Abstract- Distribution systems are critical links between investigate methods for network reconfiguration. The
the utility and customer, in which sectionalizing objective of network reconfiguration is to reduce power
switches a r e utilized for both protection and losses and improve reliability of power supply by changing
configuration management. Usually, distribution the status of existing sectionalizing switches and ties. This
systems a r e designed.to be most efficient a t peak load paper surveys the methods that have been proposed to
demand. Obviously, the network can be made more solve the network reconfiguration problem and presents an
efficient by reconfiguring it according to the variation integration of two algorithms: a network-topology-based
in load demand. This paper surveys the methods that three-phase distribution power flow algorithm and an
have been proposed to solve the network algorithm for determining power loss of a radial
reconfiguration problem and presents a n integration of configuration for a power distribution network. Simulation
two algorithms: a network-topology-based three-phase results for the 22 kV Bramsthan section of the CEB
distribution power flow algorithm and an algorithm for network of Mauritius are presented.
determining power loss of a radial configuration for a
power distribution network Simulation results of the 2 Survey on Network Reconfiguration
proposed method on a 22 kV Bramsthan section of the
CEB network of Mauritius are presented.
Methods
Under normal operating conditions, distribution feeders
1 Introduction may b e frequently reconfigured by opening and closing
switches to reduce line losses, improve feeder voltage
Every electrical utility in the world has a vast network of profile and increase network reliability while meeting all
distribution systems to supply power to its consumers. The load requirements and maintaining a radial network. These
average line losses in the transmission and distribution requirements result in a very complicated non-linear
system in Mauritius are found to be in the region of 12%, integer optimization problem. The exact optimal solution
which is high compared to corresponding values (7 to 9%) of such a problem may be obtained only by enumeratively
io advanced countries like the USA, France, Sweden and examining all possible switch options, requiring
Japan, etc. These losses have to be brought down to a prohibitively long computational time because the number
reasonable level in order to improve the efficiency of of switch options is usually very large in a practical
distribution system. Furthermore, in the present days of distribution network. This problem is not easily solvable by
energy crises and with increasing concern for standard optimization methods and yet its accurate solution
environmental pollution, energy conservation should be a can result in vast savings for electricity utilities.
priority.
Different algorithms have been previously used to solve
Power losses in the distribution system at the time of the recoofiguration problem and each method has involved
peak load condition increase the requirement of generating one or more difficulties such as:
capacity, while the energy over that required by the system (1) The high computational time for medium and large
load increases. In other words, payload of the system scale systems may be prohibitive,
decreases. No doubt, the line losses cannot altogether be (2) Reliance on heuristics, hence sub optimal solutions,
avoided, due to inherent resistance of distribution lines; (3) Difficulty in obtaining feasible solutions.
however these can be reduced to a reasonable low value by
taking suitable measures. Sarfi et al [l] survey a variety of approaches to the
network reconfiguration problem. This survey begins by
Distribution systems are critical links between the utility stating, “The generalized reconfiguration problem presents
and customer, in which sectionalizing switches are used for a considerable computational burden for a distribution
both protection and configuration management. Usually, system of even moderate proportions.” This assumed
distribution systems are designed to be most efficient at computational burden follows 6om the observation that
peak load demand. Obviously, the network can be made “the nonlinear nature of the distribution system necessitates
more efficient by reconfiguring it according to the variation that at each iteration of an optimization algorithm a load
in load demand. Recent studies indicate that up to 12% of flow operation be performed to determine a new system
the total power generated is wasted in the form of line loss operating point.” If this is correct, it follows that a direct or
at distribution level. Hence, it is of great benefit to exhaustive solution is infeasible, so that a practical solution
67
Theorem 1 191: Let G be the graph of a distribution
2.5. Genetic Algorithm
3 Network-Topology-based Three-phase Load The following results are used, the proof of which can be
found in [9]:
Flow
1) Let T c G be a tree. Then T,,]k
)is a tree if and
A network-topology-based three-phase distribution power
flow algorithm featuring robustness and computer economy
onlyif C,E T and cjEK,b" 1.
has been developed by Teng [13]. This method fully 2) Trees TI and TZ in G are related by an elementary
exploits the special topology of a distribution network to tree transformation in G if and only if d (TI, T z k l .
obtain a direct solution. Two matrices: the bus-injection to
branch-current matrix (or current sensitivity matrix), BIBC 3 ) LetTi , Tz he any trees in G . If d bt, Tz)=k , then
and the branch-current to bus-voltage matrix BCBV are Tz can be obtained from through a sequence of exactly k
sufficient to obtain the power flow solution. The
traditional Newton-Raphson and Gauss implicit Z matrix elementary tree transformations.
algorithms, which need LU decomposition and
fonvardlbackward substitution of the Jacobian matrix or For a new configuration, the sensitivity matrix is
the Y admittance matrix are not required. modified row by row; whenever a row of the matrix
changes, the corresponding cable current is recalculated
and the losses perturbed by the difference between the
4 Power Losses of Radial Power Distribution squares of the old and new currents, multiplied by the
Network appropriate cable resistance:
Morton and Mareels [9] have suggested a method for
determining power loss of a radial configuration for a
power distribution network. This method is highly efficient,
deriving its efficiency from the use of graph-theoretic
In the case of the row corresponding to the arc being
techniques involving semi-sparse transformations of a
substituted, the magnitude of the current is unchanged, and
current sensitivity matrix, S , The algorithm can he the loss need only be altered to take account of the physical
applied to any networks and has advantages over other cable substitution:
existing algorithms for network reconfiguration in that it is
easily extended to take account of phase imbalance and doSF
P,oss+(rr-rq)lid2 (2)
network operation constraints. The algorithm developed
can be used with any search algorithm for the solution of Based on Theorem 1 [9] and the network-topology-
the network reconfiguration problem. Theorem 1 [9] based three-phase distribution power flow algorithm [13],
describes the effect of an elementary tree transformation on the flowchart representing the implementation of the above
the sensitivity matrix for a tree network. procedure to calculate the network losses using constant-
power loads is given in Fig. 1. In the case of constant-
68
current loads, the calculation of the power loss does not NO
involve the network-topology-based three-phase load flow. I I I I
.
the tie switch numbers of t e e
NI8
(C34) I
(A
Fig. 2: Node numbering scheme of Bramsthan distribution
network
A Compute
5 Application of Network Reconfiguration to
Distribution Systems of Mauritius
The 22 kV Bramsthan section of the CEB network of
Mauritius is selected for reconfiguration purposes. The test
system shown in Fig. 2 comprises a cable network 'G
having N = 33 nodes (or buses), C = 36 cable segments
.t.
U Calculate network l o s s ~ z j l j
69
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Appendix
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