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Ch 1 Intro: Themes in the Study of life Overview Inquiring about Life Organisms adaptation in evolution is due to environment - lizard

d in desert is different than a lizard in the forest Evolution the change over time in one or more inherited traits found in populations of organisms Biology the study of life Biologists ask questions like: - how do single cell organisms develop to organisms - how do human minds work? Life defies on a simple, in Bottom line is biology- sex - as many mates as possible and as many off springs as possible Properties of Life - highly structured - adapt and evolve - respond to the environment - reproduce -grow and develop - require and process energy - regulate their bodies (note) memorize factual details Themes help to organize biology information to aid scaling across space and timeemergent property

Concept 1.1 Theme the book makes connections across areas in biology

Theme: New properly energy at each level in biological hierarch

Life studied at different levels, molecules to planets Eugene properties result from arrangement and interaction of parts If you place cells in a single tube, they wont act as a living cell, they require more than their component parts

Power and Limitations of reductionism System biology

Reductionism is reducing complex systems to simpler ones to study parts - studying DNA molecules to know chemical behavior How work together System biology models for dynamic behavior of whole Questions like - how drugs for blood pressure affect the organs Every organism interact with the environment Both environment and organisms are affected by interaction between them - tree takes water from soil and releases oxygen and taking in carbon dioxide Energy is required to maintain order Human have modified our organisms - co2 and global warming Global warming is a major aspect of global climate change Important to understand the affects of global climate change on earth and its populations

T: Organisms interact with other organisms and environment

T: life requires energy transfer and transformation

Fundamental characteristics of living organisms is their use of energy to carry out

activities- walking, Energy flows threw ecosystem comes in as a sunlight and exit out as heat Stored chemical bond energy can be transformed within organisms to other form of energy like kinetic or heat energy T: Structure function are correlated at all levels of biology organization T: the cell is the basic unit of an organisms structure & foundation Structure function of living organism are closely related -leaf is thin & flat to maximize light capture by chloroplasts - a birds wing is adapted to flight The cell is lowest level of organization that conforms all activities required for all All cells - enclosed by a membrane - use DNA as genetic information -prokaryotic cells -eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells are more complex, while prokaryotic are simple cells Membrane allows to keep the part closed to others, separation of functions Memnbrane can be put in each individual part of euk. cell Chromosomes contain most of all cells material in form of DNA Dna substance of genes Gene store information needed for working cells, contain genetic codes for each cell Ability of cell to divide the basis of reproduction, growth, and repair

T: the continuity of life based on the heritable info in form of DNA

Dna structure and function Each chromosome has 1 long dna with hundreds of genes Genes include info for building proteins Dna is inherited from parents Dna controls the development & maintenance Dna molecule made up of long chains of double helix form 4 building black called nucleotide -A pairs with T - C pairs with G Groups of 3 in helix make up an amino acid Genomics- large scale analysis of Dna An organisms entire genome is the genetic instructions genomics is the study of sets of genes within and between species Human genome sequenced by a computer. Genomics require - high-throughput technology, which can hold a lot of data -bioinformatics, use of computational tool to process high volume of data -interdisciplinary research team

T: feedback mechanism regulate biological system

Feedback mechanisms allow biological process to self-regulate Negative feedback- as more of the product is produced. The process that creates it slows down and less of the product is reduced Positive feedback- as more product is created, the process speeds up and more of it is produced Evolution makes sense of biology & explain why we have different variety of organisms -organisms are variety descendants of common ancestors -similar traits explain descent from common ancestor

Evolution: an overarching biological theme

Concept 1.2: the core theme: Evolution for unity and diversity of life

-difference among organisms are explained by the increase of heritable changes Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution Theodosius Dobzhansky About 1.8 million species identified Taxonomy is naming and classifying types of species in group Domain, followed by kingdom, are the broadest group a)domain bacteria b)domain archaea c)domain eukarya Striking unit, underlines of diversity of life: -dna is the universal genetic language common to all organisms -unity is evident in many structure of cell Charles Darwin published book about evolution 2 main points -species showed evidence of descent with modification from common ancestors -natural selection is mechanism behind descent Darwins theory explained the quality of unity & diversity Darwin observed-individuals in a population vary in traits, many which are heritable -more offspring are produced than survive, compete, surviving environment He inferred: -individuals suite for their environment survive -over time will begin to have advantageous trait in population Or environment selects beneficial traits to survive Darwin called this natural selection that will give rise to 2 or 3 more descendant species Inquiry- research for info and explanation and biologist observe and describe natural structure and processes Biology 2 main processes -discovering science (describe nature) -hypothesis based science (explain nature) Data- recorded observations or items of information that may be: - qualitative data- description data -quantitative data- recorded measurements can be used in table or graphs Inductive observation draws Inductive reasoning draws conclusion the logical process of deduction Repeating observances can lead to generalization sun rises on east Observations & inductive reasoning leads to ask questions and hypothesis Deductive reasoning uses general premises to make specific predictions -Ex: if organisms are made of cells and humans are organisms then humans are made of cells (deductive reasoning) Hypothesis-based science makes use of 2 or more alternate hypothesis, but if fails to falsify it then it doesnt mean that the hypothesis is correct Theory hypotheses that has been tested several times and results in supported data for the hypotheses Most scientists work in team Scientist check each others claims by performing similar experiments Cooperation about model organisms

3 domains in life

Unity in the diversity of life

C: 1.3 : scientist make observations and then make hypothesis


Inductive Reasoning & hypothesis

Deductive Reasoning & hypotheses testing

Concept 1.4: Science benefits from a cooperative approach and diverse viewpoints