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247-258, 1998

© 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Printed in Great Britain

ELSEVIER PII: S0142-0615(98)00005-2 0142-0615/98/$19.00+0.00

approach to network

reconfiguration for loss

minimization in distribution

networks

M A Kashem a, G B Jlasmon a, A M o h a m e d b and

M Moghavvemi c

aUniversiti Telekom, Melaka, Malaysia

bUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

CUniversiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

I. Introduction

Network reconfiguratior.,, of distribution systems is an

operation in configuration management that determines Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of

the switching operations for a minimum loss condition. An artificial neural networks (ANNs) in solving various power

artificial neural network (ANN)-based network recon- system problems [1-9]. The first application of ANNs

figuration method is developed to solve the network appeared in 1975 for load forecasting of self-learning

reconfiguration problem to reduce the real power loss in machines [1]. It was only after 1988 that more work on

distribution networks. Training-sets for the ANN are gener- ANNs was carried out in power system applications. Dillon

ated by varying the constant P - Q load models and carrying et al. [2] applied a single-layer neural network for load

out the off-line network reconfiguration simulations. The forecasting of a power system. ANNs have also been applied

developed ANN model is .based on the multilayer perceptron to static security and dynamic security assessment [3,4].

network and training is done by the back propagation algo- Recently, ANNs have also been applied in the field of control

rithm. The trained ANN models determine the optimum switch- and observability analysis [5-9]. Kim et al. [8] utilized

ing status of the dynamic switches along the feeders of the ANNs for loss minimization on the Korean distribution

network, which thereby reduce real power loss by network system. It was shown that their developed network recon-

reconfiguration. The proposed ANN method is applied to the figuration strategy using ANN can provide the optimal

16-bus test system. Test results indicate that the developed solution for loss minimization of both constant and sudden

ANN models can provide accurate and fast prediction of load variations, and it also has the capability of a high-speed

optimum switching decisions for minimum loss configuration. control strategy decision. Kim showed that the method using

The proposed ANN method is compared with Kim's method ANN is more suitable for on-line implementation compared

[IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 8, 1356-1366 with quadratic programming, simulated annealing and heur-

(1993)] and a comparative study is presented. The proposed istic methods. ANNs are powerful in solving problems that

method can achieve minimum loss configuration with drastic are inherently non-linear. ANN-based methods are non-

reductions in the number of ANNs and less computational algorithmic and require no prior knowledge of the functions

time. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. that relate the problem variables, and do not make any

approximation as in the case of most of the mathematical

Keywords: artificial neural networks, network reconfigura- models used [10].

tion, loss minimization, distribution networks In this paper the application of ANNs in the analysis of

network reconfiguration for loss minimization is also pro-

Received 22 June 1997; revised 30 October 1997; accepted 4 posed. The loss minimization algorithm of Refs. [11,12] is

December 1997 used in the generation of ANN training-sets by off-line

247

248 Reconfiguring loss minimization in distribution networks: M. A. Kashem et al

simulations. From the simulation results, two types of training-sets are the ON/OFF states of the sectionalizing

switches are identified, namely static and dynamic switches. switches that are to be exchanged with the tie switches. The

Switches are classified on the basis of the changing of the sectionalizing switches, which are required to operate dyna-

network configuration for loss minimization at the variation mically according to the load variations, are identified as

of load patterns. Static switches are switches that remain in a dynamic or sensitive switches. The ON/OFF states of these

constant state. Therefore, ANNs are designed for dynamic sensitive switches are determined by the trained neural

switches only as the change of dynamic switching states networks. The performance of the developed ANN model

provides the loss-minimum configuration from time to time. will be tested to ensure that it can be applied to the network

Training-sets for designed ANNs are generated by carrying reconfiguration problem so that loss minimization of the

out the network reconfiguration loss minimization simula- distribution system can be achieved. The developed

tion using the fast branch-exchange method of Ref. [ 11,12]. approach concentrates on the generation of the training-

The trained ANN model is able to predict switching states of sets and the development of the ANN.

the dynamic switches that are used to reconfigure the net-

work for minimum losses. II. 1 Training-set generation

The approach developed in this paper is different from the The training-sets of the developed ANN are generated by

method developed in Ref. [8] in that the total number of considering the factors described in the following sections.

ANNs has been reduced by using a computational layer

before the input layer of the ANN. The computational layer I1.1.1 Grouping of loads

is a load estimation software that determines the approx- ANN is trained on the basis of the input-output training-sets.

imate load profile using the P - Q loads in the load buses. The The training-set is prepared as the optimal system config-

proposed ANN method is not dependent on the system size uration to various load patterns so that the loads are at

(or the number of load buses) as compared with the method minimum line losses. A combination of loads for all the

of Ref. [8]. In Ref. [8] an ANN for each load zone (or load load buses is called a load pattern. Load patterns are

bus) has been designed to determine the approximate loads generated by considering the variation of loads at all the

and the number of ANNs in this group depends on the load buses. The load is classified into several levels, in terms

number of load buses in the system. The second group of of the percentage of the peak demand as proposed in Ref. [8].

ANNs has been designed to determine the optimal system If a given distribution system is composed of p load buses

topology by using the load profile estimated by the first and each load bus changes its load independently, the total

group of ANNs. However, in this paper the method has combination numbers will be increased by m p, where m is the

implemented only one group of ANNs to obtain the most number of load levels. Thus, the size of the training-sets will

appropriate network reconfiguration strategy for loss mini- be increased by m p, which makes it impossible to train an

mization. ANN. Therefore, to reduce the size of the training-sets, the

The objective of applying ANNs to network reconfigura- load buses are clustered into several independent load

tion for loss minimization is to determine the switching groups.

status of the dynamic switches in the feeders that provide a The loads of the network are divided into three load

minimum loss configuration to the network. To achieve this, groups such as residential, commercial and industrial [8].

ANNs are trained by supervised learning processes to The load characteristics of each group are similar and their

associate the dynamic (or time-varying) loads of a power load duration curves are also unique. Therefore, the changes

system with its network switching conditions (ON/OFF), of loads in each load group show a similar trend, rather than

which is characterized by the power system parameters. As changing differently. By considering only three load groups,

the training-sets of ANNs are built for various load patterns the number of load level combinations is reduced to m 3 and

of the time-varying load demands in the network, the hence m 3 load patterns are generated for the training-sets.

developed ANN model can provide a fast prediction of

optimal or near-optimal system configuration. II. 1.2 Loss-minimum configuration

In an automated distribution system, the configuration is

altered from time to time to obtain a loss-minimum config-

II. ANN approach to network reconfiguration uration at all times so that the loads are supplied at a cost of

for loss minimization minimum power losses. The change in configuration is

As an artificial neural network (ANN) learns a tremendous performed via ON/OFF operation of sectionalizing and tie

variety of pattern-mapping relationships, it can be used for switches along the feeders. These switching states are

any type of problem that is formulated as pattern recognition. determined according to the simulation results of the net-

A network reconfiguration problem is one example that can work reconfiguration algorithm. Therefore, the function of

be formulated into a pattern recognition problem based on the network reconfiguration algorithm is to determine the

the load profile. An ANN is used to map the non-linear status (ON/OFF) of these switches for loss minimization.

relationship between the load patterns and the corresponding For off-line simulations, load combinations are formed by

switching states in the network configuration. A few using the load grouping and load levelling technique pro-

sectionalizing switches change their ON/OFF conditions posed in Ref. [8]. For each load combination or load pattern,

from time to time to obtain loss-minimum configuration. the network reconfiguration algorithm of Refs. [11,12] is

ANNs are designed to determine the most appropriate used to determine the switching status (ON/OFF) of the

switching states of these dynamic switches in the system sensitive switches that give the minimum loss configuration.

according to the load pattern. The procedure for determining the switching options has

Load variation of the network is reflected in the selected been described in Refs. [11,12]. The switching options will

load patterns for the training-sets. The training-sets are be operated for the optimal configuration at a particular load

prepared by carrying out the network reconfiguration loss pattern, which minimizes the line losses. Therefore, a train-

minimization simulation using the branch-exchange method ing-set is composed of a load pattern as the input, and the

described in Refs. [11,12]. The output patterns of the switching options as the corresponding output.

Reconfiguring loss minimization in distribution networks: M. A. Kashem et al 249

atoadbu I I at'oadbu at load bus 3 I at loadbus n

l COMPUTATIONALLAYER

1

(Load estimationfor 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90"/oand 100%of peakdemand)

'11

1/0 1/0 1/0

Level number Actual loads Estimated loads

(in % of peak demand) (in % of peak demand)

1 ~ 45 40

2 46-55 50

3 56-65 60

4 66-75 70

5 76-85 80

6 86-95 90

7 96 ~ 100

The switching options for all load patterns generated by the The input-output relationship of the network reconfigura-

different load types indicate that sectionalizing switches can tion problem is highly non-linear. It is desirable to use a

be classified into two groups: one is called static switch, computational layer (before the input layer of ANN), which

which remains unchanged, and the other is called dynamic or is connected in cascade with the ANN so that non-linearity is

sensitive switch, which is required to operate for recon- substantially reduced. The computational layer helps the

figuration of the network. Such a classification is made ANN to trace the load profile of the network and it deter-

because only the ON/OFF conditions of sensitive switches mines the estimated loads according to the range of the

can minimize losses for any combination of loads. actual loads as shown in Table 1. The estimated loads help to

reduce the number of inputs into the ANNs. Figure 1 shows

II. 1.4 Sensitive switch, versus loss reduction and the overall ANN design, which determines the most appro-

neural network priate switching states of a new configuration so that power

An ANN is developed for each sensitive switch to determine loss is minimized under the current load pattern. The design

its ON/OFF condition at a particular load pattern. The number is composed of one calculation block and one neural network

of ANNs will be equal to the number of sensitive switches block. The calculation block is the program to estimate the

of the system, which are identified by the branch-exchange approximate loads using load levels by simple arithmetical

method. Referring to Figure 1, inputs to the ANNs are the operations with the load data. The estimated P-Q loads are

load patterns and output of the ANNs are the switching states the inputs to the ANNs. ANNs recognize the current load

" 1 " or " 0 " of the sensitive switches where " 1 " is for close pattern and determine the switching states of the sensitive

(ON state) and " 0 " is for open (OFF state). Therefore, the switches.

output of all the ANNs will produce an optimal configuration

for a specified load pattern and the system is to be operated on

this configuration for loss minimization. Once the training is 11.3 ANN software development

completed, the ANN model can be used as a black-box for The developed ANN software package comprises several

solving the network reconfiguration loss minimization problem. function modules as shown in Figure 2. The function

250 Reconfiguring loss minimization in distribution networks: M. A. Kashem et al

pattern for each set of input load patterns using the branch-

exchange algorithm and hence it builds training-sets for

neural network training. The back error propagation learning

algorithm described in Appendix A is a program imple-

mented in FORTRAN that trains neural networks based on

the training-set built by the training-set builder. When ANNs

are trained satisfactorily, the final weight set is stored for

testing. Neural network emulator is a program used to test

the performance of the developed ANN at any random test

sets. All the above programs are written in FORTRAN.

The step-by-step procedures in developing the ANN

model for network reconfiguration is described as follows.

orp r o p ~ (1) Obtain a set of training data for each of the ANNs by

carrying out the network reconfiguration loss minimiza-

tion simulation using a fast branch-exchange method for

a pre-selected set of load data. This task is done by the

training-set builder.

(2) Train all of the ANNs designed for the sensitive switches

until a satisfactory convergence is obtained. The root-

mean-square (RMS) error is usually calculated to reflect

NeW'networkem~l~ the degree to which learning has taken place in the

network. Generally, an RMS value below 0.1 indicates

that a network has learned its training-set [10].

(3) Observe the cases where the iteration converges to a

local minima. Local minima occur when the network

C res

onse > finds an error that is lower than the surrounding possi-

bilities, but does not finally get to the smallest possible

Figure 2. Neural network software development error. In this case, the network gets stuck and stops

learning altogether. It can be eliminated by repeating the

training procedure with different initial values of

the weights and thresholds.

(4) Adjust the learning rate, 7, momentum, m and number of

hidden nodes, n h in order to obtain the most accurate

ANN output.

(5) Store the final weights and threshold values.

~est sets~ (6) Test the accuracy of the ANNs using the weight and

threshold values obtained from Step 5. If ANN response

is accurate, then go to the next step. Otherwise repeat

Steps 2-5.

1 (7) Apply the developed ANN model to determine the

optimal solution of network reconfiguration for any

given set of load data.

models

The performance of the trained ANNs are tested with the

arbitrary input load patterns that are chosen according to

the variation of load groups--residential, commercial and

industrial. It is assumed that the loads in each group varies

coherently with the same characteristics. The test-set builder

is developed to obtain the actual network configuration by

carrying out simulation using the branch-exchange method.

All the input test sets will be applied as inputs to the neural

of network emulator as shown in Figure 3.

The neural network emulator will generate the response

for each test case. The neural network evaluator will then

Figure 3. Neural network test procedure check the accuracy of the response of the trained ANN by

comparing it with the actual solution obtained from simula-

modules are the programs composed of the training-set tion. Therefore, the neural network evaluator is the program

builder, the learning algorithm, and the neural network to test the accuracy of the developed ANN.

emulator. The training-set builder is developed to obtain

the training patterns for a given distribution system and it is

implemented in FORTRAN. It generates the combination of

load level m k where the number of load levels is m and the III. A test case

group number of the load bus is k. It also generates the output The ANN models have been developed for the 16-bus

Reconfiguring loss minimization in distribution networks: M. A. Kashem et al 251

Configura- Sectionalizing switch Tie switch

tion

number S1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 S10 Sll S12 S13 T14 T15 T16

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1

3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1

4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0

5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

6 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1

7 1 1 (3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0

Note: 0 = open status of the switch; 1 ----close status of the switch

Static switches Dynamic switches (or sensitive switches) Tie switches

S1 $3 T14

$2 $9 T15

$4 S12 T16

$5 S13

$6

$7

$8

$10

Sll

FEEDER 1 FEEDER 2 FEEDER 3 For the 343 load combinations, the training-set builder

provides 343 system topologies corresponding to each load

B B( BI2 pattern. These 343 topologies are obtained through simula-

S1 $5 SI(

tions. From the simulations carried out, four sectionalizing

switches are found to be operated dynamically to perform

B: $4 45 ..... B3 $8 B~0"Ti"6"~16 S13 B13 loss minimization. These 4 switches are indicated by $3, $9,

TI4"'~..,. S S12 and S13 and these switches determine the 7 unique

gll'~L -B8 topologies as shown in Table 2. It is noted that the system

S~ Sll topologies in Ref. [8] and in this paper are not similar. This is

because the loss minimization method [ 11,12] applied in this

B! paper is different from the method applied in Ref. [8] and

BI4 determines the small amount of loss reduction in the system.

The 7 unique topologies are the 7 optimal configurations for

loss minimization at all the 343 load conditions. Hence, the

Figure 4. Schematic diagram of a 16-bus distri- system configuration will be reconfigured for loss minimiza-

bution system tion among these 7 unique topologies from time to time

according to the variation of load pattem. It is also seen from

distribution system as shown in Figure 4. The line parameter Table 2 that the four sectionalizing switches indicated by $3,

and peak load demand of each distribution line are tabulated $9, S12 and S13 change their ON/OFF status dynamically to

in Appendix B. The distribution system consists of 13 provide the 7 unique configurations and these are identified

sectionalizing switches indicated by S1-S13 and 3 tie as dynamic or sensitive switches. The rest of the sectionaliz-

switches indicated by T14-T16 in which each line contains ing switches in Table 2 remain unchanged or static in all the 7

an ON/OFF switch. unique configurations and also for all the load combinations,

and therefore, they are considered as static switches. It is

II1.1 Determination of system topology observed from the network reconfiguration loss minimiza-

The peak load demand i,; considered because load patterns tion simulations that the dynamic switches change their ON/

are generated from the minimum to the maximum load OFF status to obtain the optimal configuration whereas the

supplied at each load bus. The loads are divided into the static switches remain constant at their on state for all

three load groups, i.e. the residential (R), the commercial (C) the load combinations. Table 3 shows the grouping of the

and the industrial (I) load groups. The load level of each load switches in which there are 9 static switches, 4 dynamic or

bus is further divided into seven levels such as 40%, 50%, sensitive switches and 3 tie switches.

60%, 70%, 80%, 90% ~aad 100% of the peak demand to

reflect the variation of load patterns. For the three load 111.2 Developed ANN models

groups, the total combiruttion of load levels is 73 ( = 343) Based on the grouping of the switches, 4 ANNs are devel-

and therefore, 343 input-output sets (or training-sets) are oped for the 4 sensitive switches. These 4 ANNs are the

developed by the training-,;et builder. The fast branch-exchange ANN3, ANN9, ANN12, and ANN13, in which ANN3 is

method (FBEM) [11,12] is applied to each load combination to designed for sensitive switch 3, ANN9 for sensitive switch 9,

obtain the optimum switclfing option at a minimum loss. ANN12 for sensitive switch 12, and ANN 13 for sensitive

252 Reconfiguring loss minimization in distribution networks: M. A. Kashem et al

Input nodes Hidden nodes (nh) Output nodes Learning rate (7) Momentum (m)

ANN 9 26 45 1 0.38 0.65

ANN 13 26 45 1 0.38 0.55

ANN 3 26 53 1 0.38 0.60

ANN 12 26 53 1 0.38 0.65

Residential Load

100

o

¢1 80

60

O

OI 40

c 20

O

P

O 0 I I I I I

I1,

R

o o o . . . . . . . .

O o o o o o o o

o o o p.

0

Time (hours)

(a)

;100,t

Commercial Load

"O

80 T P

&

~ so

m 411

20

0 I I I I I

o. . . . o. . o . . . . . . 0 o-

¢) O ¢~ 0 (= (~ O0

0 0 ¢) p.

Time (hours)

(b)

Industrial Load

}"

;1°°, 40 . . . . . .

1 I

,0

0 I I I I I

L

o 8 o 8 o o o o

o o oo ,

Time (hours)

(c)

Figure 5. DLC of a weekday: (a) Residential load curve in percentage of peak load, (b) Commercial load curve in

percentage of peak load and (c) Industrial load curve in percentage of peak load

switch 13. Therefore, 4 neural networks have been devel- of hidden neurons r/h, learning rate ~/and momentum m are

oped for the estimation of the optimal configuration at shown in Table 4.

different load conditions. Each neural network receives the

information of 13 load buses through the load estimator. 111.3 A N N t e s t r e s u l t s

In the ANN training process, the initial weights and It is noted in the training of the neural networks that an output

threshold values are set to some random values in the of less than " 0 . 2 " is considered " 0 " , and an output equal to

range of - 0.1 to + 0.1. The design parameters of or greater than "0.8" is considered " 1 " [13]. All the ANN

the ANN such as the number of hidden neurons, learning models are trained until the RMS error is equal to 0.02. After

rate and momentum are varied in the training process so as to training, the minimum and maximum errors are found to be

determine their optimum values. The optimum values of the 0.000 and 0.125, respectively. It is seen from the training

hidden neurons, learning rate and momentum are determined results that the minimum and maximum output of ANNs for

based on the most accurate results of the ANN outputs. In the representing " 0 " are 0.000 and 0.125, and for representing

developed ANN models, the optimum values of the number " 1 " are 0.931 and 1.125, respectively.

Reconfiguring loss minimization in distribution networks: M. A. Kashem et al 253

l"llllllUlUlU 111lIIWIIIJULJl

u) 1Ill-l-I-IllII[l'I M[ IIMI-II1l • Target

eANN resp.

O1

c

J=

U)

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47

Test cases

(a)

ltllllljlllllllltltllllllill

ANN response for dynamic switch 9

i llltllLllllllltllllTlITlIT •Target

eANN resp.

O1

._=

r-

"i

U)

-0.5

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47

Testceses

(b)

Figure 6. (a) Comparing the AN N 13 outputs with the target outputs. (b) Comparing the ANN9 outputs with the

target outputs.

The ANN models have been developed to determine the (3) Using the calculated percentage peak load of the three

system's dynamic switches switching status as either ON or load types, compute the actual load demands from the

OFF at minimum loss configuration. To evaluate the per- peak load data of the test system and use these load data

formance of the ANN model, it is tested with 48 different as the input test pattern.

cases. The first 24 cases are the arbitrary input patterns for (4) Determine the optimal switching options for the calcu-

the ANN models, which have been generated according to lated load data by carrying out off-line simulation using

the daily load curves (DLC) [14] shown in Figure 5a-c. The the test-set builder. The switching options obtained from

remaining 24 test cases are selected arbitrarily from the 343 simulations are used to compare with the ANN outputs.

training-sets.

Figure 6 a - d shows the comparison between the estimated

Figure 5 a - c shows that different loads are changing

switching states obtained from the ANN outputs and the

during a 24 h period according to their typical daily load

optimal switching states obtained from simulations of net-

curves such as residential load, commercial load and indus-

work reconfiguration for loss minimization.

trial load. The DLC are the time series of the chronological

All the developed ANN models are tested with the 48 test

observations of power demand and are very specific for

cases, and the minimum and maximum absolute errors for all

different kinds of load (residential, commercial and indus-

ANN13, ANN9, ANN3 and ANN12 are found to be 0.000

trial). The procedure to generate test data from the DLC is as

and 0.125, respectively. The maximum error is 12.5%. The root-

follows.

mean-square error is also calculated for all the ANN models and

(1) Select arbitrarily a time period of the day. it is found to be 0.0271, 0.03, 0.006 and 0.008 for ANN13,

(2) Determine the corresponding percentage of peak load ANN9, ANN3 and ANN12, respectively. Since the ANN is

for residential, commercial and industrial loads from the used as a classifier and the range of the classifier (0 or 1) is well

DLC. defined, minor deviation is not treated as an alarming case.

254 Reconfiguring loss minimization in distribution networks: M. A. Kashem et al

1.5

Bil ill I !

.q

c

0.5

Bil ill • Target

• ANN resp.

lilt

e.

U) IIII

-0.5

1

IIIIIIIIII ..... I .... I IIIlll

, ~ ' , , , , , , , , '

3 5 7 9 11 1 3 1 5 1 7 1 9 2 1

: : : : : : : :

2325272931

! ~ . . . . .

3335373941434547

:

Test cases

(c)

A N N r e s p o n s e f o r d y n a m i c s w i t c h 12

1.5

IIIlU

o

In

(o

O)

0.5

IIIIII ITarget

OANN resp.

IIIIII

r.

U)

.0.5 Ifll 3

liil

. . . .

5 7

, ]'"',,, '"' I I I ]111111111111

, IJll~

. . . .

9 t l 13 15 1 7 1 9 2 1 2 3 2 5 2 7 2 9 3 1

i : : : : , , , , ,, ,,

33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47

, , , , , , , , , , ,

Test cases

Figure 6. (c) Comparing the ANN3 outputs with the target outputs. (d) Comparing the ANN 12 outputs with the

target outputs

o=~'~....

O 5 : : : :

' " ':

: : : :

........

: :

:: : : : :

111 I I

•

TIJ.ITITII

=~g 4 =:',','- .l .l.l. l .... I 111 I1 IITIIIIII

~' 3 ::::

'" W_EI •

,.,,

T .: .: .: .: : : ',i

i

TTIIIIIT .. ii IIIIIIIIT

o

•-= 2 "~""::IIII :I'--::::', '

liT TLLI IIIIl

° 1 .: : : : . .: : : : . :.: : : . :::: , . . .T

. . . . . ITTI ITITI

,,,, ....

Test cases

Figure 7. Minimum loss configuration predicted by ANN models and optimal configuration obtained from

simulations

Figure 6a shows a graphical presentation in comparing the for any arbitrary input data set. The test outputs and target

ANN13 outputs with the desired or target outputs obtained outputs for ANN9 are shown graphically in Figure 6b. It is

from simulations (i.e. 1 for the ON state and 0 for the OFF seen from Figure 6b that the model is accurate and can also

state of the switch). From the test results of ANN13, it is provide a fast prediction of the switching operation (ON/OFF)

proven that the ANN13 model can provide accurate output for sensitive switch 9. The test output of ANN3 is compared

Reconfiguring loss minimization in distribution networks: M. A. Kashem et al 255

!

j

~r • , , , i , , , * * 0 , o , 0 , , , , i , , 0 , , • ° , J i i i w

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 38 37 39 41 43 45 47

Test cases

X Loss for optimal eolution - - e - - Loss for base conflg. ~ |oss for ANN response I

I

Figure 8. Losses before and after reconfiguration obtained from the response of ANN models and from the

optimal solution

graphically in Figure 6c with the target values obtained from The test system used to test the proposed ANN method is a

simulations. The ANN response for test cases has indicated typical 16-bus system, which is small when compared with

that the model can respond to the accurate switching opera- the practical systems. Therefore, the loss reduction values

tion of switch 3. A comparison for the ANN12 outputs and shown in Figure 8 are also small. In the case of larger

the target outputs found by simulations is also shown in systems, the developed ANN method could contribute sig-

graphical form in Figure 6d. nificantly to loss reduction and financial savings.

As stated earlier, 7 optimal configurations are found for

various load conditions by carrying out the network reconfi-

guration loss minimization simulations. It is seen from the IV. Comparative study of the proposed ANN

test results that the developed ANN models provide switch- method and Kim's method [8]

ing operations of dynamic switches that give a minimum loss A comparative study of the proposed ANN method and

configuration. Figure 7 Shows the loss-minimum configura- Kim's method [8] for network reconfiguration is made as

tions predicted by the A N N models and the seven unique

follows.

configurations obtained from simulation results. The unique

configurations are shown in Figure 7 in terms of the config- (1) Kim et al. [8] have applied a neural network for each

uration number as described in Table 2, where each unique load zone (or load bus) to determine load level of the

configuration consists of the switching operations of the load zone, and therefore, 13 ANNs have been developed

sectionalizing and tie switches indicated by " 1 " or " 0 " for the estimation of load levels of the test system. The

( " 1" for the ON state and " 0 " for the OFF state). It can be number of ANNs for the load estimation is increased by

seen from the figure that the configuration obtained from the number of load zones or load buses. Hence the

ANN outputs is similar to the optimal configuration (or number of ANNs of Kim's method depends upon

unique configuration) obtained from simulations. The test the system size. However, the proposed method uses a

has proven that the developed ANN models can predict the computational layer before the input layer of the ANN

minimum loss configuration by providing the accurate (load estimation software) to estimate approximate

switching states of sectionalizing switches. loads of the load buses by using 7 load levels. The real

Losses are calculated based on the switching outputs of and reactive loads are used as inputs to the ANN models.

ANN models for each of the 48 test cases. Losses are also Unlike the ANN design of Kim' s method, this computa-

calculated for the optimal solution obtained from the simula- tional layer does not depend on the system size. There-

tions. These losses are shown in Figure 8. Figure 8 shows the fore, for a practical system, which consists of many

losses for the initial or base configuration (i.e. before buses, a large number of ANNs is required if Kim's

reconfiguration), the losses after reconfiguration from the method is applied.

ANN response, and the losses after reconfiguration obtained (2) Comparing the number of neural networks required to

from simulations. The response of the ANN models is found determine the dynamic switches' switching states of

to be identical to the optimal solution, indicating that loss optimal configuration, Kim's method has designed

minimization by the ANN method and loss minimization in seven ANNs in order to select the seven system top-

optimal solution are similar. Hence, the accuracy of the ologies independently. On the other hand, the proposed

neural networks designed is verified. method has determined the dynamic switches through

256 Reconfiguring loss minimization in distribution networks: M. A. Kashem et al

Load estimation Minimum loss solution determined

by ANN

Kim's ANN method 13 ANNs for 13 load zones (or load 7 ANNs for 7 unique system topologies

buses) for load level estimation

Proposed ANN method Computational layer before the input 4 ANNs for 4 dynamic switches

layer of ANN for load estimation

Loaddata( P, Q ) Loaddata(P,Q) ]

(13 ANNsusedfor 13 loadzonesI

or loadbusesoft.hetest system)]

1,l

Computationallayerfor

approximateloadestimation

(7 ANNsused for 7 uniquetopoloI

-gy obtainedfromsimulations) ]

J,;

ANN toraynan~cswttet~es

switchingstrategyselection

( 4 ANN models used for 4

dynamicswitchesobtained

Switchingstrategydecisi- fromsimulationresults)

on fromsystemtopology

l;

Minimumloss solution

Figure 9. Block diagram to compare the proposed ANN method with Kim's method [8]

simulations and found four switches to be dynamically Figure 9 shows a comparative block diagram of obtaining

operated for loss minimization according to the load the loss minimization solution by both methods.

variation. Hence, four ANN models are developed to

determine the switching status of the four dynamic or

sensitive switches by applying one ANN for each V. Concluding discussion

sensitive switch. Hence, the proposed method has Network reconfiguration strategies for loss minimization

reduced the number of ANNs. have been developed by using ANN. Neural networks are

(3) The ANN training process requires less time compared designed to determine the appropriate switching status of the

with Kim's method because fewer ANNs are developed dynamic switches that reduce the power loss, in accordance

in the proposed method to achieve the same objective as with the variation of the load pattern. The ANN method has

shown in Table 5. been developed based on the load profile of the system and

(4) In the proposed method, the number of ANNs depends the dynamic switches of the feeders. A simple, but effective

on the number of dynamic switches in the system. In the computational layer before the input layer of the ANN, has

case of Kim's method, the number of ANNs depends on been developed to provide this load profile as the input to

the number of load buses (or load zones) and the optimal the neural networks. The ANNs of the proposed method map

topologies. As such Kim's method require a consider- the P-Q loads of the system and the system dynamic

ably higher number of ANNs. switches. Minimum loss configuration is achieved from the

(5) Another advantage of the proposed method is that the switching outputs of the designed ANN models.

system operator can easily implement the solution of the To minimize the size of the training-set, ANNs are

proposed method by knowing only the dynamic switch- individually designed for each dynamic switch. The size of

ing status of dynamic switches from the output of the the training-set is reduced by using seven load levels and

ANNs rather than the system topology or system con- three basic types of load group. As a result, the total number

figuration. However, Kim's method predicts system of load level combinations is not dependent upon system size

topology. Then the switching states of the switches are or load buses. The proposed ANN method can give fast

identified from the knowledge of the topology predicted control strategies because it avoids the repetitive calculation

by the ANNs to obtain minimum loss solution. for the line status estimation to estimate the line loss during

Therefore, the proposed ANN method for fast network the searching process as in the conventional non-ANN

reconfiguration is more practical because knowledge of methods. The accuracy of the ANN model has been tested.

the system topology or system configuration is not From the test results, accurate solutions are obtained for both

required. the untrained and trained test cases. Therefore, ANN models

Reconfiguring loss minimization in distribution networks: M. A. Kashem et al 257

OUTPUT PATTERNS

5 '

j ~ HIDDEN LAYER

wij

INPUT PATTERNS

can be used to classify the dynamic switches' switching Loss reduction in distribution networksusing new network reconfigura-

states for the optimal configuration. The accuracy of the tion algorithm. Proceedings of the 1lth International Power System

Conference (PSC-96), Tehran, Iran, 1996.

A N N results indicates that the A N N model can be a useful 12. Kashem, M.A., Jasmon, G. B., Moghavvemi, M. and Mohamed, A.,

tool for solving on-line real-time network reconfiguration Loss reduction in distribution networksusing new network reconfigura-

problems so that the loss reduction of the distribution system tion algorithm.Journal of Electric Machines and Power Systems, 1998,

is achieved. 26(8).

13. Zhou,Q., Davidson,J. and Fouad, A. A., Applicationof artificialneural

The proposed A N N method is shown to perform better

networks in power system security and vulnerability assessment. IEEE

than K i m ' s method [8] in terms of A N N design and the Transactions on Power Systems, 1994, 9(1), pp. 525-532.

number of ANNs. The proposed method has been developed 14. Shenkman, L., Energy loss computationby using statistical techniques.

with fewer A N N s and can provide optimal solutions with IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 1989, 5(1), pp. 254-258.

less computational time when compared with K i m ' s method. 15. Rumelhart, D.E., Hinton, G. and Williams, R., Learning Internal

Representations by Error Propagation in Parallel Distributed Proces-

sing Explorations in the Microstructures of Cognition, Vol. 1: Founda-

tions. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1986, pp. 318-362.

VI. Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Tenaga Nasional Berhad for

giving a research grant to implement this project. Appendix A Input-output Relationship of ANN

(Back Propagation Algorithm)

VII. References The nodes in the input layer receive an input signal from

1. Dillon, T.S., Morsztyn, K. and Phua, K., Short term load forecasting external sources. As shown in Figure 10, the output

using adaptive pattern recognition and self organizing techniques. from neuron i of the input layer is si, which is connected to

Proceedings of the 5th Power System Computing Conference, paper the neuron j in the hidden layer through the interconnection

2.4/3, 1975, Cambridge, pp. 1-16. weight wij. Therefore, si can be defined as

2. Dillon, T.S., Artificial neural network applications to power systems

and their relationship to symbolic methods.Journal of Electrical Power si = net/ (A. 1)

and Energy Systems, 1991, 13(2), 66-72.

where, neti is the input to a neuron i in the input layer i.

3. Marks, R.J., Damborg, M. J., EI-Sharkawi, M. A., Atlas, L. E.,

Aggoune, M. and Colin, D.A., Artificial neural networks for power The sum of the input to a node j in hidden layer is

system static security assessment.In IEEE International Symposium on

Circuits and Systems, Port]and, Oregon, 1989, pp. 490-494. netj = ~ . siwij (A.2)

4. Sobajic, D.J. and Pao, Y.-H., Artificial neural-net based dynamic The output of a neuron j in the hidden layer is

security assessment for electric power systems. IEEE Transactions on

Power Systems, 1989, 4(1), pp. 220-228. sj = f ( n e t j ) (A.3)

5. Hsu, Y.-Y. and Yang, C.-C., A hybrid artificialneural network dynamic

programming approach for feeder capacitor scheduling.IEEE Transac- where, f is the activation function of unit j. Applying the

tions on Power Systems, 1!)94,9(2), pp. 1069-1075. sigmoidal function, the output of n e u r o n j will be in the form

6. EI-Keib, A. and Ma, X., Application of artificial neural networks in of

voltage stability assessment. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 1

1995, 10(4), pp. 1890-1896. sj = f ( n e t j ) = (1 + exp{ - (netj + 0j)}) (A.4)

7. Ebron, S., Lubkeman, D. L. and White, M., A neural network approach

to the detection of incipient faults on power distribution feeders. IEEE where, Oj is the bias of unit j.

Transactions on Power Delivery, 1990, 5(2), pp. 905-914.

8. Kim, H., Ko, Y. and Jung, K.-H., Artificialneural-networkbased feeder The sum of the input to a node in the output layer k is

reconfigurationfor loss reduction in distribution systems. IEEE Trans-

actions on Power Delivery, 1993, 8(3), pp. 1356-1366. xk = ~ . sjwjk (A.5)

9. Bouchard, D., Chikhani, A., John, V. I. and Salama, M. M. A.,

Application of hopfield neural networks to distribution feeder reconfi- So, the output of the output layer is

guration. Proceedings of the Second International Forum on Applica- 1

tions of Neural Networks to Power Systems (ANNPS '93), Yokohama,

Japan, IEEE New York, NY, U.S.A. 1993, pp. 311-316. sk = f ( x , ) = (1 + exp{ - (xk + Oh)}) (A.6)

10. Davalo, E., Neural Networks. Macmillan, London, 1991.

11. Kashem, M.A., Jasmon, G. B., Moghavvemi, M. and Mohamed, A., The " G e n e r a l i z e d delta r u l e " suggested by Rumelhart et al.

258 Reconfiguring loss minimization in distribution networks: M. A. Kashem et al

Line Impedance Receiving bus load (peak demand)

Sending bus Receiving bus R (p.u.) X (p.u.) (MW) (MVAR) Load type*

1 2 0.15812 0.30395 2.10 0.92 R

2 3 0.09487 0.18237 1.75 0.87 R

3 4 0.27323 0.52522 1.25 0.65 R

2 5 0.31624 0.60790 1.10 0.52 C

6 7 0.13282 0.25532 1.28 0.76 C

7 8 0.12650 0.24316 1.65 0.78 C

8 9 0.12396 0.23830 1.30 0.78 C

7 10 0.09993 0.19210 0.94 0.56 I

8 11 0.26564 0.51064 1.45 0.59 R

12 13 0.18974 0.36474 1.42 0.68 C

13 14 0.12396 0.23830 1.98 0.79 I

14 15 0.11258 0.21641 1.45 0.67 I

13 16 0.18974 0.36474 1.08 0.45 I

4 15 0.14926 0.28693 -- -- --

5 11 0.19986 0.38419 -- -- --

10 16 0.15812 0.30395 -- -- --

* R: residential; C: commercial;I: industrial

System data on a systembase of 100 MVA and substation voltage 12.65 kV

[15] is used to train a layered perceptron-type A N N and Similarly the error signal at the hidden layer j is given by

adjust the weights on the internal units based on the error at

the output. For P patterns consisting of pairs of input and 6j = sj(l - sj) Z Wjk6k (A. 10)

output patterns, the error function ET is represented as the The adaptation of weights to conform to the desired output

squared sum of the differences between the actual and target follows the generalized delta rule. The connection weights

outputs for all patterns between input unit i and hidden unitj are updated as follows:

1 e Awij(n) = ~ j s i "Jr"m A w i j ( n - - 1) (A.11)

ET = ~ P=Z1 Y . (tpk- Spk)2 (A.7)

k wij(n + 1) = wij(n ) + Awij(n ) (A.12)

The error at any output in layer k is and the connection weights between hidden unitj and output

unit k are updated using the equations

ek = t~ - sk (A.8)

Awjk(n ) = l~6kSj -}- mAwjk(n -- 1) (A.13)

where tk is the desired or target output.

For minimizing the total error ET, using the technique of

wj~(n + 1) = Wjk(n) + Awjk(n) (A.14)

gradient descent, the error signal 6k is defined as where n denotes the number of steps in the learning process,

is the learning rate and m is the momentum term. The

6k = eff'(Xk) = ek ~ = (tk -- sk)sk(1 -- sk) (A.9) learning rate, 7/, is a constant of proportionality of weights

and the momentum m is a constant used to determine the

effect of past weight changes on the current direction of

where movement in weight space.

df(xk) = st(1 -- st)

f'(xk) = dxk

Appendix B Peak Demand Load Data of the 16-

The error ek is multiplied by a termf(Xk) to ensure that the bus Test System

weights remain in a bounded range. The data are presented in Table 6.

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