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Honors Biology Review Sheet

Viruses
Structure Nonliving particles containing DNA or RNA and are surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid Some also have an envelope derived from a host cells nuclear membrane or cell membrane Reproduction Replication of DNA Viruses DNA viruses can enter host cells and directly produce RNA, or they can insert into a hosts chromosome, where they are transcribed to RNA along with the hosts DNA. Replication of RNA Viruses The RNA genome of some RNA viruses can be directly translated to make viral proteins. Retroviruses use reverse transcriptase and RNA as a template to make DNA, which is then used to produce viral RNA and proteins. Replication in Viruses That Infect Prokaryotes Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria Lytic Cycle: method of viral replication that results in the destruction of a host cell and the release of many new virus particles Lysogenic Cycle: method of viral replication in which a viral genome is replicated as a provirus without destroying the host cell Vocabulary: Viroid an infectious agent that is made up of a short, circular, single strand of RNA that does not have a capsid; the smallest Prion an infectious particle that consists only of a protein and that does not contain DNA or RNA Reverse Transcriptase an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of DNA from an RNA template

Bacteria
Structure Cell wall: contains peptidoglycan Cell membrane and cytoplasm: lipid bilayers that have proteins; cytoplasm contains ribosomes, DNA, small organic and inorganic molecules and ions DNA: single closed loop of double-stranded DNA attached to one point to cell membrance, single main chromosome, have plasmids (small circular self replicating loops of double stranded DNA) Capsules and pili: outer covering of polysaccharides (capsule) that protects cell against drying, pathogens, or harsh chemicals; pili short, hairlike protein structures on surface of some bacteria that help it connect to each other and to surface, such as those of host cell Endospores: some gram positive form endospore when environmental conditions become harsh Shape Bacilli: rod shaped Spirilla: spiral shaped Cocci: sphere shaped Streptococci: string of cocci Staphylococci: clusters of cocci Reproduction and recombination Transformation: taking in DNA from the outside environment Conjugation: exchanging DNA with other bacteria via pili Transduction : transmission of bacterial DNA via viruses Nutrition Heterotrophs: obtain carbon from other organisms Autotrophs: obtain their carbon from CO2 Chemotrophs: get energy from chemicals in the environment Movement Most have long flagella that allow the prokaryotes to move towards food sources or away from danger Vocabulary: Endospore thickwalled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions Obligate anaerobe an organism that needs the absence of oxygen in order to live

Honors Biology Review Sheet


Obligate aerobe Prokaryotes that need oxygen to live

Protists
Structure: Pseudopodia large, rounded cytoplasmic extensions that function both in movement and feeding Cilia short, hairlike structure that extends from surface of cell, help protist move through water, and sweep water and food particles into mouthlike opening Flagella long, hairlike structure that extends from surface of cell Eyespot an organ that is covered by pigment in some invertebrates and protozoa and that detects changes in the quantity and quality of light Contractile vacuole an organelle that accumulates water and then releases it periodically to maintain osmotic pressure Distinguishing characteristics (and phyla) of: Animal Like Protists: Ciliophora: move via cilia, two types of nuclei, reproduce asexually by binary fission and sexually by conjugation Sarcomastigophora: move via flagella Apicomplexa: parasites Plant Like Protists Cholorphyta (green algae): have chlorophylls and accessory pigments, store food as starch, have cell walls made of cellulose Phaeophyta (brown algae): include seaweeds and kelp Rhodophyta (red algae): live in fresh water or on land, most are marine seaweeds Bacillariophyta (diatoms): contains diatoms have cell wall made of two halves and impregnated with silica Dinoflagellata (dinoflagellates): some are bioluminescence Chrysophyta (golden algae): most live in fresh water, some found in marine environments Euglenophyta (euglenoids): plantlike and animal like, most are autotrophic like plants, but lack cell wall and are motile like animals Fungus Like Protists Myxomycota (plasmodial slime mold): multinucleate, creeps along forest floor by cytoplasmic streaming and consumes decaying leaves and other debris by phagocytosis Dictyostelida (cellular slime mold): live as individual haploid cells that move like amoebas, move as independent organisms, creeping over ground or swimming in fresh water and ingesting food Oomycota (water mold): water mold composed of breanching filaments; many are parasitic Chytridiomycota (water mold): chytrids are primarily aquatic protists characterized by gametes and zoospores with single, posterior flagellum Vocabulary: Protozoan primarily unicellular, existing singly or aggregating into colonies, are usually nonphotosynthetic, and are often classified into phyla by means of motility Plasmodium an ameboid, multinucleate mass/sheet of cytoplasm characteristic of some stages of organisms, as of myxomycetes or slime molds

Fungi
Structure: Hyphae filaments of fungi Mycelium the mass of fungal filaments, or hyphae, that forms the body of a fungus Rhizoids a rootlike structure in nonvascular plants, such as mosses or liverworts, that holds the plants in place and aids in absorption Asci sac in ascocarp where haploid nuclei fuse Septa cross sections that divide the cells that make up hyphae Reproduction: Sporangium a specialized sac, case, capsule, or other structure that produces spores Gills under mushroom cap, spores produced here

Honors Biology Review Sheet


Spore a reproductive cell or multicellular structure that is resistant to environmental conditions and that can develop into an adult without fusion with another cell Vocabulary: Saprophytic live on organic compounds that they absorb from dead organisms in the environment Penicillin antibiotic made from the fungus penicillium Antibiotic a substance that inhibits the growth of or kills microorganisms Lichen a mass of cells formed by a fungus in symbiosis with a photosynthetic partner (usually a cyanobacterium or green algae); lichen typically grow on nutrientpoor surfaces, such as rocks and tree bark Mycorrhiza a symbiotic association between fungi and plant roots

Honors Biology Review Sheet


Land Plant Evolution (Chapter 30)
Characteristics of: Mosses phylum bryophyte No true roots, stems or leaves Attached to soil by rhizoids Ferns phylum pterophyta Seedless, vascular Have an underground stem called rhizome Gymnosperms phylum coniferophyta Ex: pine, cedar, juniper Used for wood, paper, etc. Angiosperms phylum anthophyta largest phylum of plants: 2400,000 species seed plants characterized by presence of a flower and fruit Evolution production of fruit: pretects seeds quick germination efficient vascular system Vascular vs. non vascular vascular: vascular tissues, true roots, stems and leaves nonvascular: no true vascular tissue, no roots, stems or leaves seeds vs. seedless gymnosperm: naked seeds, no flowers angiosperm: have flowers and seeds enclosed by fruit gametophyte dominant vs. sporophyte dominant gametophyte: haploid; produces sperm and eggs sporophyte: dipoid; produces spores Vocabulary: Sporophyte - in plants and algae that have alternation of generations, the diploid individual or generation that produces haploid spores Gametophyte in alternation of generations, the phase in which gametes are formed; a haploid individual that produces gametes Tracheophyte vascular plant Fiddlehead young, coiled frond of various species of ferns, eaten as vegetable Frond the leaf of a fern or palm Sori clusters of sporangia on the back of the fronds of ferns Rhizome horizontal, underground stem that provides a mechanism for asexual reproduction for ferns Monocot a plant that produces seeds that have only one cotyledon Dicot an angiosperm that has two cotyledons, net venation, and flower parts in groups of fours or fives

Plant Structure (Chapter 31)


Conducting tissue: vascular tissue Xylem type of tissue in vascular plants that provides support and conducts water and nutrients from the roots Phloem tissue that carries organic and inorganic nutrients in any direction, depending on the plants needs Vascular bundles strand of primary tissues found within stem; consists of xylem and phloem, and cambium Roots (functions) absorb water anchor plant store carbohydrates and variety of minterals or mintera nutrients dissolved in water in soil Stems apical meristem: grow at tips, produce new primary tissues lateral meristem: grow in circumference node: where leaf is attached to stem internode: space between node

Honors Biology Review Sheet


Woody stem composition: phloem is produced near outside of stem, part of bark Cohesion-tension theory: theory that water is pulled up the xylem by the strong attraction of water molecules to each other; water loss: traspiration Leaves: spongy mesophyll beneath palasaide mesophyll and consists of irregularly shaped cells surrounded by large air spaces palasaides mesophyll beneath upper epidermis, site of most photosynthesis guard cells modified cells on the leaf epidermis that regulate gas and water exchange stomata (plural of stoma) one of many openings in a leaf or a stem of a plant that enable gas exchange to occur epidermis the outer surface layer of cells of a plant or animal cuticle a waxy or fatty and watertight layer on the external wall of epidermal cells Vocabulary: turgor pressure - the pressure that is exerted on the inside of cell walls and that is caused by the movement of water into the cell

Plant Reproduction (Chapter 32)


Flowering Plants: Stamen(m) male reproductive structure of a flower that produces pollen and consists of an anther at the top of a filament Pistil(f) female reproductive structure of a flower that produces seeds and consists of an ovary, style, and stigma, made of one or more fused carpels Ovule(f) a structure in the ovary of a seed plant that contains an embryo sac and that develops into a seed after fertilization; in gymnosperms the ovule is found in the carpel and is structurally simple and naked Fruit a mature plant ovary; the plant organ in which the seeds are enclosed Seed a plant embryo that is enclosed in a protective coat Embryo an organism in an early stage of development of plants and animals Radicle in plants, the embryonic, or primary, root Cotyledon: the embryonic leaf of a seed Epicotyls the portion of the stem of a plant embryo that is between the cotyledons and the first true leaves Hypocotyls the portion of the stem of a plant embryo that is between the cotyledons and the embryonic root Vocabulary: Tropism: the movement of all or part of an organism in response to an external stimulus, such as light or heat; movement is either toward or away from the stimulus Auxin: hormones involved in plant-cell elongation, shoot and bud growth, and rooting Cellulose: a carbohydrate that is a polymer composed of glucose units and that is the main component of the cell walls of most plants Vernalization: low-temperature stimulation of flowering abscission layer: the layer of specialized, cutinized parenchyma cells that develops in the abscission zone, the disintegration of which causes abscission

Honors Biology Review Sheet


Invertebrate Animals
Porifera Examples - sponges Reproduction Methods Budding Gemmules Regeneration Sexual Spicules: spike-like, make of particles of calcium carbonate of silicon dioxide; make up skeleton of sponge Collar cells: create current of water in sponge Amoebocytes: within the body wall of a sponge, a specialized cell that crawls about and delivers nutrients from the choanocytes to the rest of the body cells Cnidaria Examples jelly fish, sea anemones, coral Polyp: immobile Medusa: mobile Cnidocyts: cells found on tentacles used for defense and capturing prey Nematocysts: organelle in cnidocyte which can eject a filament with poison Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Examples tape worm Digestive Tract Pharynx: takes up food Enzymes excreted to break down material Nutrients diffuse to other parts of body Eye Spot: detects light Cuticle: nonliving layer of cells produced by epidermis and prevent digestion of worm by host Body: Bilateral symmetry Gastrovascular cavity Cephalization: concentration of sensory organs towards anterior end Nematoda (round worms) Examples hookworms , pinworms Characteristics Psuedocoelmates Digestive Tract Two openings: mouth and anus Food travels one way Annelids (segmented worms) Examples earth worm, leeches Setae: external bristles Circulatory System O2, CO2, nutrients and wastes transported through blood vessels Aortic arches connect the dorsal and ventral blood vessels Contraction of vessels and arches circulates blood Nephridia: tubes that eliminate excess water and wastes Gizzard: grinds soil, breaking up organic matter Crop: temporary storage Mollusca General Characteristics

Honors Biology Review Sheet


Soft body Foot = movement Mantle epidermis makes shell Radula: organ- scrapes up food 3 classes (examples) Gastropoda: snailes Bivalva: clams Cephalopoda: octopus Arthropoda General Characteristics Open circulatory system jointed appendages exoskeleton made of chitin 4 sub-phyla (examples) trilobita: extinct crustacea: crab, shrimp chelicerata: spider, scorpions, ticks uniramia: insects, centipedes, millipedes Metamorphosis complete metamorphosis: an animal life cycle in which the individual undergoes two major stages of development
(larva, pupa) between the egg stage and the adult stage incomplete metamorphosis: an animal life cycle in which the individual undergoes gradual development through several nymph stages after the egg stage and before the adult stage

Molting process of shedding old exoskeleton and producing new one secrete new layer of chitin, separating old exoskeleton and new exoskeleton Echinodermata General Characteristics Spines: part of exoskeleton Water vascular system Tube feet: movement, feeding, repiration Examples: star fish, sand dollar, urchin

Honors Biology Review Sheet


Vertebrate Animals
Class Agnatha: jawless boneless parasitic cartilaginous skeleton external fertilization Class Chondrienthyes cartilaginous skeleton Ectothermic gas exchange: gills 2 chambered heart internal fertilization Class Osteichthyes bony fish external fertilization swim bladder: buoyancy scales: protection; reduce water resistance Class Amphibia 1st vertebrates to adapt to land Begin life aquatically metamorphsis Class Reptilia oldest species: turtle Ectothrmic scaly skin 3-chambered heart shelled eggs amnion yolk sac: food chorion albumen (egg white) Class Aves external fertilization beaks feathers made of keratin evolved from scales keep bird warm bones Endothermic hollow 4-chambered heart thin walls made of cross sections: strong Class Mammalia hair/fur mammary glands in females internal fertilization diversity monotremes: lay eggs (platypus) marsupials: pouches young arent fully developed when born, and finish developing in pouch (kangaroo) placental mammal: complete development in mothers uterus, born fully developed (humans)

Honors Biology Review Sheet