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0For the successful completion of the project, I would like to thank first of all my social science teacher [teacher’s name] who introduced me to this project and incepted me with the idea of how to proceed with the project. This project definitely would have not been a successful project without his assistance and vigilance. There are many other people whom I would like to thank. First of all I would like to thank my elder brother who helped me a lot while I was on the go with the project. He assisted me every time I needed. I would also like to thank my parents for helping me in the project with their own ideas and suggestions. I would like to then thank [if you have a family doctor or a doctor friend], a doctor friend of mine who helped me in the project providing details about various things. Again, I would like to thank the above mentioned people. Without them, this project could not have been the way it is. Your signature. Contents Make the table of contents according to the chapters and page number. Foreword We know what the value of our life is. But, there are situations in which it falls in danger and sometimes, without appropriate steps that need to be taken, lives are lost. “A drop of water is more valuable to a man who is thirsty, nearing to death than a tumbler full of water when he is dead.” Yes, in most of the cases of injury, if first aid is provided successfully, the dangers to life are reduced to less than 60%. However, in most of the cases in which the injured is serious, lack of first aid leads the injured to his last breath. This project has been intentioned to be viewed as a pocket first aid guide which can be used for reference during emergencies. Readers may find guidelines, which contain steps that need to be taken to give first aid for fractures, poisoning, cuts, burns and a lot of other cases in which first aid can prove to be the life saving action. What is First Aid? First Aid is a set of measures which need to be taken in order to prevent any further harm being done to the body of an injured person in case of an accidental injury. First aid has three main objectives – 1. To preserve life of the injured – Definitely, the main objective of providing first aid to the injured is that life of the injured can be saved. The life of the injured must not be lost just because no one was there to provide first aid – this is the main objective of first aid. 2. To prevent deterioration of the condition – The first aider needs to make sure that the condition of the injured does not deteriorate otherwise the first objective might fail. 3. To promote recovery of the injured – If the first and the second objectives are successfully met, then the first aid provider must try to take the injured to the doctor in case of availability. Otherwise, he / she must try his best to do what he / she can do in order to support recovery of the injured. Essence of a First Aid Kit To provide the needy with first aid properly, one needs to have a good first aid kit which contains the essential things which might be needed while providing first aid to the injured. A good first aid kit must contain the following things in side it – • Adhesive tape • Crepe bandage • Cotton • Wool • Sterile Dressing • Soap • Gloves • Scissors • Thermometer • Pain Killer • Antacid • Mineral Water (to be renewed regularly) • Triangular Bandage • ORS Packets • Antiseptic Liquid Disinfectant like Dettol or Savalon A first aid kit can be made in any kind of box. One can use a shoe box to make a first aid kit too. However, it is to be kept in mind that the first aid box must be clean. First Aid for Different Injuries and Circumstances In this column, one can find first aid measures for different types of injuries and circumstances. One of the very important steps is calling for the emergency help or calling for the ambulance in all the cases. It has not been included one by one in all the cases or injuries. First Aid for Fractures In case of fractures or broken bone, one should do the following as the steps of providing first aid – 1. Stop any bleeding – In case there is any bleeding nearby the fractured area, the first aid provider must try to stop it by applying pressure on the wound with clean, sterile bandage or a clean cloth like a clean handkerchief. 2. Immobilize the fractured part – The fractured area must not be moved or tried to be realigned or pushed. Until and unless the first aid provider is an expert or a professional, the fractured part must not be manually tried to be adjusted. If the provider is an expert and knows how to fit a splint, a splint must be tried to be fitted. 3. Apply ice – A mass of ice must be applied to the fractured area in order to limit the swelling and help the injured person to get a bit of relieve until the arrival of emergency help. The ice must not be applied directly, but must be wrapped in a towel or any other piece of cloth and then must be applied. 4. Treating for shock – If the person is getting unconscious or is fainting, then the person must be treated with mouth to mouth breaths, and must be tried to lay down with the legs, slightly raised. 5. Padding or Support – The wound can also be supported with padding so as to relax the injured. First Aid for Poisoning In case of poisoning, the following first aid measures can be taken – 1. Fresh air – If the person has inhaled the poison, then he must be allowed to intake fresh air immediately, as soon as possible. 2. Removal from the mouth – In case the victim has swallowed the poison, anything which remains in his mouth, must be removed immediately. 3. Dilution – In case of intake of poison through mouth, the person must be made to drink water or milk in order to dilute the poison. 4. Requesting directions from control centre – If the poison is a household cleaner or some other chemical then one should try to call up the control centre through the phone number supplied on the back of the container and directions must be requested. 5. CPR – If the person suffers from breathing problems, then he must be aided with CPR. CPR or Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a process which is attempted in an effort to bring someone who is showing no signs of circulation, back to life. This can involve chest compressions at 100 compressions or more per minute and artificial (mouth to mouth) respiration. 6. Cleaning – If the poison has spilled off on the cloth, skin or eyes of the person, then the person’s cloth, skin or eye must be cleaned with regular showers of lukewarm water for about 20 minutes. First Aid for Cuts The following steps must be undertaken in case of a cut 1. Stopping the bleeding – In case of a cut, if the bleeding of the wound does not stop itself in a few minutes, then gentle pressure with a piece of clean cloth or bandage, must be applied. 2. Cleaning – The wound must be cleaned with fresh water. If available, a Antiseptic Liquid Disinfectant must be used to clean the wound. Debris and dirt should be carefully removed without troubling the injured. The hands of the cleaner must be sterilized or gloves should be used. 3. Antibiotic or Ointment – After cleaning the wound, a thin layer of antibiotic or ointment like Neosporin must be applied. 4. Bandaging– After cleaning and applying ointment on the wound, a sterile bandage must be used to cover the wound, carefully. 5. Stitches – For deep wounds, the first aid provider must seek help and get the deep wounds stitched if possible. 6. Tetanus – If one suspects that the cut has been caused by some dangerous, rusted thing, then the injured person must be given a tetanus shot or tetanus injection too. First Aid for Burns There are three levels or degrees of burns – 1. First Degree – In this, only the outer layer of the skin is burnt. 2. Second Degree – In this, the first and the second layer of the skin are burnt 3. Third Degree – In this, all the layers of the skin can get burnt. Tissues can be burnt permanently and elements like fats, muscles and bones can also get burnt. It is the most serious case of burns. For minor burns (first and second degree), the following first aid measures can be taken – 1. Cooling the burn – The burnt area must be cooled using running water or cool water (not too much cool) for about 20 minutes. If this does not reduce the pain, the burnt area can be left immersed in the water. 2. Bandage and pain relieve – The burnt area can be next, bandaged loosely and blistered skin must be protected. Pain relievers like aspirin can be given to the injured if he is not allergic to it. Ice must not be applied and blistered skin should be taken care of. For major burns (third degree), the following aids can be given – 1. Burned clothing – The burnt clothing must not be removed off the skin but heating or smouldering materials must be removed. 2. No cold water – Cold water must not be used in case of serious burns. This can deteriorate body temperature, blood pressure and circulation. 3. CPR – If there is no breathing or no sign of circulation or movement, then CPR must be initiated. 4. Covering the area – The burnt area must be covered with moist, sterile cloth like towels. 5. Elevation – The body must be elevated, if possible, above the chest portion. First Aid for Heat and Cold Wave Heat wave or heat stroke is also known as sunstroke or hyperthermia. This is generally caused due to excessive exercise during high temperature conditions and high humidity and inadequate water supply. Also, heat waves like loo winds can be the reason. Following steps can be taken as first aid for heat waves – 1. Air Conditioning – The person suffering from heat wave must be instantly brought to an air conditioned ambience. Though fans would work too, but air conditioners would be more effective. 2. Mineral drinks - If the person is not allergic to any of these drinks, then he must be provided with sherbet or mineral drinks. 3. Cramps - If the person feels that he is having cramps, the area where he feels the cramp is must be massaged and must be transferred to a cool place. Cold waves or hypothermia is a condition when the body loses a lot of its heat. Following are the first aid measures to be taken for cold wave – 1. Blanket - The person suffering from cold wave must be provided with a blanket. 2. Hot Drinks – The person can be provided with hot drinks like tea, coffee etc. Also, he can be provided with soup and broth. 3. Hot water bath – The person can be arranged for a hot water bath. This is effective in increasing the temperature of the body. First Aid for Fainting If oneself faints, the person must lie down with head between the knees. If someone else faints, then the following steps can be taken – 1. Positioning the person – The person must be positioned on his back with the leg’s elevated above the chest level. He must not be made to get up too quickly. 2. CPR – If the signs of circulation like breathing, movement, coughing, etc. are absent, then the CPR must be initiated. First Aid for Heart Attack The following aids can be very helpful during a heart attack – 1. Aspirin – If the person who has got heart attack is not allergic to aspirin, he must be asked to swallow (if possible, after chewing) an aspirin. 2. Nitroglycerin – If the person has suffered from heart attack before too and has been prescribed nitroglycerin by the doctor, he can be asked to take it as directed and other people’s nitroglycerin must not be taken. 3. CPR - In case the signs of circulation are absent, and the person is unconscious, then CPR must be immediately initiated. First Aid Awareness Campaign Strategy for Illiterate People In order to make a social project more effective, it is very much needed that the masses are aware of the project. To make illiterate people aware about something like first aid is very much important because awareness of first aid can be very helpful if an illiterate man comes up to be a first aider someday. I would take the following steps to spread awareness about first aid among illiterate people – 1. A story – An Example – First of all, I would tell them a short story like this – Sheela was working for late hours in her office as she was doing overtime job. There were only a couple of more people who were in her office. As she began to go, a short circuit took place and her cabin caught fire. She was badly burnt. But, to her rescue came the sweeper Arjun, of the office who knew something about how to provide the first aid to a badly burnt person. He provided Sheela with first aid and took her to the doctor. She was burnt badly but her life was saved. For the good work, Arjun was awarded. 2. Need of First Aid – After telling them the story, I would tell them about what the need of first aid is and how useful it can be at instances. 3. Introduction to First Aid by a doctor – I would approach a local doctor who agrees with me on introducing these illiterate people about the first aid. I would ask him to give a speech to the people and tell them about the first aid. 4. How to give First Aid – Next, I would introduce them to the methods of giving first aid to the victim in case of different situations, as mentioned in this pocket guide. This will help them be informed on how to give first aid, in case, someday needed. 5. Preparation of First Aid Kit – I would ask them all to prepare a good first aid kit and after prepared, will ask them to show it to me and I would approve them if they are fine and will bring them to correction if not. These are what I will do in order to make illiterate people aware about the first aid. Conclusion As the concluding part of this project, I would like to say that – “Without proper action at proper time, danger awaits us with a bigger face.” We must act on time when a person is injured. We must take care of the person the way it is meant. Otherwise, a valuable life might be lost. We need to understand how precious lives of people are and what importance first aid carries in saving these precious lives. If this project imparts this idea in even one person, I would think that the project has been successful. Bibliography Following are the sources which have been used in the successful completion of this project – 1. www.thetrozone.com 2. other sources (go on mentioning one by one)