical time-extended PN was proposed, and the
in [30], and the PN could be applied to diagnose faults in logical inference process is efficient. A method based on the
transformers. The proposed model was easy to extend and its OPN was proposed in [37], compared with the basic PN
knowledge base was easy to maintain. A method to describe a model the dimension in the OPN is smaller. An optimal
fuzzy heuristic rule based system using the FPN in an expert strategy to eliminate conflicts was introduced, ensuring that an
system was proposed in [29,31]. With the advantages of the optimal plan could be obtained with limited resources, and the
rule-based system, this method was helpful to overcome many deadlock could be solved by using a recall strategy.
drawbacks, such as the difficulty in acquiring knowledge in an 2) Distribution System Service Restoration
expert system and the inefficiency in searching matches. A Distribution system service restoration is a multiple-
method based on the rough set theory and the FPN was objective, multiple period and combinational optimization
proposed in [32]. This method selected out a minimal set of problem. It is complicated, constrained and nonlinear, and the
diagnostic rules from past fault cases so as to simplify the obtained solutions are a series of switching combinations. Its
information tables of rough sets, and hence an optimal FPN main aim is to restore the outage loads in faulty sections
model was established. This method could greatly decrease through network reconfiguration while respecting security
the searching steps of the knowledge base, enhance the speed constraints.
and improve the efficiency of fault diagnosis. A PN algorithm together with a corresponding PN
The main objective of fault diagnosis for motors is to find reasoning model for distribution system service restoration
the early symptom and tendency parameters, which could was proposed in [38]. This method could work well for
reflect incipient faults to a certain degree, and to obtain the service restoration after complicated faults. An improved
pre-alarming information. Then through further analysis, the method based on the combination of the CPN and a rule-based
degree and causes of motors’ faults could be identified, and expert system was proposed in [39]. Compared with the
motors could be repaired and cleared from faults effectively method developed in [38], this method could reduce the
and timely. A method for diagnosing motors’ faults using the numbers of place nodes, transition nodes and direction arcs
PN was proposed in [33]. Compared with artificial significantly, and hence required less computing time and
intelligence based methods, this method was simple, easy to computer memory.
A PN based method for on-line substation service

restoration was proposed in [40], and it could promptly colored PN (CCPN) to solve the time constraint problems in
implement the service restoration. However, the transformer hydropower unit commitments was proposed in [52,53]. The
restoration module was too simple and did not comply with hydro units’ startup and shutdown states were represented
the optimal strategy when the supply reliability and multiple- straightforwardly. In [54], the CCPN model was modified, and
objectives are considered. A method based on the PN and the a compound controlled CPN method proposed which lead to a
well-known genetic algorithm was proposed in [41]. The good solution to the problem.
model is simple and the global optimal solution could be
E. Power Network Topology Analysis
Power network topology analysis is to deal with the real-
C. Distribution Network Reconfiguration time changes of switch states, and to transfer a node model
Generally, a distribution network is of a ring structure but describing the primary network connection into a bus model
operated with an open loop. Its reconfiguration refers to for computation. It is divided into two steps. The first is the
changing the network structure through switching so as to node topology analysis of power plants and substations, and
meet the load demands in a radical structure. Reconfiguration the task is to determine the number of nodes to which
could reduce the network loss and improve the power quality components are connected by closed switches. The second is
and reliability when a balance between the supplies and the the network topology analysis of the system, and the task is to
demands are maintained and voltage constraints are respected determine the number of subsystems in which nodes are
[42]. It is a complicated, nonlinear, multiple objective and connected by branches. If the nodes, subsystems and branches
combinational optimization problem, and may encounter the in the network topology analysis are regarded as the
well-known combinatory explosion problem in large-scale components, nodes and closed switches in the node topology
distribution systems. analysis respectively, these two steps are completely the same
A PN method for distribution network reconfiguration was mathematically [55].
proposed in [43]. With respect to different daily load patterns A PN-based method for the network topology analysis was
of customers, optimal switching operations were obtained by proposed in [56-58]. Compared with the conventional method
using the PN algorithm and the best-first search approach. On based on the stack technology, this method avoided the
the basis of the above method, a method based on the CPN repetition of searches, and hence improved the efficiency.
was proposed in [42,44,45]. Compared with the method However, when it was used to analyze bus-bars, initial
developed in [43], the numbers of place nodes, transition markings should be reassigned and the PN algorithm must be
nodes and arcs could be reduced significantly, and this reset so as to compute all the buses in a new switch state if the
speeded the computation. On the basis of the above study, a switch states changed. In fact, not all buses changed with the
load balance index for feeders and transformers was switch states, so it was unnecessary to rerun from the
introduced in [46], and the relationship between the changes beginning. Therefore, the PN algorithm was modified in [55].
of loads and temperatures was included in [47,48]. The Only the buses affected by a new switch state were computed
sensitivity of power consumption with respect to temperature again, so the computation efficiency was further improved.
was analyzed, and then based on the load curves the
F. Reliability
distribution system was reconfigured to reach an optimal load
balance. 1) Power System Reliability
Power system reliability consists of adequacy and security,
D. Unit Commitment and represents the ability to supply power continuously with
The purpose of power system economic operation is to acceptable power quality [59].
maximize the operating economy with power quality and A reliability model of a distribution system based on the
security constraints respected. Economic operation is one of SPN was proposed in [60]. Compared with the Markov chain
the most complex issues in power systems. It is difficult to model, it did not have some limitations, such as the state-space
solve the problem as a whole, and instead the problem could explosion and the constant-transition-rate assumption. A
be divided into several sub-problems such as unit commitment method based on the logical explicit SPN (LESPN) was
and economic dispatching of power plants. Unit commitment proposed in [61,62]. The method combined the CPN with
is a combinatorial optimization problem and is very difficult logical subnets extracted from the GSPN model, and could
to solve for large scale power systems [49]. reduce the states and hence speed the computation. In
Because the well-known dynamic planning approach could addition, with respect to various primary electric connections,
not get ride of the dilemma between dealing with time different models were proposed and their reliability compared.
constraints and reducing computing states, a method based on 2) Power Equipment Reliability
the controlled timed PN was introduced to deal with the time Power equipment reliability is a calibration of the ability
constraints in [50,51] in the unit commitment problem. It for equipment or products to perform specified functions with
could not only decrease the cold or hot start costs and meet the scheduled condition and time. It synthetically reflects an
unit minimum startup and shutdown time constraints, but also equipment’s durability, dependability, maintainability,
reduce computing states so as to greatly improve the availability, economy and so on [59].
computational efficiency. A model using the controlled A PN-based stochastic model for reliability maintenance

was proposed in [63]. Various constraints influencing behaviors [68].

reliability maintenance are taken into account, and A method to model and analyze hybrid control systems in
maintenance measures and constraints could be modeled power systems using the timed differential PN was proposed
simultaneously. A method for maintenance management based in [69-71]. A model for the frequency emergency control in a
on the workflow technique was proposed in [64]. Based on the hybrid power system and its optimal control strategies were
task-based modeling concept, the PN-based expanded presented in [69], while a model for voltage emergency
place/transition system was represented as a workflow model, control together with a control model for coordinating the
and the maintenance management was implemented frequency and voltage emergency control were presented in
automatically. [70]. The strategies had better adaptability than the
conventional optimal control strategies. A model for a one-
G. Protective Relay Modeling
machine-infinite-bus system was presented in [71]. However,
Protective relays play an extremely important role in using the timed differential PN to model a bulk power system
maintaining the security and stability of power systems. Many may lead to the well-known state-space explosion. Hence, in
events could lead to outages, of which 70 percent are related [68,72,73,74], a PTPN-based method to model a hybrid power
to the hidden failures of protective relay systems. If a fault system was proposed, and a model of transformers with
occurs in a vulnerable area of the protective relay system, the OLTC was also presented, and the switching stability was
protective relay may malfunction, and this may lead to analyzed by using multiple Lyapunov functions. Switching
cascade protective relay tripping and hence wide area outages. dynamic characteristics would change if loads and system
Therefore, it is important to study the modeling method for parameters changed, and this was analyzed in [68,72,73]. The
protective relays in power system analysis [65]. dynamic characteristics of bus-bar voltages were analyzed in
A PN-based method for protective relay modeling was first [74] for the situation with a faults occurring in lines. In [75],
proposed in [2]. The principles and modeling method of the the PN based protection model and the timed differential PN
marked PN, timed PN, TPN and SPN were proposed, and the for transformers with OLTC were used to model and analyze
performance of these methods was evaluated respectively. the hybrid power system.
Based on the above method, a PN-based method for modeling
the line protective relay was proposed in [66]. Three kinds of IV. CONCLUSION
protective relays and auto-reclosing are included, and the
The PN is a very effective modeling tool for describing and
model’s dynamic behaviors were analyzed using a reachable
analyzing discrete event dynamic systems. In this paper, the
tree. As to the hybrid dynamic characteristics of protective
fundamentals of the PN and the start-of-the-art of its
relays, a systematic method based on the programmable timed
applications in different subjects of power systems are briefly
PN (PTPN) was proposed in [65]. The coordination between
the auto-reclosing and the protective relays was considered
From this review, it is clear that much research work has
and the dynamic effects caused by the protective relays
been done on the applications of the PN in solving many
analyzed with the model. According to the operation features
power system problems. However, most of the research work
of protection elements in dispatcher training simulator (DTS),
in this area is based on very small sample systems, and is
an extended time PN (ETPN) based method for simulation
hence very preliminary. Particularly, up to now no practical
was proposed in [67]. It was simple and effective, and could
applications have been reported.
facilitate the development of the simulator.
Applications of the PN to solve problems in large scale
H. Hybrid Power System power systems, and investigations on the application
A power system is a typical hybrid dynamic system, potentials of some advanced PNs in power systems are
because continuous and discrete event dynamic behaviors and interesting topics for future research.
their mutual actions are common characteristics. Generators
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on petri nets embedding,” Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. [47] Y. L. Ke, “Application of colored Petri nets to distribution systems
26, no. 2, pp. 32-35, Feb. 2002. temperature adaptive switching operation,” 2004 IEEE Industry
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substation automation based on Petri nets and coding theory,” IEEE 2004.
Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Denver, USA, vol. 1, pp. [48] Y. L. Ke, “Rule-expert knowledge-based Petri network approach for
1038-1042, Jun. 2004. distribution system temperature adaptive feeder reconfiguration
switching operation decision reasoning,” 2005 IEEE Industrial and

Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference, New York, USA, pp. Petri nets,” 2001 International Conferences on Info-tech and Info-net
17-31, May 2005. (ICII '01), Beijing, China, vol. 4, 309-315, Oct./Nov. 2001.
[49] H. Y. Chen and X. F. Wang, “A survey of optimization-based methods [71] J. Sun, S. Y. Qin, and Y. H. Song, “Modeling of power system based on
for unit commitment,” Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. 23, timed DPN,” 2002 IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computers,
no. 4, pp. 51-56, Feb. 1999. Communications, Control and Power Engineering (TENCON '02),
[50] B. Wang, “A CTPN model dealing with time constraints in dynamic Beijing, China, vol. 3, pp. 1838-1842, Oct. 2002.
programming approach for unit commitment,” Journal of System [72] H. S. Zhao, Z. Q. Mi, W. Song, and Q. X. Yang, “Model and switching
Simulation, vol. 17, no. S1, pp. 35-38, Aug. 2001. stability analysis of hybrid power system with OLTC,” Automation of
[51] B. Wang, “Petri net model in unit commitment problem with time Electric Power Systems, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 24-28, May 2003.
constraints,” Computer Applications, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 24-27, May [73] H. S. Zhao, Z. Q. Mi, H. Ren, and Q. X. Yang, “Model and analysis of
2003. hybrid power systems with OLTC,” Journal of North China Electric
[52] J. Yu, J. Z. Zhou, R. T. Liao, C. K. Ni, and H. H. Dai, “Study on solving Power University, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 1-5, Mar. 2003.
the time restraint problem of hydroelectric generating unit combination [74] K. Yang, Z. Q. Mi, H. S. Zhao, and X. D. Wang, “Application of hybrid
using controlled colored Petri net,” Water Resource and Hydropower theory in OLTC modeling,” Relay, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 19-23, May 2004.
Engineering, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 50-53, Apr. 2004. [75] V. K. Paruchuri, A. Davari, and A. Feliachi, “Hybrid modeling of power
[53] J. Yu and J. Z. Zhou, “Using CC-PN to model time-dependent system using hybrid Petri nets,” the Thirty-Seventh Southeastern
constraints for unit commitment problem,” Hydropower Automation and Symposium on System Theory (SSST '05), Alabama, USA, pp. 221-224,
Dam Monitoring, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 47-50, Oct. 2004. Mar. 2005.
[54] J. Yu, J. Z. Zhou, H. H. Dai, J. J. Yang, and B. Hua, “Compound
controlled colored Petri net model of unit commitment,” Power System
Technology, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 62-66, Jun. 2004.
[55] X. P. Lai and H. X. Zhou, “Colored Petri-net models for topology Zhenzhi Lin received his BE degree in electrical engineering from Hefei
analysis of power networks,” Power System Technology, vol. 24, no. 12, University of Technology, China, in 2002, and is now pursuing his Ph.D. in
pp. 5-10, Dec. 2000. South China University of Technology. His main research interest is power
[56] X. P. Lai, H. X. Zhou, and L. Wang, “A colored Petri net based system restoration.
algorithm for the topology analysis of power networks,” Control Theory
and Applications, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 726-731, Oct. 2001. Fushuan Wen received his BE and ME degrees from Tianjin University,
[57] S. B. Chen and Z. Y. Jia, “Power topology analysis based on Petri net,” China, in 1985 and 1988, respectively, and PhD from Zhejiang University,
Microcomputer Development, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 14-16, Dec. 2000. China, in 1991, all in electrical engineering. He joined the faculty of Zhejiang
[58] S. B. Chen, Z. Y. Jia, and P. Gong, “Power topology analysis based on Unversity, China, in 1991, and had been full professor there from 1997 to
colored Petri net,” Journal of Anhui University (Natural Science 2003. Since 2004, he has been a University Distinguished Professor in South
Edition), vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 31-35, Sep. 2001. China University of Technology. His current research interests are in power
[59] Y. J. Guo, “Reliability of power systems and power equipment,” industry restructuring, power system fault diagnosis and restoration strategies,
Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 53-56, Sep. as well as artificial intelligence applications in power systems.
[60] V. Volovoi, G. Kavalieratos, M. Waters, and D. Mavris, “Modeling the C.Y. Chung (M'01) received the B.Eng. degree (with First Class Honors) and
reliability of distribution systems using Petri nets,” the 11th the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from The Hong Kong Polytechnic
International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, New University, Hong Kong, China. After his Ph.D. graduation, he worked in the
York, USA, pp. 567-572, Sep. 2004. Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Alberta, Edmonton,
[61] M. Dumitrescu, T. Munteanu, and D. Floricau, “Availability Modeling AB, Canada, and Powertech Labs, Inc., Surrey, BC, Canada. Currently, he is
and evaluation of the longitudinal coupler used in power systems,” the an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong
10th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON '00), Kong Polytechnic University. His research interests include power system
Nicosia, Cyprus, vol. 3, pp. 1064-1067, May 2000. stability/control, computational intelligence applications and power markets.
[62] M. Dumitrescu, “Stochastic Petri nets architectural modules for power
system availability,” the 9th International Conference on Electronics, K.P. Wong (M'87, SM'90, F'02) He obtained M.Sc and Ph.D. degrees from
Circuits and Systems, Dubrovnik, Croatia, vol. 2, pp. 745-748, Sep. the University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, in 1972
2002. and 1974 and in 2001, he obtained the higher doctorate DEng degree from the
[63] O. Fouathia, J. C. Maun, P. E. Labeau, and D. Wiot, “Stochastic same university. Prof. Wong was with The University of Western Australia
approach using Petri nets for maintenance optimization in Belgian power since 1974. He is currently Chair Professor and Head of Department of
systems,” 2004 International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Prof. Wong
Applied to Power Systems,” Iowa, USA, pp. 168-173, Sep. 2004. received three Sir John Madsen Medals (1981, 1982 and 1988) from the
[64] W. Wang, L. J. Xu, L. Wang, and Z. S. Wu, “The modeling method and Institution of Engineers Australia, the 1999 Outstanding Engineer Award from
realization of the power system overhaul and repair management based IEEE Power Chapter Western Australia and the 2000 IEEE Third Millennium
on workflow technique,” Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. 28, Award. He has published numerous research papers in power systems and in
no. 13, pp. 80-84, Jul. 2004. the applications of artificial intelligence and evolutionary computation to
[65] X. D. Wang, Z. Q. Mi,H. S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Model research of power system planning and operations. His current research interests include
protective system based on Petri net theory,” Journal of North China evolutionary optimization in power, power market analysis, power system
Electric Power University, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 20-23, Mar. 2004. planning and operation in deregulated environment, power quality. He is a
[66] F. M. Wang and J. X. Tang, “Modeling of a transmission line protection Fellow of IEEE, IEE, HKIE and IEAust.
relaying scheme using Petri nets,” IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery,” vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1055-1063, Jul. 1997.
[67] L. Wang and Q. L. Wan, “Extended time Petri net applied in action logic
simulation of protection and automation equipment in DTS,” Automation
of Electric Power Systems, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 71-74, Mar. 2005.
[68] H. S. Zhao, Z. Q. Mi, X. D. Niu, and Q. X. Yang, “Power system
modeling using hybrid system theory,” Proceedings of the CSEE, vol.
23, no. 1, pp. 20-25, Jan. 2003.
[69] S. Q. Lu, S. Y. Qin, and Y. H. Song, “Modeling and simulation of
emergent frequency control for hybrid power systems based on
differential Petri nets,” Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. 25,
no. 6, pp. 4-8, Mar. 2001.
[70] S. Q. Lu, S. Y. Qin, Y. H. Song, and S. M. Ru, “The emergency control
of hybrid power system: organization structure & modeling method with