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Theory in Power Systems *

Zhenzhi Lin, Fushuan Wen, C.Y. Chung, Member, IEEE and K.P. Wong, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—Petri net (PN) is a modeling tool for describing and late 1980s. However, research work on the applications of PN

analyzing discrete-event dynamic systems, and could find in power systems was just initiated in 1992. In the first

applications in many areas such as computer systems, reported application of PN in power systems, two Indian

manufacturing systems and power systems. Since 1992, PN has scholars, L. Jenkins and H.P. Khincha, proposed a PN based

been applied to power systems and paid much attention. So far, power system modeling method in [2]. Since then, PN has

many papers associated with PN applications in power systems

been widely applied to many specific areas in power systems,

have been published with many specific areas involved, such as

fault diagnosis, power system restoration, distribution network including fault diagnosis, power system restoration,

reconfiguration, unit commitment, power network topology distribution network reconfiguration, unit commitment, power

analysis, reliability analysis, protective relay modeling and network topology analysis, reliability analysis, protective relay

hybrid power systems. In this paper, an effort is made to have a modeling and hybrid power system.

concise and systematic survey on the applications of PN in power In this paper, an effort is made to have a brief and

systems. systematic survey on the applications of PN in power systems.

Index Terms—Petri net, power systems, fault diagnosis, power II. PN THEORY

system restoration, hybrid power system

A. Petri Net

I. INTRODUCTION

A PN is not only a combined graphical model, but also an

T he modern power system is a multi-dimensional dynamic

system. It is not always possible to build accurate

object strictly defined in mathematics. PN could be used to

analyze static performances as well as dynamic behaviors. The

mathematic models for many problems encountered in power major research aim of a PN system is the organizational

systems, or in other words, these problems cannot be well

structures and dynamic behaviors in a system. It focuses on

solved by only using available mathematical methods. As a

various changes that may happen in the system and their

result, various artificial-intelligence based techniques, such as

relationships. It only concerns about the conditions and

expert systems, fuzzy set theory, artificial neural networks,

genetic algorithms and PNs, have been widely applied to solve consequent impacts on the results, but not their physical and

some problems in power systems [1]. chemical properties.

The PN was originally developed by Carl Adam Petri, A triple (S, T; F) is called a net, if and only if it satisfies

German, in his doctoral dissertation “Communication with the following conditions:

automata” in 1962. Then through the further research effort by (1) S∩T=Φ

Peterson and Hack, PN became an asynchronous and (2) S∪T≠Φ

concurrent state transition model. PN was mainly developed (3) F ⊆ (S×T)∪(T×S)

for describing logical relationships of discrete event dynamic

(4) dom(F)∪cod(F)=S∪T

systems exhibiting various concurrent and sequential

activities. Hence, PN is an ideal tool for analyzing the with dom(F)={x| ∃ y: (x,y)∈F}, cod(F)={y| ∃ x: (x,y)∈F}

behaviors of many different systems such as computer Where, S and T are finite nonempty sets of states and

systems, manufacturing systems and power systems. transitions, respectively; F is the flow relationship between S

Initially, PN was applied to the parallel processing of and T; “×” is the Cartesian product; dom(F) and cod(F),

computer systems. With further research effort in many areas, respectively called the domain and codomain of F, could be

it has become a powerful tool for analyzing discrete event interpreted as the first and the last element of each individual

set of F [3].

*

A PN includes places, transitions, arcs and tokens. A

This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science

Foundation of China (No. 50477029), Research Grant Council of Hong Kong

simple PN model is shown in Figure 1. In the figure, each

(No. PolyU 5214/03E) and Hong Kong Polytechnic University. cycle “○” represents one place, P; the vertical line “│”

Zhenzhi Lin and Fushuan Wen are with the Department of Electrical represents one transition, T; each arc “→” represents a flow

Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640,

China (e-mails: lin_zhenzhi@163.com; fushuan.wen@gmail.com). relationship, F; and each dot “•” in the place represents one

C.Y. Chung and K.P. Wong are with the Department of Electrical token.

Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (e-

mails: eecychun@polyu.edu.hk; eekpwong@polyu.edu.hk).

2

analyzed, and standard templates for identifying the

malfunctioning and uncertainties were developed. However,

only a main protective relay is considered for each device in

Fig. 1. A PN Model this model, and backup protective relays are not taken into

account. The PN-based fault diagnosis method is further

The topological structure of a PN can be represented by a

developed in [10-13], with back-up protective relays included.

incidence matrix, C, which is a s×t matrix defined by

A fault tree PN based fault diagnosis model was proposed in

⎧W (t , s )， iff (t,s) ∈ F [14], with the time characteristics of alarm information taken

⎪ into account.

C ( s , t ) = ⎨ −W ( s , t )，iff (s,t) ∈ F (1)

⎪0， An embedding PN, which combines the models proposed

⎩ otherwise

in [6-9] with the coding theory, is used to solve the fault

Where, W(s, t) is the weight of the arc from s to t, and (s, t)∈ diagnosis problem of a simple transmission line in [15,16].

F means that there exists a flow relationship from s to t. This method is very fast and could be used for on-line fault

Two vectors, M0 and M, which are used to describe the diagnosis, once the offline pre-processing work is done.

initial and final marking states respectively, correspond to the However, this method could not handle all possible fault

place set S, and the vector U corresponds to the transition set types. Based on the method developed in [15,16], some

T. Then the dynamic process of a system can be represented as improvements are made in [17,18]. Particularly, in [18] a fast

M=M0+C•U (2) model revision algorithm was presented so as to adapt to

This means that, according to the logical relationship of C, M0 topological changes, and an on-line fault diagnosis scheme for

can be used to deduce M through firing transitions. large-scale power system developed.

There are different ways of matrix representation and A fault diagnosis method based on PN and probability

operational reasoning for the PN model. For example, an information was presented in [19]. Uncertain and incomplete

alternative method is described in [4]. information of protective relays and circuit breakers was

B. Advanced PNs represented by using the probability method. A probability

was first assigned to the initial marking of the PN, and then

If the basic PN model as described before is employed to

the fault diagnosis could be carried out. To improve the

model a large-scale power system, the size of the PN model is

method developed in [19], a FPN based modeling method was

exponentially increased with that of the power system. Hence,

developed in [20,21], and the fault diagnosing process is

some simplifications are necessary. In addition to the

mainly implemented by the fuzzy reasoning mechanism based

conventional simplifying measures such as layering and the

on certainty factors. As a result, more accurate diagnosis

abstract synthesis of modules, replacing the basic PN by an

results could be obtained.

advanced one is also a choice.

A PN-based method for the fault section locating was

To describe a system better, a basic PN could be extended

proposed in [22] which is adaptable to any topology

to an advanced PN, such as the predicate/transition net,

structures. Furthermore this method, which combined the

colored PN (CPN), object-oriented PN (OPN), fuzzy PN

redundant correcting technique with the PN, could overcome

(FPN), hybrid PN (HPN), PN with changeable structure (PN-

the PN limitation, and enhance the fault tolerant performance

CS), timed PN (TPN), stochastic PN (SPN), generalized

and the accuracy of the fault section locating.

stochastic PN (GSPN), timed CPN (TCPN), stochastic CPN

2) Substation Fault Diagnosis

(SCPN) and timed OPN (TOPN). The detailed definitions and

Substations in power systems are liable to expose to

modeling methods of these advanced PNs can be found in [5].

disturbances or faults, so it is important to diagnose faults

quickly and accurately. The purpose of the fault diagnosis in

III. APPLICATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS

substations is to find out where the fault is, such as faults in

A. Fault Diagnosis feeders, transformers and bus-bars [23].

In [24], PN was used to diagnose faults in substations. In

1) Power System Fault Diagnosis

the developed fault diagnosis model, both primary protective

Power system fault diagnosis aims at identifying faulty

relays and backup protective relays are taken into account, and

sections or components in a power system, by using

the impacts of the malfunctioning and operating uncertainties

information on operations of protective relays and circuit

of protections and circuit breakers are analyzed. Another PN

breakers.

based fault diagnosis method with object-oriented technology

In [6], PN was applied to solve the fault diagnosis problem

embedded was proposed in [4], and the mathematic model

in power systems for the first time. In [6-9], a PN system,

developed was novel. Based on the object-oriented

which is a combination of a PN model for the fault clearance

technology, the PN model was divided into four classes, i.e.,

process and a reverse PN model for fault diagnosis, was

respectively for buses, feeders, transformers and transmission

proposed. The method is clear in physical concept, easy to

lines. Hence, the dimension of each class was relatively small,

realize, and rapid in diagnosing faults. Particularly, the impact

and hence the computation could be speeded. A method for

on the PN model by the malfunctioning and operating

3

solving the error adjoint matrix using the PN and the coding understand, fast and accurate.

theory was proposed in [25,26], which could improve the

B. Power System Restoration

diagnosis accuracy. A method combining the PN and the

combination optimization of fault-masses was proposed in 1) Transmission System Restoration

[23,27]. The PN model was established based on the The problem of restoration after service interruption is a

protection schemes and the operation modes of the substation, complex decision and control problem for the system operator.

and all pairs of fault-masses and symptom-masses could then The problem may be viewed conceptually as a multi-

be obtained. Hence the problem was transformed into the one objective, multi-stage, combinatorial, nonlinear constrained

of searching the combination of the pairs that leads to the optimization problem. The objective of restorative control is

known symptoms. Then fault components, error signals and the speedy restoration of all customer service, which involves

the malfunctioning of protective relays and circuit breakers the minimization of restoration time and the maximization of

were identified by using an optimization approach. This customer load restoration at each stage. With the continuous

method could be used to diagnose complicated faults, and the increase of generation installed capacities in large-scale power

uncertainties could be taken into account. In [28], the systems and more enhanced system interconnections, the

multizone property of protection schemes was expressed with complexity of system operation, management and

different weights in transition vectors, and different templates maintenance as well as the risk to wide area outages increase.

from [24] are developed to identify the malfunctioning and The experience gained from several power outages even

operating uncertainties of protection devices. The weights blackout suggests that with a predetermined restoration plan

have to be reset when the system operation mode is changed. and dispatch strategies the system restoration procedure could

3) Equipment Fault Diagnosis be significantly speeded. Consequently, a sophisticated

In power systems, there are several kinds of power restoration plan is indispensable to shorten the restoration time

equipment, such as transformers, generators, motors, power and reduce the economic loss caused by system outages [34].

cables and circuit breakers. So far, the applications of PN to A PN based algorithm for scheduling a generic restoration

equipment fault diagnosis are mainly focused on transformers actions (GRAs) in the restoration process was proposed in

and motors. [34,35]. The operators’ experience, the objective of every

Power transformers are one of the most important kinds of restoration stage and the estimated time required for each

equipment in power systems. The failure rate of a large-scale operating measure were considered. The process could be

transformer is about 0.085 time per year [29]. Surely, it is done in parallel and conflicts could be dealt with flexibly, and

important to the secure operation of a power system if hence lead to an accurate and clear restoration plan. However,

transformer faults could be diagnosed quickly and accurately. it was difficult to describe and analyze complicated faults in

A method for the graphical knowledge representation and this methodological framework. In [36], a method based on

reasoning of an expert system based on the PN was proposed the hierarchical time-extended PN was proposed, and the

in [30], and the PN could be applied to diagnose faults in logical inference process is efficient. A method based on the

transformers. The proposed model was easy to extend and its OPN was proposed in [37], compared with the basic PN

knowledge base was easy to maintain. A method to describe a model the dimension in the OPN is smaller. An optimal

fuzzy heuristic rule based system using the FPN in an expert strategy to eliminate conflicts was introduced, ensuring that an

system was proposed in [29,31]. With the advantages of the optimal plan could be obtained with limited resources, and the

rule-based system, this method was helpful to overcome many deadlock could be solved by using a recall strategy.

drawbacks, such as the difficulty in acquiring knowledge in an 2) Distribution System Service Restoration

expert system and the inefficiency in searching matches. A Distribution system service restoration is a multiple-

method based on the rough set theory and the FPN was objective, multiple period and combinational optimization

proposed in [32]. This method selected out a minimal set of problem. It is complicated, constrained and nonlinear, and the

diagnostic rules from past fault cases so as to simplify the obtained solutions are a series of switching combinations. Its

information tables of rough sets, and hence an optimal FPN main aim is to restore the outage loads in faulty sections

model was established. This method could greatly decrease through network reconfiguration while respecting security

the searching steps of the knowledge base, enhance the speed constraints.

and improve the efficiency of fault diagnosis. A PN algorithm together with a corresponding PN

The main objective of fault diagnosis for motors is to find reasoning model for distribution system service restoration

the early symptom and tendency parameters, which could was proposed in [38]. This method could work well for

reflect incipient faults to a certain degree, and to obtain the service restoration after complicated faults. An improved

pre-alarming information. Then through further analysis, the method based on the combination of the CPN and a rule-based

degree and causes of motors’ faults could be identified, and expert system was proposed in [39]. Compared with the

motors could be repaired and cleared from faults effectively method developed in [38], this method could reduce the

and timely. A method for diagnosing motors’ faults using the numbers of place nodes, transition nodes and direction arcs

PN was proposed in [33]. Compared with artificial significantly, and hence required less computing time and

intelligence based methods, this method was simple, easy to computer memory.

A PN based method for on-line substation service

4

restoration was proposed in [40], and it could promptly colored PN (CCPN) to solve the time constraint problems in

implement the service restoration. However, the transformer hydropower unit commitments was proposed in [52,53]. The

restoration module was too simple and did not comply with hydro units’ startup and shutdown states were represented

the optimal strategy when the supply reliability and multiple- straightforwardly. In [54], the CCPN model was modified, and

objectives are considered. A method based on the PN and the a compound controlled CPN method proposed which lead to a

well-known genetic algorithm was proposed in [41]. The good solution to the problem.

model is simple and the global optimal solution could be

E. Power Network Topology Analysis

obtained.

Power network topology analysis is to deal with the real-

C. Distribution Network Reconfiguration time changes of switch states, and to transfer a node model

Generally, a distribution network is of a ring structure but describing the primary network connection into a bus model

operated with an open loop. Its reconfiguration refers to for computation. It is divided into two steps. The first is the

changing the network structure through switching so as to node topology analysis of power plants and substations, and

meet the load demands in a radical structure. Reconfiguration the task is to determine the number of nodes to which

could reduce the network loss and improve the power quality components are connected by closed switches. The second is

and reliability when a balance between the supplies and the the network topology analysis of the system, and the task is to

demands are maintained and voltage constraints are respected determine the number of subsystems in which nodes are

[42]. It is a complicated, nonlinear, multiple objective and connected by branches. If the nodes, subsystems and branches

combinational optimization problem, and may encounter the in the network topology analysis are regarded as the

well-known combinatory explosion problem in large-scale components, nodes and closed switches in the node topology

distribution systems. analysis respectively, these two steps are completely the same

A PN method for distribution network reconfiguration was mathematically [55].

proposed in [43]. With respect to different daily load patterns A PN-based method for the network topology analysis was

of customers, optimal switching operations were obtained by proposed in [56-58]. Compared with the conventional method

using the PN algorithm and the best-first search approach. On based on the stack technology, this method avoided the

the basis of the above method, a method based on the CPN repetition of searches, and hence improved the efficiency.

was proposed in [42,44,45]. Compared with the method However, when it was used to analyze bus-bars, initial

developed in [43], the numbers of place nodes, transition markings should be reassigned and the PN algorithm must be

nodes and arcs could be reduced significantly, and this reset so as to compute all the buses in a new switch state if the

speeded the computation. On the basis of the above study, a switch states changed. In fact, not all buses changed with the

load balance index for feeders and transformers was switch states, so it was unnecessary to rerun from the

introduced in [46], and the relationship between the changes beginning. Therefore, the PN algorithm was modified in [55].

of loads and temperatures was included in [47,48]. The Only the buses affected by a new switch state were computed

sensitivity of power consumption with respect to temperature again, so the computation efficiency was further improved.

was analyzed, and then based on the load curves the

F. Reliability

distribution system was reconfigured to reach an optimal load

balance. 1) Power System Reliability

Power system reliability consists of adequacy and security,

D. Unit Commitment and represents the ability to supply power continuously with

The purpose of power system economic operation is to acceptable power quality [59].

maximize the operating economy with power quality and A reliability model of a distribution system based on the

security constraints respected. Economic operation is one of SPN was proposed in [60]. Compared with the Markov chain

the most complex issues in power systems. It is difficult to model, it did not have some limitations, such as the state-space

solve the problem as a whole, and instead the problem could explosion and the constant-transition-rate assumption. A

be divided into several sub-problems such as unit commitment method based on the logical explicit SPN (LESPN) was

and economic dispatching of power plants. Unit commitment proposed in [61,62]. The method combined the CPN with

is a combinatorial optimization problem and is very difficult logical subnets extracted from the GSPN model, and could

to solve for large scale power systems [49]. reduce the states and hence speed the computation. In

Because the well-known dynamic planning approach could addition, with respect to various primary electric connections,

not get ride of the dilemma between dealing with time different models were proposed and their reliability compared.

constraints and reducing computing states, a method based on 2) Power Equipment Reliability

the controlled timed PN was introduced to deal with the time Power equipment reliability is a calibration of the ability

constraints in [50,51] in the unit commitment problem. It for equipment or products to perform specified functions with

could not only decrease the cold or hot start costs and meet the scheduled condition and time. It synthetically reflects an

unit minimum startup and shutdown time constraints, but also equipment’s durability, dependability, maintainability,

reduce computing states so as to greatly improve the availability, economy and so on [59].

computational efficiency. A model using the controlled A PN-based stochastic model for reliability maintenance

5

reliability maintenance are taken into account, and A method to model and analyze hybrid control systems in

maintenance measures and constraints could be modeled power systems using the timed differential PN was proposed

simultaneously. A method for maintenance management based in [69-71]. A model for the frequency emergency control in a

on the workflow technique was proposed in [64]. Based on the hybrid power system and its optimal control strategies were

task-based modeling concept, the PN-based expanded presented in [69], while a model for voltage emergency

place/transition system was represented as a workflow model, control together with a control model for coordinating the

and the maintenance management was implemented frequency and voltage emergency control were presented in

automatically. [70]. The strategies had better adaptability than the

conventional optimal control strategies. A model for a one-

G. Protective Relay Modeling

machine-infinite-bus system was presented in [71]. However,

Protective relays play an extremely important role in using the timed differential PN to model a bulk power system

maintaining the security and stability of power systems. Many may lead to the well-known state-space explosion. Hence, in

events could lead to outages, of which 70 percent are related [68,72,73,74], a PTPN-based method to model a hybrid power

to the hidden failures of protective relay systems. If a fault system was proposed, and a model of transformers with

occurs in a vulnerable area of the protective relay system, the OLTC was also presented, and the switching stability was

protective relay may malfunction, and this may lead to analyzed by using multiple Lyapunov functions. Switching

cascade protective relay tripping and hence wide area outages. dynamic characteristics would change if loads and system

Therefore, it is important to study the modeling method for parameters changed, and this was analyzed in [68,72,73]. The

protective relays in power system analysis [65]. dynamic characteristics of bus-bar voltages were analyzed in

A PN-based method for protective relay modeling was first [74] for the situation with a faults occurring in lines. In [75],

proposed in [2]. The principles and modeling method of the the PN based protection model and the timed differential PN

marked PN, timed PN, TPN and SPN were proposed, and the for transformers with OLTC were used to model and analyze

performance of these methods was evaluated respectively. the hybrid power system.

Based on the above method, a PN-based method for modeling

the line protective relay was proposed in [66]. Three kinds of IV. CONCLUSION

protective relays and auto-reclosing are included, and the

The PN is a very effective modeling tool for describing and

model’s dynamic behaviors were analyzed using a reachable

analyzing discrete event dynamic systems. In this paper, the

tree. As to the hybrid dynamic characteristics of protective

fundamentals of the PN and the start-of-the-art of its

relays, a systematic method based on the programmable timed

applications in different subjects of power systems are briefly

PN (PTPN) was proposed in [65]. The coordination between

introduced.

the auto-reclosing and the protective relays was considered

From this review, it is clear that much research work has

and the dynamic effects caused by the protective relays

been done on the applications of the PN in solving many

analyzed with the model. According to the operation features

power system problems. However, most of the research work

of protection elements in dispatcher training simulator (DTS),

in this area is based on very small sample systems, and is

an extended time PN (ETPN) based method for simulation

hence very preliminary. Particularly, up to now no practical

was proposed in [67]. It was simple and effective, and could

applications have been reported.

facilitate the development of the simulator.

Applications of the PN to solve problems in large scale

H. Hybrid Power System power systems, and investigations on the application

A power system is a typical hybrid dynamic system, potentials of some advanced PNs in power systems are

because continuous and discrete event dynamic behaviors and interesting topics for future research.

their mutual actions are common characteristics. Generators

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[15] C. N. Hadjicostis and G. C. Verghese, “Power system monitoring using 1997.

Petri net embeddings,” IEE Proceedings—Generation, Transmission and [37] Q. Ma, Y. H. Yang, W. Y. Liu, and D. Y. Zhang, “Method of power

Distribution, vol. 147, no. 5, pp. 299-303, Sep. 2000. system restoration based on object-oriented Petri net technique,” Power

[16] C. N. Hadjicostis and G. C. Verghese, “Power system monitoring based System Technology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 23-28, Feb. 2005.

on relay and circuit breaker information,” 2001 IEEE International [38] J. S. Wu, “A Petri-net algorithm for multiple contingencies of

Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '01), Sydney, Australia vol. distribution system operation,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,

2, pp. 197-200, May 2001. vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1164-1171, Aug. 1998.

[17] H. Ren, H. S. Zhao, Z. Q. Mi, and Y. Liu, “Power system fault diagnosis [39] C. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, and H. Y. Tsai, “A rule-based expert system with

by use of encoded Petri net models,” Power System Technology, vol. 28, colored Petri net models for distribution system service restoration,”

no. 5, pp. 64-68, Mar. 2004. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1073-1080,

[18] H. Ren, Z. Q. Mi, J. F. Diao, and H. S. Zhao, “A novel power system Nov. 2002.

FDI scheme based on Petri nets and coding theory,” 2004 International [40] C. M. Huang, H. L. Jiang, H. T. Yang, W. Y. Chang, and C. L. Huang,

Conference on Power System Technology, Singapore, pp. 108-113, Nov. “A Petri nets model for fast substation service restoration,” International

2004. Conference on Energy Management and Power Delivery (EMPD '98),

[19] J. Sun, S. Y. Qin, and Y. H. Song, “A fault diagnosis method for power Singapore, vol. 2, pp. 473-478, Mar. 1998.

systems based on Petri nets and probability information,” Automation of [41] Y. M. Sun and Y. B. Song, “Study of the transformer service restoration

Electric Power Systems, vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 10-14, Jul. 2003. based on the combination of Petri net and GA in distribution substation,”

[20] J. Sun, S. Y. Qin, and Y. H. Song, “Fuzzy Petri nets and its application Relay, vol. 32, no. 15, pp. 14-18, Aug. 2004.

in the fault diagnosis of electric power systems,” Proceedings of the [42] C. H. Lin, “Distribution network reconfiguration for load balancing with

CSEE, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 74-79, Sep. 2004. a colored Petri net algorithm,” IEE Proceedings—Generation,

[21] J. Sun, S. Y. Qin, and Y. H. Song, “Fault diagnosis of electric power Transmission and Distribution, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 317-324, May 2003.

systems based on fuzzy Petri nets,” IEEE Transactions on Power [43] C.S. Chen, Y.L. Ke, J.S. Wu, and M. S. Kang, “Application of Petri nets

Systems, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 2053-2059, Nov. 2004. to solve distribution system contingency by considering customer load

[22] Y. M. Sun and H. Lu, “A new approach of the fault section locating for patterns,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 417-

distribution systems based on Petri nets in combination with redundant 423, May 2002.

correcting technique,” Proceedings of the CSEE, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 61- [44] C. S. Chen, Y. L. Ke, and J. S. Wu, “Colored Petri nets approach for

67, Oct. 2004. solving distribution system contingency by considering customer load

[23] B. D. Zhang, Z. K. Ma, W. L. Chan, and K. M. Tsang, “The fault patterns,” IEE Proceedings—Generation, Transmission and

diagnosis for substation based on optimizing the combination of fault- Distribution, vol. 148, no. 5, pp. 463-470, Sep. 2001.

masses,” Proceedings of the CSEE, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 135-139, Mar. [45] T. E. Lee, J. S. Wu, and C. H. Lin, “A colored Petri-net model for load-

2004. transfer in MRT power systems,” 2003 IEEE Bologna Power Tech

[24] K. L. Lo, H. S. Ng, D. M. Grant, and J. Trecat, “Extended Petri net Conference, Bologna, Italy, vol. 4, Jun. 2003.

models for fault diagnosis for substation automation,” IEE [46] Y. L. Ke, C. S. Chen, M. S. Kang, J. S. Wu, and T. E. Lee, “Power

Proceedings—Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol. 146, no. distribution system switching operation scheduling for load balancing by

3, pp. 229-234, May 1999. using colored Petri nets,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 19,

[25] H. S. Zhao, Z. Q. Mi, and Q. X. Yang, “Substation fault diagnosis based no. 1, pp. 629-635, Feb. 2004.

on petri nets embedding,” Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. [47] Y. L. Ke, “Application of colored Petri nets to distribution systems

26, no. 2, pp. 32-35, Feb. 2002. temperature adaptive switching operation,” 2004 IEEE Industry

[26] H. Ren, Z. Q. Mi, H. S. Zhao, and Q. X. Yang, “Fault diagnosis for Applications Conference, Los Angeles, USA, vol. 1, pp. 2146-2154, Oct.

substation automation based on Petri nets and coding theory,” IEEE 2004.

Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Denver, USA, vol. 1, pp. [48] Y. L. Ke, “Rule-expert knowledge-based Petri network approach for

1038-1042, Jun. 2004. distribution system temperature adaptive feeder reconfiguration

switching operation decision reasoning,” 2005 IEEE Industrial and

7

Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference, New York, USA, pp. Petri nets,” 2001 International Conferences on Info-tech and Info-net

17-31, May 2005. (ICII '01), Beijing, China, vol. 4, 309-315, Oct./Nov. 2001.

[49] H. Y. Chen and X. F. Wang, “A survey of optimization-based methods [71] J. Sun, S. Y. Qin, and Y. H. Song, “Modeling of power system based on

for unit commitment,” Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. 23, timed DPN,” 2002 IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computers,

no. 4, pp. 51-56, Feb. 1999. Communications, Control and Power Engineering (TENCON '02),

[50] B. Wang, “A CTPN model dealing with time constraints in dynamic Beijing, China, vol. 3, pp. 1838-1842, Oct. 2002.

programming approach for unit commitment,” Journal of System [72] H. S. Zhao, Z. Q. Mi, W. Song, and Q. X. Yang, “Model and switching

Simulation, vol. 17, no. S1, pp. 35-38, Aug. 2001. stability analysis of hybrid power system with OLTC,” Automation of

[51] B. Wang, “Petri net model in unit commitment problem with time Electric Power Systems, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 24-28, May 2003.

constraints,” Computer Applications, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 24-27, May [73] H. S. Zhao, Z. Q. Mi, H. Ren, and Q. X. Yang, “Model and analysis of

2003. hybrid power systems with OLTC,” Journal of North China Electric

[52] J. Yu, J. Z. Zhou, R. T. Liao, C. K. Ni, and H. H. Dai, “Study on solving Power University, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 1-5, Mar. 2003.

the time restraint problem of hydroelectric generating unit combination [74] K. Yang, Z. Q. Mi, H. S. Zhao, and X. D. Wang, “Application of hybrid

using controlled colored Petri net,” Water Resource and Hydropower theory in OLTC modeling,” Relay, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 19-23, May 2004.

Engineering, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 50-53, Apr. 2004. [75] V. K. Paruchuri, A. Davari, and A. Feliachi, “Hybrid modeling of power

[53] J. Yu and J. Z. Zhou, “Using CC-PN to model time-dependent system using hybrid Petri nets,” the Thirty-Seventh Southeastern

constraints for unit commitment problem,” Hydropower Automation and Symposium on System Theory (SSST '05), Alabama, USA, pp. 221-224,

Dam Monitoring, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 47-50, Oct. 2004. Mar. 2005.

[54] J. Yu, J. Z. Zhou, H. H. Dai, J. J. Yang, and B. Hua, “Compound

controlled colored Petri net model of unit commitment,” Power System

Technology, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 62-66, Jun. 2004.

VI. BIOGRAPHIES

[55] X. P. Lai and H. X. Zhou, “Colored Petri-net models for topology Zhenzhi Lin received his BE degree in electrical engineering from Hefei

analysis of power networks,” Power System Technology, vol. 24, no. 12, University of Technology, China, in 2002, and is now pursuing his Ph.D. in

pp. 5-10, Dec. 2000. South China University of Technology. His main research interest is power

[56] X. P. Lai, H. X. Zhou, and L. Wang, “A colored Petri net based system restoration.

algorithm for the topology analysis of power networks,” Control Theory

and Applications, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 726-731, Oct. 2001. Fushuan Wen received his BE and ME degrees from Tianjin University,

[57] S. B. Chen and Z. Y. Jia, “Power topology analysis based on Petri net,” China, in 1985 and 1988, respectively, and PhD from Zhejiang University,

Microcomputer Development, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 14-16, Dec. 2000. China, in 1991, all in electrical engineering. He joined the faculty of Zhejiang

[58] S. B. Chen, Z. Y. Jia, and P. Gong, “Power topology analysis based on Unversity, China, in 1991, and had been full professor there from 1997 to

colored Petri net,” Journal of Anhui University (Natural Science 2003. Since 2004, he has been a University Distinguished Professor in South

Edition), vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 31-35, Sep. 2001. China University of Technology. His current research interests are in power

[59] Y. J. Guo, “Reliability of power systems and power equipment,” industry restructuring, power system fault diagnosis and restoration strategies,

Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 53-56, Sep. as well as artificial intelligence applications in power systems.

2001.

[60] V. Volovoi, G. Kavalieratos, M. Waters, and D. Mavris, “Modeling the C.Y. Chung (M'01) received the B.Eng. degree (with First Class Honors) and

reliability of distribution systems using Petri nets,” the 11th the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from The Hong Kong Polytechnic

International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, New University, Hong Kong, China. After his Ph.D. graduation, he worked in the

York, USA, pp. 567-572, Sep. 2004. Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Alberta, Edmonton,

[61] M. Dumitrescu, T. Munteanu, and D. Floricau, “Availability Modeling AB, Canada, and Powertech Labs, Inc., Surrey, BC, Canada. Currently, he is

and evaluation of the longitudinal coupler used in power systems,” the an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong

10th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON '00), Kong Polytechnic University. His research interests include power system

Nicosia, Cyprus, vol. 3, pp. 1064-1067, May 2000. stability/control, computational intelligence applications and power markets.

[62] M. Dumitrescu, “Stochastic Petri nets architectural modules for power

system availability,” the 9th International Conference on Electronics, K.P. Wong (M'87, SM'90, F'02) He obtained M.Sc and Ph.D. degrees from

Circuits and Systems, Dubrovnik, Croatia, vol. 2, pp. 745-748, Sep. the University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, in 1972

2002. and 1974 and in 2001, he obtained the higher doctorate DEng degree from the

[63] O. Fouathia, J. C. Maun, P. E. Labeau, and D. Wiot, “Stochastic same university. Prof. Wong was with The University of Western Australia

approach using Petri nets for maintenance optimization in Belgian power since 1974. He is currently Chair Professor and Head of Department of

systems,” 2004 International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Prof. Wong

Applied to Power Systems,” Iowa, USA, pp. 168-173, Sep. 2004. received three Sir John Madsen Medals (1981, 1982 and 1988) from the

[64] W. Wang, L. J. Xu, L. Wang, and Z. S. Wu, “The modeling method and Institution of Engineers Australia, the 1999 Outstanding Engineer Award from

realization of the power system overhaul and repair management based IEEE Power Chapter Western Australia and the 2000 IEEE Third Millennium

on workflow technique,” Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. 28, Award. He has published numerous research papers in power systems and in

no. 13, pp. 80-84, Jul. 2004. the applications of artificial intelligence and evolutionary computation to

[65] X. D. Wang, Z. Q. Mi，H. S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Model research of power system planning and operations. His current research interests include

protective system based on Petri net theory,” Journal of North China evolutionary optimization in power, power market analysis, power system

Electric Power University, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 20-23, Mar. 2004. planning and operation in deregulated environment, power quality. He is a

[66] F. M. Wang and J. X. Tang, “Modeling of a transmission line protection Fellow of IEEE, IEE, HKIE and IEAust.

relaying scheme using Petri nets,” IEEE Transactions on Power

Delivery,” vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1055-1063, Jul. 1997.

[67] L. Wang and Q. L. Wan, “Extended time Petri net applied in action logic

simulation of protection and automation equipment in DTS,” Automation

of Electric Power Systems, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 71-74, Mar. 2005.

[68] H. S. Zhao, Z. Q. Mi, X. D. Niu, and Q. X. Yang, “Power system

modeling using hybrid system theory,” Proceedings of the CSEE, vol.

23, no. 1, pp. 20-25, Jan. 2003.

[69] S. Q. Lu, S. Y. Qin, and Y. H. Song, “Modeling and simulation of

emergent frequency control for hybrid power systems based on

differential Petri nets,” Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. 25,

no. 6, pp. 4-8, Mar. 2001.

[70] S. Q. Lu, S. Y. Qin, Y. H. Song, and S. M. Ru, “The emergency control

of hybrid power system: organization structure & modeling method with

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