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Environment + Technology Lectures

Buildings are very technical systems

A machine for living in

are very technical systems ‘ A machine for living in ’ • Architects need to understand

Architects need to understand technical implications of design decisions

is window too small for good daylighting?

is load too great for floor? is the choice of material suitable?

Need to be able to communicate with

other members of the design team

Technology + Environment Teaching

Technology + Environment Environment Construction Heat Structures and Light Materials Sound
Technology +
Environment
Environment
Construction
Heat
Structures
and
Light
Materials
Sound

Environment Tutors

Environment Tutors Dr David Carter, Reader in Lighting and Sustainability Natural and artificial lighting systems;
Environment Tutors Dr David Carter, Reader in Lighting and Sustainability Natural and artificial lighting systems;
Environment Tutors Dr David Carter, Reader in Lighting and Sustainability Natural and artificial lighting systems;
Environment Tutors Dr David Carter, Reader in Lighting and Sustainability Natural and artificial lighting systems;
Environment Tutors Dr David Carter, Reader in Lighting and Sustainability Natural and artificial lighting systems;

Dr David Carter, Reader in Lighting and Sustainability

Natural and artificial lighting systems; building services

Professor Barry Gibbs, Professor in Acoustics

Structure-borne sound, particularly concerned with the prediction and control of noise and vibration in buildings

Dr Carl Hopkins, Reader in Acoustics Building acoustics, environmental noise, structure-borne sound,

sound fields, vibro-acoustics

Dr Rosa Urbano Gutierrez, Lecturer in Sustainable Architecture Sustainable architectural design through the exploration of emergent materials and technologies.

Professor Steve Sharples, Professor in Environmental Design

Climate design and climate change; sustainable design

ARCH 111 Syllabus

Week No.

9.00-10.00

Tuesdays

10.00-11.00

1

       

27/9

Lighting terminology

DC

Architecture and the environment

SS

2

       

4/10

Human responses to natural light

DC

Climatic design around the world

SS

3

       

11/10

The sky as a source of light

DC

Solar principles

SS

4

       

18/10

Sunlight protection

DC

Wind impacts

SS

5

       

25/10

Daylight and architecture

DC

Microclimate and site planning

SS

6

       

1/11

Design of windows

DC

Thermal comfort

SS

7

       

8/11

Heat transfer in buildings

SS

Thermal mass

SS

8

       

15/11

Ventilation design

SS

Condensation in buildings

SS

9

       

22/11

Sustainable design

SS

Low and zero carbon energy

SS

10

       

29/11

Environmental rating systems

SS

Sustainable case studies

SS

11

       

6/12

Introduction to ECOTECT

SS

Using ECOTECT

SS

12

 

13/12

Review and Revision Lecture SS + DC

 

s s u u s s t t a a i i n n a a b b l l e e

a r c h i t e c t u r e

u u s s t t a a i i n n a a b b
Professor Steve Sharples
Professor Steve Sharples
Introduction
Introduction

things provided

by buildings

light and warmth

energy

clean water

bathing and cleaning

waste disposal

protection from rain

and cold

privacy and security

storage, cooking and eating of food

socialising and recreation

energy supply water supply waste and water disposal building materials
energy
supply
water
supply
waste and
water disposal
building
materials
supply water supply waste and water disposal building materials all of these factors inter-relate and have

all of these factors

inter-relate

and have

an impact

Sustainability Issues

Sustainability Issues Acid rain O z o n e d e p l e t i
Sustainability Issues Acid rain O z o n e d e p l e t i
Sustainability Issues Acid rain O z o n e d e p l e t i
Sustainability Issues Acid rain O z o n e d e p l e t i
Sustainability Issues Acid rain O z o n e d e p l e t i

Acid rain

Ozone depletion

Biodiversity loss

Fuel depletion

Water depletion

t i o n Biodiversity loss Fuel depletion Water depletion Climate change Waste generation Employment Environmental

Climate change

loss Fuel depletion Water depletion Climate change Waste generation Employment Environmental Economic Social

Waste generation

depletion Water depletion Climate change Waste generation Employment Environmental Economic Social Community

Employment

Water depletion Climate change Waste generation Employment Environmental Economic Social Community Security Amenity
Environmental Economic Social
Environmental
Economic
Social
Waste generation Employment Environmental Economic Social Community Security Amenity Access Public transport
Waste generation Employment Environmental Economic Social Community Security Amenity Access Public transport
Waste generation Employment Environmental Economic Social Community Security Amenity Access Public transport

Community

Employment Environmental Economic Social Community Security Amenity Access Public transport Health-wellness

Security

Environmental Economic Social Community Security Amenity Access Public transport Health-wellness Productivity

Amenity

Environmental Economic Social Community Security Amenity Access Public transport Health-wellness Productivity Best

Access

Public transport

Health-wellness

Productivity

Best value

resources technology soil society oceans culture water Built environment forests biodiversity
resources
technology
soil
society
oceans
culture
water
Built
environment
forests
biodiversity

Natural

environment

Global Environmental Impacts

Global Environmental Impacts • Global Warming • Fossil Fuel Depletion • Ozone Depletion • Transport Congestion
Global Environmental Impacts • Global Warming • Fossil Fuel Depletion • Ozone Depletion • Transport Congestion
Global Environmental Impacts • Global Warming • Fossil Fuel Depletion • Ozone Depletion • Transport Congestion
Global Environmental Impacts • Global Warming • Fossil Fuel Depletion • Ozone Depletion • Transport Congestion
Global Environmental Impacts • Global Warming • Fossil Fuel Depletion • Ozone Depletion • Transport Congestion
Global Environmental Impacts • Global Warming • Fossil Fuel Depletion • Ozone Depletion • Transport Congestion

Global Warming

Fossil Fuel Depletion

Ozone Depletion

Transport Congestion

Air Pollution

Waste Generation

Water Extraction

Acid Rain

Water Pollution

Mineral Extraction

• Air Pollution • Waste Generation • Water Extraction • Acid Rain • Water Pollution •
• Air Pollution • Waste Generation • Water Extraction • Acid Rain • Water Pollution •
• Air Pollution • Waste Generation • Water Extraction • Acid Rain • Water Pollution •
• Air Pollution • Waste Generation • Water Extraction • Acid Rain • Water Pollution •

Building Environmental Impacts

Impact of buildings on

the environment

Ozone depletion

Global warming

Climate change

Use of resources

Leading to

Green issues

Sustainable aims

Environmental design

• Climate change • Use of resources Leading to • Green issues • Sustainable aims •

Impact of Buildings

The environmental impact of buildings is immense

Buildings consume ~50% of all energy production

This is used to heat, cool, light,

ventilate and service interior

spaces

Most of the energy comes from burning fossil fuels

Buildings are responsible for ~50% of CO 2 emissions

Transport Buildings Industry
Transport
Buildings
Industry

Typical energy use in developed countries

Globally, buildings are responsible for 40% of the world’s energy use 35% of the world’s

Globally, buildings are responsible for

40% of the world’s energy use

35% of the world’s CO 2 emissions

30% of the world’s consumption of raw materials

50% of the world’s ozone depletion

40% of the world’s municipal solid waste

the world’s consumption of raw materials 50% of the world’s ozone depletion 40% of the world’s

Long Term Implications

A building may be used for a long time (50 to 100 years)

Poor building design imposes large environmental, financial,

social and health penalties on

future generations

Most fossil fuel reserves may run out during the lifetime of

new buildings

and health penalties on future generations • Most fossil fuel reserves may run out during the
and health penalties on future generations • Most fossil fuel reserves may run out during the
and health penalties on future generations • Most fossil fuel reserves may run out during the

Good Global Warming

Good Global Warming Some atmospheric gases (CO 2 , methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour) trap the
Good Global Warming Some atmospheric gases (CO 2 , methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour) trap the

Some atmospheric gases (CO 2 , methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour) trap the long wave radiation emitted from the earth’s surface

This ‘greenhouse effect’ is essential for life on earth

Without it the earth would be 33 o C cooler

Bad Global Warming

Bad Global Warming

Impact of Climate Change on Planet

Impact of Climate Change on Planet • increase in rainfall • soils drying out (food production
Impact of Climate Change on Planet • increase in rainfall • soils drying out (food production
Impact of Climate Change on Planet • increase in rainfall • soils drying out (food production

increase in rainfall

soils drying out (food

production hit)

more unsettled weather

(storms, hurricanes)

loss of land (1m SL rise would flood 3% of earth’s land

surface)

rising sea levels due to ice

caps melting

environmental refugees

rise would flood 3% of earth’s land surface) • rising sea levels due to ice caps
rise would flood 3% of earth’s land surface) • rising sea levels due to ice caps
rise would flood 3% of earth’s land surface) • rising sea levels due to ice caps

Impact of climate change on buildings

Impact of climate change on buildings • summer overheating • damage from flooding • structural damage
Impact of climate change on buildings • summer overheating • damage from flooding • structural damage
Impact of climate change on buildings • summer overheating • damage from flooding • structural damage

summer overheating

damage from flooding

structural damage due to higher wind speeds

structural collapse due to subsidence, movement of

foundations and cracking of

walls (drier soils)

nuisance, trauma, possible

health hazard and danger to life from all types of weather

events

loss of site and buildings from coastal erosion and rising sea levels

danger to life from all types of weather events • loss of site and buildings from
danger to life from all types of weather events • loss of site and buildings from
danger to life from all types of weather events • loss of site and buildings from

Building Materials and the Environment

Buildings constructed from

many materials (steel,

concrete, brick, timber,

glass, plastics etc )

Each material has an environmental impact

Quantified by the term

‘embodied energy’

glass, plastics etc ) • Each material has an environmental impact • Quantified by the term
glass, plastics etc ) • Each material has an environmental impact • Quantified by the term
glass, plastics etc ) • Each material has an environmental impact • Quantified by the term

Embodied Energy

How much is energy used in the total ‘cradle to grave’ process

Embodied Energy How much is energy used in the total ‘cradle to grave’ process

Life Cycle of a Brick

Life Cycle of a Brick
C an to bury tales - the Cola’s tale • Materials Transport Country Energy/processing truck

Can to bury tales - the Cola’s tale

Materials

Transport

Country

Energy/processing

truck Mined Smelted Mine - Australia Bauxite x Sweden/ Ore carrier Heated/rolled 500C 1/2 =
truck
Mined
Smelted
Mine -
Australia
Bauxite x
Sweden/
Ore carrier
Heated/rolled
500C
1/2 = Al-O2
Norway
cold rolled
ship
Punched/formed into cans
Smelter -
truck
Sweden/
Al-O2 x 1/2
washed, dried, painted x 2
truck
Germany
= Al
laquered
flanged
truck
England
Water/flavored syrup/
ship
sprayed inside with
phosphorus/caffeine/
France
truck
Idaho
a protective coating
carbon dioxide gas
sugar beet
ship
Sweden/Siberia/
Throw the
can away
inspected
truck
Palletised/forklifted
British Columbia
phosphorus
warehoused
cardboardcolor
Drink the
cola
milling/refining
Washed/cleaned/filled
forest pulp
sealed
harvested
chemical manufacturer
Palletized
Buy
the cola
excavated from mines
supermarket
Reducing phosphate - electricity for 100,000 people

Aims of Environmental Assessment Schemes

Set criteria against which to assess a building

Provide a score or rating

Can offer commercial value (‘green

credentials’)

Allows comparison with similar

building types

or rating • Can offer commercial value (‘green credentials’) • Allows comparison with similar building types

Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH)

OBJECTIVES

Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) OBJECTIVES The Code measures the sustainability of a new home against
Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) OBJECTIVES The Code measures the sustainability of a new home against
Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) OBJECTIVES The Code measures the sustainability of a new home against

The Code measures the sustainability of a new home against nine categories of sustainable design

The Code rates the 'whole home' as a

complete package

Code rates the 'whole home' as a complete package The Code sets minimum standards for energy

The Code sets minimum standards

for energy and water use

The Code uses a two stage

evaluation process design stage

and post construction stage

The Code became mandatory in England on 1 st May 2008

Nine categories of

environmental sustainability

Energy/CO 2

Nine categories of environmental sustainability Energy/CO 2 Waste Water Materials Surface Water Run-off Pollution
Nine categories of environmental sustainability Energy/CO 2 Waste Water Materials Surface Water Run-off Pollution

Waste

of environmental sustainability Energy/CO 2 Waste Water Materials Surface Water Run-off Pollution Well-being

Water

Materials

sustainability Energy/CO 2 Waste Water Materials Surface Water Run-off Pollution Well-being Management Ecology
sustainability Energy/CO 2 Waste Water Materials Surface Water Run-off Pollution Well-being Management Ecology

Surface Water

Run-off

sustainability Energy/CO 2 Waste Water Materials Surface Water Run-off Pollution Well-being Management Ecology
sustainability Energy/CO 2 Waste Water Materials Surface Water Run-off Pollution Well-being Management Ecology
sustainability Energy/CO 2 Waste Water Materials Surface Water Run-off Pollution Well-being Management Ecology
sustainability Energy/CO 2 Waste Water Materials Surface Water Run-off Pollution Well-being Management Ecology
sustainability Energy/CO 2 Waste Water Materials Surface Water Run-off Pollution Well-being Management Ecology

Pollution

Well-being

Management

Ecology

The Barratt CSH code level six house

The Barratt CSH code level six house
The Lighthouse

The Lighthouse

The Lighthouse
The Lighthouse
The Lighthouse
The Lighthouse
The Lighthouse

Environmentally Friendly Buildings

Environmentally Friendly Buildings

Environmentally Friendly Buildings

Environmentally Friendly Buildings
Environmentally Friendly Buildings

Sustainable Architecture

Buildings have a huge impact on the environment

Reduce building energy use

through passive means -

site planning

daylight solar gain

natural ventilation

thermal insulation

thermal mass

air tightness low energy building materials

daylight solar gain natural ventilation thermal insulation thermal mass air tightness low energy building materials
daylight solar gain natural ventilation thermal insulation thermal mass air tightness low energy building materials
daylight solar gain natural ventilation thermal insulation thermal mass air tightness low energy building materials