Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 228

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS

Universidad del Per, DECANA DE AMRICA


FACULTAD DE EDUCACIN
Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin
Ttulo Pedaggico en Lengua Extranjera
Fontica y Fonologa del
idioma ingls ii
Yony Crdenas Cornelio


FACULTAD DE EDUCACIN
DECANO
Dr. Carlos Barriga Hernndez
DIRECTORA ACADMICA
Dra. Elsa Barrientos Jimnez
DIRECTOR ADMINISTRATIVO
Prof. Enrique Prez Zevallos
PROGRAMA DE LICENCIATURA PARA PROFESORES SIN
TTULO PEDAGGICO EN LENGUA EXTRANJERA
DIRECTORA
Mg. Mara Emperatriz Escalante Lpez
COMIT DIRECTIVO
Dra. Edith Reyes de Rojas
Lic. Walter Gutirrez Gutirrez
Yoni Crdenas Cornelio
Fontica y Fonologa del Ingls II
Serie: Textos para el Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin Ttulo Pedaggico en Lengua Extranjera
Primera edicin
Lima, febrero de 2009
Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin Ttulo Pedaggico en Lengua Extranjera Facultad de Educacin,
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos
Av. Germn Amzaga s/n. Lima 1, Ciudad Universitaria de UNMSM- Pabelln Administrativo de la Facultad de Educacin - 2.
piso, ofcina 203
Telfono: 619-7000 anexos 3021, 3022 / E-mail: prog_idiomas_edu@unmsm.edu.pe
Website: www.unmsm.edu.pe/educacion/licenciatura/index.htm
Ilustracin de cartula: David A. Villanueva
Diseo, diagramacin e impresin: Centro de Produccin Editorial e Imprenta de la UNMSM
Este libro es propiedad del Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin ttulo Pedaggico en Lengua Extranjera de la
Facultad de Educacin de La Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Ninguna parte de este libro puede ser reproducida
o utilizada por cualquier medio, sea ste electrnico, mecnico o cualquier otro medio inventado, sin permiso por escrito de
los editores.
Table of contents
INTRODUCTION. 7

Acknowledgments. 8
English vowels and consonants (Review). 9
UNIT I
Phonological processes
1.1. Assimilation. 15
1.2. Elision. 19
1.3. Dissimilation. 23
1.4. Insertion or epenphesis. 23
1.5. Neutralization. 24
1.6. Gemination. 24
ACTIVITY. 28
UNIT II
Stress, word stress, stressed syllable, sentence stress and English rhythm
2.1. Word stress. 33
2.2. Types of stress. 33
2.3. Word stress in English. 34
2.4. Importance of word stress. 35
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 4 -
2.5. Rules of word stress in English. 36
2.6. Syllable stress. 45
2.7. Sentence stress. 47
2.8. Sentence rhythm. 52
ACTIVITY. 57
UNIT III
Connected speech
3.1. Assimilation. 61
3.2. Compounds and phrases. 67
3.3. Double consonant sounds. 68
3.4. Double consonants letters. 67
3.5. Elision. 69
3.6. R Liaison. 71
3.7. Stress shift. 71
3.8. T-voicing. 72
3.9. Weak forms. 73
3.10. Weak vowels. 75
3.11. Word linking. 76
ACTIVITY. 80
UNIT IV
Suprasegmental Phonology
4.1. Prosodic features: intonation, stress, tone, pitch and length 85
4.2. Kinds of intonation by Mimi Ponsonby 94
4.2.1. Intonation 1: The rising-falling pattern (Statements, Wh-question). 94
4.2.2. Intonation 2: The falling-rising pattern (Yes / No question, request
for repetition, greetings). 97
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 5 -
4.2.3. Intonation 3: Combined patterns (pausing in the middle, lists, doubt,
apology, etc). 100
4.2.4. Intonation 4: Tag questions. 103
4.2.5. Weak forms, linking and elision (Review 1). 106
4.2.6. Weak forms, linking, tag question, intonation, syllable stress and
rhythm (Review 2). 108
4.2.7. Stress, consecutive stress, the shifting tonic, linking, elision, weak
forms (Review 3). 111
4.2.8. Rhythm and jingles. American light verse: A contemporary selection. 114
ACTIvITy. 130
UNIT V
The english syllable
5.1. Definition. 135
5.2. Kinds of syllable in the process of syllabification. 135
5.3. The structure of the syllabe (by Turncer Cam). 136
5.4. Kinds of syllabes according to its structure. 137
5.5. Syllabification. 137
5.6. Rules for phonetic syllabification. 138
5.7. Rules for ortographic syllabification. 142
5.8. Diphthongs. 142
5.9. Crescendo diphthongs. 147
5.10. Syllabic consonants. 147
5.11. Articulation. 148
5.12. Co articulation. 149
5.13. Breaking. 149
ACTIVITY. 151
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 6 -
UNIT VI
Selected reading
6.1. Global english and the teaching of pronunciation. 155
6.2. Rhythm. 158
6.3. Developing pronunciation through songs. 162
6.4. Teaching the schwa. 168
6.5. Intonation. 171
6.6. Word stress. 175
6.7. Connected speech (1 and 2). 180
6.8. English sentence stress. 188
6.9. Integrating pronunciation into classroom activities. 191
6.10. Teaching pronunciation with phonemic symbols. 195
6.11. Pronunciation chart activities. 199
6.12. Practicing pronunciation through proverbs. 204
KEY. 207
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 225
Introduction
This book aims at deepening the study of English Phonetics and Phonology
focusing on suprasegmental aspects of the language, phonological processes
and application of the theory in the classroom, in order to help teachers to speak
with appropriate stress and intonation and avoid being misunderstood..
In this anthology we have selected burning and attractive articles written by
different authors, all of them, well known all over the world. Among these
articles, we have included phonological processes such as assimilation,
elision, epenthesis or insertion, neutralization, germination and other important
processes considered in language learning.
Word stress, types of stress, importance of word stress, sentence stress and
rules for stressing correctly were considered in the second unit.
Different aspects such as elision, linking, assimilation, R liaison, stress shift,
T voicing and weak forms, all of them connected with spoken language were
considered in the third unit.
In the fourth unit we have considered basic information about suprasegmental
phonology (intonation, stress, tone pitch and length), then we concentrated
on kinds of intonation with lots of exercises, following mainly ideas found the
book How now, Brown cow?, Written by Mimi Ponsonby.
In the fifth unit we have considered the study of the English syllable, its structure
and some rules for syllabification. We have also developed important aspects
related diphthongs, syllabic consonants, articulation and co articulation among
others.
Finally, in the sixth unit, we have considered basic and interesting reading
materials for deepening what we have been doing in the earlier chapters.
Most of these articles in chapter sixth are owned by the British Council BBC
and they were first published on the http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/tink/
articles website. Global English, Intonation, connected speech and rhythm
are some of these interesting materials that are used free of charge. Other
important websites were also used to prepare this anthology and they are at
the end of each unit and in the bibliography at the end of the book.
YonY Crdenas Cornelio
Acknowledgements
First and foremost our thanks to our dear students from the specialty of English
who took the course of English Phonetics and Phonology at Universidad
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, classes of 96, 97 and 98, 99 regular and
upgrading courses. They were the ones who in a way made us think that
something else was needed in the course and this book is the result of it,
completing the practical aspect of the course. At the same time I would like
to give my deepest recognition to Peter Roach, Mimi Ponsonby, Anne Baker,
Joanne Kenworthy, Scott Thornbury, Michael Vaughan-Rees, Adrian Underhill,
Daniel Jones (English Pronunciation Dictionary, 91), J C Wells (Longman
Pronunciation Dictionary, 90), among others, for providing us clear theory on
this matter, and that allowed us to complete with the practical aspect of the
course, making it comprehensible and easy to be understood.
We would also like to thank our friends Carmen Caceda Cordoba, a colleague
of mine from whom I have learned to become a dedicated professional in
ELT, to the seniorest of all, Rosalyn Hurst, my English trainer, who is always
clarifying our doubts, to David Villanueva for always being ready to solve our
computer illiteracy, as well as for being in charge of the correction. To our
families, especially my husband Mr. Alfredo Villanueva for not complaining
and understanding the work even during holidays, to our friends who can not
be mentioned individually but who are always with us being sources of ideas.
Last but not least, to our university for supporting us in the developing of this
book as a way to improve the professional development of the ELT in Peru.
We also want to thank University of San Marcos professors Dr. Gustavo Sols
Fonseca, Dr. Flix Quesada and Dr. Ada Mendoza Cuba, and professors
Ricardo Floyd P., Anglika Marsch and Andrs Easthouse from Universidad
de Lima from whom we have learned a lot in the summer courses.
Special thanks to Mrs. Maria Escalante Lpez, Director of the Foreign
Language School for giving us the chance of organising, reviewing, designing
and redesigning this specialised book, which is going to help English Teachers
in the Program of Lisenced of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Education, and
National University of San Marcos.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 9 -

ENglISh VowElS aNd CoNSoNaNTS (REVIEw)
The vowels
long vowels Short vowels
i:
a:
u:
o:
s:
sheep
far
fool
horse
bird
I

o
b
t
ship
hat
foot
sock (UK)
cup
e
e
a
s
head
above
mother (US)
worm (US)
The consonants
Voiced Voiceless
b
d
g
v

z

g
l
r
j
w
m
n

book
day
give
very
the
zoo
vision
jump
look
run
yes
we
moon
name
sing
p
t
k
f
0
s
[

pen
town
cat
fish
think
say
she
cheese
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 10 -
diphthongs
eI
day
aI
eye
oI boy
ao
mouth
eo nose (UK)
oo
nose (US)
Ie ear (UK)
ee hair (UK)
oe pure (UK)
other symbols
h
/hnd/
hand

~
b
/kws.b/
croissant (UK)
i
/hp.i/
happy

/bt.a/
butter (US)
u
/,In.fluen.ze/
influenza
!
/lIt.!/
little
e
l,
e
m,
e
n can be pronounced either: el or !, etc.:
r
<>
/leI.b
e
l/ = /leI.bel/ or /leI.b!/
linking r is pronounced only before a vowel in British English:
fo:
r
: fo:rp.!z
four : four apples

Main stress /,ek.spekteI[


e
n/ expectation
,
secondary stress /,ri:tel/ retell
.
syllable division /sIs.tem/ system
Source: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/help/phonetics.ht
~
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 11 -
Before we star with our course, it is necessary to review the basic consonant and vowel
charts.
Table 1
Manner of
articulation
Point of articulation
Bilabial labiodental Interdental alveolar alveopalatal Velar
Stops
Voiceless
Voiced
/p/
/b/
. .
/t/
/d/
.
/k/
/g/
Fricatives
Voiceless
Voiced
.
/f/
/v/
/q/
//
/s/
/z/
/[/
//
/h/
affricates
Voiceless
Voiced
. . . .
//
/g/
Nasals /m/ . . /n/ . //
lateral . . . /l/ . .
Semivowels /w/ . . /r/ /j/ .
Table 2. Modern English Vowels.
Vowels diphthongs
Front Central Back /Ie/ ear /aI/ fly
high
/i:/
/i/ /o/
/u:/

/ee/
/oe/
air
insure
/oI/
/eo/
boy
go
Mid /e/ /e/ /s:/ /o:/ /eI/ way /ao/ now
low
//
/t/ /a:/ /b/
(Rogers, 2000)
oBjECTIVES
1. Be aware of the principal phonological processes of assimilation and
elision.
2. Understand the processes of dissimilation, epenthesis or insertion
behind the connected speech.
3. Understand the process of neutralization and germination.
4. Have an overview about other phonological processes.
5. apply these rules into the exercises to understand the processes.
UNIT I
PhoNoLogICAL ProCEssEs
PhoNologICal PRoCESSES
There are different kinds of processes in all languages, but the most relevant in English and
for language teachers are:
assimilation /e,sIm.IleI.[en/
Colleen Richey establishes (97) that assimilation is a phonological process where a phone
becomes similar to a nearby phone. It is found in all languages which cause speech sounds
to be modified in a way which makes them more similar to their neighbours. A well-known
example is that of English alveolar consonants such as /t, d, n/ which, when they are followed
by a consonant which does not have alveolar place of articulation, tend to adopt the place of
articulation of the following consonant.
Lets take a look at the English prefix {in}
[Im] [In] [I]
I[m]potent i[n]direct i[]conclusive
I[m]partial i[n]dependent i[]considerate
I[m]possible i[n]tolerance i[]correct
I[m]practical i[n]sufferable i[]complete
I[m]mature i[n]sufficient i[n]convenient
The nasal in the prefix in- has the same place of articulation as the following consonant:
[ m ] before [p, b, m] (bilabials)
[ n ] before [t, d, s] (alveolars)
[ ] before [k, g] (velars)
We say: the nasal assimilates in place of articulation to the following consonant.
Consider the following data:
I[ n ] advisable i[ n ]take
I[ n ]animate i[ n ]direct
I[ n ]ordinate i[ n ]secure
Based on these data, [in] occurs in the most environments: before vowels, t, d, and s.
Therefore, we want to say that the underlying form of the prefix is /In/
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 16 -
/In/ [Im] / ___ bilabial consonants
[I] / ___ velar consonants
[In] elsewhere
1.1.1. direction of assimilation
Assimilation is type of co articulation. It is the alteration of a speech sound to make it
more similar to its neighbours. Assimilation, then, is concerned with one sound becoming
phonetically similar to an adjacent sound.
a. There are two kinds of assimilation
Regressive assimilation. When the assimilation is backward, then the phone assimilates
to a preceding phone, this is, one segment influences another that precedes it.
The sound that changes is called the assimilated sound or the target.
The sound that causes the change is called the conditioning sound or trigger. Two
sounds that have the same place or articulation are called homorganic.
Assimilated sound Conditioning sound
/p/ /b/
football /fot.bo:l/ /fop.bo:l/
1. Thus the /t/ at the end of the foot /fot/ change to /p/ when followed by /b/ in the word
football, giving the pronunciation /fop.bo:l/ .
football /fot.bo:l/ /fop. bo:l/
/t/ /p/ / - bilabial sounds
/t/ assimilates to /p/ before bilabial sounds.
Lets see some regressive assimilation processes:
2. A similar case is the assimilation of /s/ to a following /[/ or /j/, resulting in the
pronunciation of this ship as / I[[Ip/ and this year as / I[jIer/. This assimilation
can be considered to be optional and is called regressive assimilation, this is, and
the fricative alveopalatal /[/ is passing its characteristics to the preceding sound
phoneme /s/, the same as the continuant alveopalatal /j/.
this ship /Is[Ip/ /I[[Ip/ and
this year /IsjIer/ /I[jIer/.
/s/ / [ [ ] / - [
/s/ / [ [ ] / - j
The /s/ is assimilated to / [ / before / [ / or / j /
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 17 -
3. The assimilation of /n/ is a rather special case: many English words begin with the
prefixes in- and un-, and in a number of cases the /n/ of these prefixes is followed
by a consonant which is not alveolar. In some cases it seems to be normal that the
/n/ is regularly assimilated to the place of articulation of the following consonants
(e.g. inquest / i. kwest/), while in others this assimilation is optional (for example:
incautious may be /inko:.[es/ or /iko:.[es/. Where it is clear that the prefix is
attached to a word that exists independently, so that prefix and stem are easily
separable, the assimilation is normally treated as optional. When it seems more like
an integral part of the word, the assimilation is shown as obligatory. See the rules:
A) incautious can be transcribed as /inko:.[es/ or /iko:.[es/, being the assimilation
optional because the prefix and the stem are easily separable.
n [ or n] - k (optional)
- g
B) inquest / /i. kwest/. The prefix In is an integral part of the word.
n [] / - k (obligatory)
In B the assimilation is obligatory because in is an integral part of the word Inquest
/i.kwest/, that means an official attempt by the court to find out the cause on
someones death.
Source: Daniel Jones, English Pronunciation dictionary, 94
4. The alveolar consonants /t, d, n/ when they occur at the end of a word or syllable, can
optionally assimilate to the place of articulation of the consonant at the beginning of
the next syllable.
Thus /n/ can become bilabial m before the bilabials /p, b, m/ as in the examples:
ten men /,te[n] men/ /,te[m] men/
downbeat /dao[n] bi:t/ /dao[m] bi:t/
/n/ [m] / ___m, b (bilabials) (optional)
5. In the same way d can change to b and g respectively, as in
red paint /,red peint / /,reb peint/
admit /ed mIt / /eb mIt/
bad guys /bd ,gaiz/ /bg ,gaIz/
/d/ [b] -p
-m
/d/ [g] / -g
It is also possible for t to change to p and k respectively, though a more frequent
possibility is for t to be realized as glottal stop when followed by another
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 18 -
consonant. / ? /. A glottal voiceless sound produced by the closure of the vocal
cords.
eight boys /,eit boiz/ /,ei?boiz/ (,eipboiz)
t ? / - Consonant
6. In the same way s and z can change to [ and respectively, but only before [ or j at
the beginning of the next syllable. In you, youre the j may disappear.
this shape /,Is[eIp/ [,I[[eIp]
these shoes /,i:z[u:z/ [,i:[u:z]
unless you /,enlesju/ [,enles[ju[
as you see /,zjusi: / [,usi:]

B. Progressive assimilation
When assimilation is forward, this is rightward; the assimilation is to a following phone.
Conditioning sound Assimilated sound
Assimilation can also operate in the other direction (progressive assimilation); that is,
alveolar consonants sometimes assimilate to the place of articulation of the consonants,
at the end of the preceding syllable. In English this applies only to syllabic n, changing it
to syllabic m or depending on the place of the preceding plosive.
ribbon /rIbn/ [rIbm]
(Note that although ribbon /rIb en/ can also be pronounced /riben/, with a phonetic
vowel between the b and n, then, this assimilation can operate only if the two consonants
are in direct contact, without any phonetic e between them).
bacon /beik n/ [beik]
up and down /,tp n daon/ [,tp m daon]
This kind of assimilation cannot apply when the following sound is a vowel.
happens hp nz [hp mz]
happen suddenly ,hp n std n li [,hp m std n li]
happening [hp n I] (cannot assimilate)
n m / p-
More examples on assimilation
1. Yod coalescence (or coalescent assimilation) is the process which changes t or d plus j
into or g respectively. Across word boundaries, in standard accents it mainly affects
phrases involving you or your.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 19 -
let you out ,let juaot ,let[uaot
would you try ,wodjutraI ,wogutraI
get your bags ,get jo: bgz ,get[o:bgz
2. Within a word, the status of yod coalescence depends on whether the following vowel is
strong or weak.
-Where the vowel is strong I, e, u:, or oe, yod coalescence can frequently be heard in
Be E, although it is not considered standard. In AmE there is usually no j present, so the
possibility of assimilation does not arise.
tune tju:n t[u:n
endure Indjoe ingoe
factual f ktjuel f k[uel
educate edjukeIt egukeIt
3. Historically, a process of yod coalescence is the origin of the used by all speakers in
words such as nature, and of the g in words such as religion.
Similarly, yod coalescence involving fricatives ( sj [; zj ) explains the [ in words
such as pressure, delicious patient, Russian, and the in words such as measure. For
example, delicious dIlI [es came to English from Latin, via French delicieux delisjo; but
the sj coalesced into [ several centuries ago.
/pre[.er, dIlI[.es, peI.[ent, rt[.en, mee/
Source: Logman Pronunciation dictionary.
1.2. Elision /elI[en/
1. Elision is the omission (= deletion) of a sound that would otherwise be present. It is
particularly characteristic of rapid or casual speech. It is not random, but follows certain
rules, which differ from one language to another.
Elision, then, is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or
a whole syllable) in a word or phrase, producing a result that is easier for the speaker
to pronounce. Sometimes, sounds may be elided for euphonic effect. (Pleasant or
harmonious sound). English does not often show elision in writing.
The elided form of a word or phrase may become a standard alternative for the full
form, if used often enough. In English, this is called a contraction, such as cant from
cannot. Contraction differs from elision in that contractions are set forms that have
morphologized, but elisions are not.
Examples of elision in English.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 20 -
comfortable: /ktpfatebel/ /ktpftabel/
fifth: /fIf/ /fI/
him: /hIm/ /Im/
laboratory: /lboretori/
/lbretori/ (American english),
/leboretri/ (British english)
temperature: /tsmperet[a/ /tsmpat[a/, /tsmpret[a/
vegetable: /vsdetebel/ /vsdtebel/
A synonym for elision is syncope /sI.kepI/. This term is most often associated with the
elision of vowels between consonants.
e.g. Latin tabula Spanish tabla.
e.g. Eng. He has hes.
The opposite of elision is epenthesis /epent.esIs/, whereby sounds are inserted into
a word to ease pronunciation /i:/.
2. Some types of elision typically occur within a single syllable and therefore within a
word and they are represented by transcribing a second pronunciation. In English they
include.
2.1. The elision of t in st[ and of d in nd. Thus lunch /ltn/ may be pronounced
/ltn/ or, less commonly /ltn[/; strange streIng may be /streIng/ or,
less commonly, /streIn/ (Note that in a word such as enjoy /IngoI/, the
consonants are in different syllables and no elision is possible).
/ltn/
lunch /ltn/
/ltn[/
/estreIng/
strange /streIng/
/streIn/

2.2. The elision of p in mps, of t in nts, and of k in ks, kt. Thus jumped gtmpt may
be pronounced gtmpt, less commonly, /gtmt/; lynx lIks may be lIks or, less
commonly, lIs.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 21 -
3. other types of elision occur only at syllable boundaries. This applies both within
words and between words. They include the elision of t and d when surrounded by other
consonants, and the elision of e before a liquid.
3.1. Elision of a t or d is usually possible when it is preceded by one of certain consonants
at the end of a syllable, if the next syllable (or word ) starts with a consonant.
Under these conditions
t may be elided in ft, st, and less commonly in pt, kt, t[t, t, [t;
d may be elided in Id, nd and less commonly in bd, gd, dd, vd, d, zd, md, d.
Additionally, t is sometimes elided in the contracted negative-nt, no matter what
kind of sound follows.
- Next /nekst/ in isolation, or before a vowel sound, this word is Pronounced
/nekst/. But in a phrase such as next thing, next question it is often
pronounced /neks/, with elision of the t.
- Stand /stnd/ in Isolation, or before a vowel sound, this word is pronounced
stnd. But is a phrase such as stand clear, stand firm it is often pronounced
stn, with elision of the d.
- didnt /dident/ When followed by another word in a phrase this word is
sometimes pronounced /didn/, with elision of the t.
3.2. Elision of the e is often (though not always) possible when it is followed by a liquid
(= l or r) and then a weak vowel. This has the effect of making the liquid SYLLABIC.
unless COMPRESSION also occurs (in which case all trace of the e disappears).
See the example:
- Camera /km er e/ The full form is kmere. When e is elided, in the first
instance it makes the r syllabic: km r e. This is usually compressed to give
kmre. All these possibilities occur.
- Mother /mte/ / er In Br E r is usually inserted at the end of this word when
the following word begins with a vowel sound (R-liaison = non-rhothic accents,
when r is not pronounced). Hence mother and father becomes /,mter en
fa:e/.
The e of mother is now in a elision environment; hence the phrase can also be
pronounced /,mt r en fa:e/.
In AmE the full form is /,mtr en fa:er/, which can likewise become /,mt ren
fa:r/ by compression. This compressed form of mother does not occur when
the word said is isolation.
4. In casual speech e is also sometimes elided in the first syllable of a word in which the second
syllable is stressed and begins with a liquid. The initial syllable then undergoes compression.
Thus terrific terIfIk sometimes become trIfIk, or collide kelaId becomes klaId.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 22 -
The same applies to cases of apparent elision of e in some speakers occasional
pronunciation of words such as incident In,sedent, capacity KepsetI, where there
usually seems to be a compensatory lengthening of the preceding consonant, given the
effect of Ins:dent , Keps:tI.
5. Sometimes a pronunciation that was originally the result of elision has become the only
possibility for some speakers. Some people have Kmra as the only pronunciation for
camera, or pli:s as the only form for police.
For many English people it would feel very artificial to pronounce t in postman peosmen.
The elision can be:
a. aphresis or aphesis (Initial). Pronounced /efIerisIs/, when a consonant is
elided at the beginning of a word, as in coon for raccoon or till for until. It
is the loss of one or more sounds from the beginning of a word, especially the loss
of an unstressed vowel.
[k]nife pronounced /naIf/
acute > cute
[e]gyptian > gyptian > gypsy
[a]mend > mend
b. Syncope (Medial). Pronounced /sIkepI/. The loss of one or more sounds at the
interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
postman /peos. men/; oer for over, heavn for heaven, fish n chips.
1. The loss of any sound
old english hlford > english lord
english worcester, pronounced [woste]
english gloucester, pronounced [glbste]
2. Syncope in informal speech
Various sorts of colloquial reductions might be called syncope. Forms such
as didnt that are written with an apostrophe are, however, generally called
contractions:
english go[ing t]o > gonna
english wa[nt t]o > wanna
english did n[o]t > didnt
english do[nt k]no[w] > dunno
english I [woul]d [h]ave > Idve
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 23 -
c. apocope (Final). Pronounced /epbkepi/. It is the loss of one or more sounds from
the end of a word, and especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
I dont know /I duno/
postman /peos men/.
1.3. dissimilation /,dIsIm.IleI.[en/
Dissimilation is a phonological process that involves one of two similar or identical sounds
within a word becoming less like the other or even disappearing entirely. Because rs in
successive syllables are particularly difficult to pronounce, they frequently dissimilate. One
historical example of dissimilation is marble, from French marbre. In this case the second r
has dissimilated to l in order to prevent a repetition of the r and ease articulation.
marbre marble
Other contemporary examples of dissimilation include enterprise, governor, impropriety,
prerogative, surprise, and thermometer, in which there is a tendency for the first r to drop
out of the pronunciation resulting in
enterprise [en.te.praIz]
governor [gtv.en.er]
impropriety [,im.pe-praI.e.tI]
prerogative [pe-rbg.e.tIv]
surprise [se praIz]
thermometer [e mbm.I.te]
Note that other consonants besides r may be altered or omitted as a result of dissimilation,
such as n in government (gtv. en. ment].
Source: The American Heritage Book of English Usage. Copyright 1996 by Houghton
Mifflin Company. http://www.bartleby.com/64/C007/066.html
Dissimilation, then, is a phenomenon whereby similar consonant or vowel sounds in a word
becomes less similar. For example, when one /r/ sound occurs before another in the middle
of a word in rhotic dialects of English, the first tends to drop out, as in beserk for berserk,
supprise for surprise, paticular for particular, and govenor for governor (note this doesnt
affect the pronunciation of government, which has only one /r/).
1.4. Insertion or epenthesis /epent.e.sIs, inss:[en/
The epenthesis is the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of
a word or initial position. (phonetics).
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 24 -
It is also defined as the insertion of a phoneme, letter, or syllable into a word, usually to
satisfy the phonological constraints of a language or poetic context.
I speak english /aI espi:k iglI[/
He is a estudent /hi:z e estjudent/
1.5. Neutralization /,nju:trel.aIzeI.[en/
Two phonemes (= sounds whose difference has the power of distinguishing words) may, in
certain phonetic environments, not be distinguishable. We call this neutralization.
1.5.1. In most environments English /p/ and /b/ are in opposition; that is, they carry a potential
difference in meaning. This can be seen in the pair pin /pIn/ and bin /bIn/, cup /ktp/
and cub /ktb/. Note, however, that after /s/ the opposition is neutralized (since p here
has no ASPIRATION).We conventionally write spin /spIn/ phonemically as spIn ; but
since there is no possible difference between /p/ and /b/ here we could just as well
write /sbIn/.
1.5.2. One type of neutralization is symbolized explicitly in Longman Pronunciation
Dictionary (LPD) by the use of symbols i and u. The opposition between i: and I
operates in most environments, as seen in green /gri:n/ and grin /grIn/, leap /li:p/
and lip /lIp/. But there are two environments in which it is neutralized:
When the vowel is in a WEAK syllable at the end of a word ( or at the end of part
of a compound word of the stem) as in happy /hp.i/ valley /vl.i/, babies
/beIbiz/.
When the vowel is in a weak syllable before another vowel, as in radiation, /,reI.
dieI.[
e
n/, glorious, /glo:.ri.es/.
In these positions the traditional Received Pronunciation (Standard English) form is
I (a short vowel). But in fact some speakers use I, some use i: some, use something
intermediate or indeterminate, and some use fluctuate between the two possibilities.
The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (LPD) symbol i (a short vowel) reflects this.
Similarly, The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary LPD symbol /u/ represents the
neutralization of the opposition between u: and o. This neutralization is also found
in certain other weak syllables, for example in one pronunciation of stimulate /stIm.
ju.leIt/ (also stIm. je. leIt).
1.6. gemination /,gem.IneI.[en/
N (Noun) Doubling, duplication, repetition. Phonetics. the doubling of a consonantal sound.
Rhetoric. the immediate repetition of a word, phrase, etc., for rhetorical effect.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 25 -
Summary of important phonological processes in English:
1. assimilation /e,sIm.IleI.[en/. Sounds becoming more alike. These can be voicing,
manner or place. there is usually a conditioning factor and an effected sound. Example:
/fop.bo:l/.
2. Elision /elI[en/. It is the omission of a segment. It could be:
2.1. aphresis: deletion of first segment(s) of a word (initial). Example: around
round.
2.2. Syncope: deletion of segment(s) from the middle of a word or end of the syllable:
suppose -- sppose. (medial)
2.3. apocope: deletion of last segment(s) of a word (final). Example: breakfast
Breakfast.
3. Insertion (epenthesis) /inss:[en, epent.e.sIs/. Inserting segment(s) into a word:
example: [straik[ --[estraik].
4. Neutralization /nIutrelaIseI[en/. A contrast that usually exists in a language (like the
two vowels in bate and bet) is not realized in certain phonological environments as in this
case before /r/.
5. haplology /hplbl. e. gI/. It is defined as the elimination of a syllable when two
consecutive identical or similar syllables occur. The phenomenon was identified by
American philologist Maurice Bloomfield in the 20
th
century.
Conditions:
1) Syllables are both medial; and
2) The structure of the two syllables is similar.
Examples
English (colloquial):
Engla land > England
particularly > particuly
pierced-ear earrings > pierced earrings
probably > probly
6. gemination /gemine I[en/. A segment, vowel or consonant, becomes double long like
the /s/ in the phrase Miss Sandy. (Note that if her name were Miss Andie, the /s/ would
be shorter).
7. degemination /dIgemine I[en/. Two similar neighbouring consonants are reduced to
one single consonant, as in immature: the double /m/ in the spelling is pronounced as a
single /m/.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 26 -
8. Consonant harmony /kbsennt ha:menI/. One consonant becomes more like
another: often exactly alike as in a child saying gog for dog.
9. denasalization /dIneIzelaIzeI[en/. Removing the feature nasal from a segment
leaves you with a voiced stop at the same place of articulation. Imagine talking with a
stuffy nose. Example: nut -- dut.
10. devoicing /dIvoIsI/. A voiced segment becomes voiceless. Usually nothing else
changes as in vote -- fote.
11. Metathesis /metesIs/. It is responsible for the most common types of speech errors,
such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasghetti, ask as /ks/. Some other frequent
English pronunciations that display metathesis are:
/ks/ for ask (possibly the most common metathesis in English)
/sterIks/ for asterisk
/ktmfterbel/ for comfortable
/Interdjus/ for introduce
/Intregel/ for integral
/rsvelent/ for relevant
12. Nasalization /neIzelaIzeI[en/. In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound
while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the
production of the sound by the mouth. This usually applies to vowels as in the nasalization
of the vowel /a/ in pond. In the International Phonetic Alphabet nasalization is indicated
by printing a tilde above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: [] is the nasalized
equivalent of [a], and [ ] is the nasalized equivalent of [v]. The nasals consonants can
nasalize the vowels.
13. Palatalization /pletelaIzeI[en/. A sound, usually before a /j/ glide but often before a
high front vowel, is moved closer to the palat. miss you -- mishu or make Eve -- [mejciv]
where [c] is a palatal stop as in keep. Note that when alveolar stops palatalized, they
usually become africates.
14. Spirantization /spaIrentIzeI[en/ /[en/. Stops become fricatives, usually between
vowels. example ata -- asa. Only the manner changes here. Note though that place might
also change. Since there is no voiced bilabial fricative in English, when you spirantize a
[b] in english you often get [v].
15. Voicing assimilation /voIsI asimileI [en/. Segment becomes like another usually
adjacent segment, in voicing. Example ata -- [ada], have to -- hafta. vowel harmony:
Rare in English: one vowel becomes more like a nearby vowel.
16. Vowel reduction /vaolwl rI dek [en/. Vowels in unstressed syllables become shwa or
similar short lax vowel.
~
v
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 27 -
Observe the excercises and the processes in the each one:
1. He estudies english Insertion
2. He waited till 7 oclock Elision
3. They went to the fupbol Assimilation
4. Sorry, it is asks not aks Metathesis
5. It is the same to say happi: or happI Neutralization
BIBlIogRaPhY
Wells, J. C.
(1997) Pronunciation dictionary. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
Jones Daniels
(1997) English Pronunciation Dictionary. Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman.
CUP.
Anne C. Newton, Editor.
(1997) American light verse: A contemporary selection. English teaching forum,
a journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. Volumen XV,
Number 4.
Underhill, Adrian
(1994) Sound foundations. Oxford, Heineman English Language Teaching.
Cambridge University Press
(1995) International Cambridge dictionary of english. Cambridge University Press.
Cunninghan, Sarah and Bowler, Bill
(1991) Headway upper-intermedial pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
(1993) Headway intermedial pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/english/courses/eng718/phonprocesses.html
http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~llsroach/phon2/asscoareli-into.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elision
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissimilation
http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/m/a/mam1034/csd300.phonologicalprocesses.html
http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/Table3.htm
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 28 -
aCTIVITY
1. Mention some phonological processes and give examples.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
2. Give the rule for the assimilation process of the English prefix in- . Consider the following
examples i[m]practical, i[n]sufferable and i[]complete.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
3. How many kinds of assimilation do we have? Give an example.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
4. What do you understand by elision? Give an example. Why is it important in language
learning?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
5. Explain the phonological process of elision. Give some examples.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
6. Mention kinds of elision.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 29 -
7. Explain the yod coalescence as a process.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
8. Explain the process of dissimilation.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
9. Explain epenthesis or insertion of one or two sounds in the process of learning English.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
10. What do you understand by neutralization?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
11. What do you understand by elision? Give an example. Why is it important in language
learning?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
12. Explain epenthesis or insertion of one or two sounds in the process of learning English.
____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
13. What do you understand by neutralization?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
oBjECTIVES
1. Recognize the difference among word stress, syllable stress and
sentence stress.
2. Recognize types of stress.
3. Be aware of the importance of word stress and sentence stress.
4. Get familiar with rules of word stress in English.
5. Point out the importance of sentence stress and English rhythm.
UNIT II
sTrEss, sTrEssED syLLAbLE, worD sTrEss,
sENTENCE sTrEss AND ENgLIsh rhyThm
STRESS, STRESSEd SYllaBlE, woRd STRESS, SENTENCE STRESS aNd
ENglISh RhYThM
2.1. Word Stress is phonemic in English, this is the movement of stress in a word from
one position to another changes the meaning of the word. For example, the words desert
/dez.et/ and dessert /dI.zs:t/ are distinguished by stress, as are the noun a record /rek.o:d/
and the verb to record /rIko:d/.
Stressed syllables in English are louder than non-stressed syllables, as well as being
longer and having a higher pitch. They also tend to have a fuller realization than unstressed
syllables.
Examples of stress in English words, using boldface to represent stressed syllables, are
holiday, alone, admiration, confidential, degree, and weaker.
Ordinarily, grammatical words (auxiliary verbs, prepositions, pronouns, etc.) do not receive
stress, whereas content or lexical words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) must have
at least one stressed syllable.
English is a stress-timed language. That is, stressed syllables appear at a roughly
steady tempo (approximately fixed tempo), and non-stressed syllables are shortened to
accommodate this.
(a) Stress-timed language (Rhythm). See the example.
Taken from http://members.tripod.com/chifenchen/rhythm.htm
2.2. Types of stress
Traditional approaches describe English as having three degrees of stress: Primary ( ),
secondary ( , ) and unstressed. However, if stress is defined as relative respiratory force
(that is, it involves greater pressure from the lungs than unstressed syllables), as most
phoneticians argue, and is inherent in the word rather than the sentence (that is, it is lexical
rather than prosodic), then these traditional approaches combines two distinct processes:
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 34 -
a) Stress on the one hand, and
b) vowel reduction on the other. In this case, primary stress is actually prosodic stress,
whereas secondary stress is simple stress in some positions, and an unstressed but not
reduced vowel in others. Either way, there is a three-way phonemic distinction: Either
three degrees of stress, or else stressed, unstressed, and reduced.
In languages, such as Russian and English, vowel reduction may occur when a vowel
changes from a stressed to an unstressed position. In English, many unstressed vowels
reduce to schwa-like vowels, though the details vary with dialect.
Unit 2. Practice 1
Degrees of stress
words
Sentence
pattern
Stressed and
unstressed syllable
Reduced syllable
(The unstressed syllable changes to schwa)
Janet

janet gnIt / gnet
Elephant

Elephant elIfent / elefent
Jemina

JeMina gImaIna / gemaIna/
Mississipi
.
MissiSSipi .misIsIpI / .misesIpI
When a stressed syllable contains a pure vowel (rather than a diphthong), followed by a
single consonant and then another vowel, as in holiday, many native speakers feel that
the consonant belongs to the preceding stressed syllable, /hbl.i.deI/. However, when
the stressed vowel is a diphthong, as in admiration or weaker, speakers agree that the
consonant belongs to the following syllable: /dmireI[en/. (Phonetically, the vowel in weak
is also a diphthong, [ij].)
2.3. word stress in English
The word Stress in English is the magic key to understanding spoken English. Native
speakers of English use word stress naturally. Word stress is so natural for them that they
do not even know they use it.
Non-native speakers, who speak English to native speakers without using word stress,
encounter two problems:
1. They find it difficult to understand native speakers, especially those speaking fast.
2. The native speakers may find it difficult to understand them.
To understand word stress helps to understand what syllable is. Every word is made
from syllables.
Each word has one, two, three or more syllables.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 35 -
word number of syllables
dog
dog
/dg/
1
green
green
/gri:n/
1
quite
quite
/kwt/
1
quiet
qui-et
/kwa. t/
2
orange
or-ange
/or. n
2
table
ta-ble
/te. bl/
2
expensive
ex-pen-sive
/ek. spen.sv/
3
interesting
in-ter-est-ing
/n.tres. t/
(3 in fast speech)
4
realistic
re-a-lis-tic
,r. a. ls. tk
4
unexceptional
un-ex-cep-tion-al
/, n. k.sep. n.l/
5
Notice that (with a few rare exceptions) every syllable contains at least one vowel (a, e, i,
o, or u) or vowel sound.

2.4. Importance of word stress
Word stress is not used in all languages. Some languages, Japanese or French for example,
pronounce each syllable with eq-ual em-pha-sis. Other languages, English for example, use
word stress.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 36 -
Word stress is not an optional extra that you can add to the English language if you want.
It is part of the language! English speakers use word stress to communicate rapidly and
accurately, even in difficult conditions. If, for example, you do not hear a word clearly, you
can still understand the word because of the position of the stress.
Think again about the two words photograph and photographer. Now imagine that you
are speaking to somebody by telephone over a very bad line. You cannot hear clearly. In
fact, you hear only the first two syllables of one of these words, photo... Which word is it,
photograph or photographer? Of course, with word stress you will know immediately which
word it is because in reality you will hear either Photo... or phoTo... So without hearing the
whole word, you probably know what the word is ( Photo...graph or phoTo...grapher). Its
magic! (Of course, you also have the context of your conversation to help you.)
This is a simple example of how word stress helps us understand English. There are many,
many other examples, because we use word stress all the time, without thinking about it.
Example:
Decide which stress pattern do the words belong to and write it in the space?
Unit 2. Practice 2
Stress pattern

1. Manchester
2. Anthony
3. Jemina
4. elephant
5. Morocco
6. Amazon
7. Carpenter
8. happiness
2.5. Rules of word stress in English
In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength in one word.
We accentuate ONE syllable, this is, we say one syllable very loudly (big, strong, important)
and all the other syllables remain very quietly.
Lets take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic. Do they sound the
same when spoken? No. Because we accentuate (stress) ONE syllable in each word. And it
is not always the same syllable. So the shape of each word is different.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 37 -
Shape Total syllables Stressed syllable
Pho To gRaPh
3 #1
Pho To gRaPh ER
4 #2
Pho To gRaPh IC
4 #3
This happens in ALL words with 2 or more syllables: TEACHer, JaPAN, CHINa, aBOVE,
converSAtion, INteresting, imPORtant, deMAND, etCETera.
The syllables that are not stressed are weak or small or quiet. Native speakers of English
listen carefully for the STRESSED syllables, but not the weak syllables. If you use word
stress in your speech, you will instantly and automatically improve your pronunciation and
your comprehension.
Try to hear the stress in individual words each time you listen to English - on the radio or in
films for example. Your first step is to HEAR and recognise it. After that, you can USE it!
There are two very important rules about word stress:
1. one word, one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. So if you hear two stresses,
you have heard two words, not one word).
2. The stress is always on a vowel.
There are some rules about which syllable to stress. But...the rules are rather complicated!
Probably the best way to learn is from experience. Listen carefully to spoken English and try
to develop a feeling for the music of the language.
When you learn a new word, you should also learn its stress pattern. If you keep a vocabulary
book, make a note to show which syllable is stressed. If you do not know, you can look in a
dictionary. All dictionaries give the phonetic spelling of a word. This is where they show which
syllable is stressed, usually with an apostrophe () just before or just after the stressed syllable.
(The notes at the front of the dictionary will explain the system used.) Look at this example for
the word plastic. There are 2 syllables. Syllable #1 is stressed. Which one is correct?
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 38 -
Example
Phonetic spelling:
dictionary a
Phonetic spelling:
dictionary B
PLAS TIC
/plstik/ /pls tik/
There are two very simple rules about word stress:
1. one word has only one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. If you hear two
stresses, you hear two words. Two stresses cannot be one word. It is true that there can
be a secondary stress in some words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the
main [primary] stress, and is only used in long words).
2. we can only stress vowels, not consonants.
Here are some more, rather complicated, rules that can help you understand where to
put the stress. But do not rely on them too much, because there are many exceptions. It
is better to try to feel the music of the language and to add the stress naturally.
Rule 1. Stress on first syllable
Rule Example
Most 2-syllable nouns
PRESent, EXport, CHIna, Table
Most 2-syllable adjectives
PRESent, SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy
There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with a
change in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word. If we stress the
frst syllable, it is a noun (gift) or and adjective (opposite of absent). But if we stress the
second syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More examples: the words export, import,
contact and object can all be nouns or verbs depending on whether the stress is on the
frst or second syllable (www.englishclubtip.com).
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 39 -
Unit 2. Practice 3
Pronounce the words and provide the stress appropriately.
Import, object, pencil, ruler, lotion, tiger, lemon, mirror and disco.
Quickly, rapid, slowly, heavy, silly, bony, early and stormy.

Rule 2. Stress on last syllable
Rule Example
Most 2-syllable verbs
To preSENT, to exPORT, to decide, to beGIN
Unit 2. Practice 4 (Stress on last syllable)
Word stress. Read the words and pronounce them correctly providing the appropriate stress.
relax
destroy
depend
intent
collect
produce
invite
assist
repair
suggest
skate
research
survive
return
prefer
Rule 3. Phonemic stress.
There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change
with a change in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word. If
we stress the first syllable, it is a noun (gift) or and adjective (opposite of absent).
But if we stress the second syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More examples:
the words export, import, contact and object can all be nouns or verbs depending
on whether the stress is on the first or second syllable (www.englishclubtip.com).
Unit 2. Practice 5
Practice the following words that change the meaning by changing only the stress.
Stress in the first syllable Stress in the second syllable
Abstract (Adjevtive) abstract (Noun)
conduct (Noun) conduct (verb)
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 40 -
contract (noun) contract (verb)
contrast (noun) contrast (verb)
desert (noun) dessert (noun)
import (noun) import (verb)
Rule 4. Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end)
Rule Example
Words ending in ic GRAPHic, geoGRAPHic, geoLOGic
Words ending in sion and tion aTTENtion, revelation
Unit 2. Practice 6
Pronounce the words correctly and provide the right stress in A and B:
(penultimate = second from end)
a. Ending in ic
autographic
authentic
automatic
barbaric
boracic
autodidactic
autistic
axiomatic
basic
boric
acrylic
rhythmic
rubric
rustic
prosodic
B. Ending in -sion and tion: (penultimate = second from end)
-sion
admission
passion
tension
permission
adquisition
-tion
action
promotion
simulation
deduction
relation
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 41 -
Important note
For a few words, native English speakers dont always agree on where
to put the stress. For example, some people say teleVIsiom and others
say TELevison. Another example is CONtroversy and controversy (www.
englishclubtip.com).
Rule 5. Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
Rule Example
Words ending in cy, -ty, -phy and gy
deMOcracy, dependaBIlity, photography,
geOLogy
Words ending in al
CRItical, geoLOGical
Unit 2. Practice 7
A) Pronounce the words ending in cy correctly and provide the appropriate stress
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
adequacy
aristocracy
consistency
constancy
competency
agency
autocracy
consonancy
consultancy
conveniency
absorbency
adequacy
agency
ascendancy
bureaucracy
accountancy
advertency
aristocracy
autocracy
clemency
B) Pronounce the words ending in ty correctly and provide the appropriate stress.
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 42 -
ability
abnormality
absorbability
absurdity
audacity
austerity
automaticity
barbarity
bellicosity
benignity
bestiality
biodiversity
bioelectricity
biosafety
bisexuality
brutality
calamity
capability
carnality
catholicity
C) Pronounce the words ending in phy correctly and provide the adequate stress.
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
autography
biography
cardiography
cosmography
encephalography
bibliography
calligraphy
chronography
crystallography
historiography
geography
filmography
ethnography
idiography
mammography
mythography
oscillography
petrography
philosophy
radiography
d) Pronounce the words correctly ending in gy correctly and provide the adequate
stress.
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
allergy
anthology
astrology
biotechnology
chronology
analogy
apology
astrobiology
cardiology
climatology
genealogy
histology
hydrology
ideology
immunology
laryngology
lexicology
monology
morphology
musicology
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 43 -
E) Pronounce the words correctly ending in al
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
abdominal
aboriginal
philosophical
acquisitional
additional
aesthetical
aeronautical
agrichemical
agricultural
alphabetical
analytical
compositional
computational
epidemiological
noninflectional
nonmarital
psychological
professional
monolitical
nonpractical
Rule 6. Compound words (words with two parts)
Rule Example
a) For compound nouns, the stress is
on the first part
BLACKbird, GREENhouse
b) For compound adjectives, the stress
is on the second part
bad-TEMpered, old-FASHioned
c) For compound verbs, the stress is
on the second part
to understand, to overflow
Unit 2. Practice 8
A) For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part: BLACKbird. Practice the words
loudly and provide the adequate stress.
blackboard
saucepan
saleswork
iceland
bedroom
bathroom
wallpaper
bathtub
housework
grasshopper
boyfriend
seafood
undercut
diningtable
blue-green
hwatermelon
highlight
fishtank
tumbledown
underworld
witchcraft
B) For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second part: bad TEMpered.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 44 -
Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress.
long-legged
three-headed
flowered-dress
masked man
six-sided
long-handled
green-eyed
staff-necked
baby-faced
short-tempered
thin-skinned
smooth-tongue
broken-hearted
light-footed
long-winded
tight-fisted
sure-footed
high-heeled
freckle-faced
stone-faced
kind-hearted
C) For compound verbs, the stress is on the second part: to understand, to overflow.
Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress.
turn back (return) talk back (to) (answer rudely) Keep down (Do not vomit)
take charge (of)
(assume responsibility)
write down (make notes)
Kick around (Discuss)
look over (review) talk over (discuss):
Kick down
(Break something with your feet)
Bring back (return) highlighted let down (Disappoint)
Call back (telephone again)
Keep around
(Keep something near you)
lock down
(Make something very secure)
Unit 2. Practice 9
Now read the 4-syllable words and write them on the appropriate space
Stress pattern

1. Felicity
2. Afghanistan
3. Alexander
4. Wolverhampton
5. Rhinoceros
6. Mississipi
Taken from Rhymes Rhythm, Michael Vaughan- Reeds
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 45 -
2.6. Syllable Stress
In words of more than one syllable, the syllables do not all have equal stress. There is
usually one that has particularly strong stress. This means that on this syllable your voice is
louder and usually pitched higher, and you hang on to the syllable considerably longer than
on the other syllables of that word. Different stressing can change the meaning of a word or
make it completely unrecognisable.
So stressed syllables in English are usually held longer than unstressed syllables. They may
also be louder and higher in pitch.
Although all stressed vowels are long, stressed vowels at the end of a word or before a
voiced consonant are held somewhat longer than vowels before voiceless consonants.
long
Before a voiceless consonant
longer
Before a voiced consonant word end.
Seat
Shoot
Bet
Make
Rip
seed
shoe
bed
made
rib

An accent is the placement of intonation pitch-prominence (= higher or lower pitch than the
surroundings) on a word. Speakers choose to accent certain words (or to de-accent others)
because of the particular meaning they wish to convey in a particular situation. Accents
can fall only on stressed syllables. Thus to accent the word collapse kelps the pitch-
prominence goes on the syllables lps, but on tumble tmbel on the syllable tm.
Summing up the rules
a) Always stress the syllable before one thats pronounced [[n] ssion/ -tion,
[ [s ] cious/ -tions. [ [l ] cial/-tial, etc., e. g. attention, spacious, artificial.
b) In words ending -ic, -ical, -ically, the stress is on the syllable before -ic, except
rabic, arithmetic, lunatic, heretic, politics, and rhetoric (but adjectives: arithmetic,
heretical, political, rhetorical).
c) Words ending in -ese have the stress on this syllable (Chinse, journalese).
d) Do not stress the negative prefix attached to an adjective (possible, impossible; literate,
illiterate) except: nowhere, nothing, and nobody, nonsense.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 46 -
PRaCTICE
A. Exaggerate the stressing as much as you can - i.e. Make the stressed syllable louder,
higher and longer than the unstressed ones.
a) Completion efficient invasion financial advantageous vivacious.
b) Photogenic scientific materialistic geographical musical technical.
c) psychology/psychologist meteorology/meteorologist ideology/ideologist.
d) Chinese Japanese Portuguese Cantonese Balinese Viernese.
e) Organised/disorganised complete/incomplete attractive/unattractive legal/illegal
where/nowhere sense/nonsense.
B. Practise shifting the stress
photograph politics competing analyse
photographer political competitor analysis
photographic politician competition analytical
C. Practise the words. Where are the stresses?
Photography develop photographic amateurs political
Institute photographs possibility politician competitive
Career technical competition distinguished politics
answers: C. photography / institute / career / develop / photographs / technical / photographic / possibility /
competition / amateurs / politician / distinguished / political / competitive / politics
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 47 -
dialogue: Photography or politics?
Diana: What have you decided to do after college, Jeremy?
Jeremy: Im going to take up photography. Mr McKenzies recommended the course
at the Institute. He believes I could make a career as a photographer.
Diana: Youll have to develop your own photographs. That requires technical
skill. Jeremy, youre not a technician! And photographic materials are very
expensive.
Jeremy: Well, Diana, Mr McKenzie thinks theres a possibility I might win the Observer
competition. I sent in four entries. All the competitors are amateurs, like
myself.
Diana: I detest competitions. I never agree with the decision of the judges! Im going
to be a politician. I shall become the most distinguished woman on the political
scene!
Jeremy: I thought you hated competing! Dont tell me politics isnt competitive!
2.7. Sentence Stress
Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress can help
you to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast.
Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or beat. You remember that word stress
is accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is accent on certain words
within a sentence.
In general, in any given English utterance there will be particular words that carry more
weight or volume (stress) than others. From a speaking perspective, sentence stress will
affect the degree to which an ESL student sounds natural. In terms of listening, it affects
how well a student can understand the utterances they hear.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 48 -
what is the difference between word stress and sentence stress?
Whereas sentence stress refers to the process whereby particular words are stressed
within an overall sentence. Word stress refers to the process whereby particular syllables
(or parts of words) are stressed within and overall word. In general, sentence stress is more
of a consideration for overall fluency - word stress tends to have more of a phonological and
morphemic importance
I am a proFESsional phoTOgrapher whose MAIN INterest is to TAKE SPEcial,
BLACK and WHITE PHOtographs that exHIBit ABstract MEANings in their
photoGRAPHic STRUCture.
Most sentences have two types of word:
Content words stressed
Content words
Main verbs go, talk, writing, dance, sell, give, employ
Nouns student, desk, book, car, music,
Adjectives big, clever, studious, red, big, interesting
Adverbs quickly, slowly, loudly, never, always, rarely
Negative aux. verbs cant, dont, arent, doesnt, didnt
Demonstratives this, that, those, these.
Question marks who, which, where, how, What
Grammatical words- unstressed
Pronouns I, you, he , they, We, she, it
Prepositions On, under, with, behind, across
Articles The, a, some, an, any
Conjunctions But, and, so, because,
Auxiliary verbs Can, should, must, can, have, do
Verb to be Is, was, am
For example:
I am speaking to the young workers.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 49 -
Youre listening to the music, but you arent concentrated in the topic.
He is speaking quickly, so it is difficult for him to understand him.
Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry
the meaning or sense.
grammatical words are not very important words. They are small, simple words that make
the sentence correct grammatically. They give the sentence its correct form or structure.
If you remove the grammatical words from a sentence, you will probably still understand the
sentence.
If you remove the content words from a sentence, you will not understand the sentence. The
sentence has no sense or meaning.
Imagine that you receive this telegram message:
Will you SELL Me CAR because Im GONE to FRANCE
This sentence is not complete. It is not a grammatically correct sentence. But you probably
understand it. These 4 words communicate very well. Somebody wants you to sell their car
for them because they have gone to France. We can add a few words:
Will you SELL My CAR because Ive GONE to FRANCE
The new words do not really add any more information. But they make the message more
correct grammatically. We can add even more words to make one complete, grammatically
correct sentence. But the information is basically the same:
Content Words
Will you SELL My CAR because Ive GONE to FRANCE.
Grammatical Words
In our sentence, the 4 key words (sell, car, gone, France) are accentuated or stressed.
Why is this important for pronunciation? It is important because it adds music to the
language. It is the rhythm of the English language. It changes the speed at which we speak
(and listen to) the language. The time between each stressed word is the same.
In our sentence, there is 1 syllable between SELL and CAR and 3 syllables between CAR
and GONE. But the time (t) between SELL and CAR and between CAR and GONE is the
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 50 -
same. We maintain a constant beat on the stressed words. To do this, we say my more
slowly, and because Ive more quickly. We change the speed of the small structure words
so that the rhythm of the key content words stays the same.
Syllables
2 1 3 1
will you SEll my CaR because Ive goNE to FRaNCE.
__________
t1
beat
_____
t1
beat
_____________
t1
beat
___
t1
beat
Rules for Sentence Stress in English
The basic rules of sentence stress are:
1. Content words are stressed
2. grammatical words are unstressed
3. The time between stressed words is always the same
Exceptions
The above rules are for what is called neutral or normal stress. But sometimes we can
stress a word that would normally be only a grammatical word, for example to correct
information. Look at the following dialogue:
Theyve been to Mongolia, havent they?
No, ThEY havent, but wE have.
Note also that when be is used as a main verb, it is usually unstressed (even though in this
case it is a content word).
Special STaIR Exercises
S.T.A. I. R stands for:
S tress
T iming
a rticulation
I ntonation
R hythm
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 51 -
These are the 5 essential components of good English pronunciation. Make sure people
can understand your English by using the interactive S.T.A.I.R exercises in Pronunciation
Power.
Sentence Stress Practice
Unit 2. Practice 10
Practice the stress in the sentences keeping the rhythm of the original sentence.
These are the house that Jaqueline built
One Two Three Four
1. This is the house that Jack built
2. These are the houses that Jack built
3. These are the houses that Jaqueline built
4. This is the house that my mother designed
5. This is the bicycle Peter repaired
6. Those are the people we met in the park
7. That is the person I saw on the stairs
8. Those are the people we drove to the party
9. That is the gardener who works for my mother
10. Andrew is taller than Peter and Thomas
11. Toms not as tall as the rest of the family
12. What an amazingly lively production
13. How can we possibily get there in time
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 52 -
B. Repeat the sentences loudly
1. Can you pass me a plastic knife?
2. I want to take a photography class?
3. China is the place where I was born.
4. Please, turn off the television before you go out.
5. I cant decide which book to borrow.
6. Do you understand this lesson
7. Sparky is a very happy puppy.
8. It is critical that you finish your essay.
9. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
10. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway.
2.8. Sentence rhythm
Sentence rhythm is a natural part of language development. Most children master the
intonation patterns and rhythms of language before they master the words.
Because the patterns and rhythms of our native language are so deeply ingrained, the best
way to review writing is to read it out loud. Any lapses in meaning or coherence can then be
seen easily.
It is important to remember that an English sentence will have a certain number of beats.
Stressed (content words always take up an entire beat, while unstressed grammatical
words fall between the beats. The time between beats is always the same. For this reason
grammatical words are often spoken faster and with less volume. They are literally being
squeezed into the gap between regular stressed beats. In the examples below, all the
grammatical words (or groups of grammatical words) take the same amount of time to
pronounce the number of sounds or syllables they include. Doing simple rhythmic clap or
thump in time to the spoken sentence demonstrate how this happens.
Rhythm is timing patterns among syllables.
There are basically two types of sentence rhythm in languages:
A) Stress-timed rhythm and B) syllables-timed rhythm. English has stress-times rhythm
and Spanish, a syllable-time rhythm.
Stress-time rhythm has an alternation of stressed and unstressed.
Important Note: Negative words and negative to-be, to have, and auxiliary verbs need to
be stressed: (e.g., no, never, isnt, havent, cant, dont, wont).
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 53 -
Unit 2. Practice 11
Mark the stressed words in the sentences following the model. See the examples:

I am talking to the clever students
Beart1 beat 2 beat 3

You are sitting on the desk but you arent listening to us.
Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4

Hes writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4
1. John is coming over tonight. We are going to work on our homework together.
2. Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug.
3. We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back
roads of France.
4. jack bought a new car last Friday.
5. They are looking forward to your visiting them next january.
6. Exciting discoveries lie in Toms future.
7. Would you like to come over and play a game of chess?
8. They have had to work hard these last few months on their challenging
experiment.
9. Shakespeare wrote passionate, moving poetry.
10. As you might have expected, he has just thought of a new approach to the pattern.
Unit 2. Practice 12
Read the sentence emphasizing the stressed syllables making them louder, longer, clearer,
and high-pitched.
1. john wants to be an actor, so he wants to live in hollywood.
2. He is writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
3. Mary made an appointment with the dentist on Monday.
4. After the movie, they went to a bar to have beer.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 54 -
Unit 2. Practice 13
Fill in spaces with the corresponding modal or verb to be. (Remember if you hear the to-be
or auxiliary verb is stressed, then the sentence is negative).
13. a.
1. I ______ understand your story. (can, cant)
2. Tom _______ come to the party tonight. (can, cant)
3. They _______ hear the speaker. (can, cant)
4. We _______ told to do that. (were, werent)
5. They ________ doing the homework. (are, arent)
6. The students ___werent___ here last night. (were, werent)
13.B. Repeat the sentences loudly
1. Can you pass me a plastic knife?
2. I want to take a photography class?
3. China is the place where I was born.
4. Please turn off the television before you go out.
5. I cant decide which book to borrow.
6. Do you understand this lesson.
7. Sparky is a very happy puppy.
8. It is critical that you finish your essay.
9. My Grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
10 There is a lot of traffic today on the highway.
heres how we can improve our pronunciation:
1. Learn the following rules concerning pronunciation.
2. English is considered a stressed language while many other languages are considered
syllabic.
3. In other languages, such as French or Italian, each syllable receives equal importance
(there is stress, but each syllable has its own length).
4. English pronunciation focuses on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over the
other, non-stressed, words.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 55 -
5. Stressed words are considered content words: Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter - (most)
principle verbs e.g. visit, construct - Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting - Adverbs e.g.
often, carefully
6. Non-stressed words are considered function words: Determiners e.g. the, a - Auxiliary
verbs e.g. am, were - Prepositions e.g. before, of - Conjunctions e.g. but, and - Pronouns
e.g. they, she
7. Read the following sentence aloud: The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the
distance.
8. Read the following sentence aloud: He can come on Sundays as long as he doesnt have
to do any homework in the evening.
9. Notice that the first sentence actually takes about the same time to speak well!
10. Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first, the
sentences take the same time to speak. This is because there are 5 stressed words in
each sentence.
11. Write down a few sentences, or take a few example sentences from a book or exercise.
12. First underline the stressed words, then read aloud focusing on stressing the underlined
words and gliding over the non-stressed words.
13. Be surprised at how quickly your pronunciation improves! By focusing on stressed words,
non-stressed words and syllables take on their more muted nature.
14. When listening to native speakers, focus on how those speakers stress certain words
and begin to copy this.
Tips:
1. Remember that non-stressed words and syllables are often swallowed in English.
2. Always focus on pronouncing stressed words well, non-stressed words can be glided
over.
3. Dont focus on pronouncing each word. Focus on the stressed words in each sentence.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 56 -
BIBlIogRaPhY
Anne C. Newton, Editor.
(1997) American light verse: A contemporary selection. English teaching forum,
a journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. Volumen XV,
Number 4.
J.C. Wells
(2006) English intonation: an introduction. Cambridge University Press.
P. Ashby
(2005) Speech sounds. London: Routledge, Second edition.
A. Cruttenden
(2001) Gimsons pronunciation of english. London: Edward Arnold. Sixth edition.
B. Collins and I. M. Mees
(2003) Practical phonetics and phonology. London: Routledge.
J.D. OConnor
(1980) Better english pronunciation. Cambridge University Press. Second edition.
P. Roach
(2000) English phonetics and phonology. Cambridge University Press. Third edition.
P. Roach, J. Hartman and J. Setter (ed.)
(2006) English pronouncing dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Seventeenth
edition.
J.C. Wells
(2000) Longman pronunciation dictionary. Longman.
http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-rules.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/quiz/quiz2/
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/pdf/quiz/pronunciation_quiz_1.pdf
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/mp3/pronunciation_quiz_1.mp3
http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/Table3.htm
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 57 -
aCTIVITY
1. Why is word stress phonemic?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Indicate the traditional types of stress and the three degrees of stress.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. What are the problems non-native speakers face when they speak to native speakers?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Why is word stress so important?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. What are the simple rules for word stress?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Where are most 2-syllable nouns stressed? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 58 -
7. Where are most 2-syllable verbs stressed? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
8. Give examples of lexical entries where the stress is phonemic.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9. What is the difference between word stress and sentence stress?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
10. What are the basic rules for sentence stress? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

o

oBjECTIVES
1. Be aware of the different processes that take place in connected speech
in spoken language.
2. Get familiar with different changes as a result of assimilation.
3. Recognize compound words and how they are stressed.
4. Understand how double consonants are pronounced in connected speech.
5. Understand the importance of elision process in connected speech.
6. Learn how r is pronounced in isolation and in connected speech.
7. Understand how stress changes in connected speech.
8. Understand how /t/ can be pronounced as a voiced sound /d/ in connected
speech.
UNIT III
CoNNECTED sPEECh
CoNNECTEd SPEECh
When a word occurs in a phrase or sentence, its pronunciation may sometimes be different
from the pronunciation used when it is said in isolation.
Some of the characteristics of the phonetics of connected speech are discussed in this unit.
3.1. Assimilation
3.2. Compounds and phrases
3.3. Double consonant sounds
3.4. Double consonant letters
3.5. Elision
3.6. R liaison
3.7. Stress shift
3.8. T-voicing
3.9. Weak forms
3.10. Word linking
3.1. assimilation
It is a process in which one or more segments become adapted in one or more aspects to
a neighbouring segment.
Example: in English, the alveolar nasal of the prefix /in-/ changes to [l] in illegal (complete
convergence) and to [m] in input (partial convergence). In the latter case the change is from
alveolar to labial under influence of the neighbouring labial segment [p]. When assimilation
takes place between two vowels it is more commonly referred to as vowel harmony
(agreement among vowels in successive syllables in respect of one or more feautures:
bathtub battered in a child).
Sounds tend to change as a result of assimilation. Let see some of this common
assimilations.
/ t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p /
/ d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p /
/ n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p /
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 62 -
/ t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/
/ d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g /
/ n / changes to / / before / k / or / g /
/ s / changes to / [ / before / [ / or / j /
/ z / changes to / / before / [ / or / j /
// changes to / s / before / s /
1. / t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p /
basket maker mixed bag
best man mixed blessing
cat burglar mixed marriage
cigarette paper mixed metaphor
circuit borrad pocket money
coconut butter post mortem
court martial pot plant
direct method private property
dust bowl put back
fast motion put by
first base right pair
flight plan secret police
foot brake set point
front bench set back
front man set piece
fruit machine sheet metal
Great Britain sit back
/ -m /
/ t / / p / / -b /
/ -p /
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 63 -
2. / d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p /
bad pain good cook
blood bank good morning
blood bath grand master
blood brother ground plan
blood poisoning head boy
blood pressure hold back
blood pudding lord mayor
broad bean mud bath
card punch mud pie
closed book old bailey
command module old boy
command post old man
custard pie old maid
custard powder old moon
dead beat oxford blue
food poisoning red bag
food processor second mate
gold plate sound barrier
gold medal stand by
gold mine united party
good man word blindness
/ -m /
/ d / / b / / -b /
/ -p /
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 64 -
3. / n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p /
action planning iron man
american plan on me
brown paper one pair
brown bear open book
chicken breast open market
common market open prison
cold man pen pal
cotton belt pin money
cotton picker queen bee
down payment queen mother
fan belt question mark
fan mail roman mile
foreign minister sun bath
foreign mission sun blind
garden party tin plate
green belt town planning
green bean venetian blind
hen party virgen birth
human being wine box
in blue wine bar
/ -m /
/ n / / m / / -b /
/ -p /
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 65 -
4. / t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/
cigarette card short cut
credit card smart card
cut glass street credibility
fat girl street cry
first class that cake
flan cap
5. / d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g /
bad girl hard cash
bird call hard copy
closed game hard core
cold call hard court
cold cream highland cattle
field glasses red carpet
good cook sand castle
grand canyon second class
ground control second comino
ground cover second cousin
had come slide guitar
had gone
/ -k /
/ t / / k /
/ -g /
/ -k /
/ d / / g /
/ -g /
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 66 -
6. / n / changes to // before / k / or / g
action group open court
common good roman calendar
common ground roman candle
garden cress roman catholic
golden gate tin can
golden goose tone control
human capital town clero
in camera town crier
iron curtain
7. / s / changes to / [ / before / [ / or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound
bus shelter nice yacht
dress shop space shuttle
nice shoes
8. / z / changes to / / before / [ / or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound
cheese shop wheres tours?
Rose show
these sheep
9. / / changes to / s / before / s /
bath salts earth science
bath seat fifth set
birth certificate fourth season
both sexes fourth summer
both sides north-south divide
Source: http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/assimilation.html#as04
/ -k /
/ n / / /
/ -g /
/ -[
o / u
/
/ s / / [ /
/ -j
o / u
/
/ -[
o / u
/
/ z / / /
/ -j
o / u
/
/ / / s / / / -s /

fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 67 -
3.2. Compounds and phrases
A two-element compound is typically pronounced with early stress: that is to say, its first
element has more stress than its second.
bedtime /bed taIm/
block
o
buster /blbk
o
btst e/ || /blo:k
o
btst
e
r/
Notice that, although many such compounds are written as single words, others are written
as two words.
christmas
o
card
visitors book
music
o
lessons
beauty
o
contest
3.2.1. On the other hand, a two-word phrase is typically pronounced with late stress: that is
to say, its second word has more stress than its first.
,next time
,typed cards
,several books
,weekly lessons
3.2.2. These, and all stress patterns, can be changed if the speaker wants to emphasize a
particular contrast.
,Not a
o
school 'boy, __ a ,school girl!
,Not
o
music lessons, __ ,just
o
time to practise.
,Not weekly
o
lessons, __ monthly ones!
3.2.3. Sometimes a compound has a different meaning from the corresponding phrase.
A darkroom (a room developing photographs)
A ,dark room (a room which is dark because there is little light in it)
A yellow
o
hammer (a kind of bird)
A ,yellow hammer (a hammer coloured yellow)
A moving van (to carry furniture when one moves house)
A ,moving van (a van that is motion).
3.2.4. Some expression, which are grammatically compounds, are nevertheless pronounced
with late stress (= as if they were phrases). There is no firm rule; that is why many
compounds and phrases are listed separately with their stress patterns.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 68 -
One group of expressions of this type comprises those where the first element names
the material or ingredient out of which a thing is made.
a ,rubber duck
,paper plates
,cheese sandwiches
,apple crumble
a ,pork pie
Note, however, that expressions involving cake, juice, water take early stress.
almond cake
orange juice
barley
o
water
3.2.5. In names of English places, note that all take late (final stress) stress except street,
which takes early (beginning) stress.
,Melrose Road
,Lavender Crescent
,Oxford Circus
,Kings Avenue
but Gower Street
3.3. double Consonant Sounds
Double consonant sounds (geminates) in English phonetic are found only across
grammatical boundaries: where two words occur next to one another in connected speech,
or in the two parts of a compound word, or a stem and an affix. They are always found in a
syllable boundary, too. Examples are a nice sight /e,naissaIt/, midday, /mIddeI/, soulless
/seol les/ || /sool les/ .
3.3.2. Although cases like these consist of two identical phonemes in succession, they are
not usually pronounced like two distinct complete sounds. The details depend upon
their manner of ARTICULATION.
Fricatives, nasal, liquids: a geminate is pronounced like a single sound, except
that it lasts longer. In this set, /Isset/ the two ss come together to make a long
s: between the two vowels, straddling (being found) the syllable boundary. In ten
names, /ten neImz/we get a long n:
Plosives: a geminate is pronounces like a single sound, with just one sequence
of approach-hold-release; but the hold is longer in a geminate. In big game,
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 69 -
/,bIggeIm/ there is a single phonetic g: between the two vowels, straddling the
syllable boundary. Exceptionally, because of the possibility of a GLOTTAL STOP,
a geminated t may consist phonetically of ?t: that time /,ttaIm / but a single
long alveolar t: is also possible.
affricates are the only case where two successive complete consonant sounds
are pronounced independently, one after the other. In rich choice /,rIt[ t[oIs/
the fricative part of the first can be separately heard before the beginning of the
second . In orange juice there are two separate gs.
3.4. double consonants letters
3.4.1. Double consonant letters in English spelling normally correspond to a single
consonant sound in pronunciation. So happy is pronounced /hp.i/ (not /hppi/);
rabbit rhymes perfectly with habit, Ellen rhymes perfectly with helen.
3.4.2. The main exception arises in a few words with cc before i or e, for example succeed
/seksi:d/.
The other import exception is where the two consonant letters in question belong to
two different parts of a compound word, or one to a stem and one to an affix. Then
the two letters most often correspond to two phonemes (DOUBLE CONSONANT
SOUNDS). Examples: parttime /,pa:t taIm/, unnamed /tn neImd/ meanness
/mi:n.nes/ (however many adverbs in ly drop one I sound when attached to a stem
ending in l: fully /foli/).
3.5. Elision
It is the omission or loss of a vowel, a consonant, a syllable, a segment, or segments in oral
speech.
The nature of elision may be stated quite simple: under certain circumstances sounds
disappear; one might express this in more technical language by saying that in certain
circumstances a phoneme may be realized as zero, or have zero realization. As with
assimilation, elision is typical of rapid, casual speech; the process of change in phoneme
realizations produced by changing the speed of speech is sometimes called gradation.
Producing elisions is something which foreign learners do not need to learn to do, but it is
important for them to be aware that when native speakers of English talk to each other, quite
a number of phonemes that the foreigner might expect to hear are not actually pronounced.
We will look at some example, though only a small numbers of the many possibilities can be
given here. Peter Roach (83). pp. 108-110.
3.5.1. loss of weak vowel after p, t, k.
In words like potato, tomato, canary, perhaps, today, the vowel in the first
syllable may disappear; the aspiration of the initial plosive takes up the whole
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 70 -
of the middle portion of the syllable, resulting in these pronunciation, where h
indicates aspiration: /p
h
teIteo/, /t
h
ma:teo/, /k
h
neerI/, /p
h
h ps/, /t
h
deI/.
3.5.2. Weak vowel + n, l or r becomes syllabic consonant. Examples:
tonight /tenaIt/ / t ait/;
police /peli:s/ / p!i:s/,
correct /kerekt/ /krekt/.
3.5.3. Avoidance of complex consonant clusters.
It has been said that no normal English speaker would ever pronounce all the
consonants between the last two words of the following:
George the sixths throne /go:g e sIkss reon/. Though this is not impossible to
pronounce, something like / sIks reon is more likety. In clusters of three plosives
or two plosives plus a fricative, the middle plosive or two may disappear, so that the
following pronunciations result:
acts / ks/; looked back /lok bk/; scripts / skrIps/.
3.5.4. Loss of final v in of before consonants. Examples : lots of them / lbts e em/;
waste of time /weIst e mtnI/.
3.5.5. It is difficult to know whether contractions of grammatical words should be regarded
as examples of elision or not.
The fact that they are regularly represented with special spelling forms makes them
seem rather different from the above examples. The best known cases are:
had, would : spelt d, pronounced d after vowels, ed after consonants.
Is, has spelt s, pronounced s after fortis consonants (voiceless) , z after lenis
consonants (voiced) , except that after s, z, , [, , g- is pronounced Iz and
has is pronounced Iz in contracted form.
Wil: spelt ll, pronounced l after vowels and syllabic ! after consonants.
Have: spelt ve, pronounced v after vowels, ev after consonants.
Not: spelt nt, pronounced nt after vowels, syllabic t after consonants.
(There are also vowel changes associated with nt; e.g. can kn- cant ka.nt,
do du:- dont deont).
Are: spelt re, pronounced e after vowels, usually with some change in the
preceding vowel, e.g. you ju: - youre joe, we wi: were wIe, they eI
-theyre eI, linking r is used when a vowel follows. Contracted are is also
pronounced as e or er when following a consonant.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 71 -
3.6. R liaison
3.6.1. In BrE (RP), and other non-rhotic accents, a word said in isolation never ends in r.
Nevertheless, in connected speech an r may be pronounced in some cases if the
next word begins with a vowel sound.
3.6.2. This typically happens with a word (syllable) that ends in one of the vowels e, o:, o:,
s:, Ie, ee, oe, when the following word (syllable) begins with a vowel sound.
Far /fa:
r
/ || /fa:r/ In isolation, or before a consonant sound, this word is, in RP,
pronounced /fa:/. But in phrases such as far away, far out it is usually pronounced
/fa:r/. (In Gen Am it is always /fa:r/, whatever the environment it occurs in).
Near /nIe/ || /nI
e
r/ In isolation, the RP form is /nIe/. But in a phrase such as near
enough it is usually pronounced /nI
e
r/.
3.6.3. Usually, as in the cases just mentioned, the spelling includes r. The inserted r-sound
is then known as linking r. It corresponds to a historical r, now lost before a consonant
or pause.
3.6.4. In RP (standard english), however, as in other non-rhotic accents, the insertion is
frequently made even if there is no r in the spelling. This intrusive /r/ does not
correspond to historical r, and there is no corresponding r in AmE.
Comma /kbme/ || /ko:me/ In isolation, the RP form is /kbm.e/. But in a phrase
such as put a comma in, it is often pronounced /kbm.er/ (In american english it is
always /ko:me/, whatever the environment).
Thaw /0o:/ || /0o:/ In isolation, RP thaw is /0o:/. In the phrase thaw out, intrusive
r may be added, giving /0o:raot/ (In Gem Am there is no r). (Thaw: the period of
warmer weather that causes ice and snow to turn into water).
The dictionary does show r liaison within a word, whether linking or intrusive. The
linking r, being obligatory, is shown thus: storing /sto:rI/. The intrusive r, being
optional, is shown thus: thawing /0o:
r
I/.
3.7. Stress Shift
3.7.1. Some words seem to change their stress patterns in connected speech. Although in
isolation we say fundamental with the main stress these on ment and japanese
with the main stress on /ni:z/, in connected speech these words often have a different
pattern. For example, there might be greater stress on ftnd than on ment, or greater
stress on /gp/ than on /ni:z/. This phenomenon is known as stress shift.
3.7.2. A phrase usually receives late stress. The placing of primary stress on the last
element means that the basic stress of the first element is weakened by one degree:
combining weekly /wi:.kli/ and lessons /les.
e
nz/ gives the phrases weekly lessons
/,wi:
o
kli les.
e
nz/
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 72 -
Hence one would expect that fundamental /,ftn.demen.t
e
l/ plus mistake /mIsteIk/
would give /ftn,demen.t
e
l mIsteIk/ and that japanese /,gpeni:z/ plus language
/l.gwIg/would give /,gpe,ni:z l.gwIg/.
3.7.3. But these stress patterns are unbalanced. In fact, native speakers of English usually
switch round the stress levels in the first element, and say /,ftn.de,men.t
e
lmIsteIk/,
/,gpeni:zl.gwIg/.
3.7.4. The same thing happens with a phrase such as that made by combining very lazy
/,verileI.zi/ with people pi:p
e
l. The usual pattern involves stress shift, thus, verI,leI
zI pi:p
e
l.
3.7.5. Stress shift potentially affects all words entered in the Longman Pronunciation
Dictionary that include the secondary stress-mark (,). In practice, though, it is likely
to apply only to those which are regularly followed in a phrase by a more strongly
stressed word: most adjectives, but only certain nouns.
3.8. T-voicing
For most Americans and Canadians the phoneme t is sometimes pronounced as a voiced
sound. Where this is the usual AmE pronunciation it is shown by the symbol /t/.
3.8.1. Phonetically, t is a voiced alveolar tap (flap). It sounds like a quick English d, and also
like the r of some languages. For many Americans, it is actually identical with their
d in the same environment, so that AmE shutter /[tt.e
r
/ may sound identical with
shudder /[td.e
r
/.
3.8.2. Learners of English as a foreign language who take AmE as their model are
encouraged to use t where appropriate.
3.8.3. After n, AmE t can optionally be elided (omitted). Accordingly, it is shown in italics, as
. Thus AmE winter /wInt
e
r/ can sound identical to winner /wIne
r
/. Note, however,
that some speakers of AmE consider this pronunciation incorrect.
3.8.4. In connected speech, t at the end of a word may change to t if both the following
condition apply:
the sound before the t is a vowel sound or r.
the next word begins with a vowel sound and follows without a pause.
Thus in AmE right /raIt/ may pronounced /raIt/ in the phrase right away /,raIteweI/,
right out /,raItaot/. But in right now /raItnao/ no t is possible: nor in left over
/,lefteo.ve
r
/.
3.8.5. Under the same condition, if the sound before a t at the end of a word is n, the t
change to t (and therefore possibly disappear): paint /peInt/, but paint it /peIn t It/.
Again, some people consider this incorrect.

fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii


- 73 -
3.9. weak forms
3.9.1. Many English function words (grammatical words), such as articles, pronouns,
preposition, auxiliaries, modals etc, have more than one pronunciation. In particular,
they have a strong form, containing a strong vowel, and a weak form, containing a
weak vowel. An example is at, with strong form t and weak form et.
3.9.2. The weak form is generally used if the word is unstressed (as is usually the case
with function or grammatical words). The strong form is used only when the word is
stressed for some reason.
Jims at lunch. Hell be back at one. /et//et/
We say at home , not in home. ... /t/
Ill invite them round. /em/
They were delighted. /we/ || /we
r
/
Tell me how they were. /ws:/ || /ws:
r
/
3.9.3. Nevertheless, the strong form is used even for certain unstressed functions words:
(i) Usually, in the case of a preposition followed by a pronoun at the end of a
sentence.
Im looking at you /tjo/ or /etjo/.
(ii) Always, when a word is left exposed by a syntactic operation involving the
movement or deletion of the word on which it depends
Where does he come from? (he comes from X) /ktm frbm/ || /ktm frtm/.
I can speak better than you can ( = than you can speak) /oIken spi:k ... ju:
kn/
It was aimed at but not achieved (= they aimed at it ) /eimd t/
Stranded or left like this, the last word in each sentence or phrase has to be
strong.
3.9.4. It is important for learners of English to use weak forms appropriately. Otherwise,
listeners may think they are emphasizing a word where this is not really so. Equally,
native speakers should not be misled into supposing that careful or declamatory
speech demands strong forms throughout. One exception is in singing, where strong
forms are often used. Even here, though, articles are generally weak.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 74 -
UNIT 3. Practice 1
Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs
The weak form (unstressed form) is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or
in the middle of sentence.
The strong form (strong stress) is used when the auxiliary verb is at the end of a sentence.
auxiliary verb
weak form Strong form
do /de/ or /do/ /du:/
does /dez/ /dtz/
have /hev/ /hv/
has /hez/ /hz/
were /we/ /ws:/
was /wez/ /wbz/
can /ken/ /kn/
Instruction. According to the position of the weak or strong form decide if the sentence is
Strong (S) or weak (W).
1. When was your birthday? (W)
It was in April. (W)
2. Have you got a good English dictionary? ( )
Yes, I have. ( )
3. Does your mother work in an office? ( )
Yes, she does. ( )
4. Where were your parents married? ( )
I think they were married in London. ( )
5. Has your father got dark hair? ( )
Yes, he has. ( )
6. Do you get the bus to work? ( )
Yes, I do. ( )
7. How many languages can you speak? ( )
I can speak two - English and French ( )
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 75 -
8. Does she live in the north of England? ( )
Yes, she does ( )
9. Can you speak English? ( )
Yes, she can. ( )
10. Has she got a job? ( )
Yes, she has, ( )
11. Have they got any children) ( )
Yes, they have. ( )
12. Do they share the housework? ( )
Yes, they do, ( )
13. Were they married in Japan? ( )
Yes, they were ( )
3.10. weak Vowels
3.10.1. Among unstressed syllables it is useful to distinguish between those that nevertheless
contain a strong vowel and those that have a weak vowel. This distinction has
implication for syllabification and sometimes for rhythm.
3.10.2. A stressed syllable (shown in words of more than one syllable by one of the marks
(primary stress) , (secondary stress) = equal to primary or secondary stress, must
always contain a strong vowel. This may be any vowel or diphthong except e, i, u.
All the syllables in the following words, whether stressed or unstressed, are strong
- vowelled:
red /red/
hope /heop/ || /hoop/
bedtime /bed, taIm/
undone /,tndtn/
acorn /eIko:n/ || /eIko:rn/
butane /bju:teIn/
3.10.3. The vowels e, i ,u are always weak. So, too, is I in many cases, as well as o in
BrE and oo in AmE. The unstressed syllables in the following words are all weak-
vowelled:
allow /elao/
happy /hp.i/
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 76 -
situation /,sIt[ueI[
e
n/
carelessness /keelesnes/ or /lIsnIs/
remember /rImem.be/ or /rImemb
e
r/
standard /stnded/ or /stnd
e
rd/
stimulus /stImjoles/ or /stImjeles/
3.10.4. The weak vowels e may be realized in the form of a SYLLABIC CONSONANT
(some consonants such as , ! can for the nucleus of a syllable), as in suddenly
/std
e
li/. Diphthongs arising from the COMPRESSION of weak syllables (the
capacity of sequence of sounds to be pronounced either as two separate syllables,
or compressed into a single syllable), as in annual / njuel/, remain weak.
3.10.5. The distinction between weak /I/ and /e/ has the power of distinguishing word in
Received Pronunciation (RP), Standard English. For example, V. I Lenin is lenIn,
but Jhon Lennon is lenen. The words rabbit rbIt and abbot bet do not rhyme.
In certain other kinds of English, however, this distinction may be neutralized.
(NEUTRALIZATION: the suppression of an opposition between phonemes operative
in other positions phonemes): either e is used instead of weak I in virtually all
positions, or the choice between I and e depends upon the phonetic context. So
rabbit at Longman Pronunciation Dictionary shows a secondary pronunciation
/rbet/.
3.10.6. Even in RP and other kinds of English that maintain the distinction between weak
I and e, many words may be heard with either pronunciation, and this is shown in
LPD. For example, carelessness, civil, private are nowadays usually pronounced
/keelesnes/, /sIv
e
l/, /praIvet/. A conservative minority say /keelIsnIs/, /sIvIl/,
/praIvIt/, and these are given in as secondary pronunciations.
3.11. word linking
It takes place when a word that begins with a vowel sound is linked to the consonant sound
at the end of the word before it.
Practice the sentence loudly making linking words appropriately.
1. The west End

2. Marble Arch
3. Gatwick Airport
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 77 -
4. Heathrow Airport

/w/
5. The City of London

/j/
6. The Royal Albert Hall
7. The Houses of Parliament
8. The Tower of London
9. The London Underground
10. Then Bank of England

Unit 3: Practice 2
Where does the linking take place and say if t or d is taking place in the linking.
1. She laughed at the joke.
..t..
2. She jumped over the wall
.
3. The pane crashed in the jungle
.
4. Columbus discovered America
.
5. The bomb destroyed a house
.
6. They traveled across Europe by train
.
7. He introduced Amanda to his friends
.
Source: Headway Pronunciation P-I. Bill Bowler. Sue Parminter. 2004.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 78 -
Unit 3. Practice 3
Read the sentences and say what form the prepositions are used in them: Strong or weak
form?
Prepositions weak form Strong form
to /te/ /tu:/
from /frem/ /frbm/
for /fe/ or /fer/ /fb:/
at /et/ /t/
of /ev/ /bv/
B: Hello, Can I speak to (a) Miss Moneypenny?
S: Speaking.
B: Hello. I am phoning from (b) the Ritz.
I am looking from (c) James Bond. We had a lunch appointment at (d). Isnt he there?
S: Im sorry, sir, but hes gone to (e) Budapest.
B: I was afraid of (f) that. Where exactly?
S: Hes staying at (g) at the Hotel Royal.
B: Why didnt he listen to (h) me? Hes just asking for (i) trouble.
S: Hes only staying there for (j) a couple of (k) days.
B: All right. Contact him and tell him from (l) me he is a damn fool. Oh, and you can tell him
Im waiting for (m) his call.
S: Yes, sir.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 79 -
BIBlIogRaPhY
J.C. Wells
(2006) English intonation: an introduction. Cambridge University Press.
(1997) Pronunciation dictionary. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
(2000) Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Longman,
Jones Daniel
(1997) English pronunciation dictionary. Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman.
CUP.
P. Ashby
(2005) Speech sounds. London: Routledge, Second edition.
A. Cruttenden
(2001) Gimsons pronunciation of english. London: Edward Arnold. Sixth edition.
B. Collins & I. M. Mees
(2003) Practical phonetics and phonology. London: Routledge.
J.D. OConnor
(1980) Better english pronunciation. Cambridge University Press. Second edition.
P. Roach
(2000) English phonetics and phonology. Cambridge University Press. Third edition.
P. Roach, J. Hartman & J. Setter (ed.)
(2006) English pronouncing dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Seventeenth
edition.
http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/phonetics.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/quiz/quiz2/
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/pdf/quiz/pronunciation_quiz_1.pdf
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/mp3/pronunciation_quiz_1.mp3
http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/assimilation.html#as04
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 80 -
aCTIVITY
1. What can you say about assimilation in connected speech?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Can you explain the assimilation of /t, d/ into /p, b/ before bilabial nasal and bilabial
stops? (Case 1, 2). Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Can you explain the assimilation alveolar nasal /n/ into bilabial nasal /m/? (Case 3)
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Can you explain the assimilation of /t/ into voiceless velar /k/ (Case 4). Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. What about the assimilation of alveolar stop voiced /d/ into velar stop voiced /g/? (Case 5)
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. How is a compound word stressed? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
7. How are double consonant letters treated? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 81 -
8. Where are double consonants sounds found? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9. Explain some cases of elision.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
10. Explain the pronunciation of R-liaison briefly?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
11. What do you understand by Stress shift?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
12. Explain the phenomenon of T-voicing.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
13. What do you know about weak forms? Why is it so important in English language
learning?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

o

oBjECTIVES
1. Understand the components of the suprasegmental phonology: Intonation,
length and stress.
2. Get familiar with the rising-falling pattern (Statements, Wh- question).
3. Understand and produce sentences following the fall-rise pattern.
(Yes / No question, request for repetition, greetings).
4. Produce sentences following combined patterns (pausing in the middle,
lists, doubt, apology, etc)
5. Be aware of the tag questions intonation pattern.
6. Be aware of the intonation pattern behind weak forms, linking, elision
and shifting tonic.
7. Practice the intonation, Length and stress through rhythm and jingles.
UNIT IV
sUPrAsEgmENTAL PhoNoLogy
SUPRaSEgMENTal PhoNologY
Suprasegmental phenomena are those that pertain to intonation, length and stress.
Suprasegmental phenomena, also called prosodic phenomena, are normally examined in
relation to individual lexical items or short phrases. However, many interesting prosodic
patterns can be described only in terms of major constituents or entire sentences. Moreover,
they are intimately connected with the syntactic and semantic properties of the sentences in
which they occur. The prosodic properties of entire sentences, particularly those pertaining
to pitch and stress, are referred to as intonation.
Intonational studies are not so well developed as those which deal with the suprasegmental
properties of individual lexical items, and we will restrict our attention to examples that
show the close relationship between intonation and the syntactic and semantic structure of
sentences (Langacker, 82).
Four major features in the teaching of English suprasegmentals will be introduced in this
chapter: 1) intonation units, 2) stress, 3) tone, 4) pitch range and 5) length by reviewing
relevant and current research (Mehmet Celik, University of Turkey).
4.1. Prosodic features: Intonation, stress, tone, pitch and length
Intonation
Intonation is the music of the language. In English, we use tone to signal emotion, questioning, and
parts of the sentence among many other things. Its important to recognize the meaning behind the
tones used in everyday speech, and to be able to use them so that there are no misunderstandings
between the speaker and the listener. It is generally true that mistakes in pronunciation of sounds
can be overlooked, but mistakes in intonation make a lasting impression.
In English and many other languages, for example, questions answerable by yes or no
occur with rising (or non-falling) intonation, while declaratives and other kinds of questions
occur with final falling intonation.
(1) Did Danny buy a cow? Ye, No.
(2) Danny bought a cow.
(3) What did Danny buy?
Rising intonation
Falling intonation
Falling intonation
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 86 -
For Cruttenden (1986:35), intonation has three important features:
1) Division of a (dividing) a stream of speech into intonation units,
2) Selection of a syllable (of a word), which is assigned the tonic status, and
3) Selection of a tone for the intonation unit To this list, another feature can be added:
pitch range, or key (Brazil et al., 1980).
Lets study then the suprasegmental elements that characterized English Language:
1) intonation units, 2) stress, 3) tone, 4) pitch range and length by reviewing relevant and
current research (Mehmet Celik, University of Turkey.
1) Intonation Unit
An intonation unit is a piece of utterance, a continuous stream of sounds, bounded by
a fairly perceptible pause. Pausing in some sense is a way of packaging the information
such that the lexical items put together in an intonation unit form certain psychological and
lexic~grammatical realities. Typical examples would be the inclusion of subordinate clauses
and prepositional phrases in intonation units.
Consider the example below, in which slashes correspond to pauses (Roach, 1983:146)
(see Halliday, 1967; Leech & Svartvik, 1975 for more): the meaning is given in brackets.
Those who sold quickly / made a profit
(A profit is made by those who sold quickly.)
Those who sold / quickly made a profit
(A profit was quickly made by those who sold.)
2) Stress
In every word in English, there is one main emphasized syllable. The vowel sound in this
syllable sounds higher in pitch, longer, and louder, and this is called stress. This helps
create the rhythm of the language, and knowing how to recognize the stressed syllable will
help you with comprehension. Placing the stress where it should be when youre speaking
helps native speakers understand you better as well.
The stress is related to syllable stress, word stress and sentence stress, which were
developed in Unit II.
The stress is very important in English because in some cases the stress can also be
phonological because it will change the meaning of the word. Stress on the second syllable
will be a verb and on the first will be a noun or adjective, for example: record and record.
(Review unit II on stress)
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 87 -
Four major types of stress are identified:
2.1. unmarked tonic stress
2.2. emphatic stress
2.3. contrastive stress
2.4. new information stress
Tonic stress. An intonation unit almost always has one peak of stress, which is called
tonic stress, or nucleus. Because stress applies to syllables, the syllable that receives
the tonic stress is called tonic syllable. The term tonic stress is usually preferred to refer
to this kind of stress in referring, proclaiming, and reporting utterances. Tonic stress is
almost always found in a content word in utterance final position. Consider the following, in
which the tonic syllable is underlined:
1. Im going.
2. Im going to London.
3. Im going to London for a holiday.
A question does arise as to what happens to the previously tonic assigned syllables. They
still get stressed, however, not as much as the tonic syllable, producing a three level stress
for utterances: the stressed, (content words) unstressed (grammatical words) and the
unmarked (going and holiday in the sentence).
Im going to london for HOliday.
2.1. Unmarked tonic stress. It refers to the word that should be marked, but it is not because
another word was emphasized. Example:
Im go into London for Holiday.
2.2. Emphatic stress. One reason to move the tonic stress from its utterance final position
is to assign an emphasis to a content word, which is usually a modal auxiliary, an intensifier,
an adverb, etc. Compare the following examples. The first two examples are adapted from.
Roach (1983: 144).
i. It was very BOring. (unmarked)
ii. It was VEry boring. (emphatic)
i. You mustnt talk so LOUDly. (unmarked)
ii. You MUSTNT talk so loudly. (emphatic)
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 88 -
Some intensifying adverbs and modifiers (or their derivatives) that are emphatic by nature
are (Leech & Svartvik, 1.975:135): indeed, utterly, absolute, terrific, tremendous, awfully,
terribly, great, grand, really, definitely, truly, literally, extremely, surely, completely, barely,
entirely, very (adverb), very (adjective), quite, too, enough, pretty, far, especially, alone, only,
own, -self.
2.3. Contrastive Stress. In contrastive contexts, the stress pattern is quite different from
the emphatic and non-emphatic stresses in that any lexical item in an utterance can receive
the tonic stress provided that the contrastively stressed item can be contrastable in that
universe of speech. No distinction exists between content and function words regarding this.
The contrasted item receives the tonic stress provided that it is contrastive with some lexical
element (notion.) in the stimulus utterance. Examples:
a) Do you like this one or THAT one?
b) I like THIS one.
Consider the following sentences where we can find contrast.
C) She played the piano yesterday. (It was her who...)
D) She played the piano yesterday. (She only played (not. harmed) ...)
E) She played the piano yesterday. (It was the piano that...)
F) She played the piano yesterday. (It was yesterday...)
2.4. New Information Stress. In a response given to a wh-question, the information supplied,
naturally enough, is stressed. That is, it is pronounced with more breath force, since it is
more prominent against a background given information in the question. The concept of
new information is much clearer to students of English in responses to wh-questions than in
declarative statements.
a) Whats your NAME
b) My names GEORGE.
a) Where are you FROM?
b) Im from WALES.
a) Where do you LIVE
b) I live in BONN
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 89 -
The questions given above could also be answered in short form except for the last one, in
which case the answers are:
George,
Wales,
in Bonn
In other words, given information is omitted, not repeated. In the exchange:
a) Whats your name?
b) (My names) George.
The new information in this response is George. The part referring to his name is given in
the question, so it may be omitted.
Regarding the significance of new information declarative statements, Ladefoged (1982:100)
states: In general, new information is more likely to receive a tonic accent than material that
has already been mentioned.
3) Tone
A unit of speech bounded by pauses has movement, of music and rhythm, associated with
the pitch of voice (Roach, 1983: 113). This certain pattern of voice movement is called tone.
A tone is a certain pattern, not an arbitrary one, because it is meaningful in discourse. By
means of tones, speakers signal whether to refer, agree, disagree, question or hesitate, or
indicate completion and continuation of turn-taking, in speech.
Tone allows identifying different kinds of sentences: a falling tone, rising tone, falling
rising tone, rising falling and a combination of them, etc. that will be seen later on.
What makes a tone a rising or failing or any other type of tone is the direction of the pitch
movement on the last stressed (tonic) syllable (Brown, 1977:45). If the tonic syllable is in
non-final position, the glide continues over the rest of the syllables. A fall in pitch on the tonic
syllable renders (provides) the tone as fall. A rise tone is one in which the tonic syllable is
the start of an upward glide of pitch. This glide is of two kinds; if the upward movement is
higher, then it is high rise; if it is lower, then it is low rise. Fall-rise has first a pitch fall and
then a rise.
3.1. Falling intonation: In statements, wh-questions, imperatives, requests, exclamations,
and Yes/No questions (when the speaker uses a falling intonation, we assume that he
already knows the answer).
Examples:
a) Statements: Ill report you to the headmaster.
b) wh-questions: Where is the PENcil?
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 90 -
c) Imperatives: Go and see a doCtor.
d) Requests: Please sit DOWN.
e) Exclamations: Watch OUT!
f) Yes/No questions: (when the speaker uses a falling intonation, we assume that the
speaker already knows the answer and he only needs confirmation).
a) Have you MET him?
b) YES.
3.2. Rising intonation
a) Yes/No questions when the speaker is sure that he does not know the answer and that
the addressee knows the answer. In this question we have three possible answers from
addressee:
A) Isnt he NICE?
B) i) Yes.
ii) No.
iii) I dont know.
3.3. high-Rising: Asking for repetition or clarification.
If the tonic stress is uttered with extra pitch height, as in the following intonation units, we
may think that the speaker is asking for a repetition or clarification, or indicating disbelief.
a) Im taking up TAxidermy this autumn.
b) Taking up WHAT? (clarification).
a) She passed her DRIving test.
b) She PASSED? (disbelief).
3.4. Falling- Rising (Followed by a Fall) Sentential adverbs, compound sentences and so on.
Consider the following in which the former of the intonation units are uttered with a fallin-
rising tone (the slash indicates a pause):
Sentencial adverbs:
Private enterPRISE / is always EFficient.
A quick tour of the CIty / would be NICE.
PreSUmably / he thinks he CAN.
Usually / he comes on SUNday.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 91 -
Compound sentences: One of the most frequent complex clause types in English is one
that has dependent (adverbial or subordinate) clause followed by an independent (main)
clause. When such a clause has two intonation units, the first, non-final, normally has a
fall-rise while the second, final, has falling tone. Therefore, the tone observed in non-final
intonation units can be said to have a dependency tone, which is falling-rising.
Consider the following:
When I passed my REAding test / I was VEry happy.
non final (Fall-rise) final intonation (Falling)
(dependency tone)
If you SEE him / give my MESsage.
When the order of complex clause is reversed, we may still observe the pattern fall-rise and
fall respectively, as in
I WONT deliver the goods / unless I receive the PAYment.
The moon revolves around the EARTH / as we ALLknow.
4) Pitch
Pitch represents the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound
.
It is one of the three major
auditory attributes of sounds along with loudness and timbre. When the actual fundamental
frequency can be precisely determined through physical measurement, it may differ from
the perceived pitch because of overtones, also known as partials, harmonic or otherwise,
in the sound. The human auditory perception system may also have trouble distinguishing
frequency differences between notes under certain circumstances. According to acoustical
terminology, it is the auditory attribute of sound according to which sounds can be ordered
on a scale from low to high.
Pitch is one of the acoustic correlates of stress (Underhill 1994:57). From a physiological point
of view, ...pitch is primarily dependent on the rate of vibration of vocal cords... (Cruttenden,
1986:3). When the vocal cords are stretched, the pitch of voice increases. Pitch variations
in speech are realized by the alteration of the tension of vocal cords (Ladefoged, 1982:226).
The rate of vibration in vocal cords is increased by more air pressure from the lungs. In an
overwhelming majority of syllables that are stressed, a higher pitch is observed. Therefore,
loudness to a certain extent contributes to the make-up of pitch. That is, higher pitch is heard
louder than lower pitch.
The term key can be described as utterance pitch; specific and/or meaningful sequences
of pitches in an intonation unit.
For a key to be significant:
1) It should be under speakers control,
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 92 -
2) It should be perceptible to ordinary speakers, and
3) It should represent a contrast (Roach, 1983:113).
For each intonation unit, speaker must choose one of the three keys as required for the
conversation. Most of the speech for a speaker takes place at the mid (unmarked) pitch
(key), employed in normal and unemotional speech. In contrast, high and low pitches
(keys) are marked: high key is used for emotionally charged intonation units while use of
low key indicates an existence of equivalence (as in appositive expressions), and relatively
less significant contribution to the speech.
There are three kinds of keys (pitch): high, mid and low (Coulthard,1977) and speakers
make use of them depending on what and how they want to say the things.
1. Mid pitch. (unmarked) In denotative or declarative statements (affirmative or negative)
I wan to go to the market.
It is not raining today.
2. high pitch.
2.1. Exclamations:
High: She: Oh GOD
Mid:
Low: He:/have you GUESSED?/
2.2. Contrastivity:
High: DAVdi /
Mid: / were going to MARgate this year /
Low:
High: YALE /
Mid: / Im going to HARvard /
Low.
2.3. Echo/repeat:
a) 30 thousand dollars. (said Barney sadly)
b) 30 thousand dollars. Echo. (high).
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 93 -
3. low pitch
3.1.Co-reference:
High:
Mid: / I TOLD you already /
Low: DUMmy / ( it refers back to you)
3.2. Non-defining relative clauses
High:
Mid: / my DOCtor / / is very WELL-known /
Low: whos a neuROlogist
3.3. Statements of opinion.
High:
Mid: / the GOvernment / / will agree with our deMANDS
Low: I THINK
5. length
In phonetics, length or quantity is a feature of sounds that are distinctively longer than
other sounds. There are short vowels as well as long consonants (the latter are often called
geminates).
Many languages do not have distinctive length. Among the languages that have distinctive
length, there are only a few that have both distinctive vowel length and distinctive consonant
length. It is more common that there is only one or that they depend on each other.
The languages that distinguish between different lengths have usually long and short sounds.
English distinguish between long and short vowels:
English short vowels: /I/, /e/, //, /t/, /e/, /b/, /o/
English long vowels: /i:/, /3:/, /a:/, /o:/, /u:/.
Length may be distinctive for vowels, for consonants, or for both, although distinctive length
is more common with vowels than with consonants.
Phonetically, of course, considerable variation in length is possible. In English the length is
phonological because we can change the meaning of the word.
It eat; leave, live; sheep, ship; heat, hit (short /I/and long /i:/)
Pull, pool; full, fool (short /o/ and log /u:/ )
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 94 -
Heart /ha:t/; hard /ha:d/; harm /ha:m/ (long vowel /a:/)
Caught /ko:t/ cord /ko:d/; corn /ko:n/; course /ko:s/ (long vowel /o:/)
4.2. Kinds of intonation by Mimi Ponsonby
4.2.1. Intonation 1: The rising-falling pattern (Statements, wh- question)
Stress, rhythm and intonation are, if anything, more important for communication
than the correct pronunciation of individual sounds. We have looked at intonation
when we saw how meaning could be altered by shifting the Tonic.
The Tonic is the syllable of greatest stress an utterance. It is also the syllable where
most `movement occurs.
A sentence with the Tonic at the end will look like this, the voice rising on each
stressed syllable and then falling slightly below the pitch it was at before:
A farmer went trotting upon his grey mare.

The whole sentence seems to be dropping like a series of small towards the Tonic,
in which all the features of the other stressed syllables-movement, loudness, length-
are present in an exaggerated form.
This is called the rising-falling intonation pattern. If the Tonic is the last syllable in
the sentence, the voice will slide from high to low within that syllable.
I bought some food. Janes away.
If there are one or more unstressed syllables after the Tonic, the voice drops on the
following syllable and there is no further movement until the end of the phrase or
sentence.
I thought I saw a burglar. I thought I saw an alligator.
This pattern is used
(a) for statements.
(b) for wh questions (what, when, where, which, who, whom, whose, why, and
how).
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 95 -
There is also a plain falling pattern, in which the voice does not rise on the Tonic, but
remains flat and then falls either within the final syllable or on the following one:
I feel sick. Its snowing.
The difference between this and the first pattern is that if you use the second you
will sound distinctly bored or, at the very least, lacking in enthusiasm.
Practice
a. Statements
(a)
Final syllable
I took the books.
I put them down
We`re going to church.
(b)
Second last syllable
I`ve bought you a present.
My fathers a teacher.
Were going by taxi.
(c)
Followed by several syllables
Ive dropped the thermometer.
Hes going into politics.
I think hes an anthropologist.
B. Wh-questions
(a)
Whats that?
Wheres the tea?
Which is yours?
Whos that girl?
Whose are these?
(b)
What are you going?
When did you get there?
Where are you going?
Why didnt you tell me?
How are the children?
(c)
When will you finish it?
Which is the easiest?
Who were you talking to?
Why dont we go to the cinema?
How did you hurt yourself?
C. Practice making a difference between rising-falling and falling intonation
Its raining.
Im going away.
Im ill.
Ive killed him.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 96 -
dIalogUE: what time does the plane leave?
ROBERT: Whats the time?
EMILY: Ten past two, dear.
ROBERT: When does the plane leave?
EMILY: Not until a quarter to four.
ROBERT: Why did we get here so early?
EMILY: Because you said we must allow plenty of time for traffic jams and accidents.
ROBERT: Wheres my briefcase? What have you done with my briefcase?
EMILY: Its there, dear, between your feet.
ROBERT: Emily! Where are you going?
EMILY: Im going to ask that gentleman what they were announcing over the
loudspeaker.
ROBERT: Which gentleman?
EMILY: That man over there with all the packages.
ROBERT: Who is he?
EMILY: I dont know. But he looked as though he was listening to the announcement
Yes, I was afraid so. The planes delayed. It wont be leaving till five.
ROBERT: How did he manage to hear it if we didnt?
EMILY: Because he was listening. You were talking too much to hear.
ROBERT: What do you mean, I was talking too much?
EMILY: Oh dear. Never mind.
ROBERT: What time is it now, Emily?

fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 97 -
4.2.2. Intonation 2: The falling-rising pattern
(Yes / No question, request for repetition, greetings).
This pattern is the reverse of the one rising-falling pattern. The main movement in
the sentence is still on the Tonic syllable, but this time the voice falls on the Tonic
and then rises. You use this pattern to ask questions that require an answer of Yes
or No.
Lets look at three sentences, first as statement with a rising-falling pattern, and
then in question form:

(a) I bought some food. (b) Did you buy some food?
I saw a burglar. Did you see a burglar?
A saw an alligator Did you see an alligator?
Did you notice that the second pattern is, in fact, not the exact reverse of the first?
In the statement, once the voice has fallen after the Tonic, it stays at the same level,
but in the question the voice continues to rise to the end of the sentence. Be careful
not to rise too sharply, especially if you have a lot to add after the Tonic, or youll end
up in a squeak! /skwi:k/ (very high tone of voice).
Did you see an alligator in the bath at the party last night?
The fall-rise pattern is also used for greetings, the voice rising and falling on the
greeting, and then, on the name that follows falling a little more and rising again
sharply.
Hello, Jane! Good evening, Mrs. Baker!
You also use this tune with wh questions when youre asking for information to be
repeated. The intonation here usually expresses shock or anger, implying, I dont
believe you.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 98 -
I saw your girlfriend at the cinema last night.
Where did you see her?
At the cinema. She was with Charlie Brown.
Who was she with? Charlie Brown?
PRaCTICE 1
(a)
a. Yes / no questions
Are you alone?
Can I come in?
May I sit down?
Do you mind if I smoke?
Are you sure?
Have you got an ashtray?
May I borrow some matches?
Would it be possible to have a cup of tea?
Oh, am I being a nuisance? /nju:sens/
(someone who annoys you and causes trouble)
(b)
C. Requests for repetition
What did you say?
When was all this?
Where did you say you found it?
Which pills did you take?
Who did you say you went with?
Whose wife danced on the table?
Why did you think it was me?
How did you get in?
B. greetings
Hullo, Peter.
Good morning, Doctor.
Good afternoon, Mr Mumble.
Good evening, everybody.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 99 -
dIalogUE: were you at home last night?
SERGEANT: Good evening, Sir. Mr Holmes?
HOLMES: Good evening, officer. Yes, thats right-John Holmes. Wont you come in?
SERGEANT: Thank you. May I ask you a few questions?
HOLMES: Yes, of course. Wont you sit down?
SERGEANT: Thank you. Its about last night. Were you at home, Mr Holmes?
HOLMES: Yes, Sergeant, I was, actually. I wasnt feeling very well.
SERGEANT: Were you alone?
HOLMES: Er, yes. My wife had gone to the cinema with a friend.
SERGEANT: Did you go out at all?
HOLMES: No, I stayed in all evening-that is, except for a few minutes when I
popped out to post a letter.
SERGEANT: Do you remember what time this was?
HOLMES: Yes, it was about-um-half past eight.
SERGEANT: What time did you say? Half past eight? Anybody see you when you- er-
popped out to post a letter. /pa:ptaut/ (Go somewhere suddenly)
HOLMES: No, I dont think so. Oh yes, just a minute. The caretaker said good evening.
SERGEANT: The caretaker, Mr Holmes? Mr Holmes, the caretaker was murdered last
night. /keeteIke/ (Someone who looks after a building)
Vocabulary
Popped out. /pa:ptaut/. Go somewhere suddenly.
Caretaker. /keeteIke/. Someone who looks after a building.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 100 -
4.2.3. Intonation 3: Combined patterns. (Pausing in the middle, lists, doubt, apology,
etc.)
Intonation is one of the means a speakers uses to send signals to the listener, such
as dont interrupt me: I havent finished yet, or Thats all for the moment. Over to
you, if the speakers pauses in the middle of a sentence, he will stop on a rising tone
to show you that he intends to continue.

I was about to put my hands inside the box when I heard a ticking noise.
/tIkI/ (strong)
In the first part of the sentence, up to the pause, the pattern is the ordinary rising-
falling one of statements, until you come to the Tonic, which has the falling-rising
tune. This falling-rising only on the Tonic is frequently used to express doubt,
hesitation, or apology. It can also imply, Can I help you?
Well Im sorry. I think Ive got it. Dr Marks secretary.

You use the falling-rising tune, too, when enumerating lists. Every item in your list
will have its own pattern, each one on the same level as the last:

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday

If your list is complete, the final item will have the rise-fall pattern, indicating to your
listener that it is the last element. This is called a `closed list:
Im free on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday.
If you want to show that you could go on but leave the rest to your listeners
imagination, you use the falling-rising pattern on the last item as well. This is called
an open list:
Im free on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 101 -
Implying that any day of the week is possible. This applies to questions, too:
Are you free on Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday or Thursday?
Are you free on Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday or Thursday?
Practice 1
a. (a) If you go to the India / you must see the Taj Mahal.
Ive bought a painting / but now I dont like it.
I saw your uncle in the park/ but I dont think he saw me
(b) Yes. No Excuse me. Williams Bakery.
I dont think so. Im sorry to bother you. Mandrake College.
B. (a) Closed lists -statements and questions
We went to Rome and Athens and Beirut and Cairo.
I can offer you tea or coffee or hot chocolate.
Did you see my cousin or my uncle or my aunt?
Shall we go to the cinema or the pub or stay at home?

(b) Open lists
Now say the sentences in B (a) again, using the falling-rising intonation on the last item
as well.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 102 -
dIalogUE : Im afraid Im lost
OLD LADY: Excuse me. Im terribly sorry to bother you
POLICEMAN: Yes? Thats quite all right. Cant I help you at all?
OLD LADY: I dont know to begin.
POLICEMAN: Well, the beginnings always a good place to start.
OLD LADY: But, you see, I dont know the beginning. Im looking for a small, old-
fashioned hotel where I if only I could remember the name!
POLICEMAN: Or the name of the street?
OLD LADY: The street? Oh Ive no idea. Im afraid.
POLICEMAN: Or the area?
OLD LADY: I know it was not far from the Pier. Or could that have been last year. I
wonder? No, no, last year I went with Emily- I think.
POLICEMAN: Did you say near the Pier? Theres no pier here.
OLD LADY: There must be ! My hotel was near it.
POLICEMAN: Which pier? /po:t/ (port)
OLD LADY: Eastbourne Pier, of course!
POLICEMAN: Eastbourne? But this is Seaford!
OLD LADY: Seaford! Really? I thought it seemed rather a long way!
Vocabulary
Pier. /po:t/. port.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 103 -
4.2.4. Intonation 4. Tag questions
Tag questions are those little questions stuck at the end of a sentence, usually
asking for confirmation of what has just been said.
In the first pattern the speaker makes a statement which he or she believes to be
true. The tag question is not really asking a question the speaker does not except
anything but agreement.
Youre learning English, arent you?
Yes, I am
The sentence, being a statement, will have a rise fall intonation pattern, and so will
the tag question:
Youre learning English, arent you? You killed Cock Robin, didnt you?
In the second pattern the speaker is not at all sure of the truth of his statement. In
fact, though it has a statement form. Its really a question, so it will have a falling-
rising intonation, and so will the tag question:
You didnt eat it, did you? She will be there tonight, wont she?
The third pattern starts making a definite statement. The speaker seems certain
that its true. Then there comes a slight pause, as if an awful feeling of doubt in
creeping in /krIpI/ (moving carefuly). The tag question expresses this doubt with
a falling-rising intonation:
Thats my money-isnt it? You said you wanted to go to Aden-didnt you?
Two things to note
(a) If the main sentence is in the affirmative, the tag question is always in the negative.
If the main sentence is in the negative, the tag question is in the affirmative.
(b) Although theres a comma before the tag question you link if the question itself
begins with a vowel:

Thats the answer, isnt it? Im not going to fall, am I?

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 104 -
Practice 1
a. Rising-falling
This is your frog, isnt it?
You know where I found it, dont you?
And you put it in my bed, didnt you?
So you know whats going to happen to you, dont you?
And you wont do it again, will you?
B. Falling-rising
Youll come with me to the school fete, wont you?
Ill pick you up at two, shall I?
And well go by car, shall we?
We wont have to stay long, will we?
Youll come and some tea afterwards, wont you?
C. Definite statement followed by doubt-rising-falling, falling-rising
You have got to buy the tickets havent you
I didnt turn off the bath water didnt I?
The hotel is in this street isnt it?
You werent in the plane crash were you?
d. Tag question with special stress-rising-falling, falling-rising within the Stressed
word.
I like pop music-dont you?
Were going to the pub on Saturday -arent you?
Weve been invited to the Joneses- havent you?
Mines a real diamond- isnt yours?
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 105 -
dIalogUE: Fish like a bit of silence, dont they?
PASSER-BY: Nasty weather, isnt it?
FISHERMAN: All right if youre a duck.
PASSER-BY: Come here regularly, dont you?
FISHERMAN: Yes, I do.
PASSER-BY: Come fishing every Sunday, dont you?
FISHERMAN: Thats right.
PASSER-BY: No many other people today, are there?
FISHERMAN: No there arent, are there?
PASSER-BY: Caught some fish already, have you?
FISHERMAN: No, not yet.
PASSER-BY: Stay here all day, will you?
FISHERMAN: I should like to.
PASSER-BY: You dont mind if I sit down, do you?
My talking doesnt disturb you, does it?
FISHERMAN: No, but it seems to disturb the fish.
PASSER-BY: Ah, they like a bit of silence, dont they?
Same as me. I like a bit of peace, too, dont you?
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 106 -
4.2.5. weak forms, linking and elision (Review 1)
weak forms: out of [ev] the [e] car; peas and [en] carrots and [en] cabbage.
linking: sitting

on

an

ants nest; your bit

of beef.
Elision: detes(t) picnics; couldn(t) stay; roas(t) pork.
Two consecutives stresses: stop grumbling; brown bread; boiled beef.
Rising intonation of incomplete lists:
tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, cucumber, beetroot
Unit 4. Practice 1 (4.2.5. B and C)
a. Few proverbs
Eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die. Here today, gone tomorrow.
A red rag to bull. A bull in a china shop.
Theres no smoke without fire.
You cant fit a square peg into a round hole. /peg/ (a stick of wood).
B. which is s/he saying?
(a) That sounds to me like a foul.
vowel.
(b) Weve decided to cover this part with glass.
grass.
(c ) What a cat your cousin is!
cad /kd/ (a man who cannot be trusted)
(d) These sheep are going to have their wool shorn off.
torn.
(e) I didnt realize it was so light, did you?
late,
Vocabulary
Shear, shorn /[Ie, [o:n/ take out the wool.
Check your answers in the answers key (B and C).
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 107 -
C. do you know how the os and us (either separately or in combination) are
pronounced in the names of these fruit and vegetables? Put the correct phonetic
symbol(s) after each one.
(a) lemon [ ] (g) broad bean [ ] (m) turnip [ ] (s) apricot[ ]
(b) lettuce [ ] (h) asparagus [ ] (n) melon [ ] (t) carrot [ ]
(c) almond [ ] (i) beetroot [ ] (o) currant [ ] (u) cucumber [ ] [ ]
(d) sultana [ ] (j) artichoke [ ] (p) grapefruit [ ] (v) potato [ ] [ ]
(e) orange [ ] (k) sprout [ ] (q) sugarbeet [ ] (w) onion [ ] [ ]
(f) sweetcorn [ ] (l) walnut [ ] (r) gooseberry [ ] (x) mushroom [ ]
(y) cauliflower [ ] [ ]
d. listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses syllables.
detest beautiful perfect salad beetroot
basket cabbage behind tomatoes rabbit
indoors pudding chicken cucumber dumplings
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 108 -
dIalogUE: Bit of beef at the picnic
PAUL: Picnics! Detest picnics!
KATE: Paul, do stop grumbling and get the basket out of the car. We couldnt stay
indoors today. Its beautiful!
PAUL: I do like a proper Sunday dinner. What I like is roast pork with apple sauce and
gravy, peas and carrots and cabbage, and treacle tart for pudding /tri:kel
ta:rt/ (azcar, melaza)
KATE: Heres a perfect spot! Spread the rug behind this bush. Good. Look, weve got
brown bread and butter and pt and cold chicken
PAUL: Blast! Im sitting on an ants nest! Picnics! /blst/ criticise very strongly)
KATE: And the salads got tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, cucumber, beetroot
PAUL: Rabbit food! Oh for a plate of boiled beef and dumplings!
KATE: Oh dear! Paul, I do believe your bit of beef is coming this way! Isnt that a
Bull?

4.2.6. weak forms, linking, tag question, intonation, syllable stress and rhythm
(Review 2).

weak forms: of [ev], to [te] and so on.
linking: thats

a; sort of; sitting

in.
Tag question:

Youre sitting in, isnt it?; just joking, arent you?; the plants, cant it?

Intonation: rising-falling on statements and wh- questions, falling-rising on yes/
no question.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 109 -
Syllable stress: make your voice higher and louder and hang on to the syllable a
little longer on the stresses.
Rhythm: Feel it, like music. Not the same all the way through, but regular within
each phrase.
Unit 4. Practice 2 (4.2.6. B, C and d)
A few more proverbs
a. Too many cooks spoil the broth. Many hands make light work.
Look after the pence and the pounds will look after themselves.
Look after the sense and the sounds will look after themselves.
A fool and his money are soon parted. Penny wise, pound foolish.
Never look a gift horse in the month. Half a loaf is better than no bread
A woman, a dog and a walnut tree. Beggars cant be choosers.
The more you beat em the better they be.
B. which is s/he saying?

(a) How many lambs have you got this year?
rams
(b) Thats a photograph of a marsh hare I took last spring.
march
(c) Dont leave those boots lying about in the hall.
books
(d) Water has to be transported by means of a long train.
drain.
(e) Do you think this creams all right?
greens
C. which of these words rhyme with funny?
Money Monday chutney Sonny botany anemone
Puny Pony journey Sony alimony runny
Many honey sunny Coney Granny Mummy
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 110 -
d. listen to the dialogue. how many syllables are there in these words?
(a) position (c) everybody (e) especial (g) arent (i) serious
(k) Extraordinary (b) listening (d) noises (f) hear (h) audible
(j) stethoscope (l) pitched
Vocabulary
Broth. /bro:/. A thin soup with a meat or vegetable flavour.
Ram(s). /rm/. A male sheep.
hare. /her/. Animals similar to rabbit but bigger.
Marsh. /mar[/. An area of soft wet land.
dIalogUE: listening to the plants talking
GEORGE: Thats a funny sort of position youre sitting in, isnt it?
ANDREW: Im listening to the plants talking.
GEORGE: Andrew! Plants cant talk everybody knows that.
ANDREW: But they make noises. Not noises like the ones human beings make. Not even
animal noises. Special sounds. You can hardly hear them with the human ear.
GEORGE: Well, if they arent audible, how do you know they make them? Come on,
youre just joking, arent you?
ANDREW: Im as serious asas Sunday. Honestly, George. Cross my heart and hope
to die.
GEORGE: Whats that thing thats hanging round your neck? Looks like sort of a snake.
ANDREW: Its a doctor stethoscope. Lie down on the ground and put the stethoscope
into your ears. Hear anything?
GEORGE: Golly. I did! How extraordinary! A very high-pitched squeaking! It cant be the
plants, can it?
Vocabulary
golly /ga:lI/ Interj. Colloq. Caray
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 111 -
4.2.7. Stress: consecutive stress, the shifting tonic, linking, elision, weak forms.
(Review 3)
Stress: no stress on negative prefixes: impolite; unhappy.
Consecutive stresses: a good heavens; big black beard; mermaid.
The shifting Tonic: are you a mermaid? Of course Im a mermaid.
Intonation: especially of questions.
linking: are you a; seen a: got a
Elision: hasn(t) got time; han(d) some; bi(g) black.
weak forms: but [bet] are you; handsome and [en] dashing. also within words:
polite [pelaI]; forgive [fegIv]; handsome [hnsem]
Vocabulary: Dashing /d[I/ (go somewhere in a hurry)
Unit 4. Practice 3 (4.2.7 B,C y d)
a. Still more proverbs
Pride comes before a fall. Great minds think alike
One good turn deserves another. Fools seldom differ. /dIfer/,
If wishes were horses, then beggars would ride.
Nothing venture, nothing gain.
If ifs and ands were pots and pans, thered be no need for tinkers.
Tinker, tailor, soldier, sailor, rich man, poor man, beggarman, thief.
Tinkers /tInker/ (to make changes to repair something)
B. which is s/he saying?
(a) The brute! He pinched my shin!
chin!
gin!
(b) I just adore fresh bread.
french
(c) Ill find out if he ever came to the surface again.
service
(d) Have you ever seen such an awful sore before in all your life?
shore
chore
jaw
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 112 -
(e) Im so cross. Ive lost the marvellous cot I got from Tom and Margaret.
cod
cart
card
C) Underline the Tonic in each phrase or sentence in the following dialogue:
Im going to the Repton Show in October.
Thats a boat show, isnt it?
No, a motor show.
Are you going to Repton alone?
No, Peters going, too.
Peter Peter who? Which Peter?
Peter Blenkinsop. I told you I was going to Repton with Peter.
When did you tell me? It must have been someone else. You never told me.
d) Mark the stressed syllables in these words before you practice the dialogue
orally?
Mermaid before unhappy handsome actually
impolite upset borrow delighted unadventurous
Check your answers to exercises b and c in the answer key.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 113 -
dIalogUE: Nobody wants a mermaid
PASSER-BY: Good heavens! Forgive me, but- are you a mermaid?
MERMAID: Of course Im a mermaid! You can see I m a mermaid. Its most impolite
to stare like that.
PASSER-BY: Im terribly sorry. I didnt mean to be rude. Only Ive never seen a mermaid
before
MERMAID: (weeping) Well, now you have.
PASSER-BY: Oh dear! I didnt mean to upset you.
MERMAID: It wasnt you. Its just that Im so unhappy. He doesnt love me.
PASSER-BY: Who doesnt love you? Havent you got a hankie? No, of course not. How
silly of me. Here, borrow mine. Thats right. Have a good blow and tell me
all about it.
MERMAID: Hes a sailor, you see. Hes so handsome and dashing with his big black
beard and flashing eyes. But he doesnt want a mermaid.
PASSER-BY: There, there. He ought to be delighted you can follow him out to sea.
MERMAID: He says he hasnt got time for girls at sea.
PASSER-BY: Dont you think youd actually be happier with a nice, quiet, ordinary,
unadventurous chap- like me?
Vocabulary
dashing. /d[I/ Hit somebody or someone violently. Ojos matadores.
Flashing. /fl[I/ Bright, brilliant.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 114 -
4.2.8. Rhythm and gingles.
american light Verse: a Contemporary Selection
anne C. Newton, Editor

1. The purple cow
I never saw a purple cow
I never hope to see one;
Bu I can tell you, anyhow,
Id rather see than be one.
2. The abominable Snowman
Ive never seen an abominable snowman,
Im hoping not to see one;
Im also hoping, if I do,
That it will be a wee one.
3. Babies.
I think that whenever I see one,
Id rather have been than still be one.
4. Risposte
Ah, yes, I wrote The Purple Cow
Im sorry, now, I wrote it
But I can tell you, anyhow,
Ill kill you if you quote it.
5. The hippopotamus
Behold the hippopotamus
We laugh at how he looks to us,
And yet in moments dank and grim
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 115 -
I wonder how we look to him.
Peace, peace, thou hippopotamus
We really look all right to us,
As you no doubt delight the eye
Of other hippopotami.
6. The Camel
The came has a single hump:
The dromedary, two;
Or else the other way around.
Im never sure. Are You?
7. The Purist
I give you now professor Twist,
A conscientious scientist.
Trustees exclaimed, He never bungles
And sent him off to distant jungles.
Camped on a tropic riverside,
One day he missed his living bride.
She had, the guide informed him later,
Been eaten by an alligator.
Professor Twist could not but smile.
You mean he said, a crocodile
8. The panther
The panther is lie a leopard,
Except it hasnt been peppered.
Should you behold a panther crouch
Prepare to say Ouch.
Better yet, if called by a panther,
Dont anther.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 116 -
9. adventures of Isabel
Isabel met an enormous bear;
Isabel, Isabel, didnt care
The bear was hungry, the bear was ravenous.
The bears big mouth was cruel and cavernous.
The bear said, Isabel, glad to meet you.
How do, Isabel, now Ill eat you
Isabel, Isabel, didnt worry;
Isabel didnt scream or scurry.
She washed her hands and
She straightened her hair up,
Then Isabel quietly ate the bear up.
Once in a night as black as pitch,
Isabel met a wicked old witch.
The witchs face was cross and wrinkled;
The witchs gums with teeth were sprinkled.
Ho, ho. Isabel the old witch crowed.
Ill turn you into an ugly toad
Isabel, Isabel, didnt worry;
Isabel didnt scream or scurry.
She showed no range and she showed no rancor,
But she turned the witch into milk and drank her.
Isabel met a troublesome doctor;
He punched and he poked till he really shocked her.
The doctors talk was coughs and chills,
And the doctors satchel bulged with pills.
The doctor said unto Isabel,
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 117 -
Swallow this; it will make you well
Isabel, Isabel, didnt worry;
Isabel didnt scream or scurry.
She took those pills from the pill concocter,
And Isabel calmly cured the doctor.
10. distant views
Two sayings that Ive been inclined
In puzzlement off times to ponder
Are out of sight is out of mind
And absence makes the heart grow fonder.
Theyre opposite as day and night,
The very height of contradiction,
No more alike than black and white,
Or large and small, or fact and fiction
To reconcile them, though, Ive quit;
Its not a thing Im growing grey from,
For I have found, at last, that it
Depends on whom you are away from
11. Reading Matter
People say, with piercing look,
I can read you like a book.
Whereupon I bow my head
And submit to being read,
Hoping, with a hope quite grim,
Theyre the kind who merely skims
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 118 -
12. wishful Thinking
If I had the wings of a bird of the air
And the fins of a fish of the sea,
I could travel with speed and abandon all care,
I could ramble the wide world free.
The wings of a bird and the fins of a fish,
As well as the legs of a deer
I could fly, I could swim, I could run as I wish,
But Id certainly look mighty queer.
13. argument
If you convinced me
And I convinced you,
Would there not still be
Two points of view?
14. Surplus Commodity
The getting is easy,
The giving is nice;
The takings the tough part
About advice.

15. Etiquette
The people tell the story of a sparrow and the cat,
The feline thin and hungry and the bird exceeding fat,
With eager, famished energy and claws of gripping steel,
Puss pounced upon the sparrow and prepared to make a meal.
The sparrow never struggled when he knew that he was caught
(If somewhat slow in action he was mighty quick of thought),
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 119 -
But chirped in simple dignity that seemed to fit the case,
No gentleman would ever eat before he washed his face
This hint against his manners wounded Tommy like a knife,
For cats are great observers of the niceties of life;
He paused to lick his paws, which seemed the proper things to do
When, chirruping derisively, away the sparrow flew
In helpless, hopeless hunger at the sparrow on the bough
Poor Tommy glowered longingly and vowed a solemn vow
Henceforth Ill eat my dinner first, and then wash myself
and thats the universal etiquette for educated cats.
Arthur Guiterman
16. The naught prepositions
I lately lost a preposition;
It hid, I thought, beneath my chair.
And angrily I cried: Perdition
Up from out of in under there
Correctness is my vade mecum. (go with me)
And straggling phrases I abhor;
And yet I wondered: what should he come
Up from out of in under for?
Morris Bishop
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 120 -
17. Favourite
That poem is splendid thing,
I love to ear you quote it.
I like the thought, I like the swing,
I like it all. (I wrote it)
Mother goose Rhymes:
a childs literary heritage
1. Twinkle, Twinkle, little Star
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are
2. humpty dumpty
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall;
All the kings horses.
And all the kings men.
Couldnt put Humpty together again.
3. little Bo-Peep
Little Bo-peep has lost her sheep
And cant tell where to find them.
Leave them alone, and they will come home
Bringing their tails behind them.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 121 -
4. little Boy Blue
Little Boy Blue,
Come blow your horn;
The sheeps in the meadow,
The cows in the corn .
Wheres the little boy
That looks after the sheep?
Hes under the haystack,
Fast asleep.
5. ladybird, ladybird
Ladybird, Ladybird,
Fly away home.
Your houses is on fire,
Your children will burn.
Fly to the east,
Fly to the west,
Fly to the one you love the best.
6. a dillar, a dollar
A dillar, a dollar,
A ten oclock scholar
What makes you come so soon?
You used to come at ten oclock,
But now you come at noon.
7. jack and jill
Jack and Jill
Went up the hill.
To fetch a pail of water.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 122 -
Jack fell down
and broke his crown,
And Jill came tumbling after.
8. little Polly Flinders
Little Polly Flinders.
Sat among the cinders,
Warming her pretty little toes.
Her mother came and caught her
And spanked her little daughter.
For spoiling her nice new clothes.
9. little Tommy Tucker
Little Tommy Tucker
Sings for his supper.
What shall he eat?
White bread and butter.
How shall he cut it
Without any knife?
How shall he marry
Without any wife?
10. The old woman in the shoe
There was and old woman.
Who lived in a shoe.
She had so many children.
She didnt know what to do.
She fed them some broth.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 123 -
Without any bread,
Then spanked them all soundly
and sent them to bed.
11. Mary had a little lamb
Mary had a little lamb.
Its fleece was white as snow;
And everywhere that Mary went.
The lamb was sure to go.
It followed her to school one day,
Which was against the rule;
It made that children laugh and play
To see a lamb at school.
12. hi, diddle, diddle
Hi, diddle, diddle,
The cat and the fiddle,
The cow jumped over the moon.
The little dog laughed
To see such sport,
And the dish ran away with the spoon.
13. Sing a Song of Sixpence
Sing a song of sixpence,
A pocketful of rye,
Four-and-Twenty blackbirds
Baked in a pie.
When the pie was opened,
The birds began to sing;
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 124 -
Wasnt that a dainty dish
To set before the King
The king was in his countinghouse,
Counting out his money;
The Queen was in the parlor,
Eating bread and honey;
The maid was in the garden,
Hanging out the clothes;
Along came a blackbird
And snipped off her nose
14. Mary, Mary, Quite contrary
Mary, Mary,
Quite contrary,
How does your garden grow?
With silver bells,
And cockleshells,
And pretty maids all in row.
15. a tisket, a tasket
A tisket, a tasket,
A green and yellow basket,
I wrote a letter to my love
And on the way I dropped it.
I dropped it, I drooped it,
And on the way I drooped it.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 125 -
16. This is the house that jack Built
This is the house that Jack built.
This is the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the man all tattered and torn,
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 126 -
That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the priest all shaven and shorn,
That married the man all tattered and torn,
That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the cock that crowed in the morn,
That waked the priest all shaven and shorn,
That married the man all tattered and torn,
That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the farmer sowing his corn,
That kept the cock that crowed in the morn,
That waked the priest all shaven and shorn,
That married the man all tattered and torn,
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 127 -
That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
Come butter come
Come, butter, come,
Come, butter, come!
Peter stands at the gate,
Waiting for a buttered cake;
Come, butter, come.

Unit 4. Practice 4 (4.2.8. a, B and C)
a. do you know how these words are pronounced?
although bought dough fought plough thorough dizzy
borough brought drought nought rough caterpillar tough
bough cough enough ought sought thought trough
B. how is the letter a pronounced in English in the names of these places?

France Wales Holland Portugal New Zealand
Japan China Bulgaria Malaysia South Africa
Brazil Nassau Uganda Hungary Yugoslavia
Spain Arabia Albania Romania Australia

C. here are all the months of the year. Put a stress mark on the stressed syllables
january march may july september november
february april june august october december
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 128 -
d. weak forms. listen to the teacher or the tape. The speakers are speaking very fast.
what are they saying? Copy the sentences on your notebook
E. Practice the intonation pattern.
A) Hullo, how are you? A) How do you do?
B) Im very well. But how are you? B) Dow do you do?
A) Why do you ask? A) Havent we met before?
B) I thought you looked ill. B) Have we? When?
A) What do you mean, ill? A) At your cousins party.
B) Youve got spots. B) Whose cousin?
A) Who? A) Your cousin.
B) You. B) I havent got a cousin.
A) What spots? A) You must have we met there
B) Sort of red spots. B) Are you sure it was me?
A) Where? A) Well, why dont we have a cup of coffee and
see if we can find out?
B) All over your face.
A) What shall I do?
B) You could always wear a veil.
Vocabulary: Veil /veIl/ (A thin piece of cloth worn over the womans head or face)
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 129 -
BIBlIogRaPhY

Roach, P.
(1983) English phonetics and phonology: A practical coursebook. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Underhill, A.
(1994) Sound foundations: Living phonology. Oxford: Heinemann.
Kenworthy, J.
(1987) Teaching english pronunciation. London: Longman.
Coulthard, M.
(1977) An introduction to discourse analysis. Harlow (Essex): Longman.
Langacker, Ronalnd W.
(1998) Fundamental of linguistic analysis. University of California, San Diego -
Harcourt Brace Iovanovich, Inc.
Ponsonby, Mimi.
(1987) How now Brown Cow. A course in pronunciation of english. Cambridge, Hall
International English Language Teaching Ltd.
Yolanda D. Federici Foreword Eulalie Osgood Grover.
(1988) Mother Gosse rymes. American light verse.
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Celik-Intonation.html
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#
http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html
http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 130 -
aCTIVITY
1. What can you understand by suprasegmental phonology? Mention the English supra-
segmental elements.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. What is intonation and what are the three important features about intonation?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. What is an intonation unit?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. What are the four major types of stress identified? Give brief explanation.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Give a definition of tone and mention the different kind of sentences according to the
tone, mentioning sub classifications.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Define pitch and its classification.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 131 -
7. What do you know about length?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
8. Can you explain the rising-falling pattern? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9. What pattern do request for repetition and greetings follow?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
10. What intonation patterns do sentences that express pausing in the middle and making
lists follow? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
11. What intonation patterns do sentences that express doubt and apology follow? Give
examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
12. Explain tag question intonation pattern and give examples?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
13. How is intonation behind weak forms, linking, elision and shifting tonic? Explain.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 132 -
14. How and what exercises would you use to teach suprasegmental aspect of the language
to your students in the classroom?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

o

oBjECTIVES
1. Understand the concept of English syllable.
2. Understand the structure of English Syllable.
3. Get familiar with syllabification rules.
4. Find out the difference between phonetic syllable and orthographic
syllable.
5. Find out the difference between syllable and diphthongs.
6. Be aware of the syllabic consonants and its importance for Syllable
division.
7. Understand articulation, co articulation, and breaking in the syllable
formation.
UNIT V
ENgLIsh syLLAbLE
Syllable
Onset
Rythme
Nucleus
E.g.
/k
i n/
t/
cat
/sk
skin
Coda
ENglISh SYllaBlE
5.1. definition
In phonetics, a syllable is a group of sounds that are pronounced together. Every English
word consists of one or more complete syllables.
glad consists of one syllable: /gld/
Coming consists of two syllables: /ktm/ and /I/
So does valley: /vl/ and /I/
tobacco consists of three syllables: /tebk/ and /eo/ or /-oo/
Each syllable contains one vowel, and only one. This vowel may be preceded or followed by
one or more consonants. The vowel itself may be a short vowel, a long vowel, or a diphthong;
or, if it is the weak vowel e, it may be combined with a nasal or liquid to give a SYLLABIC
CONSONANT. All four types appear in the example lubrication /,lu:.brIkeI.[
0
n/.
Syllables carry the features of stress and intonation. They are important in verse and metrics,
since the rhythm of a word or phrase is determined by the number and nature of the syllables
it contains. The division of a word into syllables is its syllabification. The syllabification of
entries can be shown by spacing between successive syllables or by a dot.
5.2. Kinds of syllables in the process of syllabification
Phonetic (spoken) syllables must not be confused with orthographic (written)
syllables
a) Phonetic Syllable. Corresponds to syllables classification of the spoken language.
E.g. /hp/ and /en/.
B) Orthographic syllable. It is a group of letters in spelling. When a word is split across
two lines of writing, it should be broken at an orthographic syllable boundary.
In some cases this may not exactly correspond to a phonetic syllable boundary. In the
word happen the spelling includes two ps, and the orthographic syllabification is
hap.pen. But the pronunciation has only a single p. and the syllables are /hp/ and
/en/.
a) hap.pen (orthographic syllabification)
b) /hp/, /en/ (phonetic syllabification)
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 136 -
5.3. The structure of the syllable (by Tuncer Can)
First of all, if we have a look at the structural properties of syllable we observe that syllable
consists of a central peak of sonority (usually a vowel), and the consonants that cluster
around this central peak.
The preceding consonant or consonants cluster is called the onset. For example, the b in
the word bar is the onset. The consonant or consonant cluster which is following the peak
(nucleus) of sonority is called the coda. For example, the rt cluster in the word art is
the coda. The peak of sonority is called the nucleus. In the word bar a is the nucleus.
The nucleus is a vowel in most cases, although the consonants [ r ], [ l ], [ m ], [ n ], and the
velar nasal (the /h/ sound) can also be the nucleus of a syllable.
Table 3. Structural Properties of the syllable.
Parts description optionality
onset
Initial segment of a syllable (Optional)
Nucleus
Central segment of a syllable Obligatory
Coda
Closing segment of a syllable (Optional)

As seen in Table 3. English syllables require a nucleus, which is usually a vowel, and
optionally onset or coda, which are usually consonants or consonant clusters. In case they
have an onset, English Syllables may start with 1, 2 or 3 consonants. In English syllables,
consonant clusters are not arbitrarily formed, their representation is as follows:
Consonant Clusters:
1. s + (initial) p,t,k,f,m,n,w,l,y,r / s:pre-initial/others:initial
2. s + other consonants + (post-initials) l,r,w,j =pre-initial+initial+post-initials
In the following words, the onset is in bold; the rest underlined.
read flop strap
The consonant clusters which constitute the coda are also not arbitrarily formed, they can
be described as: any consonant except for h, r, w, j may be final consonant. There may be
two kinds of Final Cluster:
1) Final cluster: /pre-final + final / final + post final, Pre-finals (m, n, nasal, l, s. Example:
bump, belt
2) Final cluster: /Post-finals (s, z, t, d, /q/. Example: bets, beds).
Syllables of English can be open or closed, if a syllable ends with a vowel (i.e.CV, CVV)
this is open syllable but if it ends with a consonant or a consonant cluster (i.e. CVC, VCC)
this would be closed syllable.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 137 -
So, the structural formula for the English Syllable can be drawn as: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C),
with a maximal example being strengths (/strks/, although it can be pronounced /strs/).
1. Final cluster / pre - final + final / final + post final, pre finals (m, n, nasal, l, s).
2. Final cluster / post final (s,z, t, d, q = bets, beds).
Pre-initial + Initial + Post-initials -Vowel - Pre-final + Final+ Post-final
or (C) (C) (C) V (C) (C) (C) (C)
Onset Nucleus Coda, or
Onset + Rhyme (the rest of the syllable after the onset). Rhyme can be divided as nucleus
+ coda. One tree diagram exemplifying this phenomenon is:

rhyme
onset nucleus coda
5.4. Kinds of syllables according to its structure
Syllables of English can be: open or closed
1. open syllable: If the syllable ends with a vowel (i.e CV, CVV)
2. Closed syllable: If the syllable ends with a consonant or a consonant cluster (i.e.
CVC, VCC) this would be a closed syllable.
5.5 Syllabification
Syllable divisions are shown by pacing. This makes the transcription easier to read, as
well as making certain details of pronunciation more explicit. Nevertheless the question of
syllabification in English is controversial, and must therefore be discussed.
It is generally agreed that phonetic syllable divisions must be such as to avoid (as far as
possible) creating consonants clusters which are not found in words in isolation. Hence we
can argue whether candy is kan-di or cand-i, but it cannot be ca-ndi, since it is not possible
initial consonant cluster in English.
These two extracts indicate the complexity of syllabification (in English) and the consequent
difficulty in finding rules:
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 138 -
Syllabification is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written. In
most languages, the actually spoken syllables are the basis of syllabification in writing
too. However, due to the very weak correspondence between sounds and letters in
the spelling of modern English, for example, written syllabification in English has to be
based mostly on etymological i.e. morphological instead of phonetic principles. English
written syllables therefore do not correspond to the actually spoken syllables of the
living language.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllable#Syllabification
As a result, most even native English speakers are unable to syllabify (or spell) words
with any degree of accuracy without consulting a dictionary or using a word processor.
The process is, in fact, so complicated that even schools usually do not provide much
more advice on the topic than to consult a dictionary. Even the Internet does not seem
to provide any general syllabification guide, explanation, or discussion not meant
for experts. In addition, there are differences between British and US syllabification
and even between dictionaries of the same kind of English.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllabification
http://www.createdbyteachers.com/syllablerulescharts.html
5.6. Rules for Phonetic Syllabification
Harley (2003) proposes fourteen rules to describe how English words are formed or framed. She
describes this phenomenon through Phonotactics. She first defines phonotactics as the rules
that describe possible sequences of sounds for forming English words. These rules are:
1. All phonological words must contain at least one syllable, and hence must contain at
least one vowel.
2. Sequences of repeated consonants are not possible.
3. The velar nasal /ng/ never occurs in the onset of a syllable.
4. The glottal fricative /h/ never occurs in the coda of a syllable.
5. The affricates /ts/ and /dz/, and the glottal fricative /h/ do not occur in complex onsets.
6. The first consonant in a two-consonant onset must be an obstruent.(p,t,k, d, f, g).
7. The second consonant in a two-consonant onset must not be a voiced obstruent.
8. If the first consonant of a two-consonant onset is not an /s/, the second consonant must
be a liquid or a glide the second consonant must be /l/, /r/, /w/, or /j/.
9. Every subsequence contained within a sequence of consonants must obey all the
relevant phonotactic rules.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 139 -
10. No glides in syllable codas.
11. The second consonant in a two-consonant coda cannot be /ng/, /d/, /r/, /3/.
12. If the second consonant in a complex coda is voiced, the first consonant in the coda must
also be voiced.
13. When a non-alveolar nasal is in a coda together with a non-alveolar obstruent, they msut
have the same place of articulation, and obstruent must be a voiceless stop.
14. Two obstruents in a coda together must have the same voicing.
(Harley, H. 2003)
onset
The following syllable combinations can occur as the onset:
All single consonant phonemes except //
Plosive plus approximant other than /j/:
/pl/, /bl/, /kl/, /gl/,
/pr/, /br/, /tr/*, /dr/*, /kr/, /gr/,
/tw/, /dw/, /gw/, /kw/
play, blood, clean, glove, prize,
bring, tree, dream, crowd,
green, twin, dwarf, language,
quick
Voiceless fricative plus approximant other than /j/:
/fl/, /sl/,
/fr/, /r/, /[r/,
/sw/, /w/
floor, sleep, friend, three,
shrimp, swing, thwart
Consonant plus /j/:
/pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /gj/,
/mj/, /nj/, /fj/, /vj/, /j/,
/sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /lj/
pure, beautiful, tube, during,
cute, argue, music, new, few,
view, thurifer, suit, Zeus, huge,
lurid
/s/ plus voiceless plosive:
/sp/, /st/, /sk/
speak, stop, skill
/s/ plus nasal:
/sm/, /sn/
smile, snow
/s/ plus voiceless fricative:
/sf/
sphere
/s/ plus voiceless plosive plus approximant:
/spl/, /spr/, /spj/, /smj/,
/str/, /stj/,
/skl/, /skr/, /skw/, /skj/
split, spring, spew, smew, street,
student, sclerosis, scream,
square, skewer
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 140 -
Nucleus
The following can occur as the nucleus:
All vowel sounds
/m/, /n/ and /l/ in certain situations ( syllabic)
/r/ in rhotic varieties of English () in certain situations (see below under word-level rules,
syllabic)
Coda
The following can occur as the coda:
The single consonant phonemes except /h/, /w/, /j/
and, in non-rhotic varieties, /r/

Lateral approximant + plosive:
/lp/, /lb/, /lt/, /ld/, /lk/
help, bulb, belt, hold, milk
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + plosive:
/rp/, /rb/, /rt/, /rd/, /rk/, /rg/
harp, orb, fort, beard, mark,
morgue
Lateral approximant + fricative or affricate:
/lf/, /lv/, /l/, /ls/, /l[/, /lt[/, /lg/
golf, solve, wealth, else, Welsh,
belch, indulge
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + fricative or affricate:
/rf/, /rv/, /r/ /rs/, /r[/, /rt[/, /rg/
dwarf, carve, north, force, marsh,
arch, large
Lateral approximant + nasal:
/lm/, /ln/
film, kiln (oven)
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + nasal or lateral:
/rm/, /rn/, /rl/
arm, born, snarl (grun)
Nasal + homorganic plosive:
/mp/, /nt/, /nd/, /k/
jump, tent, end, pink
Nasal + fricative or affricate:
/mf/, /m/ in non-rhotic varieties, /n/, /ns/, /nz/, /nt[/,
/ng/, // in some varieties
triumph, warmth, month, prince,
bronze, lunch, lounge, length
Voiceless fricative + voiceless plosive:
/ft/, /sp/, /st/, /sk/
left, crisp, lost, ask
Two voiceless fricatives: /f/ fifth
Two voiceless plosives: /pt/, /kt/ opt, act
Plosive + voiceless fricative:
/p/, /ps/, /t/, /ts/, /d/, /dz/, /ks/
depth, lapse, eighth, klutz (torpe),
width (ancho), box
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 141 -
Lateral approximant + two consonants:
/lpt/, /lf/, /lts/, /lst/, /lkt/, /lks/
sculpt, twelfth, waltz, whilst, mulct,
calx
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + two consonants:
/rm/, /rpt/, /rps/, /rts/, /rst/, /rkt/
Warmth, excerpt, corpse, quartz,
horst, infarct
Nasal + homorganic plosive + plosive or fricative:
/mpt/, /mps/, /nd/, /kt/, /ks/, /k/ in some varieties
Prompt, glimpse, thousandth,
distinct, jinx, length
Three obstruents: /ks/, /kst/ sixth, next
Source: http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm
Note: For some speakers, a fricative before // is elided so that these never appear
phonetically: /fIf/ becomes [fI], /siks/ becomes [sik], /twelf/ becomes [twel]
Syllable-level rules
1. Both the onset and the coda are optional.
2. /j/ at the end of an onset (/pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /fj/, /vj/, /j/, /sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /mj/,
/nj/, /lj/, /spj/, /stj/, /skj/) must be followed by /u:/ or /oe/
3. Long vowels and diphthongs are usually not followed by //
4. /o/ is rare in syllable-initial position
5. Stop + /w/ before /u:, o, t, ao/ are excluded
.
word-level rules
/e/ does not occur in stressed syllables
// does not occur in word-initial position in native English words although it can occur
syllable-initial, e.g. /trse(
r
)/
/j/ occurs in word-initial position in a few obscure words: thew, thurible, etc.; it is more
likely to appear syllable initial, e.g. /snjuz/
/m/, /n/, /l/ and, in rhotic varieties, /r/ can be the syllable nucleus (ie a syllabic consonant)
in an unstressed syllable following another consonant, especially /t/, /d/, /s/ or /z/.
Certain short vowel sounds /s/, //, /b/ and /t/ (Checked vowels) cannot occur without
a coda in a single syllable word. In Standard English the checked (/I/, /s/, //, /o/, /b/,
and /t/) are those that usually must be followed by a consonant in a stressed syllable,
(up, bit, bet, but, put, but). while free vowels are those that may stand in a stressed
open syllable with no following consonant. (bee, bay, boo, bra, buy, toe, cow, boy).
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonotactics
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 142 -
5.7 Rules for orthographic syllabification
Rule 1. Every syllable has one vowel sound.
Rule 2. The number of vowels sounds in a Word equals the number of syllables.
Home= 1 sub . ject =2 pub. lish . ing =3
Rule 3. A one syllable words is never divided.
stop feel bell
Rule 4. Consonant blends and digraphs are never separated.
rest . ing bush . el reach . ing
Rule 5. When a word has a ck or an x in it, the word is usually divided after the ck or x.
nick . el tax . i
Rule 6. A compound word is divided between the two words that make the compound
word.
in . side foot . ball tooth . brush
Rule 7. When two or more consonants come between two vowels in a word, it is usually
divided between the first two consonants.
sis . ter but . ter hun . gry
Rule 8. When a single consonant comes between two vowels in a word, it is usually
divided after the consonant if the vowel is short.
lev . er cab . in hab . it
Rule 9. When a single consonant comes between two vowels in a word, it is u s u a l l y
divided before the consonant if the vowel is long.
ba . sin fe . ver ma . jor
Rule 10. When two vowels come together in a word, and are sounded separately, divide
the word between the two vowels.
ra . di . o di . et i . de . a
Rule 11. When a vowel is sounded alone in a word, it forms a syllable itself.
gra . u . ate a . pron u . nit
Rule 12. A word that has a prefix is divided between the root word and the prefix.
dis . count miss . fit un . tie
Rule 13. When be, de, ex and re are at the beginning of a word, they make a syllable of
their own.
be . came de . fend ex . hale re . main
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 143 -
Rule 14. A word that has a suffix is divided between the root word and the suffix.
kind . ness thank . ful stuff . ing
Rule 15. When a word ends in le, preceded by a consonant, the word is divided before
that consonant.
pur . ple fum . ble mid . dle
Rule 16. When ed comes at the end of a word, it forms a syllable only when preceded
by d or t.
s tart . ed fund . ed
Rule 17. When a word or a syllable ends in al or el, these letters usually form the last
syllable.
lev . el us . u . al
Rule 18. When ture and tion are at the end of a word, they make their own syllable.
lo . tion pos . ture.
Rule 19. A word should be divided between syllables at the end of a line. The hyphen (.)
stays with the syllable at the end of the line.
Source: http://www.createdbyteachers.com/syllablerulescharts.html
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 144 -
Application
1. Apply the rules to the word syllabification.
s
O R
/ \ / \
| | N C
| | | |
[ f l a p ]
flap
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ r i: d ]
read
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ t o p ]
top
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ w i n ]
win
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ w i n ]
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ d ou ]
wind dow (window)
O R
/ | \ / \
| | | N C
| | | | | | | |
[ s t r k
s ]
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ r i: d ]
read
strengths
S: syllable
O: onset
R: rhyme
N: nucleus
C: coda
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 145 -
Unit V. Practice 1
a) Read the words loud out providing adequate stress.
B) Represent the verbs, adjetives and nouns using syllable tree representations.
1. Two-syllable words
VERBS
1. deceive 6. object
2. sharpen 7. conquer
3. collect 8. record
4. pronounce 9. polish
5. copy 10. depend
adjECTIVES
1. Easy 6. yellow
2. complete 7. early
3. major 8. happy
4. alone 9. heavy
5. below 10. dirty
NoUNS
1. bishop 6. office
2. aspect 7. array
3. affair 8. petrol
4. carpet 9. dentist
5. defeat 10. Autumn
2. Three syllable words
VERBS
1. entertain 6. elicit
2. resurrect 7. compete
3. abandon 8. imagine
4. deliver 9. determine
5. interrupt 10. separate
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 146 -
adjECTIVES
1. important 6. insolent
2. enormous 7. fantastic
3. veredic 8. negative
4. decimal 9. accurate
5. abnormal 10. tomato

Compound words
a. First element adjectival, stress on the second element
loud-speaker
bad-tempered
head-quarters
second-class
three-wheeler
b. First element nominal, stress on the first element
typewriter
car-ferry
sunrise
suitcase
tea-cup
c. Mixture of type a and b
long-surfing
gunman
shoelace
red-blooded
gear-box
over-weight
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 147 -
5.8. diphthongs
A diphthong is a complex vowel: a sequence of two vowel qualities within a single
syllable.
Several English vowel phonemes are diphthongal. The /aI/ of time /taIm/, for example,
involves a movement of the tongue from a starting-point /a/ towards an endpoint /I/.
Ordinary diphthongs are diminuendo (or falling), in that the prominence decreases as we
pass from the first element to the second: the /a/ part of /aI/ is more prominent than the /I/
part. (Compare CRESCENDO DIPHTHONGS).
An English diphthong has the same duration and rhythmic characteristics as a long vowel.
5.9. Crescendo diphthongs
5.9.1. A crescendo (or rising) diphthongs is one in which the prominence increases as
we pass from the first element to the second.
5.9.2. All English diphthongs phonemes are diminuendo (falling) diphthongs: in nice
nais the prominence decreases as we pass from a to I. No English phoneme has
crescendo diphthong as its usual phonetic realization. Nevertheless, crescendo
diphthong may arise in one of two ways.
A semivowel (j or w) is followed by a vowel. In the words yes /jes/ and win /wIn/,
the sequences represented by /je/ and /wI/ could be regarded as crescendo
diphthongs.
A vowel written in LPD (Longman pronunciation dictionary) as i or u is
compressed with a following vowel (see COMPRENSSION). If lenient li:ni

ent
is compressed from three syllables to two, there are actually two distinct possible
outcomes (although admittedly it may be difficult to hear the difference between
them). Rather than changing all the way to the corresponding semivowel j
(giving li:n jent), the i may merely come to form the less prominent part of a
crescendo diphthong , thus li:n ent. Similarly, influence /Influ.ens/, rather
than becoming /In.flw.ens/, may be pronounced with a crescendo diphthong
e, thus Inflens,. This is particularly likely if a semivowel give rise to a difficult
sequence of consonants, as in glorious /glo:ries/. Where rj- is awkward.
5.10. Syllabic consonants
5.10.1. Most syllables contain a vowel sound. Sometimes, though, a syllable consists
only of a consonant (or consonants). If so, this consonant (or one of them) is a
nasal (usually n) or liquid (l or, especially in AmE, r). For example, in the usual
pronunciation of suddenly /std.
0
n.li/, the second syllable consists of n alone. Such
a consonant is called a syllabic consonant.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 148 -
5.10.2. Instead of syllabic consonant it is always possible to pronounce a vowel e plus
an ordinary (non-syllabic) consonant. Thus it is possible, though not usual, to say
/stdenli/ rather than /stdnli/.
5.10.3. Likely syllabic consonants are shown with the symbol
e
, thus suddenly /std
e
nli/.
Longman Principle Dictionary `s regular principle is that a raised symbol indicates
a sound whose insertion lPd does not recommend. Hence this notation implies
that lPd prefers bare n in the second syllable. Since there is then no proper vowel
in this syllable, the n must be syllabic.
5.10.4. Similarly, in middle /mId
e
/ lPd recommends pronunciations with syllabic l, thus /mId/
In father /fo:e/ or /fo:
e
r/ lPd (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary) recommends
for AmE (American english) a pronunciation with syllabic r, thus /fo: r/.
5.10.5. The IPa (International Phonetic Alphabet) provides a special diacritic, to show
a syllabic consonant, thus , /std.
e
..li/ For AmE syllabic r, the symbol a is
sometimes used, thus /fo:
s
/. Because lPd uses spaces to show syllabification, it
does not need these conventions. Any nasal or liquid in a syllable in which there in
no other vowel must automatically be syllabic.
5.10.6. Syllabic consonants are also sometimes used where lPd shows italic e plus a nasal
or liquid, thus distant /dIs
e
tnt/. Although there is a possible pronunciation `dIst nt,
lPd recommends `dIstent. (In fact, in some varieties of English or styles of speech, a
syllabic consonant may arise from almost any sequence of e and a nasal or liquid.)
5.10.7. When followed by a weak vowel, syllabic consonants may lose their syllabic quality,
becoming plain non-syllabic consonants: see COMPRESSION. For example,
threatening /0ret
e
n.I/ may be pronounced with three syllables, including syllabic
n, thus /0ret n I/; or compressed into two syllables, with plain n, thus /0retnI/.
5.11. articulation
English consonants have the following typical manners of articulation:
p, t, k, b, d, g are plosives, articulated with a complete obstruction of the mount passage
entirely blocking the air flow for a moment.
f, v, , , s, z, [, are fricatives, articulated by narrowing the mouth passage so as to make
the air flow turbulent, while allowing it to pass through continuously.
, g are affricates, articulated with firs a complete (and also usually tr, dr) obstruction and
the a narrowing of the mouth passage (AFRICATES).
m, n, are nasals, articulated by completely obstructing the mouth passage but allowing the
air to pass out through the nose.
r, l are liquids articulated by diverting or modifying the air flow through the mouth, but allowing
it to pass through continuously without turbulence (see LIQUIDS) j, w are semivowels,
anticipatorily like vowels, but functioning like consonants because they are not syllabic.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 149 -
5.12. Co articulation
5.12.1. Speech sounds tend to be influenced by the speech sounds which surround them.
Coarticulation is the retention of a phonetic feature that was present in a preceding
sound, or the anticipation of a feature that will be needed for a following sound.
Most allophonic variation though not all is coarticulatory).
For example, a vowel or liquid that is adjacent to a nasal tends to be somewhat
nasalized. This coarticulation of nasality applies to the vowels in money /mtni/
and to the l in elm /elm/.
5.12.2. The English voiced obstruents tend to be devoiced when adjacent to a voiceless
consonant or to a pause, e.g. the consonants in good /god/ when said in isolation,
or in a phrase such as the first good thing. This is coarticulation of voicing.
5.12.3. Many consonants vary somewhat depending on which vowel comes after them.
Thus the [ in sheep /[i:p/ is more i:-like, the [ in short /[o:t/ us /[o:rt/more o:-
like. This is coarticulation of place of articulation. Other examples are the d in
dream /dri:m/ (post-alveolar because of the r) and the b in obvious bb vi

es ||
o:b- (sometimes labiodentals because of the v).
5.12.4. For cases where coarticulation is variable, and may lead to the use of what sounds
like a different phoneme see ASIMILATION.
5.13. Breaking
When a vowel is followed in the same syllable by r or l, a glide sound e may develop before
liquid. The vowel thus become a diphthong, and is said to undergo breaking.
Two types of breaking are particularly frequent in English, are shown explicitly in LPD:
1. Feel /fI:
e
l/ Besides the traditional pronunciation /fI:l/, the form /fI:el/ (or fIel/) is often to
be heard, especially in BrE (British English). This happens when I follows i:, eI, aI, oI,
and is termed pre-I breaking.
2. Fear /fIel/ or /fI
e
r/. In AmE (American English), the usual pronunciation involves the
phoneme I. (Unlike BrE, AmE has no phoneme Ie) However, this word may actually
sound more like /fIer/, especially if said slowly. This is due to pre-r breaking, which
arises when r follows I, e, , particularly in a word of one syllable.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 150 -
BIBlIogRaPhY

Roach, P.
(1983) English phonetics and phonology: A practical coursebook. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Underhill, A.
(1994) Sound foundations: Living Phonology. Oxford: Heinemann.
Kenworthy, J.
(1987) Teaching english pronunciation. London: Longman.
Coulthard, M.
(1977) An introduction to discourse analysis. Harlow (Essex): Longman.
Langacker, Ronalnd W.
(1998) Fundamental of linguistic analysis. University of California, San Diego -
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
Ponsonby, Mimi.
(1987) How now Brown Cow. A course in pronunciation of english. Cambridge, Hall
International English Language Teaching Ltd.
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Celik-Intonation.html
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#
http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html
http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm
http://cla.calpoly.edu/~jrubba/phon/syllables.html
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 151 -
aCTIVITY
1. What is a syllable?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Explain the structure of a syllable.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Mention kinds of syllables in the process of syllabification.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Mention kinds of syllables according to its structure.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. What do you understand by syllabification?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Mention some phonic syllabification rules.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
7. Mention some orthographic syllabification rules.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 152 -
8. What is a diphthong?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9. What do you understand by crescendo diphthongs?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. What is a Syllabic consonant? Mention some of them.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
7. What is the difference between articulation and co articulation?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
8. What is breaking?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
10. Represent the words using a tree, similar to ones we have present earlier in the course:
lunch, cooper, transatlantic, syllabic, rhyme, island, breakfast and book.
lunch cooper transatlantic syllabic
rhyme breakfast book
oBjECTIVES
1. Reinforce the theory on suprasegmental phonology.
2. Deepen the information received.
3. Clarify certain concepts form another perspective.
4. Apply the theory into the classroom.
UNIT VI
sELECTED rEADINg
6.1. gloBal ENglISh aNd ThE TEaChINg oF PRoNUNCIaTIoN
Jennifer Jenkins, lecturer in sociolinguistics and phonology at Kings College, London
The emergence of so many different kinds (or varieties) of international English has caused
a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation models in the
teaching of English. This article presents my research into the pronunciation of global
English and gives some teaching implications.
1. What is global English?
2. What are the implications of EIL for pronunciation?
3. The findings from research
4. What are the implications for pronunciation teaching?
1. what is global English?
The term global English is being used increasingly nowadays. It is a means of
demonstrating that English is spoken in every part of the world, both among speakers
within a particular country who share a first language, and across speakers from different
countries/first languages.
English is no longer spoken only by its native speakers in the UK, North America, Australia
and New Zealand, and by those who learn English in order to communicate with native
speakers. It is also spoken among non-native speakers within countries like India, the
Philippines and Singapore and internationally among non- native speakers from a wide
range of countries/first languages throughout the world. This last use of English is often
referred to as English as an International Language or EIL, and it is this kind of English
which we will focus on here as it is the largest group of English speakers, numbering
around 1.5 billion.
2. what are the implications of EIl for pronunciation?
The emergence of so many different kinds (or varieties) of international English has
caused a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation
models in the teaching of English. Their argument is that native speaker accents are
not necessarily the most intelligible or appropriate accents when a non-native speaker is
communicating with another non-native speaker.
As regards intelligible pronunciation for EIL, we need to identify which pronunciation
features are crucial for mutual understanding when a non-native speaker of English talks
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 156 -
to another non-native speaker and which are not at all important. These are often not the
same features that are crucial and unimportant for a native speaker of English
3. The findings from research
In my research I analysed interactions between non-native speakers of English. The aim
was to find out which features of British/American English pronunciation are essential
for intelligible pronunciation, and which are not. The findings have been formed into
a pronunciation core for teaching which is known as the Lingua Franca Core. This is
to indicate that it is intended as a guide for lingua franca interactions, not interactions
between a native and non-native speaker of English. The main features of the Lingua
Franca Core are...
All the consonants are important except for th sounds as in thin and this
Consonant clusters are important at the beginning and in the middle of words. For
example, the cluster in the word string cannot be simplified to sting or tring and
remain intelligible.
The contrast between long and short vowels is important. For example, the difference
between the vowel sounds in sit and seat
Nuclear (or tonic) stress is also essential. This is the stress on the most important
word (or syllable) in a group of words. For example, there is a difference in meaning
between My son uses a computer which is a neutral statement of fact and My SON
uses a computer, where there is an added meaning (such as that another person
known to the speaker and listener does not use a computer).
On the other hand, many other items which are regularly taught on English pronunciation
courses appear not to be essential for intelligibility in EIL interactions. These are...
The th sounds (see above)
vowel quality, that is, the difference between vowel sounds where length is not
involved, e.g. a German speaker may pronounce the e in the word chess more like
an a as in the word cat.
Weak forms such as the words to, of and from whose vowels are often pronounced
as schwa instead of with their full quality.
Other features of connected speech such as assimilation (where the final sound of
a word alters to make it more like the first sound of the next word, so that, e.g. red
paint becomes reb paint.
Word stress.
Pitch movement.
Stress timing.
All these things are said to be important for a native speaker listener either because they
aid intelligibility or because they are thought to make an accent more appropriate.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 157 -
4. what are the implications for pronunciation teaching?
Students should be given choice. That is, when students are learning English so
that they can use it in international contexts with other non-native speakers from
different first languages, they should be given the choice of acquiring a pronunciation
that is more relevant to EIL intelligibility than traditional pronunciation syllabuses
offer. Up to now, the goal of pronunciation teaching has been to enable students
to acquire an accent that is as close as possible to that of a native speaker. But for
EIL communication, this is not the most intelligible accent and some of the non-core
items may even make them less intelligible to another non-native speaker.
The non-core items are not only unimportant for intelligibility but also socially more
appropriate. After all, native speakers have different accents depending on the region
where they were born and live. So why should non-native speakers of an international
language not be allowed to do the same?
Finally, students should be given plenty of exposure in their pronunciation classrooms
to other non-native accents of English so that they can understand them easily even
if a speaker has not yet managed to acquire the core features. For EIL, this is much
more important than having classroom exposure to native speaker accents.
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. Global English and the teaching of pronunciation, by Jennifer Jenkins, Lecturer in sociolinguistics
and phonology at Kings College, London, British Council BBC and It is used free of charge (2002).
Adapted by Yony Crdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 158 -
6.2. RhYThM
Steve Darn, Izmir University of Economics
Rhythm is both a feature of and product of the phonological structure of English. The
phonology of any language is a system, so that a change in one part of the system will affect
some or all of the other parts.
1. Sentence stress
2. Connected speech
3. Teaching rhythm
4. Recognition
5. Production
6. Conclusion
The system looks like this:


English is a very rhythmical language, so that a learner who can maintain the rhythm of the
language is more likely to sound both natural and fluent. The two components of the system
which have the greatest influence on rhythm are sentence stress and the various features of
connected speech, i.e. what happens to words when we put them in an utterance.
Sounds Word stress
Sentence
stress
Phonology
Features of
connected
speech
Intonations Rhythm
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 159 -
Sentence stress
In any sentence, some words carry a stress. These are the strong or lexical words (usually
nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs). The remaining words are grammatical words and
are unstressed or weak (conjunctions, pronouns, prepositions, auxiliaries, articles).
Its the worst thing that you could do
The rhythm produced by this combination of stressed and unstressed syllables is a
major characteristic of spoken English and makes English a stress-timed language. In
stress-timed languages, there is a roughly equal amount of time between each stress in a
sentence, compared with a syllable-timed language (such as French, Turkish and West
Indian English) in which syllables are produced at a steady rate which is unaffected by
stress differences. Sentence stress is an important factor in fluency, as English spoken with
only strong forms has the wrong rhythm, sounds unnatural and does not help the listener to
distinguish emphasis or meaning.
Connected speech
Speed is also a factor in fluency. When we speak quickly, we speak in groups of words which
are continuous and may not have pauses between them. This causes changes to the shape
of words. Unstressed words always sound different when used in a sentence as opposed to
being said in isolation.
The most common features of connected speech are the weak forms of grammatical and
some lexical words (and, to, of, have, was, were) and contractions, some of which are
acceptable in written English (cant, wont, didnt, Ill, hed, theyve, shouldve). However, we
often ignore other features which preserve rhythm and make the language sound natural.
The most common of these are:
Elision (losing sounds)
linking (adding or joining sounds between words)
assimilation (changing sounds)
Added to these is the use of the schwa, the most common vowel sound in English.
Many unstressed vowel sounds tend to become schwa, and because it is an
important feature of weak forms, learners should be able to recognise and produce it.
There is a temptation to try to teach the rules associated with these features, using phonemic
script to write examples. An awareness-raising approach is often more profitable, starting by
asking students what happens to certain words when we put them in a sentence:
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 160 -
listen
its upstairs
one or two
right kind
why did you?
unpopular
first girl
Christmas
ask them
four oclock
blue apple
last Monday
This might be followed by a categorisation task, from which rules or guidelines could be
elicited.
Teaching rhythm
Rhythm, then, is a product of sentence stress and what happens to the words and sounds
between the stresses. Unfortunately, learners are often introduced first to written forms and
then to the complexities of spelling. Learners whose mother tongue is phonemic or syllable-
timed have particular problems. Teachers should remember to:
Provide natural models of new target language before introducing the written form.
Use natural language themselves in the classroom.
Encourage learners to listen carefully to authentic speech.
Teach recognition before production.
Integrate rhythm and other aspects of phonology into grammar, vocabulary and functional
language lessons as well as listening and speaking activities.
A number of useful teaching techniques are listed here, focusing either on rhythm as a whole
or on contributing aspects, and divided into recognition and production activities.
Recognition
Speed dictations (the boys are good / the boy is good / the boy was good).
Dictogloss and other variations on dictation.
Ask students how many words they hear in a sentence (to practise recognising word
boundaries).
Ask; Whats the third / fifth / seventh word? in the sentence.
Teaching weak forms and contractions at the presentation stage, and highlighting these
on the board.
Matching phrases to stress patterns.
Using tapescripts. Marking stresses and weak forms.
Using recordings of deliberately unnatural English.
Authentic listening.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 161 -
Production
Drills (especially back-chaining).
Physical movement (finger-clicking, clapping, tapping, jumping) in time to the rhythm of
the sentence .
Focus on stress in short dialogues (can you? yes I can)
Making short dialogues, paying attention to stress and rhythm (How often do you speak
English? Once in a while)
Headlines, notes and memos (build the rhythm with content words, then add the rest)
Reading out short sentences with only the stressed words (Howcomeschool?), then
add the other words without slowing down.
Reading aloud (with plenty of rehearsal time)
Focus on short utterances with distinctive stress and intonation patterns and a specific
rhythm (long numbers, phone numbers, football results)
Jazz chants.
Poems, rhymes and tongue-twisters (limericks are good at higher levels).
Songs. (the rhythm of English lends itself to rock and pop music, while rap involves fitting
words into distinct beat).
Conclusion
Because phonology is a system, learners cannot achieve a natural rhythm in speech without
understanding the stress-timed nature of the language and the interrelated components
of stress, connected speech and intonation. Attention to phonology begins at lower levels
and builds up as learners progress towards fluency. There are specific phonology courses
available, while most integrated syllabuses include pronunciation activities which run in
parallel to structural, functional and skills development. Above all it is important to remember
that there is a place for phonology in nearly every lesson.
This article published: 4th April, 2007
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. Rhythm by Steve Darn, Izmir University of Economics British Council BBC and It is used free of
charge.
Adapted by Yony Crdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 162 -
6.3. dEVEloPINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh SoNgS
Balbina Ebong & Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council, Cameroon
Like us, you might already use songs in class, and find that your students enjoy them. But
have you considered choosing songs specifically to work on pronunciation?
Songs provide examples of authentic, memorable and rhythmic language. They can be
motivating for students keen to repeatedly listen to and imitate their musical heroes. Here,
we look at some aspects of pronunciation that can be focused on through songs.
1. Using songs to focus on sounds
2. Using songs to focus on words
3. Using songs to focus on connected speech
4. Conclusion
1. Using songs to focus on sounds
Sounds are the smallest unit from which words are formed and can be categorised as
vowels and consonants.
Why are they difficult?
As languages differ in their range of sounds, students have to learn to physically
produce certain sounds previously unknown to them.
Learners can find sounds difficult to pick out, and may not see the point in focusing
on them.
However, incorrectly pronounced sounds strain communication, sometimes even
changing a phrases meaning.
How songs can help
Songs are authentic and easily accessible examples of spoken English. The rhymes
in songs provide listeners with repetition of similar sounds.
Students often choose to listen to songs time and again, indirectly exposing them to
these sounds.
What we do
To focus learners on particular sounds, we create activities based on songs rhymes.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 163 -
activity 1
We replace some of the rhymes in the song, with a gap. Students listen and fill the gaps,
using the song to guide them. More analytically minded students can then categorise the
words according to sounds. (From An Englishman in New York, by Sting)
o: eI t
talk
New York
walk
day
say
one
sun
run
Alternatively, we highlight differences between sounds, using the lyrics to show how
changing one sound can alter meaning (minimal pairs).
activity 2
We choose six words from a song from which minimal pairs can be created
heaven - even
hunger - anger
man - mad (From Imagine by John Lennon),
We write the pairs separately on cards and give out one set per group of four or five
students. The students then match the pairs. They then listen to the song and grab the
correct one. Choices are then checked against the lyrics.
2. Using songs to focus on words
Words are combinations of sounds which form together to give meaning. A word is
uttered in syllables, usually one emphasised syllable (the stress) and the rest weak
(unstressed).
Why are they difficult?
Even when the same words exist in both languages, the number of syllables is not
always identical.
Each English word has its own stress pattern, with very complex rules to guide
learners.
Weak syllables are central to English, though students often find this hard to believe.
Moreover, focusing on these can result in over-emphasis (not weakening) of these
syllables.
How songs can help
Words in songs fit the music, helping learners associate the number of syllables /
stress in these words, with memorable rhythms.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 164 -
The relaxed atmosphere songs create can expose students to this difficult
pronunciation area, without their realizing.
Songs contain endless examples of weak syllables, helping to convince learners of
the way English is pronounced.
What we do
To raise learners awareness of the number of syllables / word stress, our activities target
specific words, especially those where the music makes the stress patterns clearer.
activity 3
We give out the lyrics, with certain words for students to guess the number of syllables,
leaving a space by each word to write the number in. Students then listen, checking their
predictions.
At higher levels, we repeat the activity, with students underlining the stressed syllable
whilst listening. We then drill these words and sing or chant the whole song through.
3. Using songs to focus on connected speech
Connected speech is the natural way we speak, linking together and emphasising certain
words, rather than each word standing alone. Contractions (two words forming one) are
an extreme example of the way we connect speech, to the extent that the written form
too is affected.
Why is it difficult?
Students normally learn words individually and, especially at lower levels, tend to
pronounce each word separately.
Students frequently misconceive contractions as being incorrect, only used in
slang.
Not all words within a phrase carry the same weight.
How songs can help
Songs, and especially the chorus, provide real and catchy examples of how whole
phrases are pronounced often to the extent that students find it difficult to pick out
individual words. The music further emphasises the flow of the words.
Songs, like other spoken texts, are full of contractions.
Students can be keen to reproduce this, in order to sing the song as they hear it.
What we do
We use songs that have numerous contracted words to convince learners that contractions
are natural in English.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 165 -
activity 4
We rewrite the lyrics with the contractions in full form
I am wondering why
I cannot see
Students listen, identifying the contracted words. On a second listening, they rewrite
the words with the contractions
Im wondering why
I cant see
This works even with the lowest level classes.
To help learners hear how words flow in phrases, we choose catchy tunes for learners to
fit words to.
activity 5
We play each line of the chorus, for learners to hum back until they get the rhythm.
In groups, students then order the lines of the song on strips of paper by remembering
the tune.
Other activities can focus on highlighting the strong words in phrases, and singing
only these, replacing the rest with mmm. Finally, students can practise and present
their singing, for example for a song contest.
Alternatively, more creative groups could write their own words to fit the tune.
4. Conclusion
There are no standard songs for teaching pronunciation. Any song can be an example
of different pronunciation aspects. However, we try to choose songs that are clear (use
quality recordings where possible), not too fast, memorable, likely to appeal to our
learners (possibly songs they already know) and easy to create activities for, depending
on the area of pronunciation we are focusing on.
Finally, a word of warning: songs are creative works, so be ready to justify the occasional
mis-pronunciation to your students!
This article published: 21st June, 2006.
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. Developing English through songs by Balbina Ebong & Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council,
Cameroon. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. Adapted by Yony Crdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 166 -
Using songs to focus on connected speech
SONgS
Imagine by John Lennon
Imagine theres no Heaven
Its easy if you try
No hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for today

Imagine theres no countries
It isnt hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peace

You may say that Im a dreamer
But Im not the only one
I hope someday youll join us
And the world will be as one

Imagine no possessions
I wonder if you can
No need for greed or hunger
A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the world

You may say that Im a dreamer
But Im not the only one
I hope someday youll join us
And the world will live as one
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 167 -
An Englishman in New York, by Sting

I dont drink coffee I take tea my dear
I like my toast done on one side
And you can hear it in my accent when I talk
Im an Englishman in New York
See me walking down Fifth Avenue
A walking cane here at my side
I take it everywhere I walk
Im an Englishman in New York

Im an alien Im a legal alien
Im an Englishman in New York
Im an alien Im a legal alien
Im an Englishman in New York

If, Manners maketh man as someone said
Then hes the hero of the day
It takes a man to suffer ignorance and smile
Be yourself no matter what they say

Im an alien Im a legal alien
Im an Englishman in New York
Im an alien Im a legal alien
Im an Englishman in New York

Modesty, propriety can lead to notoriety
You could end up as the only one
Gentleness, sobriety are rare in this society
At night a candles brighter than the sun

Takes more than combat gear to make a man
Takes more than a license for a gun
Confront your enemies, avoid them when you can
A gentleman will walk but never run

If, Manners maketh man as someone said
Then hes the hero of the day
It takes a man to suffer ignorance and smile
Be yourself no matter what they say
Im an alien Im a legal alien
Im an Englishman in New York
Im an alien Im a legal alien
Im an Englishman in New York
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 168 -
6.4. TEaChINg ThE SChwa
Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico
If you only learn or teach one phoneme, make sure its the most common English sound
- the schwa.
1. Why the schwa is the most common sound
2. Why I teach the schwa
3. How I teach the schwa
4. Conclusion
1. why the schwa is the most common sound
In stress-timed languages such as English, stresses occur at regular intervals. The words
which are most important for communication of the message, that is, nouns, main verbs,
adjectives and adverbs, are normally stressed in connected speech. Grammar words
such as auxiliary verbs, pronouns, articles, linkers and prepositions are not usually
stressed, and are reduced to keep the stress pattern regular.
This means that they are said faster and at a lower volume than stressed syllables, and
the vowel sounds lose their purity, often becoming a schwa
Listen to these two examples of the same question. The first is with every word stressed
and the second is faster and more natural with vowels being reduced.
Wht knd of msic d yu lke? (slowly)
Whatkn of msic doyoulke? (fast)
The same thing happens with individual words. While stressed syllables maintain the
full vowel sound, unstressed syllables are weakened. For example, the letters in bold in
the following words can all be pronounced with a schwa (depending on the speakers
accent): support, banana, button, excellent, experiment, colour, sister, picture.
2. why I teach the schwa
To understand the concept of word or sentence stress, learners also need to be aware of
the characteristics of unstress, which include the occurrence of the schwa. In addition,
if learners expect to hear the full pronunciation of all vowel sounds, they may fail to
recognise known language, especially when listening to native speakers. Even if they
understand, students often do not notice unstressed auxiliaries, leading to mistakes such
as, What you do? and They coming now.
Helping your students to notice the schwa wont necessarily lead to an immediate
improvement in listening skills or natural-sounding pronunciation, but it will raise their
awareness of an important feature of spoken English.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 169 -
3. how I teach the schwa
Fast dictation
I find this activity useful for introducing the schwa in context. However, it can be repeated
several times with the same group of students, as it also recycles grammar and vocabulary.
Warn students that you are going to dictate at normal speaking speed, and that you will
not repeat anything. Tell them to write what they hear, even if its only one word. Then
read out some sentences or questions including language recently studied in class. For
example, I used these questions with Pre-Intermediate level students, following revision
of present simple questions:
1) How many brothers and sisters have you got?
2) How often do you play tennis?
3) What kind of music do you like?
4) What time do you usually get up?
5) How much does it cost?
After reading the sentences, allow students to compare in pairs or groups. Then read again,
while students make changes and additions, before a final comparison with their partner(s).
Next, invite individual learners to write the sentences on the board, while others offer
corrections. The teacher can correct any final mistakes that other learners do not notice.
Say the first sentence again naturally, and ask learners which words are stressed. Repeat
the sentence, trying to keep stress and intonation consistent, until learners are able to
correctly identify the stressed syllables. Then point to the schwa on the phonemic chart
and make a schwa sound. Get students to repeat. Read the first sentence again and
ask learners to identify the schwa sounds. Repeat the sentence naturally until students
are able to do this. Ask them to identify the stress and schwas in the other sentences,
working in pairs or groups. My students found the following, although again there is some
variation between accents.
1) How many brothers and sisters have you got?
2) How often do you play tennis?
3) What kind of music do you like?
4) What time do you usually get up?
5) How much does it cost?
I normally get learners to write the schwa symbol underneath the alphabetic script.
Once this is done, you can drill the sentences, perhaps by backchaining. This is where
the sentence is drilled starting from the end, gradually adding more words.
Try to maintain natural sentence stress when drilling. A danger of focusing on the schwa
is that it can be given too much emphasis, so correct this tendency if it occurs in individual
and choral repetitions.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 170 -
After doing this activity for the first time, I ask learners some awareness-raising questions:
What kinds of words are stressed? (Content words, i.e. nouns, main verbs, adjectives,
adverbs).
What kinds of words are generally not stressed? (Grammar words, i.e. auxiliary
verbs, pronouns, articles, linkers, prepositions).
Do stressed syllables ever contain schwa? (No).
Do you think this is more important for listening or speaking? (Students will often say
speaking but in fact this is more important for what Underhill calls receptive pronuncia-
tion: learners will still be understood if they give all vowel sounds their full value, but its
worth practising these features orally to help learners develop an ear for them).
Stress and schwa prediction
Take a short section of tape or video script (a short dialogue or a few short paragraphs of
spoken text). Before listening or watching, ask learners to identify the stressed syllables
and schwas, and to rehearse speaking the text. They then listen or watch and compare
their version with the recording. There will probably be differences, but this can lead
to a useful discussion, raising issues such as variations in the use of schwa between
accents, and emphatic stress to correct what someone else has said.
word stress and schwa
I often ask learners to identify word stress and schwa in multiple-syllable words recently
studied in class. This recycles vocabulary, and illustrates the point that schwa does not
occur in stressed syllables. It also helps with aural comprehension as well as correct
pronunciation of these words.
a gentle reminder
You may still find, even when drilling, that learners are tempted to pronounce the full
vowel sound in unstressed syllables. I give my students a gentle reminder that schwa is
the Friday afternoon sound. Slumping in the chair and looking exhausted while saying
schwa normally gets a laugh!
4. Conclusion
Many of my students have seemed fascinated by the insight that English is not spoken as
they thought, with every vowel being given its full sound, and after an initial introduction
to the schwa start to look for it themselves in other words and sentences. More ambitious
students take every opportunity to practise this native-speaker feature, while others
revert to the full vowel sound after drilling, but in either case their expectations of how
English sounds will have changed (This article published 21
ts
march, 2006).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. Teaching the Schwa by Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico. British Council BBC and It is
used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Crdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 171 -
6.5. INToNaTIoN
Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council, Cameroon
Intonation is crucial for communication. Its also a largely unconscious mechanism, and
as such, a complex aspect of pronunciation. Its no surprise that many teachers dont feel
confident about tackling it in the classroom. When teaching grammar or lexis, we find ways
of making the language accessible to our learners. How then to do this with intonation?
1. What is intonation?
2. Why teach intonation?
3. Can I improve my own awareness of intonation?
4. How I help my students:
Awareness-raising
Intonation and grammar
Intonation and attitudes
Intonation and discourse
5. Conclusion
1. what is intonation?
Intonation is about how we say things, rather than what we say. Without intonation,
its impossible to understand the expressions and thoughts that go with words.
Listen to somebody speaking without paying attention to the words: the melody you
hear is the intonation. It has the following features:
Its divided into phrases, also known as tone-units.
The pitch moves up and down, within a pitch range. Everybody has their own
pitch range. Languages, too, differ in pitch range. English has particularly wide pitch-
range.
In each tone unit, the pitch movement (a rise or fall in tone, or a combination of the
two) takes place on the most important syllable known as the tonic-syllable. The
tonic-syllable is usually a high-content word, near the end of the unit.
These patterns of pitch variation are essential to a phrases meaning. Changing the
intonation can completely change the meaning.
Example:
- Say: Its raining.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 172 -
- Now say it again using the same words, but giving it different meaning. You could
say it to mean What a surprise!, or How annoying!, or Thats great!. There are
many possibilities.
2. why teach intonation?
Intonation exists in every language, so the concept were introducing isnt new. However,
learners are often so busy finding their words that intonation suffers. Yet intonation can be as
important as word choice - we dont always realise how much difference intonation makes:
Awareness of intonation aids communication.
Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings, speakers losing interest or even
taking offence!
Though its unlikely our learners will need native-speaker-level pronunciation, what they
do need, is greater awareness of intonation to facilitate their speaking and listening.
3. Can I improve my own awareness of intonation?
Its difficult to hear our own intonation. Choose somebody to listen to closely: as you
listen, visualise the melody in your head, seeing how its divided into tone-units. Next
time you do a class speaking activity, focus on your students intonation. Are there
students whose language is correct, but something doesnt sound right? Do they come
across as boring or insincere? It may well be their pitch range isnt varied enough.
4. how I help my students
awareness-raising
Some techniques I find useful for raising learners awareness of intonation:
Provide learners with models - dont be afraid to exaggerate your intonation.
Let students compare two examples of the same phrase, ex: varied/flat intonation,
English / L1.
Ask students to have a 2-minute conversation in pairs as robots (elicit the word using
a picture if necessary), i.e. with no intonation. When they then go back to speaking
normally, point out that the difference is made by intonation - this is what gives movement
to our voices.
Get students to imitate my intonation, but without words, just humming.
Intonation doesnt exist in isolation. So it makes sense to approach it together with other
factors.
Intonation and grammar
Where patterns associating intonation and grammar are predictable, I highlight these to
my students. I see these as starting-points, rather than rules. Some examples are:
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 173 -
Wh-word questions: falling intonation
Yes / No questions: rising
Statements: falling
Question - Tags: chat - falling; check - rising
Lists: rising, rising, rising, falling
When practising these constructions, I include activities focusing specifically on intonation.
For example, Question-Tags: Students in groups are assigned jobs to mime to
each other. Students make notes about what they think each persons job is.
They then have to check theyve understood the jobs: Students use rising/falling
intonation question-tags depending how sure they are: Youre a pilot, arent you?.
At the end, students confirm their jobs.
Intonation and attitude
Its important that students are aware of the strong link between intonation and attitude,
even if its difficult to provide rules here.
The first thing is for learners to recognise the effect of intonation changes.
I say the word bananas - firstly with an interested intonation (varied tone); then
uninterested (flat). Students identify the two and describe the difference. We then
brainstorm attitudes, such as enthusiastic, bored, surprised, relieved. I say bananas
for these. Students then do the same in pairs, guessing each others attitude.
This can be developed by asking students to greet everybody with a particular attitude.
At the end, the class identify each persons attitude. For younger learners, I use Mr Men
characters (Miss Happy, Mr Grumpy, Miss Frightened, etc.) Each student is allocated a
character and, as above, they greet the class with that characters voice.
Intonation and discourse
Learners also need awareness of intonation in longer stretches of language. Here, we
can give our learners clearer guidelines: new information = fall tone; shared knowledge
= fall-rise.
A simple shopping dialogue demonstrates this:
SK: Can I help you?
C: Id like a chocolate (fall) ice-cream.
SK: One chocolate (fall-rise) ice-cream. Anything else?
C: One strawberry (fall) ice-cream.
SK: One chocolate (fall), one strawberry (fall). Anything else?
C: Yes. One chocolate (fall), one strawberry (fall), and one vanilla (fall-rise).
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 174 -
Higher level students can identify the new / shared information, and then practice
reading accordingly.
With lower level students, we memorise the dialogue together. Although I dont refer to
intonation directly, I use my hands to indicate it (fall = hand pointing down; fall-rise =
down then up). Students then prepare their own dialogues. Ive found my learners pick
up these patterns very quickly.
5. Conclusion
When working on intonation in the classroom:
Remember that intonation is relevant to any speaking activity, and makes interesting
remedial/revision work.
Remember that students dont always have to know were focusing on intonation: every
time I drill phrases theyre hearing intonation models.
Provide realistic and clear contexts.
Avoid going into theory.
Help students find patterns / rules-of-thumb, wherever possible.
Use a consistent system for marking intonation on the board for example: arrow for tone;
tonic-syllable in CAPITALS; double lines ( // ) for tone-unit boundaries.
Keep it positive and dont expect perfection. The last thing Id want is to make my students
so anxious about their intonation that they stop speaking!
This article published: 16th March, 2006.
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. Intonation by Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council, Cameroon British Council BBC and It is used
free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Crdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 175 -
6.6. woRd STRESS
Emma Pathare, Teacher, Trainer, Dubai
A major benefit of focusing students on how words are stressed is the extra mental
engagement with the word that it gives. A language learner needs to engage with a word
many times, preferably in different ways, in order to really learn it - identifying and practising
word stress can provide one or two of those engagements.
1. Why word stress is important
2. What word stress is
3. Some rules of word stress
4. How I help my students
5. In the classroom
6. Conclusion
1. why word stress is important
Mistakes in word stress are a common cause of misunderstanding in English. Here are
the reasons why:
Stressing the wrong syllable in a word can make the word very difficult to hear and
understand; for example, try saying the following words:
o O O o
btell hottle
And now in a sentence:
I carried the btell to the hottle.
Now reverse the stress patterns for the two words and you should be able to make sense
of the sentence!
I carried the bottle to the hotel.
Stressing a word differently can change the meaning or type of the word:
They will desert* the desert** by tomorrow.
o O O o
desert* desert**
Think about the grammatical difference between desert* and desert**.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 176 -
I will look at this in more detail later.
Even if the speaker can be understood, mistakes with word stress can make the listener
feel irritated, or perhaps even amused, and could prevent good communication from
taking place.
These three reasons tell me that word stress is an important part of the English language,
and it is something I should help my students with.
2. what word stress is
When we stress syllables in words, we use a combination of different features. Experiment
now with the word computer. Say it out loud. Listen to yourself. The second syllable of
the three is stressed. What are you doing so that the listener can hear that stress?
A stressed syllable combines five features:
It is l-o-n-g-e-r - com p-u-ter
It is loUdER - comPUTer
It has a change in pitch from the syllables coming before and afterwards. The pitch of
a stressed syllable is usually higher.
It is said more clearly -The vowel sound is purer. Compare the first and last vowel
sounds with the stressed sound.
It uses larger facial movements - Look in the mirror when you say the word. Look at
your jaw and lips in particular.
It is equally important to remember that the unstressed syllables of a word have the
opposite features of a stressed syllable!
3. Some rules of word stress
There are patterns in word stress in English but, as a rule (!), it is dangerous to say there
are fixed rules. Exceptions can usually be found.
Here are some general tendencies for word stress in English:
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 177 -
word Type of word
Tendency
Exceptions
apple
table
happy
two-syllable nouns
and adjectives
stress on the first syllable
o o
apple
hotel
lagoon
suspect
import
insult
words which can be
used as both
nouns and verbs
the noun has stress on the first syllable
o o
You are the suspect!
the verb has stress on the second
syllable
o o
I suspect you.
respect
witness
hairbrush
football
compound nouns
fairly equally balanced but with stronger
stress on the first part
o o
hairbrush
4. how I help my students
Students can be alarmed when they meet words which are similar but have different
stress patterns:
O o o O oo O o o o o o O o
Equal Equality Equalise Equalisation
A useful thing you can do is to help students see connections with other word families.
Patterns can usually be found, for example:
O o o O oo O o o o o o O o
Final Finality Finalise finalisation
Neutral Neutrality Neutralise neutralisation
There are some recognised differences in word stress which depend on the variety of
English being used, for example:
O o O o O O o o
Caribbean Caribbean
aluminium (British English) aluminium (American English)
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 178 -
These differences are noted in good learner dictionaries. If words like these come up in
class, point them out to students. Ask if there are similar cases of differences in word
stress in their own language - this will heighten awareness and interest.
5. In the classroom
Raise awareness & build confidence
You can use the same questions with your students that I have used in this article.
These will help to raise the students awareness of word stress and its importance. Some
learners love to learn about the technical side of language, while others like to feel
or see the language more, hearing the music of word stress or seeing the shapes of
the words. Try to use a variety of approaches: helping students to engage with English
in different ways will help them in their goal to become more proficient users of the
language. Build students confidence by drawing their attention to the tendencies and
patterns in word stress that do exist.
Mark the stress
Use a clear easy-to-see way of marking stress on the board and on handouts for students.
I use the big circle - small circle (O o) method. It is very easy to see and has the added
advantage of identifying the number of syllables in the word, as well as the stressed
syllable.
Students also need to be aware of the way dictionaries usually mark stress - with a mark
before the stressed syllable, e.g. apple. By knowing this, students will be able to check
word stress independently.
Cuisenaire rods
These different sized, small coloured blocks are great for helping students to see the
word stress. The students build the words using different blocks to represent stressed
and unstressed syllables. (Childrens small building blocks are a good substitute!)
Integrate word stress into your lessons
You dont need to teach separate lessons on word stress. Instead, you can integrate
it into your normal lessons. The ideal time to focus students attention on it is when
introducing vocabulary. Meaning and spelling are usually clarified for students but the
sound and stress of the word can all too often be forgotten.
Quickly and simply elicit the stress pattern of the word from the students (as you would
the meaning) and mark it on the board. Drill it too!
Students can use stress patterns as another way to organise and sort their vocabulary.
For example, in their vocabulary books they can have a section for nouns with the
pattern o o, and then a section for the pattern o o. Three syllable words can be
sorted into o o o (Saturday, hospital) and o o o (computer, unhappy).
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 179 -
Remember what I noted before: The more times students mentally engage with new
vocabulary, the more they are likely to actually learn it. Engaging students through word
stress helps to reinforce the learning of the words.
Troubleshooting
Initially, many students (and teachers!) find it difficult to hear word stress. A useful strategy
is to focus on one word putting the stress on its different syllables in turn. For example:
o o 0 0 o o o 0 o
Computer Computer Computer
Say the word in the different ways for the students, really exaggerating the stressed
syllable and compressing the unstressed ones. Ask the students which version of the
word sounds the best or the most natural.
By hearing the word stressed incorrectly, students can more easily pick out the correct
version.
A personalised and effective way of getting students to hear the importance of correct
word stress is by using peoples names as examples. I introduce word stress with my
name:
How many parts/syllables are there in my name?
Which is the strongest - the first or second?
Is it Emma or Emma?
Then you can question students about their own names - this will give them a personalised
connection to the issue of words stress, with a word they will never forget!
Conclusion
Any work on aspects of pronunciation can take a long time to show improvements and
be challenging for both the students and the teacher, but working on word stress can be
fun and over time will help your students to be better understood and more confident
speakers (this article published 21
th
february 2005).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. Word Stress by Emma Pathare, Teacher, Trainer, DubaiBritish Council BBC and It is used free of
charge. Adapted by Yony Crdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 180 -
6.7. CoNNECTEd SPEECh
Connected speech 1
Vanessa Steele
Teaching pronunciation used to involve little more than identifying and practicing the sounds
of which a language is composed, that is to say, its phonemes. Recently however, there has
been a shift of focus towards the other systems operating within phonology, which may be
more important in terms of overall intelligibility.
1. What connected speech is?
2. How this affects native and non-native speakers
3. Aspects of connected speech
4. Working on weak forms
5. Conclusion
1. what connected speech is?
English people speak so fast is a complaint I often hear from my students, and often
from those at an advanced level, where ignorance of the vocabulary used is not the
reason for their lack of comprehension. When students see a spoken sentence in its
written form, they have no trouble comprehending. Why is this?
The reason, it seems, is that speech is a continuous stream of sounds, without clear-cut
borderlines between each word. In spoken discourse, we adapt our pronunciation to our
audience and articulate with maximal economy of movement rather than maximal clarity.
Thus, certain words are lost, and certain phonemes linked together as we attempt to get
our message across.
2. how this affects native and non-native speakers
As native speakers, we have various devices for dealing with indistinct utterances caused
by connected speech. We take account of the context; we assume we hear words with
which we are familiar within that context. In real life interaction, phonetically ambiguous
pairs like a new display / a nudist play, are rarely a problem as we are actively
making predictions about which syntactic forms and lexical items are likely to occur in a
given situation.
Non-native speakers, however, are rarely able to predict which lexical item may or may
not appear in a particular situation. They tend to depend almost solely on the sounds
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 181 -
which they hear. Learners whose instruction has focused heavily on accuracy suffer
a devastating diminuation of phonetic information at the segmental level when they
encounter normal speech. (Brown 1990.)
3. aspects of connected speech
So what is it that we do when stringing words together that causes so many problems for
students?
Weak Forms
There are a large number of words in English which can have a full form and a weak
form. This is because English is a stressed timed language, and in trying to make the
intervals between stressed syllables equal, to give the phrase rhythm, we tend to swallow
non-essential words. Thus, conjunctions, pronouns, prepositions, auxiliaries and articles
are often lost, causing comprehension problems for students, particularly for those whose
language is syllable timed. Some examples of words which have weak forms are;
and
fish and chips (fishn chips)
a chair and a table (a chair n a table)
Can
She can speak Spanish better than I can (The first can is the weak form, the second the
full form.)
of
A pint of beer
Thats the last of the wine!
have
Have you finished? (weak)
Yes, I have. (full)
Should
Well, you should have told me. (Bothshould and have are weak here)
The relevance of certain features of connected speech to students needs is often
debated. However, this is not the case with weak forms. Learners must come to not only
recognise and cope with the weak forms they hear, but also to use them themselves when
speaking English. If they do not their language will sound unnatural and over formalised,
with too many stressed forms making it difficult for the listener to identify the points of
focus. This, the degree to which connected speech contributes towards naturalness or
intelligibility, is a useful starting point from which to measure the value to students of
the different features of connected speech.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 182 -
4. working on weak forms
Here are some ways in which we can attempt to help our students with weak forms.
How many words do you hear?
Play a short dialogue, or a group of sentences, and ask students to listen and write
down the number of words they hear. Go over each phrase to check whether they could
identify all the words and then to see if they can accurately produce what they heard.
Contrast the weak or natural version with the full version, pointing out that the full version
is often more difficult to pronounce.
Unnatural speech
Activities built around unnatural speech are an enjoyable way of working on weak
forms and rhythm. To obtain unnatural speech, record someone reading a sentence
as if it were just a list of words. A good way of doing this is to put the words onto flash
cards, and to reveal one at a time, so the reader gives each word its full pronunciation.
When you have a few sentences, play them several times to the students, who should
then work in pairs to try to make the speech more natural sounding. They can then
either use graphics to show the points they would change, or take turns reading out their
different versions, or record themselves using a more natural pronunciation. Conduct a
general feedback session at the end of the activity, discussing reasons for the changes
the groups have made.
Integrating
Integrate pronunciation into vocabulary work, practising, for example, the weak form in
phrases with of (a loaf of bread, a cup of coffee, a can of coke ).
Integrate weak forms into grammar work. If practising going to for example, the teacher
can write on the board examples such as;
Go on holiday
Earn more money
Buy a car
Ask different students to read these phrases as a sentence with going to. Listen for and
highlight the weak form of to before the consonant sounds, and the full form of to
with the linking w sound before the vowel.
5. Conclusion
Pronunciation work should be seen as an integral part of what goes on in the classroom.
Try not to fall into the text book trap of dividing language up into isolated chunks. One
lesson on grammar, the next on vocabulary, then pronunciation and so on. All language,
like speech, is connected, and students will benefit from learning the weak forms and stress
patterns of new words from the start, rather than in a remedial lesson months later.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 183 -
Raising students awareness of these forms, whenever they arise, is the first step towards
helping your learners to speak a little more naturally. Even if they do not assimilate
these forms at first, ...in many cases, the simple awareness of their existence can help
enormously in enabling students to better understand the language they hear. ( Gerald
Kelly- How to Teach Pronunciation.)
Connected speech 2
Vanessa Steele
An advanced student of mine speaks both clearly and usually correctly, but can often sound
over formal and at times stilted. He has learnt his English through the eye and has trouble
interpreting the utterances of native speakers who do not monitor their output. His delivery is
an attempt at a precise version of every sound. With native speakers, articulatory precision
is a stylistic device, a conscious choice if we want to emphasize a point, be insistent or
threatening. In normal social interaction though, this is not usually the case and articulatory
imprecision is the more natural and functional option.
1. Aspects of connected speech
2. Intrusion and linking
3. Elision
4. Working on connected speech
5. Integrating work on connected speech
6. Conclusion
1. aspects of connected speech
Speech is a continuous stream of sounds, without clear-cut borderlines between them,
and the different aspects of connected speech help to explain why written English is so
different from spoken English.
So, what is it that native speakers do when stringing words together that causes so many
problems for students?
2. Intrusion and linking
When two vowel sounds meet, we tend to insert an extra sound which resembles either a
/ j /, / w / or / r / , to mark the transition sound between the two vowels, a device referred
to as intrusion. For example:
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 184 -
Intruding /r/
The media /r/ are to blame.
Law(r)and order.
Intruding /j/
I /j/ agree.
They /j/ are here!
Intruding /w/
I want to /w/ eat.
Please do /w/ it.
Word boundaries involving a consonant and a vowel are also linked, as we tend to drag
final consonants to initial vowels or vice versa. For example:
Get on. (geton)
Not at all. (notatall)
Its no joke. (snow joke)
3. Elision
As I have mentioned, a native speakers aim in connecting words is maxium ease and
efficiency of tongue movement when getting our message across. In minimizing our
efforts, we weaken our articulation. If articulation is weakened too much, the sound
may disappear altogether, a process known as elision. It is the vowels from unstressed
syllables which are the first to be elided in non-precise pronunciation.
Common sound deletions
A syllable containing the unstressed schwa or is often lost. For example,
int(e)rest,
sim(i)lar,
lib(a)ry,
diff(e)rent,
t(o)night.
/ t / and / d /
With consonants, it is / t / and / d / which are most commonly elided, especially when they
appear in a consonant cluster. For example,
chris(t)mas
san(d)wich
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 185 -
The same process can occur across word boundaries, for example,
mus(t) be
the firs(t) three
you an(d) me
we stopp(ed) for lunch
/ h /
The / h / sound is also often deleted. For example,
you shouldnt (h)ave
tell (h)im.
4. working on connected speech
If your learners have not worked on these forms before, you might wish to set some
lesson time aside to work specifically on these features of connected speech. One way
of introducing them to sound deletions could be to write a few short phrases on the
board. For example:
Thats an interesting idea.
Are you coming out tonight?
Its the tallest building.
You must tell him.
Try if possible to use language you have recently been working on in the classroom.
Then ask the class to count the number of sounds in each word, and write the numbers
which they give you on the board above the words, like this:
3 4 4 3
you must tell him
Now play a recording of the phrases, or read them yourself, and ask the learners to listen
again and write down how many sounds they hear. Prompt them if necessary, asking
if, for example, the t is really pronunced twice between must and tell, or only
once.
Drill the phrases then ask the students to practise these phrases themselves.
You could also read out the phrases, once using the elided forms, then again in a
more clipped, emphatic manner.
Ask the learners which sounds more natural. Highlight that the features of connected
speech not only make the phrase more natural sounding but that it is also easier to
pronounce the words in this way.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 186 -
Exercises like this help to show learners the differences between written and spoken
English, and they highlight the importance of listening to words rather than relying on
their written forms.
5. Integrating work on connected speech
It is a good idea to try and integrate work on connected speech into everyday lessons.
When studying grammar for example, dont focus solely on the form of the words, draw
attention to the way they are pronounced in natural conversation.
Superlatives, for example, provide practise of sound deletions. you could write a few
phrases on the board:
The Nile is the longest river in the world.
The Vatican is the smallest country in the world.
Ask the students to listen to the sounds while you repeat the phrases a few times and
see if they can spot the disappearance of the t on the superlative adjective.
Drill the phrases, chorally and individually. Students might like to write their own
general knowledge quiz, using questions such as, Which is the tallest building in the
world?
As they read their questions, make sure they elide the final t (unless of course, the
next word begins with a vowel).
Such exercises provide practice of both grammatical form and pronunciation, and the
repetition helps students to begin using these features of connected speech in a natural
manner.
Anything which you have recently been working on in class can be used as a basis
for pronunciation work. For example, a useful way of practising the intruding sounds
/ r /, / w / and / j / is when studying phrasal verbs.
Do/ w /up
Play / j / up
Go/ w /away
Go/ w /out
Drill the verbs chorally and individually before providing a more personalized practice
activity in which students ask each other questions using the verbs you are focusing on.
Phrasal verbs can also be used to show how we tend to link final consonants and initial
vowels across word boundaries.
Get out (getout)
Put on (puton)
Come out (cumout)
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 187 -
6. Conclusion
Students often find pronunciation work fun and stimulating, as well as valuable. However,
they will need time and confidence in order to assimilate the features of connected
speech and to make them their own. Research does suggest though, that by simply
drawing students attention to these forms, you are givng them considerable help towards
making sense of the language they hear.
This article published: 28th February, 2005
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. Connected Speech 1,2, by Vanessa Steele, British Council BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Crdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 188 -
6.8. ENglISh SENTENCE STRESS
Lynn Gallacher, British Council, Spain
Sentence stress is a difficult area to work on for learners and teachers alike. For this reason
its also an area which is often neglected, but this aspect of the language can cause problems
for learners in both their speaking and perhaps more importantly listening.
1. English is a stress timed language
2. Listening
3. Listening activities
4. Speaking
5. Speaking activities
6. Conclusion
English is a stress timed language
The English language is often referred to as stress-timed. This means that stress in a spoken
sentence occurs at regular intervals and the length it takes to say something depends on the
number of stressed syllables rather than the number of syllables itself.
Try saying or listening to the sentences below:
1 2 3 4
1 and 2 and 3 and 4
1 and a
2 and a 3 and a 4
1 and then a
2 and then a 3 and then a 4
The four sentences take the same length of time to say and you will notice the numbers are
stressed and the unstressed words in between are said much more quickly in order to keep
the rhythm of the language. In other languages, which are not stress-timed the stress would
fall more equally on each word and syllable.
listening
In a recent class I discussed with my students the reasons they found listening difficult in
English. Some comments were:
The words come too fast
I panic when I dont understand every word
Some words are swallowed
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 189 -
I think what students are referring to here, amongst other things, is the stress-timed aspect
of English.
listening activities
Here are some activities Ive done in class with students of all levels to raise awareness of
stress time in English and help them overcome the difficulties it causes during listening.
After completing a listening comprehension task in class, give the students the tape script
and play a very short extract. Students mark on the tape script the words that are stressed.
Discuss the kinds of words that are stressed. They will usually be the words that give
meaning: verbs, nouns and adjectives.
Give the students the tape script to a listening before they hear it and ask them to predict
which words they think will be stressed. Play the tape to check the predictions.
Play a fairly short listening extract, maybe a paragraph in length, students write down the
important (stressed) words they hear. You can play the tape several times.
Emphasise that this isnt a dictation exercise you dont want students to try to write down
every word.
In groups ask the students to try and recreate the listening extract using the words they
have and their knowledge of the English language. Compare the students version with the
original.
Discuss with students the aim of this activity - to show how native speakers listen and
understand the language, taking note of the important words, usually stressed ones, and
using their knowledge of the language to build meaning.
The important conclusion being it is not necessary to understand every word.
Speaking
Stress timing can help speakers communicate meaning. Learners need to be made aware of
the fact that the way they say something can affect its meaning. Read to the sentence below
with the stress on different words. You can hear that the meaning changes.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
Not using stress-time can also make students sound laboured when they speak and can
cause irritation on the part of the listener. The activities below are designed to practise
stress-time and increase students fluency.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 190 -
Speaking activities
Stress timing is most noticeable in patterned language such as poetry and limericks.
Here are some limericks Ive used with my students:
There was a young lady from Niger,
Who smiled as she rode on a tiger.
After the ride
She was inside,
And the smile on the face of the tiger.

There once was a lady named Lynn
Who was so uncommonly thin,
that when she essayed
to drink lemonade,
she slipped through the straw and fell in!
I read the limericks aloud and checked the students understand them. The students in
groups then try writing one. Its fun to use the names of the students in the class to start the
limerick. Next we mark the stressed syllables and the students read the limericks out, trying
to keep to the rhythm.
Recently I was working with 2 advanced students who were about to take the speaking part of
the Proficiency exam. Their grammar and vocabulary was fine but when they spoke English
they didnt sound fluent. They spoke very deliberately and gave words equal stress.
I asked them to record themselves speaking and then listen to the recording. They were
aware they didnt sound fluent but still didnt know what to do about it.
Next we used the cassette from the course book they were using, and chose a two-person
dialogue to listen to. The students, using the tape-script, recorded themselves again and
again until the dialogue sounded as close as possible to the original.
Conclusion
In this article I have outlined the difficulty my students have with listening and speaking in relation
to English as a stress-timed language and suggested some ways to help students. It should be
noted that stress-time is only one of many factors that influence how we say something. Speech
rhythms change according to the meaning the speaker wants to convey, who the speaker is
talking to and the context they are speaking in. Its also quite a difficult area for students to work
on, so dont expect instant results (this article published 17
th
january, 2005).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on
the www.teaching,org.uk.website. English Sentence Stress, by Lynn Gallacher, British Council, Spain, British
Council BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Crdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 191 -
6.9. INTEgRaTINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN INTo ClaSSRooM aCTIVITIES
Barney Griffiths, Teacher trainer, Teacher, Materials writer, Spain.
Pronunciation work has traditionally taken a secondary role in language teaching to work on
grammar and more recently lexis. In my work as a teacher trainer I have been surprised at
how often experienced teachers are reluctant to tackle pronunciation issues in class. I can
think of at least two reasons why pronunciation tends to be neglected: firstly, the lack of clear
guidelines and rules available in course books, and secondly the fact that isolated exercises
once a month do not seem to have much of an effect. This is not surprising, however; like
all other areas of language teaching, pronunciation needs constant attention for it to have a
lasting affect on students, which means integrating it into daily classroom procedures. I find
that addressing issues regularly during the language feedback or group correction stage
of a lesson helps to focus learners attention on its importance and lead to more positive
experiences.
1. Using student talk to teach pronunciation
2. Word stress
3. Vowel sounds
4. Diphthongs
5. Weak forms
6. Sentence stress
7. Conclusion
1. Using student talk to teach pronunciation
Pronunciation work can be kept simple and employ exercises which are both accessible
and enjoyable for students, whatever their level. Whenever students do a freer speaking
activity, the main aim is usually for them to develop their spoken fluency in the language.
However, the activity also serves to work on students accuracy through the feedback we
give them on their use of language.
When my students do such a group or pair work activity at any level I listen in and
take notes which are divided into three areas of language: pronunciation, grammar
and lexis. Within the latter, as well as unknown lexis I will also include areas such as
register, function, set phrasesand within the former I will include notes on any area of
pronunciation that leads to miscommunication. This includes diphthongs, vowel sounds
(including weak forms), consonant sounds, word stress and sentence stress. All of these
areas can be dealt with quickly and efficiently by having some simple exercises ready
which require nothing more than the board and a basic knowledge of the phonemic
chart.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 192 -
If learners are introduced to the phonemic chart one phoneme at a time, it can be
introduced from beginner level and students are quick to appreciate its value. A rule
for when ea is pronounced /e/ (head) and when it is pronounced /i:/ (bead) will not
necessarily aid production, whereas the activities I propose here will. Once your students
get used to the exercises, pronunciation work becomes even more efficient and dare I
say it, effective.
2. word stress
Here is a simple exercise I repeat regularly for work on word stress and individual
sounds.
I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: I suppose (pronounced with stress on first syllable)
I will see her tonight. The listener doesnt understand because of the mispronunciation
and asks the other student to repeat until finally they write it down and we see what the
word was.
After the activity, on the board I put a column with two bubbles to represent word stress,
the first small, the second much larger. I write suppose under the bubbles and drill it
before asking students to think of other two syllable words with second-syllable stress.
I get outside, today, below and behind, which I accept as correct before asking for
verbs only. I then get accept, believe, forget.and these go in the same column.
If a student asks for rules during this exercise, in this case Do all 2-syllable verbs have
this stress pattern?, for example, I either ask them to think of examples that contradict
their rule to give myself time to consider it or I tell them we will look at rules for this
the following lesson. As a general rule I find that this procedure encourages learner
autonomy by having learners form their own hypotheses which are then confirmed or
disproved by the teacher in the following lesson.
3. Vowel sounds
I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: Not now because he is did (dead).
After the activity, on the board I draw a column with the heading /e/.
In this column I write the word dead and have students repeat it. I then ask for examples
of words which rhyme with this, which students find easy (red, bed, etc.).
I do not write these, however. I then ask for words which rhyme and have the same vowel
spelling, i.e. ea. I put students in pairs or groups to think of words, giving myself some
thinking time, too. In this case, depending on the level I will get head, bread, read, lead,
and we end up with an extendable list of words with the same spelling and sound.
It is the cognitive work of trying to think of similar words, writing them down and their
organisation into columns that helps learners retain sounds and spellings, rather than
their simply revising the lists. This is why all students should be encouraged to copy the
list into their notebooks.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 193 -
If the classroom allows it, its also a great idea to have students pin posters with sound
columns up on the wall and add to them whenever a new item comes up for that sound,
particularly if it is a strange or different spelling.
The idea is to get a basic poster with a phoneme at the top and various columns with
different spellings.
/e/
e ea ai
Bed Dead Said
Pen Head
4. diphthongs
I hear an intermediate learner say: I didnt find (pronounced / f i: n d /) it anywhere.
I make a column with /ai/, drill find and my students give me fight, bike, buy, eye,
my, etc. for the sound.
I accept these without writing them and then encourage students to think of other words
spelt like find. I get mind and kind.
There may be only one or two for any given pattern. If I have thought of any other words
myself I add them to the column, ensuring that they are not obscure words or too high
for this particular level (in this case I might choose to introduce bind and grind, but
probably not rind or hind).
5. weak forms
I hear an elementary learner say: I will buy vegetables (pronouncing table at the end).
I note that this is also an opportunity to work on word stress.
I make a column with a schwa, and drill vegetable, marking the word stress.
With an elementary class there is a case for simply teaching this point rather than eliciting
known words, so I point out the number of syllables and the stress on the beginning of
the word, explaining that this makes the final syllable weak and not pronounced as the
word table.
I add to the list comfortable and presentable as further examples, but avoid adding
more so as not to overwhelm students at this level.
For the second example I point out that the stress is on the second syllable. I can think of
objections teachers have made to my suggesting this, such as students confusion at the
lack of a steadfast rule or the non-uniformity of the examples, for example, but to cater to
this merely serves to reinforce students belief that a language always obeys a strict set
of rules. In my experience this approach is not a useful one. The only way to learn these
fundamental pronunciation points is to notice them, note them down and practise them
regularly.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 194 -
6. Sentence stress
I use fluency drills to work on sentence stress. I hear an intermediate learner say: He
told me I couldnt have a holiday (bold words are stressed). This causes confusion
due to the stress being placed on the wrong words in the sentence, i.e. the pronouns, or
grammar words, as opposed to the content words.
The activity is simply a choral drill, but of the whole sentence and maintaining an English
rhythm. He told me I couldnt have a holiday.
The trick here is not to over-exaggerate on the stressed words, but keep the stress and
rhythm natural. Think in terms of modelling a rhythm, rather than a stress pattern. Using
gesture like the conductor of an orchestra or tapping on the board to show the rhythm is
especially helpful for students who cannot hear it easily.
Admittedly, this latter exercise on sentence stress does seem to take longer to have
an effect, but if highlighted early on and practised relatively often, students do seem to
internalise how English stress differs from their own language and helps overcome what
in later stages of learning becomes a fossilised way of speaking. Sentence stress causes
more communication problems for a fluent speaker than any number of grammatical
errors.
7. Conclusion
One of the beauties of using student speech for pronunciation work is that it directly
addresses students problems. I have attempted to provide a couple of very simple
exercises here to help teachers integrate pronunciation into their classes on a regular
basis. Regular work in this area helps learners to develop their own hypotheses and
gut-feeling for English pronunciation, something experts and researchers have long
emphasised as an essential skill of a good language learner (this article published 8
th

november, 2004).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. Integrating pronunciation in the classroom, by Barney Griffiths, Teacher trainer, Teacher, Materials
writer, Spain , British Council BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Crdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 195 -
6.10. TEaChINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN wITh PhoNEMIC SYMBolS
Alan Stanton, teacher trainer and materials writer
Phonemic symbols represent the sounds of the English language. Using them can be a
valuable tool to improving your students pronunciation.
1. Why use phonemic symbols?
2. Is it important for teachers to know the phonemic symbols?
3. Is it difficult to learn phonemic symbols?
4. What is the best way to learn phonemic symbols?
5. Which phonemic symbols are the easiest to learn?
6. Dont I need to have a perfect English accent in order to use phonemic symbols?
1. why use phonemic symbols?
The alphabet which we use to write English has 26 letters but (British) English has 44
sounds. Inevitably, English spelling is not a reliable guide to pronunciation because
Some letters have more than one sound
Sometimes letters are not pronounced at all
The same sound may be represented by different letters
Sometimes syllables indicated by the spelling are not pronounced at all
Here a few challenging questions to put to your students:
How do you pronounce gh in enough, through and ghost? (like f in fun, not
pronounced, like g in got)
How many syllables are there in chocolate? (3)
The letters of the alphabet can be a poor guide to pronunciation. Phonemic symbols, in
contrast, are a totally reliable guide. Each symbol represents one sound consistently.
Here are five good reasons why students should know phonemic symbols.
1.1. Students can use dictionaries effectively. The second bit of information in dictionaries
for English language learners is the word in phonemic symbols. It comes right after
the word itself. Knowing phonemic symbols enables students to get the maximum
information from dictionaries.
1.2. Students can become independent learners. They can find out the pronunciation
of a word by themselves without asking the teacher. What is more, they can write
down the correct pronunciation of a word that they hear. If they cannot use phonemic
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 196 -
symbols for this, they will use the sound values of letters in their own language and
this will perpetuate pronunciation errors.
1.3. Phonemic symbols are a visual aid. Students can see that two words differ, or are
the same, in pronunciation. For example they can see that son and sun must be
pronounced the same because the phonemic symbols are the same. They can use
their eyes to help their ears and if they are able to hold and manipulate cards with
the symbols on, then they are using the sense of touch as well. The more senses
students use, the better they will learn.
1.4. Phonemic symbols, arranged in a chart, are part of every students armoury of
learning resources. Just as they have a dictionary for vocabulary and a grammar
book for grammar, so they need reference materials for pronunciation: the phonemic
symbols and simple, key words that show the sound of each symbol.
1.5. Although speaking a language is a performance skill, knowledge of how the
language works is still of great value. Here is another question to ask students:
How many different sounds are there in English? Usually, students do not know.
Phonemic symbols on the wall in a classroom remind them that there are 44. Even
if they have not mastered all of them, they know what the target is and where the
problems are. The chart is a map of English sounds. Even with a map, you can get
lost but you are better off with a map than without one.
2. Is it important for teachers to know the phonemic symbols?
To be frank, yes. Every profession has specialist knowledge that is not widely known
outside the profession. If you are a doctor, you will be able to name every bone in the
human body, which most people cant do. If you are a language teacher, then you know
phonemic symbols, which most people dont. Students can learn these symbols by
themselves and one day you might meet a student who asks you to write a word on the
board using phonemic symbols. It is best to be prepared.
3. Is it difficult to learn phonemic symbols?
Absolutely not. 19 of the 44 symbols have the same sound and shape as letters of the
alphabet. This means that some words, such as pet, look the same whether written with
phonemic symbols or letters of the alphabet. That leaves just 25 to learn. Compare that
with the hundreds of different pieces of information in a grammar book or the thousands
of words in even a small dictionary. It is a very small learning load. Moreover, it is visual
and shapes are easy to remember. Anyone who can drive is able to recognise more than
25 symbols giving information about road conditions. Even if we go beyond separate,
individual sounds and include linking, elision and assimilation, there is still a limited and
clearly defined set of things to learn.
4. what is the best way to learn phonemic symbols?
Most native-speaker teachers of English learn grammar from the textbooks they use
when they first start teaching, because they are unlikely to have been exposed to any
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 197 -
formal study of English grammar. They learn by teaching, which is a very effective way
of learning. It is possible to learn phonemic symbols in the same way. You just need to
keep one symbol ahead of the students.
5. which phonemic symbols are the easiest to learn?
The consonants are the easiest, because most of them have the same form as a letter
of the alphabet (17 out of 24). Therefore, it is best to start by teaching students a large
number of consonant symbols and a small number of easy vowel symbols such as /e/
and /i/. Note, however, that the sound /j/ represents the initial sound of yellow, not the
initial sound of judge. Experience shows that students are very likely to make mistakes
with the symbol /j/, so it needs special attention.
6. dont I need to have a perfect English accent in order to use phonemic symbols?
Not at all. It is true that the 44 phonemes in British English are based on the sounds
of Received Pronunciation, an accent which is not frequently heard nowadays. Most
native-speaker teachers do not have this accent but still use phonemic symbols. When
the symbols are arranged in a chart, each one occupies a box. This indicates that the
real sound that you actually hear can vary up to certain limits, depending on the influence
of other sounds and on individual ways of speaking. There is not just one perfect way
to say each sound - there is an acceptable range of pronunciations. Think of the pieces
in a game of chess. They can vary considerably in size, shape and appearance but we
can always recognise a knight because it behaves like a knight and not like a king. The
point is that words such as ship, sheep, sip and seep should sound different from
each other, not that each sound is pronounced exactly like the sounds of RP. Learning
phonemic symbols will help students to understand the importance of length and voicing.
Simply knowing that the symbol : indicates a long sound can be very helpful.
There is no end to our study of grammar and vocabulary but phonemic symbols are
limited, visual and physical. They may seem challenging at first but it is like learning to
swim or ride a bicycle. Once you can do it, it is easy and you never forget.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 198 -
PhoNEMIC SYMBolS
i: u: s: a: o:
Vowel sounds
e b t e o I
diphthongs
Ie eI oe oI eo ee aI ao
Consonants - Unvoiced and voiced pairs 1
Unvoiced p t k
Voiced b d g g
Consonants - Unvoiced and voiced pairs 2
Unvoiced f 0 s [
Voiced v z
other consonants
m n h l r w j
(this article published 5
th
march, 2002)

Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. Teaching pronunciation with phonemic symbols, by Alan Stanton, teacher trainer and materials
writer, BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Crdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 199 -
6.11. PRoNUNCIaTIoN ChaRT aCTIVITIES
Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico
These activities are designed for use with the teaching English interactive phonemic
chart.
If your students have access to computers at home, you can download and copy the chart
for them to use with their homework.
1. Vocabulary recycling and revision of phonemic symbols.
2. Voiced and unvoiced consonants.
3. Sound and spelling correspondence.
4. Using the chart for autonomous learning.
1. Vocabulary recycling and revision of phonemic symbols
If you have a computer with a projector, the chart can be used in class to recycle and
reinforce recently learned vocabulary, at the same time as revising the phonemic symbols.
All these activities assume that learners have had at least some initial introduction to the
phonemic alphabet.
Give the students a list of recently learned words with a specific sound underlined,
e.g. one of the vowel sounds. The learners then categorise the words into the different
vowel sounds. To make the activity easier, you could restrict the number of vowel
sounds used, and give learners the options they have to choose from. They can
come and click on these sounds on the board or computer to check. When checking
with the whole class, one student can stand at the board or sit at the computer,
clicking on the correct sound for each word, which the teacher confirms or rejects.
Give the students a list of recently learned words in phonemic script. In groups, they
have to work out what the words are. They can send a group member to the board
or the computer to click on sounds to help them check. They then have to write the
words in alphabetic script. This can be made more learner-centred if, after some work
in class on the phonemic alphabet, learners choose 5 recently learned words and
write them in phonemic script for homework. In the next class they exchange books
and use the chart to help them work out the words.
Individual learners prepare a recently learned word in phonemic script. They come to
the board or computer and spell it out. Other learners have to identify the word, and
any mistakes in the phonemic transcription, then give its alphabetic spelling.
A variation on both the above activities is for you or the learners to prepare phonemic
transcriptions of vocabulary with a deliberate mistake. Learners in groups identify the
mistake and replace it with the correct phoneme.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 200 -
Learners work in two teams. One team member stands at the board or sits at the
computer, and the other team calls out a word (you could specify a subject area,
recently learned vocabulary, or leave the choice of words open). The team member
has to spell out the word on the chart, and receives a point for a correct answer. The
class is the judge, with the teacher having the final say.
The teacher gives one learner a word, written alphabetically. The learner has to tap
out the word in phonemic script, while other learners identify it. As a variation, the
teacher gives one learner a word in phonemic script. He taps it out on the board, and
the other team gets a point for giving the correct spelling.
Write the name of your favourite famous person in phonemic script on the board.
The class as a whole has to work out who it is using their existing knowledge of the
phonemic chart. They then write the name of a favourite famous person in phonemic
script on a piece of paper (an English name, e.g. Tom Cruise, not Enrique Iglesias).
The teacher collects these and redistributes them. Learners have to work out who
this person is - they can take turns in clicking on the sounds on the board or the
computer to check individual sounds. Once theyve worked out the name, they can
find the person who wrote it and ask some more questions, e.g. why they like this
person, what films theyve been in etc.
2. Voiced and unvoiced consonants
Certain pairs of consonants can be problematic for some learners. In some cases, the
main difference between the pair is whether the consonant is voiced or unvoiced, that is,
whether or not the vocal chords vibrate when making this sound.
This discovery activity can be used to help learners notice the difference between
voiced and unvoiced consonants. Begin by asking learners what noise a bee makes.
As they make a buzzing noise, do the same and put your fingers on your throat,
indicating that they should do likewise. This will allow them to feel the vibrations of
the vocal chords that occur with voiced consonant sounds. Ask them if they can feel
the vibrations.
Then focus on a voiced / unvoiced pair such as s and z. Make the sounds with your
fingers on your throat, indicating that the learners should do the same. You can help
learners with this by getting them to make the bee sounds for z, and the sound a
snake is supposed to make for s. Ask them when they feel the vocal chords vibrate
- with s or z? (The answer should be z). Tell them that this is the main difference
between the two sounds, and that z is voiced while s is unvoiced. You could then give
them a list of words and ask them to categorise the underlined consonant sound into
these two categories. With /s/ and /z/, you might choose to include some third person
singular verb and plural endings. In this list the sound being focused on is the final
sound in each case.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 201 -
/s/ /z/
cups pens
speaks reads
gets goes
puts lives
tents cars
plants sees
bags hears
looks learns
stops rise
rice rose
place plays
Learners then use the chart to decide which of the other consonant sounds are voiced
and which are unvoiced. In a computer lab, learners could do this in pairs. They listen
to a sound and repeat it, with their fingers on their throat to check if it is voiced or
unvoiced. In class with the computer and a projector, the teacher or a learner could click
on sounds while the rest of the class repeat them and categorise them into voiced or
unvoiced.
As a follow up, you could do a minimal pairs activity using some voiced / unvoiced
pairs, focusing on initial consonant sounds. Display this list or something similar on
the board and say a word from each pair. After each word learners have to say voiced
or unvoiced, depending on which of the pair they hear. They can then test each other
in pairs.
Voiced Unvoiced
ben pen
do to
gone con
van fan
gin chin
zoo sue
This activity has the advantage of establishing the voiced / unvoiced distinction, and
a shared gesture that learners and the teacher can use in class to indicate that a
sound is voiced or unvoiced, i.e. the fingers on the throat. It also helps learners to
become conscious of the muscle movements involved in voicing a consonant. All of
this will be useful in future classes if problem arise in the discrimination or production
of voiced / unvoiced consonant pairs.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 202 -
3. Sound and spelling correspondence
The chart can also be used to highlight both patterns and variations in sound and spelling
correspondence.
For example, as a discovery activity to help learners notice the effect of adding an e to
the end of a word, you could give the learners some of the words from the following list:
cap cape
mat mate
pin pine
not note
pet pete
kit kite
sit site
win wine
hat hate
cut cute
Learners use the chart to help them write the phonemic transcription for each word,
checking with a dictionary if necessary. The teacher then asks them to formulate a
general rule for the effect of adding an e to the end of a word. (It makes the vowel
sound say its name, i.e. the a in cape sounds like the letter A as it is said in the
alphabet.)
It is not advisable to over-emphasise the irregularity of English spelling, given that
80% of English words do fit into regular patterns. However, speakers of languages
such as Spanish, Italian or Japanese where there is a very high correspondence
between sound and spelling may need to have their attention drawn to the different
possibilities for pronunciation in English.
One way of doing this is to give them a list of known words where the same letter
or combination of letters, normally a vowel or vowels, represent different sounds.
Learners will have at least some idea of how these words are pronounced, and can
categorise the words according to the sound represented, using the chart to help
them, before holding a final class check. For example, you could give learners the
following list of words including the letter a, which they categorise according to how
the as are pronounced. Where the word contains more than one a with different
sounds, underline which a you want them to use to make their categorisations.
Spanish, capital, make, art, car, understand, average, banana, take, practice.
To make the activity easier, give the students the phonemic symbols for the different
possible pronunciations of e.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 203 -
4. Using the chart for autonomous learning
If learners have access to a computer outside class, they can use the chart together with
a dictionary to check the pronunciation of new words they meet in their own reading. This
is particularly useful for learners who are not yet fully familiar with all the sounds on the
chart. Encourage your learners to record the pronunciation of new words they meet, both
in and out of class, in their vocabulary notebooks.
you can also set homework related to pronunciation, which learners can check using
the online chart before bringing to class. As mentioned above, you could ask them
to write 5 new words from the class in phonemic script for homework, to be used to
test their classmates. Similarly, if you want to focus on a sound which is problematic
for your learners, ask them to find 5 words including that sound and write them in
phonemic script. With a little training, your learners could prepare their own minimal
pairs, for example with the sounds /i:/ and /I/. Depending on their level, they might
come up with something like this:
/I/ /i:/
sit seat
hit heat
hill wheel
mill meal
bin been
ship sheep
They can use these to test their classmates ability to discriminate between these
sounds, as well as their own pronunciation, in the next class. They simply show the
two lists of words to a partner, and say one of the words. The partner responds left or
right. For example, in the list above, if student A says seat, student B will (hopefully)
respond right (this article published 17
th
january, 2005).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. Pronunciation Chart Activities, by Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico, BBC and It is used free
of charge. Adapted by Yony Crdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 204 -
6.12. PRaCTICINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh PRoVERBS
Yi Yang
Practicing pronunciation can be very tedious. Proverbs, however, will give fun. For example,
when practicing a, students will prefer reading No pains, no gains to some monotonous
sentences such as He looks pale today.
Sentences with several words involving the same sound are good materials for practicing that
sound. Many proverbs contain the rhetorical devices related to sound such as alliteration,
rhyme and repetition, and thus very suitable for pronunciation exercises (For instance:
Practice makes perfect. / Where there is a will, there is a way.) Repeating a sound two or
more times in a short sentence can give the student a deeper impression, and the euphonic
rhythm can keep the boredom away.
The following is a list of proverbs that can be used for pronunciation exercises. Sounds
are marked with boldface instead of being represented by phonetic symbols because the
American and British symbols are different, and some symbols may be distorted on the
internet.
Vowels
A friend in need is a friend indeed.
Every bullet has its billet.
A good wife and health is a mans best wealth. / East and west, home is best.
A drowning man will catch at a straw.
He laughs best who laughs last.
He who has an art has everywhere a part.
A little pot is soon hot. / A spot is most seen on the finest cloth.
New lords, new laws. / Walls have ears.
One man beats the bush, another man catches the bird.
Well begun is half done.
Finders keepers, losers weepers.
Kind words are the music of the world. / The early bird catches the worm.
Haste makes waste.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 205 -
Little strokes fell great oaks. / As you sow you shall mow.
Good advice is beyond price. / Might makes right.
An ounce of discretion is worth a pound of learning.
No joy without annoy.
Constant dripping wears away a stone.
Consonants
Penny wise, pound foolish./ Practice makes perfect.
There is nothing which has been bitter before being ripe.
Time and tide wait for no man.
A bird in hand is worth two in the wood. / Every dog has his day.
Care killed the cat.
A good name is better than a golden girdle.
Fair feathers make fair fowls. / Birds of a feather flock together.
Even the weariest river winds somewhere safe to sea.
Something is better than nothing. / Birds of a feather flock together.
Least said, soonest mended. / More haste, less speed.
A lazy youth, a lousy age.
No sunshine but hath some shadow. / Better be sure than sorry.
Labor is often the father of leisure.
Work has bitter root but sweet fruit.
There is no royal road to learning.
It is hard to be high and humble. / Do on the hills as you would do in the hall.
Everybody has his merits and faults.
No garden without its weeds.
Do not count your chickens before they are hatched.
Every jack has his jill.
Try before you trust.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 206 -
Better be drunk than drowned.
A miss is as good as a mile. / Many a little makes a mickle.
A stitch in time saves nine.
Seeing is believing. / Everything must have a beginning.
look before you leap. / A cracked bell can never sound well.
willful waste makes woeful want. / where there is a will, there is a way.
Students could later be asked to interpret the meaning of the proverbs orally or in writing,
which will lead the pronunciation activity naturally to a speaking or writing activity.
Source: Yi Yang, yangyi@gse.harvard.edu
The Internet TESL Journal, vol. v, N. 3, march 1999
URL: http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Yang-Proverbs.html

o

K E Y
Unit I. Practice 1
Summary of the phonological processes
1. assimilation: /e,sIm.IleI.[en/. Sounds becoming more alike. These can be voicing,
manner or place. there is usually a conditioning factor and an effected sound.
2. Elision: /elI[en/. Deletion of some segments in different positions.
Could be:
2.1. aphresis or aphesis: (Initial). /efIerIsIs/ and /fisIs/. Deletion of first
segment(s) of a word. Example: around round.
2.2. Syncope. (Medial). /sIkepI/. Deletion of segment(s) at the middle of a word or
end of the syllable: suppose -- sppose. (medial).
2.3. apocope: (Final). /epbkepi/. Deletion of last segment(s) of a word. Example:
breakfast Breakfast.
3. Insertion (epenthesis): /inss:[en, epent.e.sIs/. Inserting segment(s) into a word:
example: [straik[ --[estraik].
4. Neutralization: nIutrelaIseI[en/. A contrast that usually exists in a language (like the
two vowels in bate and bet) is not realized in certain phonological environments as in this
case before /r/.
5. haplology. Pronounced /hplbl.e.gI/. Elimination of a syllable when two consecutive
identical or similar syllables occur. Syllable or part of a syllable (usually vc or cv) is
deleted when there is an identical one nearby. Example: probably-probly. (there are two
[ab] combinations and one is deleted).
Conditions:
1) Syllables are both medial; and
2) The structure of the two syllables is similar.
Examples of English (colloquial):
Engla land > England
6. gemination: /gemineI[en/. A segment, vowel or consonant, becomes double long like
the /s/ in the phrase Miss Sandy. (Note that if her name were Miss Andie, the /s/ would
be shorter).
7. degemination. /dIgemineI[en/. Two similar neighbouring consonants are reduced to
one single consonant, as in immature: the double /m/ in the spelling is pronounced as a
single /m/.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 208 -
8. Consonant harmony: /kbnsenent ha:men / consonant becomes more like another:
often exactly alike as in a child saying gog for dog.
9. denasalization:/dIneIzelaIzeI[en/ removing the feature nasal from a segment leaves
you with a voiced stop at the same place of articulation. Imagine talking with a stuffy
nose. Example: nut -- dut.
10. devoicing: / dIvosIo/ a voiced segment becomes voiceless. Usually nothing else
changes as in vote - fote.
11. Metathesis: /metesIs/ is responsible for the most common types of speech errors,
such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasghetti, ask as /ks/. Some other frequent
English pronunciations that display metathesis are:
/ks/ for ask (possibly the most common metathesis in English)
/sterIks/ for asterisk
/ktmfterbel/ for comfortable
/Interdjus/ for introduce
/Intregel/ for integral
/rsvelent/ for relevant
12. Nasalization: /neIzelaIzeI[en/ In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound
while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production
of the sound by the mouth. This usually applies to vowels as in the nasalization of the vowel
/a/ in pond. In the International Phonetic Alphabet nasalization is indicated by printing a
tilde above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: [] is the nasalized equivalent of
[a], and [v] is the nasalized equivalent of [v]. The nasals consonants can nasaize the
vowels.
13. Palatalization: /pletelaIzeI[en/, a sound, usually before a /j/ glide but often before a
high front vowel, is moved closer to the palat. miss you -- mishu or make Eve -- [mejciv]
where [c] is a palatal stop as in keep. Note that when alveolar stops palatalized, they
usually become africates.
14. Spirantization: /spaIrentIzeI[en / [en/ Stops become fricatives, usually between
vowels. example ata -- asa. Only the manner changes here. Note though that place might
also change. Since there is no voiced bilabial fricative in English, when you spirantize a
[b] in english you often get [v].
15. Voicing assimilation: /vo IsI asimileI [en/ Segment becomes like another usually
adjacent segment, in voicing. Example ata -- [ada], have to -- hafta. vowel harmony:
Rare in English: one vowel becomes more like a nearby vowel.
Vowel reduction: /vaolwl rI dek [en/. Vowels in unstressed syllables become shwa or
similar short lax vowel.
~
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 209 -
Unit 2. Practice 1 (p. 34)
Degrees of Stress
words Sentence pattern
Stressed and
unstressed
syllable
Reduced syllable
(The unstressed syllable
changes to schwa)
Janet Janet nt / nt
Elephant Elephant elfnt / elfnt
Jemina Jemina mana / mana
Mississipi . Mississipi .missp / .missp
Unit 2. Practice 2 (p. 36)
Stress pattern

1. Manchester

2. Anthony

3. Jemina

4. elephant

5. Morocco

6. Amazon

7. carpenter

8. happiness

Unit 2. Practice 3 (p. 39)
Pronounce the words stress appropriately.
Import, object, pencil, ruler, lotion, tiger, lemon, mirror and disco.
Quickly, rapid, slowly, heavy, silly, bony, early and stormy.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 210 -
Unit 2. Practice 4 (Stress on last syllable) (p. 39)
Word stress. Read the words and pronounce them correctly.
relax produce skate
destroy invite research
depend assist survive
intent repair return
collect suggest prefer
Unit 2. Practice 5 (p. 39)
Practice the following words that change the meaning by changing only the stress.
Stress in the first syllable Stress in the second syllable
abstract (adjective) abstract (noun)
conduct (noun) conduct (verb)
contract (noun) contract (verb)
contrast (noun) contrast (verb)
dessert (noun) desert (noun)
import (noun) import (verb)

Unit 2. Practice 6 (p. 40)
Pronounce the words correctly: (penultimate = second from end)
A. Ending in -ic
autographic autodidactic acrylic
authentic autistic rhythmic
automatic axiomatic rubric
barbaric basic ustic
boracic boric prosodic
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 211 -
B. Ending in -sion and tion: (penultimate = second from end) (p. 40)
-sion -tion
admission action
passion promotion
tension simulation
permission deduction
admission relation

Unit 2. Practice 7 (p. 41)
A. Pronounce the words correctly ending in cy
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
adequacy agency absorbency accountancy
aristocracy autocracy adequacy advertency
consistency consonancy agency aristocracy
constancy consultancy ascendancy autocracy
competency conveniency bureaucracy clemency

B. Pronounce the words correctly ending in ty (p. 42)
stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
ability austerity bestiality brutality
abnormality automaticity biodiversity calamity
absorbability barbarity bioelectricity capability
absurdity bellicosity biosafety carnality
audacity benignity bisexuality catholicity
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 212 -
C. Pronounce the words correctly ending in phy (p. 42)

Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
autography bibliography geography mythography
biography calligraphy filmography oscillography
cardiography chronography ethnography petrography
cosmography crystallography idiography philosophy
encephalography historiography mammography radiography
D. Pronounce the words correctly ending in gy (p. 42)

Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
allergy analogy genealogy laryngology
anthology apology histology lexicology
astrology astrobiology hydrology monology
biotechnology cardiology ideology morphology
chronology climatology immunology musicology
E. Pronounce the words correctly ending in al (p. 43)

Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
abdominal aesthetical analytical nonmarital
aboriginal aeronautical compositional psychological
philosophical agrichemical computational professional
acquisitional agricultural epidemiological monolitical
additional alphabetical noninflectional nonpractical
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 213 -
Unit 2. Practice 8 (p. 43)
A. For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part: BLACKbird.
blackboard bathtub blue-green
saucepan housework watermelon
saleswork grasshopper highlight
iceland boyfriend fishtank
bedroom seafood tumbledown
bathroom undercut underworld
wallpaper diningtable witchcraft
B. For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second part: bad-TEMpered (p. 44).
long-legged staff-necked long-winded
three-headed baby-faced tight-fisted
flowered-dress short-tempered sure-footed
masked man thin-skinned high-heeled
six-sided smooth-tongue freckle-faced
long-handled broken-hearted stone-faced
green-eyed light-footed kind-hearted
C. For compound verbs, the stress is on the second part: to understand, to overflow (p. 44).
turn back
(return)
talk back (to)
(answer rudely)
keep down
(do not vomit)
take charge (of)
(assume responsibility)
write down
(make notes)
kick around
(discuss)
look over
(review)
talk over
(discuss)
kick down
(break something with your feet)
bring back
(return)
highlighted
let down
(disappoint)
call back
(telephone again)
keep around
(keep something near you)
lock down
(make something very secure)
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 214 -
Unit 2. Practice 9 (p. 44)
Now read the 4-syllable words and write on the appropriate space.
Stress pattern

1. Felicity
2. Afghanistan
3. Alexander
4. Wolverhampton
5. rhinoceros
6. Mississipi
Unit 2. Practice 10 (p. 51)
A. Practice the stress in the sentences keeping the rhythm of the original sentence.

These are the house that jaqueline built
one Two Three Four
1. This is the house that jack built
2. These are the houses that jack built
3. These are the houses that jaqueline built
4. This is the house that my mother designed
5. This is the bicycle Peter repaired
6. Those are the people we met in the park
7. That is the person I saw on the stairs
8. Those are the people we drove to the party
9. That is the gardener who works for my mother
10. andrew is taller than Peter and Thomas
11. Toms not as tall as the rest of the family
12. what an amazingly lively production
13. how can we possibily get there in time
B. Repeat the sentences loudly (p. 52).
Can 1. you pass me a plastic knife?
I 2. want to take a photography class?
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 215 -
China 3. is the place where I was born.
Please t 4. urn off the television before you go out.
I cant 5. decide which book to borrow.
Do you 6. understand this lesson
Sparky 7. is a very happy puppy.
It is 8. critical that you finish your essay.
My 9. grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
There is a lot of traffic today on the highway. 10.
Unit 2. Practice 11 (p. 53)
Mark the stressed words in the sentences following the model. See the examples:
I am talking to the clever students
beart 1 beat 2 beat 3
You are sitting on the desk but you arent listening to us.
beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4
Hes writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4
1. John is coming over tonight. We are going to work on our homework together.
2. Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug.
3. We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back
roads of France.
4. jack bought a new car last Friday.
5. They are looking forward to your visiting them next january.
6. Exciting discoveries lie in Toms future.
7. Would you like to come over and play a game of chess?
8. They have had to work hard these last few months on their challenging experiment.
9. Shakespeare wrote passionate, moving poetry.
10. As you might have expected, he has just thought of a new approach to the pattern.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 216 -
Unit 2. Practice 12 (p. 53)
Read the sentence emphasizing the stressed syllables making them louder, longer, clearer
and high-pitched.
1. john wants to be an actor, so he wants to live in hollywood.
2. He is writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
3. Mary made an appointment with the dentist on Monday.
4. After the movie, they went to a bar to have beer.
Unit 2. Practice 13 (p. 54)
13.A. Fill in spaces with the corresponding modal or verb to be. (Remember if you hear the
to-be or auxiliary verb is stressed, then the sentence is negative).

1. I __can____ understand your story. (can, cant)
2. Tom __can_____ come to the party tonight. (can, cant)
3. They __cant_____ hear the speaker. (can, cant)
4. We __werent____ told to do that. (were, werent)
5. They _are_____ doing the homework. (are, arent)
6. The students ___werent___ here last night. (were, werent)
13 B. Repeat the sentences loudly
1. Can you pass me a plastic knife?
2. I want to take a photography class?
3. China is the place where I was born.
4. Please turn off the television before you go out.
5. I cant decide which book to borrow.
6. Do you understand this lesson
7. Sparky is a very happy puppy.
8. It is critical that you finish your essay.
9. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
10. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 217 -
Unit 3. Practice 1 (p. 74)
Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs.
The weak form is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or in the middle of
sentence, and when it is not stressed. The strong form is used when the auxiliary verb is at
the end of a sentence, or stressed.
auxiliary verb weak form Strong form
do /de/ or /do/ /du:/
does /dez/ /dtz/
have /hev/ /hv/
has /hez/ /hz/
were /we/ /w s:/
was /wez/ /wbz/
can /ken/ /kn/
Instruction. According to the position of the weak or strong form decide if the sentence is
Strong (S) or weak (w).
1. When was your birthday? ( W )
It was in April. ( W )
2. Have you got a good English dictionary? ( W )
Yes, I have. ( S )
3. Does your mother work in an office? ( W )
Yes, she does. ( S )
4. Where were your parents married? ( W )
I think they were married in London. ( W )
5. Has your father got dark hair? ( W )
Yes, he has. ( S )
6. Do you get the bus to work ( W )
Yes, I do. ( S )
7. How many language can you speak? ( W )
I can speak two English and French ( W )
8. Does she live in the north of England? ( W )
Yes, she does ( S )
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 218 -
9. Can you speak English? ( W )
Yes, she can. ( S )
10. Has she got a job? ( W )
Yes, she has, ( S )
11. Have they got any children) ( W )
Yes, they have. ( S )
12. Do they share the housework? ( W )
Yes, they do, ( S )
13. Were they married in Japan? ( W )
Yes, they were ( S )
Unit 2. Practice 2 (p. 77)

Where does the linking take place and say if t or d is taking place in the linking.
1. She laughed at the joke.
t
2. She jumped over the wall
t
3. The van crashed in the jungle
t
4. Columbus discovered America
d
5. The bomb destroyed ahouse
d
6. They traveled across Europe by train
d
7. He introduced Amanda to his friends
t
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 219 -
Unit 3. Practice 3 (p. 78)
Key: The prepositions because the come in the middle of sentences and are not stressed
are pronounced with weak pronunciation.
Prepositions weak form Strong form
to /te/ /tu:/
from /frem/ /frbm/
for /fe/ or /fer/ /fo:/
at /et/ /t/
of /ev/ /bv/
B: Hello, Can I speak to (a) Miss Moneypenny?
S: Speaking.
B: Hello. I am phoning from (b) the Ritz.
I am looking from (c) James Bond. We had a lunch appointment at (d). Isnt he
there?
S: Im sorry, sir, but hes gone to (e) Budapest.
B: I was afraid of (f) that. Where exactly?
S: Hes staying at (g) at the Hotel Royal.
B: Why didnt he listen to (h) me? Hes just asking for (i) trouble.
S: Hes only staying there for (j) a couple of (k) days.
B: All right. Contact him and tell him from (l) me he is a damn fool. Oh, and you can tell
him Im waiting for (m) his call.
S: Yes, sir.
Unit 4. Practice 1 (4.2.5. B, C and d)
4.2.4. Weak forms, linking and elision (Review 1)
B. (a) vowel (b) glass (c) cat (d) shorn (e) light
C. (a) [] (g) [:] (m) [:] (s) []
(b) [] (h) [] (n) [] (t) []
(c) [] (i) [u:] (o) [] (u) [ju:] []
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 220 -
(d) [] (j) [] (p) [u:] (v) [] []
(e) [] (k) [a] (q) [] (w) [] []
(f) [:] (l) [] (r) [] (x) [] []
(y) [] [a]

D. detest basket indoors beautiful
cabbage pudding perfect behind
chicken salad tomatoes cucumber
beetroot rabbit dumplings
Unit 4. Practice 2 (4.2.6. B, C and d)
4.2.6. Weak forms, linking, tag question, intonation, syllable stress and rhythm (Review 2).
B. (a) rams (b) marsh (c) books (d) drain (e) creams
C. money, honey, sunny, Sonny, runny
D. (a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 2 (e) 2 (f) 1 (g) 1 (h) 3 (i) 3 (j) 3 (k) 3 (l) i
Unit 4. Parctice 3 (4.2.7. B, C and d)
4.2.7. Stress, consecutive stress, the shifting tonic, linking, elision, weak forms. (Review 3)
B. (a) gin (b) French (c) service (d) shore (e) cod
C. Im going to the Repton Show in October. Thats a boat show, isnt it No, a motor show.
Are you going to Repton alone? No, peters going, too. Peter Peter who? Which Peter?
Peter Blenkinsop. I told you I was going to Repton with Peter. When did you tell me? It
must have been someone else. You never told me.
D. mermaid, impolite, before, upset, unhappy, borrow, handsome, delighted actually,
unadventurous.
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 221 -
Unit 4. Practice 4 (4.2.8. a, B, C and d)
4.2.8. Rhythm and gingles. A few more rhymes and jingles
A. [o:leo] [bo:t] [deo] [fo:t] [plao] [tre] [ru:]
[btre] [bro:t] [draot] [no:t] [rtf] [eo] [ttf]
[bao] [kbf ] [intf] [o:t] [so:t ] [o:t] [trbf]
[btrebrid] [ltfbre] [skobr:e] [sloo]
B. [o:] [eI] [e] [o] [i: - e]
[e - ] [e] [ee - e] [e - eI - e] [ - e]
[e ] [ - o:] [ - e] [e] [o: - e]
[eI] [e - eI - e] [ - eI - e] [eI - e] [b - eI - e]
C. Janu(a)ry, March, May, July, September, November,Feb(r)u(a)ry, Apr(i)l, June,
August, October, December.
(a) I thought you were one of the ones who won an award at the bazaar on Thursday.
(b) I bought you some more oranges and a pound of bananas at the greengrocers
thats just opened at the corner of Earls Court Gardens.
(c) You can see from her early work that theres a certain sense of purpose, almost of
urgency, which she appears to have lost as soon as she started to be accepted as
a serious artist.
(d) More than a thousand representatives from the whole of the Third World were
presents at the concert given in the park yesterday afternoon to commemorate the
anniversary of the birth of Ernest Hurlingham.
(e) There was an extraordinary man at your party who said that for years and years
hed had been wanting to meet us. He said he would have asked the Templetons to
introduce us, but he hadnt seen them for ages and didnt know what had happened
to them.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 222 -
Unit V. Practice 1 (a, p. 145)
1.A. Read the words lout out providing the adequate stress.
1. Two-syllable words
VERBS
1. deceive /dI.sIv/ 6. object /bb.gIkt/
2. sharpen /[a:p.en/ 7. conquer /kbk.e (r)/
3. collect /k elekt/ 8. record /rI.ko:d/
4. pronounce /prenaons/ 9. polish /pb.lI[/
5. copy /kbpI/ 10. depend /dI.pend/
ADJECTIVES
1. easy /i: . zI/ 6. yellow /jel.eo/
2. complete /kem pli:t/ 7. early /s:.lI/
3. major /meI.ge/ 8. happy /hp.I/
4. alone /e leon/ 9. heavy /hev.I/
5. below /bI lao/ 10. dirty /ds:tI/
NOUNS
1. bishop /bI[.ep/ 6. office /bf.Is/
2. aspect /sp. ekt/ 7. array / e.reI/
3. affair /efee/ 8. petrol /pet.rel/
4. carpet /ka:p.It/ 9. dentist /den.tIst/
5. defeat /dIfi:t/ 10. autumn /o:.ten/
2. Three syllable words
VERBS
1. entertain /,en. te. teIn/ 6. elicit /I lIs.It/
2. resurrect /rez. e, rekt/ 7. competing /kem. pi:t. i/
3. abandon /e bn. den/ 8. Imagine /I.mg.In/
4. deliver /dI lIv. er/ 9. determine /dI ts:. mIn/
5. interrupt /In. tertpt/ 10 separate /sep. er. eIt/
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 223 -
ADJECTIVES
1. important /Im po:t.ent/ 6. insolent /In.sel.ent/
2. enormous /Ino:.mes 7. fantastic /fn tst.Ik/
3. veredic /ver.I.dIk/ 8. negative /neg.et.Iv/
4. decimal /des I,mel/ 9. accurate /k.jer.et/
5. abnormal /b no:.mel/ 10. tomato /te ma:.teo/
Compound words
a) First element adjectival, stress on the second element
1. loudspeaker /,lao spi:.ke/
2. bad-tempered /bd tem.pe/
3. headquarters /hed kwo:.tez/
4. second-class /,sek. end kla:s/
5. three-wheeler /ri: hwi:.ler/
b) First element nominal, stress on the first element
1. type,writer /taIp ,raI.te(r)/
2. car-,ferry /ka: ,fer.I/
3. sun,rise /stn.,raIz/
4. suit,case /su:t .,keIs/
5. tea-,cup /ti:.ktp/
c) Mixture of type a and b
1. long-,surfing /,lb ss:f.I/
2. gun ,man /gtn.,mn/
3. shoe ,lace /[u:.,leIs/
4. ,red-blooded /,red bltd.Id/
5. gear-,box /gIe. ,bbks/
6. over-weight /eo.ve. weIt/
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 224 -
Unit 5. Practice 1 (B, p. 145)
1.B. Represent the verbs, adjectives and nouns in exercise 1, using syllable trees representations.

Deceive
/dsv/
s
/ \
O R
/ \

|
N C

|

[ d ]


s


/

\


O

R


/

\


|

N C




|

|


[ s v ]

Sharpen
/a:p . n/
s
/ \
O R
/ \

|
N C
| |
[ D p ]




s

/

\

O

R

/

\


N C

|

|

[ Q

]
Collect
/N leNW/
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C
|

[k ]










s

/

\


O

R

/

\


N C

|

|

|

[
l e kt ]
Pronounce
/prnans/
s
/ \
O R
/ \ / \
| | N C
| | |

[
p

r


]




s


/

\


O

R


/

\


N C


|


|


|


[

n a

n s

]

Copy
/kp/
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C

| |
|
[k ]

s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C
|

[p ]
Object
/b.kt/
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C
| |
[ b ]

s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C

|
| |
[ k ]

Conquer

/kk. /
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N

|
| | |
[ k k ]



s
/ \



O R

/ \

N C

|

[ ]


Polish

/p

. l/

s
/ \
O R
/ \

N C


| |
|

[p ]




s
/ \
O R
/ \

N C

| |

[ l ]

|
C
BIBlIogRaPhY
Baker, Ann
(1982a) Tree or three? An elementary pronunciation course. Cambridge, Cambridge
University Press. UK.
(1982b) Introducing english pronunciation, a teachers guide to three or tree? or ship
or sheep? Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. UK.
(1990) Ship or sheep? An Intermedial Pronunciation Course. Cambridge, Cambridge
University Press. UK.
Bowler, Bill and Parminter, Sue
(1992) Headway pre intermediate pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
UK.
Cambridge University Press
(1996) International Cambridge dictionary of english. Cambridge. Cambridge University
Press. UK.
Clifford, Prator & Wallace Betty
(1995) Manual of american english pronunciation. New York, C.B.S College Publishing,
fourth edition. UK.
Collins
(1997) Collins cobuild english language dictionary. Suffolk, Collins Birmingham
University. UK.
Crowell Trager, Edith & Cook Henderson, Sara
(1983) Pds pronunciation drills for learners of english. New Jersey, Prentice Hall
Regents, second edition.
Cunninghan, Sarah and Bowler, Bill
(1991) Headway upper-intermedial pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
(1993) Headway intermedial pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 226 -
Cunningham, Sarah and Moor, Peter
(1996) Headway elementary pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Harper Collins Ltd.
Harper Collins spanish-english dictionary. New York, Harper Collins Ltd.
Hubbard Jones Thorton Wheeler
(1990) A training course for TEFL. Oxford, Oxford University.
Jones, Daniel
(2007) English pronunciation dictionary. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Kenworthy, Joanne
(1987) Teaching english pronunciation. New York, Longman Group UK Limited.
Longman Group UK Limited
(1993) Language activator. The worlds first production dictionary. Essex, Longman
Group Ltd.
(1995) Longman dictionary of contemporary english. Essex, Longman Group Ltd.
Matthews, Alan Spratt, Mary & Dangerfield, Les
(1990) At the Chalkface, practical techniques in language teaching. London, Edward
Arnold, a division of Hodder & Stoughton.
Oxford University Press
(1994) The Oxford spanish-english english-spanish dictionary. New York, Oxford
University Press.
Ponsonby, Mimi
(1987) How now brown cow. A course in pronunciation of english. Cambridge, Hall
International English Language Teaching Ltd.
Richards, Jack, Platt, John & Weber, Heidi
(1985) Longman dictionary of applied linguistics. Essex, Longman Group Limited.
Roach, Peter
(1989) English phonetics and phonology. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,
eighth printing.
Scott, Foresman
(1983) Advanced dictionary. Illinois, Scott Foresman and Company,
fontica y fonoLoga deL idioma ingLs ii
- 227 -
Sheeler, W. D. and Markley, R. W.
(1991) Sounds and rhythm, a pronunciation course. New Jersey, Prentice Hall
Regents, second edition.
Stockwell, Robert
(1965) The sounds of english and spanish. Chicago, The University of Chicago
Press.
Underhill, Adrian
(1994) Sound foundations. Oxford, Heineman English Language Teaching.
Vaughan-Rees, Michael
(1994) Rhymes and rhythm, a poem based course for english pronunciation.
Wells, J. C.
(1997) Pronunciation dictionary. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
Anne C. Newton (Editor).
(1997) American light verse: A contemporary selection. English teaching forum. A
journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. Volumen XV, N 4.
otras fuentes para consultar
Carr Phillip
(1999) English phonetics and phonology: An Introduction.
Goldsmith John A.
(1996) The handbook of phonological theory.
(1999) Phonological theory: The essential readings.
Roca Iggy, Johnsin Wyn
(1999) A course in phonology.
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#
http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html
http://www.telefonica.net/web2/eseducativa/alphabet_mp3.html
http://www.ompersonal.com.ar/omphonetics/contenidotematico.htm
http://www.google.com.pe/search?hl=es&q=+elision+in+english&meta=
http://www.sil.org/capacitar/FONETICA/cursos/cursoafricadas.PDF


se termin de imPrimir
en eL mes de febrero de 2009
en Los taLLeres grficos deL
centro de Produccin editoriaL e imPrenta de
La universidad nacionaL mayor de san marcos
jr. Paruro 119. Lima 1.
teLfono: 619-7000 anexos: 6009 / fax: 6015, 6016
e-maiL: ventas.cePredim@unmsm.edu.Pe
tiraje: 1000 ejemPLares
CEPREDIM