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BEE 3243

Electric Power Systems


BEE 3243
BEE 3243
Electric Power Systems
Electric Power Systems
Module 5
Introduction to Power Flow Studies
Module 5
Module 5
Introduction to Power Flow Studies
Introduction to Power Flow Studies
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
2 2
Outlines
Outlines


Introduction
Introduction


Basic Techniques for Power Flow Studies
Basic Techniques for Power Flow Studies


The Bus Admittance Matrix
The Bus Admittance Matrix


Power Flow Equations
Power Flow Equations


Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method
Seidel Method


Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal

Power Flow Solution
Power Flow Solution
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
3 3
Introduction
Introduction


Power flow study is also known as
Power flow study is also known as
load flow
load flow

study.
study.


It is an analysis during
It is an analysis during
steady
steady
-
-
state
state

conditions.
conditions.


It is used for
It is used for
planning
planning

and
and
controlling
controlling

a system.
a system.


Assumptions:
Assumptions:
balanced
balanced

conditions and
conditions and
single
single
phase
phase

analysis.
analysis.


Problems:
Problems:


determine the
determine the
voltage magnitude
voltage magnitude

and
and
phase angle
phase angle

at
at
each bus.
each bus.


determine the active and reactive (
determine the active and reactive (
P & Q
P & Q
) power flow in
) power flow in
each line
each line


each bus has
each bus has
four
four

state variables:
state variables:
voltage magnitude,
voltage magnitude,
voltage phase angle, real power injection, and reactive
voltage phase angle, real power injection, and reactive
power injection
power injection
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
4 4
Introduction
Introduction


Each bus has
Each bus has
two
two

of the four state variables
of the four state variables
defined or given.
defined or given.


Text book:
Text book:
Hadi
Hadi

Saadat
Saadat


Power System Analysis
Power System Analysis
(
(
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
).
).
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
5 5
Types of Buses in Power Systems
Types of Buses in Power Systems


Types of network buses:
Types of network buses:

Load Bus
Load Bus

or
or
PQ Bus
PQ Bus


known real (P) and reactive (Q) power injections.
known real (P) and reactive (Q) power injections.


No generator attach to load bus.
No generator attach to load bus.

Generator Bus
Generator Bus

or
or
PV Bus
PV Bus


known real (P) power injection and the voltage
known real (P) power injection and the voltage
magnitude (V).
magnitude (V).

Slack Bus
Slack Bus

or
or
Swing Bus
Swing Bus


known voltage magnitude (V) and voltage angle (
known voltage magnitude (V) and voltage angle (
o
o
),
),
often it is taken to be
often it is taken to be
1
1
Z
Z
0
0


p.u
p.u
.
.


must have one generator as the slack bus.
must have one generator as the slack bus.


takes up the power slack due to losses in the network.
takes up the power slack due to losses in the network.
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
6 6
Basic Techniques for Power Flow Studies
Basic Techniques for Power Flow Studies


Power flow analysis is an
Power flow analysis is an
iterative
iterative

problem.
problem.


Steps
Steps

to be taken in power flow analysis:
to be taken in power flow analysis:
1)
1)

One line diagram or
One line diagram or
load flow data
load flow data

of a power system
of a power system
2)
2)

Construct Bus Admittance Matrix (
Construct Bus Admittance Matrix (
Ybus
Ybus
)
)
3)
3)

Calculate the
Calculate the
power flow
power flow

analysis equations
analysis equations


Power flow is a
Power flow is a
nonlinear
nonlinear

problem and it is
problem and it is
commonly solved by the iterative solution of
commonly solved by the iterative solution of
nonlinear algebraic equations
nonlinear algebraic equations
:
:


Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal


Newton
Newton
-
-
Raphson
Raphson


Fast Decoupled
Fast Decoupled
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
7 7
Basic Techniques for Power Flow Studies
Basic Techniques for Power Flow Studies
Example of
Example of
load flow input data
load flow input data
:
:


Bus data
Bus data


Line data
Line data
Bus no Bus
code
Voltage Load Generator
Magnitude
(p.u.)
Angle
(degree)
P
(MW)
Q
(Mvar)
P
(MW)
Q
(Mvar)
1 1 1.06 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2 2 1.043 0 21.70 12.7 40.0 0.0
3 0 1.0 0 2.4 1.2 0.0 0.0
Line bus no
(From)
Line bus no
(To)
Line
resistance
R (p.u.)
Line
reactance
X (p.u.)
line
susceptance
B (p.u.)
Transfor-
mer tap
setting
1 2 0.0192 0.0575 0.02640 0.978
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
8 8
The Bus Admittance Matrix
The Bus Admittance Matrix


The matrix equation for relating the
The matrix equation for relating the
nodal voltages
nodal voltages

to the
to the
currents
currents

that flow into and out of a network
that flow into and out of a network
using the
using the
admittance
admittance

values of circuit branches.
values of circuit branches.
V
1
V
i
I
i
y
i1
y
i2
y
in

y
i0
V
2
V
n
I
inj
= Y
bus
V
node
I
inj
= Y
bus
V
node
ij ij ij
ij
jx r z
y
+
= =
1 1
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

n nn n n
n
n
n
V
V
V
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
I
I
I

2
1
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
2
1

BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
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The Bus Admittance Matrix
The Bus Admittance Matrix
One line diagram of a power system
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
10 10
The Bus Admittance Matrix
The Bus Admittance Matrix
Impedance Diagram
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
11 11
The Bus Admittance Matrix
The Bus Admittance Matrix
Admittance Diagram
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
12 12
The Bus Admittance Matrix
The Bus Admittance Matrix
Kirchhoffs current law:
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
13 13
The Bus Admittance Matrix
The Bus Admittance Matrix
Rearranging the KCL Equations:
Rearranging the KCL Equations:
Matrix Formation of the Equations
Matrix Formation of the Equations
:
:
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
14 14
The Bus Admittance Matrix
The Bus Admittance Matrix
Completed Matrix Equation:
Completed Matrix Equation:
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

n nn n n
n
n
n
V
V
V
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
I
I
I

2
1
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
2
1

BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
15 15
Y
Y
-
-
Bus Matrix Building Rules
Bus Matrix Building Rules


Square matrix
Square matrix

with dimensions equal to the
with dimensions equal to the
number of buses.
number of buses.


Convert all network impedances into
Convert all network impedances into
admittances
admittances
.
.


Diagonal
Diagonal

elements:
elements:


Off
Off
-
-
diagonal
diagonal

elements:
elements:


Matrix is
Matrix is
symmetrical
symmetrical

along the leading diagonal.
along the leading diagonal.
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
16 16
Power Flow Equations
Power Flow Equations
V
1
V
i
I
i
y
i1
y
i2
y
in

y
i0
V
2
V
3
KCL Equations:
KCL Equations:
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
17 17
Power Flow Equations
Power Flow Equations
Power flow equation:
Power flow equation:
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
18 18
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method
Seidel Method


Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal

is a
is a
nonlinear
nonlinear

algebraic equation
algebraic equation
solver. It is a method of successive displacements.
solver. It is a method of successive displacements.


Its
Its
iterative steps
iterative steps
:
:


take a function and rearrange it into the form
take a function and rearrange it into the form
x =
x =
g(x
g(x
)
)


make an initial estimate of the variable x:
make an initial estimate of the variable x:
x
x
[0] [0]

= initial value
= initial value


find an iterative improvement of
find an iterative improvement of
x
x
[k [k] ]
, that is:
, that is:
x
x
[k+1] [k+1]

=
=
g(x
g(x
[k [k] ]
)
)


a solution is reached when the difference between two
a solution is reached when the difference between two
iterations is less than a specified accuracy:
iterations is less than a specified accuracy:
|x
|x
[k+1] [k+1]


x
x
[k [k] ]
|
|


Acceleration
Acceleration

factors (
factors (
o
o
)
)
:
:


can improve the rate of convergence:
can improve the rate of convergence:
o
o

> 1
> 1


modified step: the improvement is found as
modified step: the improvement is found as
x
x
[k+1] [k+1]

= x
= x
[k] [k]

+
+
o
o

[
[
g( x
g( x
[k] [k]

)
)


x
x
[k] [k]
]
]
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
19 19
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method
Seidel Method


Example of the Gauss
Example of the Gauss
-
-
Seidel method:
Seidel method:
Find x of the equation:
Find x of the equation:
f(x
f(x
) = x
) = x
3 3
-
-
6x
6x
2 2
+9x
+9x
-
-
4 = 0.
4 = 0.
9x =
9x =
-
-
x
x
3 3
+6x
+6x
2 2
+4
+4
Start with
Start with
initial
initial

guess x
guess x
[0] [0]

= 2,
= 2,
) (
9
4
9
6
9
1
2 3
x g x x x = + + =
5173 . 2
9
4
) 2222 . 2 (
9
6
) 2222 . 2 (
9
1
) 2222 . 2 (
2222 . 2
9
4
) 2 (
9
6
) 2 (
9
1
) 2 (
2 3 ] 1 [ ] 2 [
2 3 ] 0 [ ] 1 [
= + + = = =
= + + = = =
x g x
x g x
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
20 20
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method
Seidel Method
0000 . 4
9988 . 3
9568 . 3
9
4
) 7398 . 3 (
9
6
) 7398 . 3 (
9
1
) 7398 . 3 (
7398 . 3
9
4
) 3376 . 3 (
9
6
) 3376 . 3 (
9
1
) 3376 . 3 (
3376 . 3
9
4
) 8966 . 2 (
9
6
) 8966 . 2 (
9
1
) 8966 . 2 (
8966 . 2
9
4
) 5173 . 2 (
9
6
) 5173 . 2 (
9
1
) 5173 . 2 (
] 8 [
] 7 [
2 3 ] 5 [ ] 6 [
2 3 ] 4 [ ] 5 [
2 3 ] 3 [ ] 4 [
2 3 ] 2 [ ] 3 [
=
=
= + + = = =
= + + = = =
= + + = = =
= + + = = =
x
x
x g x
x g x
x g x
x g x
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
21 21
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method
Seidel Method


Matlab
Matlab

Results of all iterations:
Results of all iterations:
Iter g dx x
1 2.2222 0.2222 2.2222
2 2.5173 0.2951 2.5173
3 2.8966 0.3793 2.8966
4 3.3376 0.4410 3.3376
5 3.7398 0.4022 3.7398
6 3.9568 0.2170 3.9568
7 3.9988 0.0420 3.9988
8 4.0000 0.0012 4.0000
9 4.0000 0.0000 4.0000
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
22 22
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method
Seidel Method


Graphical illustration:
Graphical illustration:
Iterations
x = g(x)
Initial value
Solution points
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
23 23
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method with
Seidel Method with
o
o


Find the root of the equation:
Find the root of the equation:
f(x
f(x
) = x
) = x
3 3

-
-

6x
6x
2 2

+ 9x
+ 9x
-
-

4
4
= 0 with an
= 0 with an
acceleration factor
acceleration factor

of 1.25.
of 1.25.


Starting with an
Starting with an
initial
initial

guess of x
guess of x
[0] [0]

= 2.
= 2.
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
24 24
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method with
Seidel Method with
o
o


Matlab
Matlab

results of all iterations:
results of all iterations:
Iter g dx x
1 2.2222 0.2222 2.2778
2 2.5902 0.3124 2.6683
3 3.0801 0.4118 3.1831
4 3.6157 0.4326 3.7238
5 3.9515 0.2277 4.0084
6 4.0000 -0.0085 3.9978
7 4.0000 0.0022 4.0005
8 4.0000 -0.0005 3.9999
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
25 25
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method with
Seidel Method with
o
o


Graphical illustration:
Graphical illustration:
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
26 26
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method with
Seidel Method with
o
o


Do not use a
Do not use a
very large
very large

number of
number of
o
o

as the larger
as the larger
step size
step size

may result in an overshoot.
may result in an overshoot.


If we take the previous example with
If we take the previous example with
o
o

= 1.8
= 1.8
, we
, we
will need
will need
more iterations
more iterations

to obtain the answer:
to obtain the answer:
Iter g dx x
1 2.2222 0.2222 2.4000
2 2.7484 0.3484 3.0272
3 3.4714 0.4442 3.8268
4 3.9806 0.1538 4.1036
5 3.9927 -0.1109 3.9040
Iter g dx x
6 3.9940 0.0900 4.0659
7 3.9971 -0.0688 3.9420
8 3.9978 0.0558 4.0424
9 3.9988 -0.0436 3.9639
10 3.9991 0.0352 4.0273
Overshoot
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
27 27
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method with
Seidel Method with
o
o
Iter g dx x
11 3.9995 -0.0278 3.9772
12 3.9997 0.0224 4.0176
13 3.9998 -0.0178 3.9856
14 3.9999 0.0143 4.0113
15 3.9999 -0.0114 3.9908
16 3.9999 0.0091 4.0073
17 4.0000 -0.0073 3.9941
18 4.0000 0.0058 4.0047
Iter g dx x
19 4.0000 -0.0047 3.9963
20 4.0000 0.0037 4.0030
21 4.0000 -0.0030 3.9976
22 4.0000 0.0024 4.0019
23 4.0000 -0.0019 3.9985
24 4.0000 0.0015 4.0012
25 4.0000 -0.0012 3.9990
26 4.0000 0.0010 4.0008
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
28 28
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel Method with
Seidel Method with
o
o


Graphical illustration:
Graphical illustration:
OVERSHOOT
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
29 29
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal

for a System of n Equations
for a System of n Equations


Consider a system of
Consider a system of
n equations
n equations
:
:


Rearrange each equation for each of the variables:
Rearrange each equation for each of the variables:
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
30 30
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal

for a System of n Equations
for a System of n Equations


Steps:
Steps:

Assume an
Assume an
approximate solution
approximate solution

for the independent
for the independent
variables,
variables,

Find the results in a


Find the results in a
new approximate
new approximate

solution
solution

In the
In the

Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel
Seidel

method, the updated values of the
method, the updated values of the
variables calculated in the preceding equations are used
variables calculated in the preceding equations are used
immediately in the solution of the subsequent equations.
immediately in the solution of the subsequent equations.

The rate of
The rate of
convergence
convergence

can be increased by suitable
can be increased by suitable
o
o
.
.
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
31 31
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal

Power Flow Solution
Power Flow Solution


Previously derived
Previously derived
power flow equation
power flow equation
,
,


Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal

form,
form,
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
32 32
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal

Power Flow Solution
Power Flow Solution


Rewriting the power equation to find
Rewriting the power equation to find
P and Q
P and Q

the
the
real and reactive powers
real and reactive powers

are scheduled for the
are scheduled for the
load
load
buses
buses

that is, they remain fixed
that is, they remain fixed

the currents and powers are expressed as going into the


the currents and powers are expressed as going into the
bus
bus


for for generation generation the powers are the powers are positive positive


for for loads loads

the powers are the powers are negative negative


the the scheduled power scheduled power

is the is the sum sum

of the generation and load of the generation and load
powers powers
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
33 33
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal

Power Flow Solution
Power Flow Solution


The
The
complete set
complete set

of equations become:
of equations become:
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
34 34
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal

Power Flow Solution
Power Flow Solution


Since the
Since the
off
off
-
-
diagonal
diagonal

elements of
elements of
Y
Y
bus bus

,
,
Y
Y
ij ij

=
=
-
-
y
y
ij ij

and the
and the
diagonal
diagonal

elements,
elements,
Y
Y
ii ii

=
=
E
E
y
y
ij ij

,
,
ii
n
i j j
k
j ij
k
i
sch
i
sch
i
k
i
Y
V Y
V
jQ P
V

= =
+

=
, 1
] [
] [ *
] 1 [

(
(

+ =

(
(

+ 9 =

= =
+
= =
+
n
i j j
k
j ij ii
k
i
k
i
k
i
n
i j j
k
j ij ii
k
i
k
i
k
i
V Y Y V V Q
V Y Y V V P
, 1
] [ ] [ ] [ * ] 1 [
, 1
] [ ] [ ] [ * ] 1 [
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
35 35
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal

Power Flow Solution
Power Flow Solution


System characteristics:
System characteristics:

Since both components (V &


Since both components (V &
o
o
) are specified for the
) are specified for the
slack bus
slack bus
, there are 2(n
, there are 2(n
-
-

1) equations which must be
1) equations which must be
solved iteratively
solved iteratively

For the
For the
load buses
load buses
, the real and reactive powers are
, the real and reactive powers are
known/ scheduled:
known/ scheduled:


the voltage magnitude and angle must be estimated the voltage magnitude and angle must be estimated


in per unit, the nominal voltage magnitude is 1 in per unit, the nominal voltage magnitude is 1 pu pu


the angles are generally close together, so an initial value of the angles are generally close together, so an initial value of 0 0
degrees is appropriate degrees is appropriate
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
36 36
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidal
Seidal

Power Flow Solution
Power Flow Solution

For the
For the
generator buses
generator buses
, the real power and voltage
, the real power and voltage
magnitude are known,
magnitude are known,


the real power is scheduled the real power is scheduled


the reactive power is computed based on the estimated voltage the reactive power is computed based on the estimated voltage
values values


the voltage is computed by Gauss the voltage is computed by Gauss- -Seidel, only the imaginary Seidel, only the imaginary
part is kept part is kept


the complex voltage is found from the magnitude and the the complex voltage is found from the magnitude and the
iterative imaginary part iterative imaginary part
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
37 37
Line Flows and Losses
Line Flows and Losses


After solving for bus voltages and angles,
After solving for bus voltages and angles,
power
power
flows
flows

and
and
losses
losses

on the network branches are
on the network branches are
calculated.
calculated.

Transmission lines and transformers are network


Transmission lines and transformers are network
branches
branches

The direction of positive current flow are defined as


The direction of positive current flow are defined as
follows for a branch element (demonstrated on a
follows for a branch element (demonstrated on a
medium length line)
medium length line)

Power flow is defined for each end of the branch


Power flow is defined for each end of the branch
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
38 38
Line Flows and Losses
Line Flows and Losses


Example
Example
: the power leaving
: the power leaving
bus i
bus i

and flowing to
and flowing to
bus j
bus j
:
:
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
39 39
Line Flows and Losses
Line Flows and Losses


Current and power flows
Current and power flows
:
:


Power losses
Power losses
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
40 40
Example
Example
a)
a)

Using the
Using the
Gauss
Gauss
-
-
Seidel method
Seidel method
, determine the
, determine the
phasor
phasor

values of the
values of the
voltage
voltage

at the load buses 2 and 3, accurate
at the load buses 2 and 3, accurate
to 4 decimal places.
to 4 decimal places.
b)
b)

Find the slack bus
Find the slack bus
P
P

and
and
Q
Q
.
.
c)
c)

Determine the
Determine the
line flows
line flows

and
and
line losses
line losses
. Construct a
. Construct a
power flow diagram
power flow diagram

showing the direction of the line flow.
showing the direction of the line flow.
1
2
3
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
41 41
Example
Example


Line admittances:
Line admittances:


At
At
P
P
-
-
Q buses
Q buses
, the complex loads in
, the complex loads in
p.u
p.u
.:
.:
32 16
025 . 0 0125 . 0
1
30 10
03 . 0 01 . 0
1
20 10
04 . 0 02 . 0
1
23
13
12
j
j
y
j
j
y
j
j
y
=
+
=
=
+
=
=
+
=
p.u. 452 . 0 386 . 1
p.u. 102 . 1 566 . 2
3
2
j S
j S
sch
sch
=
=
a)
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
42 42
Example
Example


Initial estimate,
Initial estimate,


Compute V
Compute V
2 2

and V
and V
3 3

using:
using:
0 . 0 0 . 1 , 0 . 0 0 . 1
) 0 (
3
) 0 (
2
j V j V + = + =
031 . 0 9825 . 0
) 52 26 (
) 0 0 . 1 )( 32 16 ( ) 0 05 . 1 )( 20 10 (
0 0 . 1
102 . 1 566 . 2

23 12
) 0 (
3 23 1 12
) 0 ( *
2
2 2
) 1 (
2
j
j
j j j j
j
j
y y
V y V y
V
jQ P
V
sch sch
=

+ + + +

+
=
+
+ +

=
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
43 43
Example
Example


For 2
For 2
nd nd

iteration,
iteration,
0353 . 0 0011 . 1
) 62 26 (
) 031 . 0 9825 . 0 )( 32 16 ( ) 0 05 . 1 )( 30 10 (
0 0 . 1
452 . 0 386 . 1

23 13
) 1 (
2 23 1 13
) 0 ( *
3
3 3
) 1 (
3
j
j
j j j j
j
j
y y
V y V y
V
jQ P
V
sch sch
=

+ + +

+
=
+
+ +

=
052 . 0 9816 . 0
) 52 26 (
) 0353 . 0 0011 . 1 )( 32 16 ( ) 0 05 . 1 )( 20 10 (
031 . 0 9825 . 0
102 . 1 566 . 2
) 2 (
2
j
j
j j j j
j
j
V
=

+ + + +
+
+
=
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
44 44
Example
Example


The remaining iterations until the solution is
The remaining iterations until the solution is
converged with an accuracy of 5 x 10
converged with an accuracy of 5 x 10
- -5 5

p.u
p.u
.:
.:
0459 . 0 0008 . 1
) 62 26 (
) 052 . 0 9816 . 0 )( 32 16 ( ) 0 05 . 1 )( 30 10 (
0353 . 0 0011 . 1
452 . 0 386 . 1
) 1 (
3
j
j
j j j j
j
j
V
=

+ + +

+
=
0500 . 0 0000 . 1 0600 . 0 9800 . 0
0500 . 0 0000 . 1 0599 . 0 9801 . 0
0499 . 0 0001 . 1 0598 . 0 9801 . 0
0497 . 0 0002 . 1 0594 . 0 9803 . 0
0488 . 0 0004 . 1 0578 . 0 9808 . 0
) 7 (
3
) 7 (
2
) 6 (
3
) 6 (
2
) 5 (
3
) 5 (
2
) 4 (
3
) 4 (
2
) 3 (
3
) 3 (
2
j V j V
j V j V
j V j V
j V j V
j V j V
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
Final solution
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
45 45
Example
Example


The slack bus power:
The slack bus power:
b)
Mvar 189 MW 5 . 409
p.u. 890 . 1 095 . 4
)] 05 . 0 0 . 1 )( 30 10 (
) 06 . 0 98 . 0 )( 20 10 ( ) 50 20 ( 05 . 1 [ 05 . 1
)] ( ) ( [
3 13 2 12 13 12 1
*
1 1 1
j
j
j j
j j j
V y V y y y V V jQ P
=
=

=
+ + =
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
46 46
Example
Example


Line currents:
Line currents:
c)
48 . 0 64 . 0
48 . 0 64 . 0 )] 05 . 0 0 . 1 ( ) 06 . 0 98 . 0 )[( 32 16 ( ) (
0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 1 0 . 2 )] 05 . 0 0 . 1 ( ) 0 05 . 1 )[( 30 10 ( ) (
8 . 0 9 . 1
8 . 0 9 . 1 )] 06 . 0 98 . 0 ( ) 0 05 . 1 )[( 20 10 ( ) (
23 32
3 2 23 23
13 31
3 1 13 13
12 21
2 1 12 12
j I I
j j j j V V y I
j I I
j j j j V V y I
j I I
j j j j V V y I
= =
+ = = =
+ = =
= + = =
+ = =
= + = =
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
47 47
Example
Example


The line flows are:
The line flows are:
Mvar 8 . 44 MW 4 . 66
p.u. 448 . 0 664 . 0 ) 48 . 0 64 . 0 )( 05 . 0 0 . 1 (
Mvar 2 43 MW 6 . 65
p.u. 432 . 0 656 . 0 ) 48 . 0 656 . 0 )( 06 . 0 98 . 0 (
Mvar 0 . 90 MW 0 . 205
p.u. 90 . 0 05 . 2 ) 0 . 1 0 . 2 )( 05 . 0 0 . 1 (
Mvar 0 . 105 MW 0 . 210
p.u. 05 . 1 1 . 2 ) 0 . 1 0 . 2 )( 0 . 0 05 . 1 (
Mvar 0 . 67 MW 0 . 191
p.u. 67 . 0 91 . 1 ) 8 . 0 9 . 1 )( 06 . 0 98 . 0 (
Mvar 0 . 84 MW 5 . 199
p.u. 84 . 0 995 . 1 ) 8 . 0 9 . 1 )( 0 . 0 05 . 1 (
*
32 3 32
*
23 2 23
*
31 3 31
*
13 1 13
*
21 2 21
*
12 1 12
j
j j j I V S
. j
j j j I V S
j
j j j I V S
j
j j j I V S
j
j j j I V S
j
j j j I V S
+ =
+ = + = =
=
= + = =
=
= = =
+ =
+ = + + = =
=
= = =
+ =
+ = + + = =
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
48 48
Example
Example


Line losses are:
Line losses are:
Mvar 60 . 1 MW 8 . 0
Mvar 0 . 15 MW 0 . 5
Mvar 0 . 17 MW 5 . 8
32 23
23
31 13
13
21 12
12
j S S S
j S S S
j S S S
L
L
L
+ = + =
+ = + =
+ = + =
BEE 3243 Electric Power Systems Module 5
49 49
Example
Example
409.5
191
65.6
66.4
44.8
67.0
43.2
205
90.0
199.5
84.0
210.0
105.0
189
256.6
138.6
110.2
45.2
(8.5)
(17.0)
(5)
(15)
(0.8)
(1.6)


The power flow diagram:
The power flow diagram: