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Discipline & Grade Level - ELA, Grade 11 Unit Title: Exploring and Examining American Soldiers Experiences in the

Vietnam War

LEARNING CONTEXT:
The purpose of exploring The Things They Carried by Tim OBrien is to increase students awareness of the devastation war causes, the challenges and burdens soldiers encounter, and how adolescents dealt with the brutality of war. The lesson will focus primarily upon the Vietnam War and how the characters struggle to cope with their unfortunate circumstances. To gain understanding of the characters experiences, students will engage in active learning by reflecting upon the traumatic events of the novel and their effect on adolescent and adult soldiers. To supplement textual analysis, the teacher will include outside resources, such as poetry, film adaptations, and current news articles to implement in the classroom. These resources will help students reflect upon the experiences of American soldiers returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan and draw connections between war and conflict, and emotional and physical devastation. The students will engage in a multi-faceted learning experience through the exploration of different resources. The combination of the text and these resources will promote a greater overall understanding of the Vietnam War and soldiers experiences, engage students in active participation and reading in the classroom, and increase students abilities to uncover important themes through textual analysis and by providing evidence for findings. To satisfy the standards, formative and summative assessments will be conducted throughout the entire unit. Some outside experience regarding the Vietnam War would benefit students in gaining a deeper understanding of the novel, but one lesson will be devoted to examining the Vietnam War. Students will increase their knowledge of the Vietnam War and its devastation by reading The Things They Carried, but also improve their reading, writing, and critical thinking skills through the various discussions, activities, reflections, and projects regarding the Vietnam War by connecting what they learn to the outside world. ELA Common Core Standards - 11th Grade Reading, Literature & Informational Texts Anchor Standard: 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite
specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

Grade Level Standard: 1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. Reading, Informational Texts Anchor Standard: 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. Grade Level Standard:

7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem. Reading, Literature Anchor Standard: 11. Respond to literature by employing knowledge of literary language, textual features, and forms to read and comprehend, reflect upon, and interpret literary texts from a variety of genres and a wide spectrum of American and world cultures. Grade Level Standard: Reading, Literature 11. Interpret, analyze, and evaluate narratives, poetry, and drama, aesthetically and philosophically by making connections to: other texts, ideas, cultural perspectives, eras, personal events, and situations. Writing Anchor Standard: 3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences. Grade Level Standard: 3e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative. Speaking/Listening Anchor Standard: 4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Grade Level Standard: 4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

Assessment Plan: RUBRIC Beginning


Reading, Literature & Informational Texts Grade Level Standard: #1 Cites strong and thorough textual evidence to Fails to cite any specific details from text(s) to support ideas and analyses

Developing
Cites only weak pieces of textual evidence that fails to clearly support ideas

Effective
Cites some effective pieces of evidence to support ideas and analyses

Exemplary
Cites many strong textual evidences to support ideas and analyses

support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. Reading, Informational Texts Grade Level Standard: #7 Integrates and evaluates multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.

Fails to cite and/or draw any inferences from any of the text(s)

and analyses Weakly cites and draws weak inferences from the text(s)

Effectively cites and draws inferences from the text(s)

Strongly and thoroughly cites areas containing inferences drawn from the text(s)

Fails to integrate and evaluate any information in different media or formats in class including the PBS website, War Veterans website, news articles, or research articles.

Weakly integrates and evaluates OR only integrates OR only evaluates sources of information in different media or formats in class including the PBS website, War Veterans website, news articles, or research articles.

Effectively integrates and evaluates information in differences sources of media or formats in class, but fails to fully develop integration or evaluation of the PBS website, War Veterans website, news articles, or research articles. Effectively interprets, analyzes, and/or evaluates the narrative of The Things They Carried Makes some accurate and/or meaningful connections between The Things They Carried and personal experiences, current news

Successfully and fully integrates and evaluates information in all different media or formats examined in class including the PBS website, War Veterans website, news articles, or research articles.

Reading, Literature Grade Level Standard: #11 Interprets, analyzes, and evaluates narratives, poetry, and drama, aesthetically and philosophically by making connections to: other texts, ideas, cultural perspectives, eras, personal events, and situations.

Fails to successfully interpret, analyze, and evaluate any of the narrative of The Things They Carried Fails to make any meaningful connections between The Things They Carried and personal experiences, current news

Weakly interprets, analyzes, or evaluates some of the narrative of The Things They Carried Weakly makes meaningful connections or inaccurate connections between The Things They Carried and personal experiences,

Successfully interprets, analyzes, and evaluates the narrative of The Things They Carried Successfully draws meaningful connections between The Things They Carried and personal experiences, current news

articles, research articles, PBS website, and/or War Veterans website

current news articles, research articles, PBS website, and/or War Veterans website Provides weak or inappropriate concluding reflections in Kiowas Eulogy, Journal Reflections, and/or Symbolic Poster on Mary Anne over the course of The Things They Carried

articles, research articles, PBS website, and War Veterans website

articles, research articles, PBS website, and War Veterans website

Writing Grade Level Standard: #3e Provides a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Fails to provide any thoughtful, concluding reflections in Kiowas Eulogy, Journal Reflections, and Symbolic Poster on Mary Anne over the course of The Things They Carried

Provides effective, but lacks some thoughtful, concluding reflections in Kiowas Eulogy, Journal Reflections, and Symbolic Poster on Mary Anne experiences, observations, and resolutions over the course of The Things They Carried Effectively presents some information and some findings in Jigsaw Presentation of Mary Anne with accurate supportive evidence from The Things They Carried Effectively conveys a somewhat clear understanding of Mary Anne through the

Provides exemplary, thoughtful, concluding reflections in Kiowas Eulogy, Journal Reflections, and Symbolic Poster on Mary Anne over the course of The Things They Carried

Speaking/Listening Grade Level Standard: #4 Presents information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

Fails to clearly present any or all information and findings in Jigsaw Presentation of Mary Anne with accurate supportive evidence from The Things They Carried Fails to convey a clear understanding of Mary Anne through the perspective of

Weakly presents any or most of the information and findings in Jigsaw Presentation of Mary Anne with some inaccurate and accurate supportive evidence from The Things They Carried Fails to effectively convey a clear understanding of Mary Anne

Clearly presents all information and findings in Jigsaw Presentation of Mary Anne with accurate supportive evidence from The Things They Carried Conveys a clear, distinct understanding of Mary Anne through the perspective of the author Tim

the author Tim OBrien after addressing the Jigsaw Questions in the presentation Organization, development, substance, and style during the Jigsaw presentation of Mary Anne are inappropriate and/or incomplete Presentation fails to provide any understanding of Mary Anne to the audience; fails to address and/or answer any questions on the Jigsaw Worksheet both completely and reflectively

through the perspective of the author Tim OBrien after addressing the Jigsaw Questions in the presentation Organization, development, substance, and style of the poster and presentation are somewhat appropriate to increasing the understanding of Mary Annes character, but lacks sufficient clarity during the presentation Presentation fails to provide a clear understanding of Mary Anne to the audience; fails to address all questions on the Jigsaw Worksheet completely and reflectively

perspective of the author Tim OBrien after addressing the Jigsaw Questions in the presentation Most of the organization, development, substance, and style of the presentation of Mary Anne are appropriate to increasing the audiences understanding Presentation conveys a somewhat clear understanding of Mary Anne to the audience by answering most the of questions on the Jigsaw Worksheet completely and/or reflectively

OBrien after addressing the Jigsaw Questions in the presentation Presentation contains exemplary organization, development, substance, and style Presentation conveys a clear understanding of Mary Anne to the audience by answering the questions on the Jigsaw Worksheet completely and reflectively

Specific Assignments: Formative Assessments Bell Ringers/Exit Slips Journal Reflections Socratic Dialogue Silent Reading Reflections Article, Website, and Stations Guided Worksheets Kiowas Eulogy Jigsaw Worksheet Presentation Evaluation Sheet Summative Assessments Essay/Project

All in-class worksheets, Reflections, Bell Ringers, and Exit Slips will be collected at the end of every day, unless they are assigned for homework that night. Students will complete a Bell Ringer every day at the beginning of class; Exit Slips will be completed at the end of each class period. The Bell Ringers and Exit Slips (on the same sheet) will be collected at the end of each day.

STUDENT WORK: N/A PROCEDURE: NOTE: All handouts/worksheets for each lesson are located below each corresponding lesson plan.
Lesson 1, Day 1: Chapters 1 2 Bell Ringer Problematic Situation Imagine you are forced to go to an island with another group of people that you dont know. You have no family with you and the weather is humid, hot, and rainy. List five things you would take with you why. Please complete explanations in complete sentences. Teacher will list students response from Bell Ringer on the board and ask the students to label the items either need/want. After the teacher generates a list on the board, students will search in chapter 1 for items that soldiers carried when they were in Vietnam. Teacher writes findings on the board and afterwards, prompts students: What do all of these items have in common? Most students will probably list physical, tangible items from their chart and the chapters chart teacher will build understanding that the soldiers carried more than physical objects; they carried emotional burdens as well. This prompt should lead into a brief discussion about how soldiers in war carry more than physical items; they carry emotional burdens. Also, that some of these items are needs and some are wants.

Teacher then transitions to a group activity. Teacher divides class using note cards with matching physical and abstract pictures. Students will work in pairs; so students find their partner with their matching card. Based on the matching note cards they receive, students will identify how this particular burden impacts a specific soldier in the chapter or all soldiers in general. With their partner students will fill out a guided worksheet about their item and afterwards they can share their item and responses to the class. Exit Slip In a minimum of four sentences, describe what tangible or non-tangible item creates the heaviest burden for soldier(s) in this chapter. Homework Assignment Journal Reflection #1: In a one-two paragraph entry, describe something in your life that burdens you. Does it physically and/or emotionally weigh you down? How?

Name: _____________________

Date: ___________________

The Things They Carried: Chapter One Bell Ringer: Imagine you are forced to go to an island with another group of people that you dont know. You have no family with you and the weather is humid, hot, and rainy. List five things you would take with you why. Please complete explanations in complete sentences.

Exit Slip: In a minimum of four sentences, describe what tangible or non-tangible item creates the heaviest burden for soldier(s) in this chapter and why.

Name: _______________________________ Partner: ______________________________ Date: ________________________________

The Things They Carried: Exploring the Burdens of Soldiers Directions: Answer the following questions with your partner in complete sentences based on the note card you received. If you use any evidence from the text in your answer, either quotes or paraphrases, cite the page number using MLA format. Ex: (OBrien 24).

1. What is your item? Is the item tangible or non-tangible?

2. Who in the chapter carries this item?

3. Why does this individual or group of individuals carry this item?

4. Would you carry this item? Why or why not?

Lesson 2, Day 1: Library Day Bell Ringer List 3 things that you think you know about the Vietnam War. Students will use the library computers to individually explore the PBS.org website: Vietnam Outline: American Experience. Students will complete the Guided Worksheet as they examine this site and build their historical knowledge of the Vietnam War as they continue to read the novel. Exit Slip Refer back to your Bell Ringer Did what you find today support the three things you knew? Why or why not? ALSO, list three more things you learned after exploring the PBS.org website. Homework Assignment Complete PBS.org website worksheet if you didnt finish today; Read Chapters 3-5.

Name: _________________________________

Date: _____________________

The Things They Carried: Research Day Bell Ringer: List 3 things that you think you know about the Vietnam War.

Exit Slip: Refer back to your Bell Ringer Did what you find today support the three things you knew? Why or why not? ALSO, list three more things you learned after exploring the PBS.org website.

Name: ________________________________

Date: ________________________

Exploring the PBS.org Vietnam Outline: American Experience Directions: Answer all of the following questions in complete sentences. The headings of each
section, except for the Website Evaluation section, indicate the location of the information to answer your questions.

Timeline
1. Under the 1961-1965 category Describe the incident that occurred, which resulted in the U.S. waging war on North Vietnam. What year did this incident happen?

2. What U.S. president declared that is was the U.S.s duty to "take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression."? What is he talking about?

3. In 1966, LBJ meets with South Vietnam leaders. What do they discuss?

4. Who becomes the next president in 1968?

5. Summarize what happened at My Lai.

Primary Sources
1. Read Aggression from the North. What is the conflict between North Vietnam and South Vietnam?

2. According to the article, why does the U.S. get involved? Whose side are they on?

Maps
1. Where is Vietnam?

2. Click on the small black map on the screen and click on 1968. What was the Tet offensive? What happened here?

3. Select a different year interval on the map and describe what happened during that time period.

Reflections
1. Read ONE of the following essays and provide at least four quotes/ descriptions with corresponding thoughts using the Double-Entry Diary: Vietnam: Few Heaven-Born Captains by David Hackworth Still in Hiding by Lady Borton

Website Evaluation
1. Which section on the website was the easiest to understand and describe? Why?

2. Did the photos on the site supplement your understanding of the text? Why or why not?

3. Explain what you found most interesting about the site.

Lesson 3, Day 3: Chapters 3-5 Bell Ringer Quick Write In a minimum of four sentences, explain how OBrien reacts when he receives his draft notice. Cite specific evidence from the text to support your answer. After students share their responses to the Bell Ringer, students will engage in a Socratic Dialogue activity. Teacher prompts students with the question What would you do if you were OBrien? Would you run away from the draft? Or would you join the military and fight? After this activity, students transition into a reading activity. In groups of two, students will read What I Did Was Legal, But Was It Right? by James Dannenberg and complete a Guided Worksheet. Exit Slip Start working on Journal Entry #2: Do you think a draft is fair in times of war? Why or why not? Who made the right decision, OBrien or Dannenberg? Use evidence from both texts to support your responses. Homework Assignment Finish Journal Entry #2

Name: _____________________

Date: ___________________

The Things They Carried: Chapters 3-5 Bell Ringer: Quick Write In a minimum of four sentences, explain how OBrien reacts when he receives his draft notice. Cite specific evidence from the text to support your answer.

Exit Slip: Start working on Journal Entry #1 Questions: Do you think a draft is fair in times of war? Why or why not? Who made the right decision, OBrien or Dannenberg? Use evidence from both texts to support your response.

Name: ____________________________________

Date: _________________________

Socratic Dialogue
Directions: Respond to the first question below when the teacher says begin and continue writing a response until she asks you to stop. When she asks you to stop, exchange papers with a partner and read his/her response. After you finish reading his/her response, create a question to ask your partner based on his/her response to the question.

First Question: What would you do if you were OBrien? Would you run away from the
draft? Or would you join the military and fight? Explain why or why not.

Response:

Partners Question:

Response to Partners Question:

Partners Second Question:

Name: ______________________________________ Partner: _____________________________________

Date: _________________________

What I Did Was Legal, But Was It Right? by James Dannenberg Directions: Answer all of the following questions below in complete sentences and cite specific evidence from both texts to support your answers.

1. How did Dannenberg avoid the draft?

2. Does Dannenberg feel guilty about avoiding the draft? Why or why not?

3. Why could Dannenberg avoid the draft, but not OBrien?

4. Explain what Dannenberg means when he says I only hope that I did not use my privilege to avoid military service out of cowardice, even as I admit to having been afraid.

5. How did OBriens and Dannenbergs experiences differ during this decision making process?

Lesson 4, Day 4: Chapters 6-8 Bell Ringer Quick Write - Answer the question in a minimum of four complete sentences Does a true story have elements of fiction within it? Why or why not? Student have the entire period to read as much of Chapters 6-8 as they can finish within about forty minutes. Students will complete a SSR (Silent Sustained Reading) Reflective worksheet before they leave. Exit Slip Turn in SSR Reflective Worksheet. Homework Assignment Finish reading Chapter 6-8

Name: ________________________________________

Date: _________________________

The Things They Carried: Chapter 6-8 Bell Ringer Quick Write - Answer the question in a minimum of four complete sentences Does a true story have elements of fiction within it? Why or why not?

Exit Slip Turn in SSR Reflective Worksheet.

Silent Reading Response Sheet


The Things They Carried by Tim OBrien
Name: ________________________________ Date: ___________________________ Chapter: ________ Starting Page: ____ Ending Page: ____

Directions: Respond to the following questions based on the pages you read today. Use complete sentences and include MLA citations from the text. While you read: write down questions, memorable quotes, personal connections, and/or comments about the chapter.

After you read: write a 1-2 paragraph reflection about what you read today. Avoid describing what happened; think about how and why things happened. Cite at least one quote from the text.

Lesson 4, Day 5: Chapters 6-8 Bell Ringer Quick Write What do you think OBrien means when he states Almost everything is true. Almost nothing is true (81). Cite evidence from text to support your answer. After students share responses to Bell Ringer, students transition to a reading and discussion activity. Students will read a section of Jack Smiths interview with Tim OBrien and engage in a Fishbowl discussion that reflects up the interview and the novel. (See resource section to access article) Students will complete Fishbowl Discussion Worksheet in-class and finish it up for homework. Exit Slip Start Journal Reflection #3: Explain why you think OBrien blends fiction and nonfiction into the same story? Cite one specific quote from the passage and at least one quote from The Things They Carried to support your explanation using proper MLA citation. Homework Assignment Finish Fishbowl summarizing sheet; Finish Journal Reflection #3; Read Chapter 9

Name: ________________________________________

Date: ___________________

The Things They Carried: Chapters 6-8 Bell Ringer Quick Write What do you think OBrien means when he states Almost everything is true. Almost nothing is true (81). Cite evidence from text to support your answer.

Exit Slip Start Journal Reflection #3: Explain why you think OBrien blends fiction and nonfiction into the same story? Cite one specific quote from the passage and at least one quote from The Things They Carried to support your explanation using proper MLA citation.

Name: ___________________________________

Date: ________________________

The Things They Carried: Fishbowl Discussion Activity

Directions: As a class, we will engage in a Fishbowl Discussion, which consists of actively


listening and participating in group conversation. There will be two groups: inner circle and outer circle. Everyone will be a part of both groups at some point during the discussion. Please read below for more specific directions regarding each group.

Inner Circle Directions: After the teacher provides the discussion prompt, engage in an
active conversation with your peers that discusses the teachers prompt. Use information from the novel or any other material you have viewed in class as well. Eventually, you will be exchanging seats at any time, so will become part of the outer circle as well. Write down some notes to use for your summary at the end of class.

Outer Circle Directions: As you observe and actively listen to your classmates discussion
taking place in the inner circle, write down any questions, thoughts, or comments you have as a result of their conversation. You will be entering the discussion at any moment so be prepared to participate and add to the conversation. Write down some notes to use for your summary at the end of class.

Directions: After participating and actively listening in your groups, write a one paragraph (6-8 sentences) summary of what you learned from your peers. Refer to the text and your notes for information. Refer to and cite specific events from the text or other resources we have discussed in class.

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Lesson 5, Day 6: Chapter 9 Bell Ringer Quick Write In a minimum of three sentences, describe what you think happened to Mary Anne at the end of Chapter 9. Be prepared to share your response with the class. After students think-pair-share their Bell Ringers, students complete a Jigsaw Activity that focuses on Chapter 9. Teacher breaks class up into four groups and provides a handout that explains the directions for activity and includes focused questions for each group to answer collaboratively. Each group will have different passages from the text and questions that correspond to those passages. Students have the remainder of the period to work on Jigsaw. Exit Slip In a minimum of three sentences, explain why you think Mary Anne is an important character in the novel. Homework Assignment NONE

Name: __________________________

Date: __________________

The Things They Carried Chapter 9 Bell Ringer: Quick Write In a minimum of three sentences, describe what you think happened to Mary Anne at the end of Chapter 9. Be prepared to share your response with the class.

Exit Slip In a minimum of three sentences, explain why you think Mary Anne is an important character in the novel.

Name: ___________________

Date: ____________________

Group Members Names: ______________________________________________

Jigsaw Activity

Within your group, scan pages 89-97 in Chapter 9. After re-visiting this section in the chapter, find the following excerpt below and answer the following questions in complete sentences.

Vietnam was full of strange stories, formed by sensation... (OBrien 89).

1. Who is the speaker of this passage and what story is he referring to?

2. What is the speaking trying to tell the readers about this particular story?

3. Think about the character Mary Anne from this chapter. How does she arrive in Vietnam? Cite specific details from the text.

4. How and why is Mary Anne interested in the war? Cite specific details from the text.

5. Do you think that this story about Mary Anne is true? Why or why not?

Mini-Group Project:

After answering the above questions, think of a symbol that you could present to the class that represents Mary Anne in your passage and assigned pages of text. Explain why this particular symbol represents Mary Annes character and find a way to connect this symbol to the themes weve discussed in the text thus far.

You may use a large piece of poster paper (thats pre-cut in the shape of a puzzle piece) to create your symbol on with any craft materials. You will present this symbol and provide a detailed explanation of its significance to the class tomorrow (3-5 minutes).

Please use below to brainstorm possible ideas and include a brief explanation.

Possible Symbols:

Explanation(s):

Name: ___________________

Date: ____________________

Group Members Names: ______________________________________________

Jigsaw Activity

Within your group, scan pages 97-102 in Chapter 9. After re-visiting this section in the chapter, find the following excerpt below and answer the following questions in complete sentences.

She wasnt dumb,so did Mary Anne (OBrien 97).

1. Who is the speaker of this passage and what is he talking about?

2. What is the speaking trying to tell the readers about Mary Anne?

3. Think about the character Mary Anne from this chapter. What is Mary Anne like when she lives in Vietnam with her boyfriend? How does she change? Cite specific details from the text.

4. How and why does Mary Anne become more and more curious about the war? Cite specific details from the text.

5. Do you think that this story about Mary Anne is true? Why or why not?

Mini-Group Project:

After answering the above questions, think of a symbol that you could present to the class that represents Mary Anne in your passage and assigned pages of text. Explain why this particular symbol represents Mary Annes character and find a way to connect this symbol to the themes weve discussed in the text thus far.

You may use a large piece of poster paper (thats pre-cut in the shape of a puzzle piece) to create your symbol on with any craft materials. You will present this symbol and provide a detailed explanation of its significance to the class tomorrow (3-5 minutes).

Please use below to brainstorm possible ideas and include a brief explanation.

Possible Symbols:

Explanation(s):

Name: ___________________

Date: ____________________

Group Members Names: ______________________________________________

Jigsaw Activity

Within your group, scan pages 102-110 in Chapter 9. After re-visiting this section in the chapter, find the following excerpt below and answer the following questions in complete sentences.

The wilderness seemed to draw her in. not all of her. (OBrien 105).

1. Who is the speaker of this passage?

2. What happened to Mary Anne? Where did she go?

3. What seems to be happening to Mary Anne since she arrived in Vietnam?

4. What does OBrien mean But in a sense she never returned. Not entirely, not all of her? Cite specific details from the text.

5. Do you think that this story about Mary Anne is true? Why or why not?

Mini-Group Project:

After answering the above questions, think of a symbol that you could present to the class that represents Mary Anne in your passage and assigned pages of text. Explain why this particular symbol represents Mary Annes character and find a way to connect this symbol to the themes weve discussed in the text thus far.

You may use a large piece of poster paper (thats pre-cut in the shape of a puzzle piece) to create your symbol on with any craft materials. You will present this symbol and provide a detailed explanation of its significance to the class tomorrow (3-5 minutes).

Please use below to brainstorm possible ideas and include a brief explanation.

Possible Symbols:

Explanation(s): Name: ___________________ Date: ____________________

Group Members Names: ______________________________________________

Jigsaw Activity

Within your group, scan pages 110-116 in Chapter 9. After re-visiting this section in the chapter, find the following excerpt below and answer the following questions in complete sentences.

What happened to herturned to craving (OBrien 114).

1. Who is the speaker of this passage?

2. What happened to Mary Anne?

3. How and why did Mary Anne change? Cite specific details from the text.

4. On page 116, OBrien describes She had crossed to the other side. She was part of the landShe was dangerous. She was ready for the kill. What does he mean?

5. Do you think that this story about Mary Anne is true? Why or why not?

Mini-Group Project:

After answering the above questions, think of a symbol that you could present to the class that represents Mary Anne in your passage and assigned pages of text. Explain why this particular symbol represents Mary Annes character and find a way to connect this symbol to the themes weve discussed in the text thus far.

You may use a large piece of poster paper (thats pre-cut in the shape of a puzzle piece) to create your symbol on with any craft materials. You will present this symbol and provide a detailed explanation of its significance to the class tomorrow (3-5 minutes).

Please use below to brainstorm possible ideas and include a brief explanation.

Possible Symbols:

Explanation(s):

Lesson 5, Day 7: Chapter 9 Bell Ringer Organize yourselves back into the groups you were in yesterday and finish any questions you have left. Pick up a large piece of white poster paper at the front of the room and begin drawing or putting together your symbol that represents Mary Anne. Note Make sure the symbol is large enough for the entire class to see on the board. Students will finish working on their Jigsaw and then present their symbol to the class (as indicated in the directions on the worksheet) Students will actively listen to other groups presentations and complete a Group Presentation Evaluation sheet. Students will complete their symbol on a large piece of white poster board that is in the shape of a puzzle piece. When students complete their presentation, they will tape their poster to the board and put the pieces of the chapter together on the board and in their minds. Exit Slip In a minimum of three sentences, add why you think Mary Anne changed based on your reading and your classmates presentations. Homework Assignment Read chapters 10-13

Name: __________________________

Date: __________________

The Things They Carried Chapter 9 Bell Ringer: Organize yourselves back into the groups you were in yesterday and finish any questions you have left. Pick up a large piece of white poster paper at the front of the room and begin drawing or putting together your symbol that represents Mary Anne. Note Make sure the symbol is large enough for the entire class to see on the board.

Exit Slip: In a minimum of three sentences, add why you think Mary Anne changed based on your reading and your classmates presentations.

Name: _____________________________

Date: ___________________

Group Members

Symbol

Two Positive Comments

One Question

Lesson 6, Day 8: Chapters 10-13 Bell Ringer Quick Write In a minimum of four sentences, explain one of the worst dreams youve ever had? Did you have this dream occur more than two nights in a row? How did you feel? After students share their Bell Ringers with the class, students will find a partner, read the article Talking Out Loud About War, and Coming Home from the New York Times, and complete the guided worksheet. Students will have the rest of the period to read and complete worksheet; if there is time, students can share their responses to the questions with the class. Exit Slip Quick Write In a minimum of three sentences explain if you think this type of group counseling would help soldiers reconcile their traumatic experiences. Why or why not? Homework Assignment Finish in-class worksheet

Name: _____________________

Date: ___________________

The Things They Carried: Chapters 10-13 Bell Ringer: Quick Write In a minimum of four sentences, explain one of the worst dreams youve ever had. Did you have this dream occur more than two nights in a row? How did you feel?

Exit Slip: Quick Write In a minimum of three sentences, explain if you think this type of group counseling would help soldiers reconcile their traumatic experiences. Why or why not?

Name: _______________________________

Date: ___________________

Talking Out Loud About War, and Coming Home by Karen Zraick
Directions: Out loud or silently, read Karen Zraicks article Talking Out Loud About War, and Coming Home with your partner. Underline important quotes or sentences that seem interesting to you as you read. After reading, answer the following questions in complete sentences and cite information from The Things They Carried and the article in your responses.

1. Who created these meetings and why?

2. What two types of people attend these group meetings? Why?

3. What is the purpose of these group meetings? What goes on?

4. Why did Scott Schumacher say Hell, my name should be up therebecause I didnt come home.?

5. Do you think that these types of meetings help ease soldiers emotional pain? Why or why not?

6. In chapter 12, The Man I Killed, OBrien fails to speak to anyone; why doesnt he talk to anyone?

7. Do you think veterans that attend these meetings experience the same type of trauma that OBrien experienced?

8. It seems the veterans that attend these meetings feel guilty and emotionally tormented. Provide at least two specific examples from chapters 10-13 showing how OBriens experiences torment him.

9. Why is it hard for veterans to talk about these graphic war experiences?

10. Do you think if OBrien went to one of these meetings he would open up about his experiences?

Lesson 7, Day 9: Chapters 14-16 Bell Ringer Quick Write What is your definition of courage? Student have the entire period to read as much of Chapters 14-16 as they can finish within about forty minutes. Students will complete a SSR (Silent Sustained Reading) Reflective worksheet before they leave. Exit Slip Turn in completed SSR worksheet. Homework Assignment Finish reading Chapters 14-16

Name: __________________________________________

Date: __________________

The Things They Carried: Chapter 14-16 Bell Ringer Quick Write What is your definition of courage?

Exit Slip: Turn in SSR Reflection Sheet.

Silent Reading Response Sheet


The Things They Carried by Tim OBrien
Name: ________________________________ Date: ___________________________ Chapter: ________ Starting Page: ____ Ending Page: ____

Directions: Respond to the following questions based on the pages you read today. Use complete sentences and include MLA citations from the text. While you read: write down questions, memorable quotes, personal connections, and/or comments about the chapter.

After you read: write a 1-2 paragraph reflection about what you read today. Avoid describing what happened; Think about how and why things happened. Cite at least one quote from the text.

Lesson 7, Day 10: Chapters 14-16 Bell Ringer Respond to this quote "Courage is doing what youre afraid to do. There can be no courage unless youre scared." -- Eddie Rickenbacker, WWI flying ace After students share their responses the Bell Ringer, they will visit the library and explore a link off the Library of Congress website: http://www.loc.gov/vets/stories/courage.html Experiencing War: Stories from the Veterans History Project. They will read various soldiers stories off this website and write a two page reflection on courage within that particular article, video or audio clip. Exit Slip How does the websites definition of courage differ from OBriens? Homework Assignment Finish reflection; Read Chapters 17-19

Name: _____________________

Date: ___________________

The Things They Carried: Chapters 14-16 Bell Ringer: Respond to this quote "Courage is doing what youre afraid to do. There can be no courage unless youre scared." -- Eddie Rickenbacker, WWI flying ace

Exit Slip: How does the websites definition of courage differ from OBriens?

Name: __________________________________

Date: ________________________

Library of Congress: Experiencing War: Stories from the Veterans History Project

Directions: After you locate the website: http://www.loc.gov/vets/stories/courage.html,


browse through various veterans stories by clicking the link A-Z list. Select two stories that are interesting to you: ONE of these stories must be about an individuals experiences in the Vietnam War; the other can be another veteran from a different war of your choice. There are many stories, so be sure to browse through many before making your choices. After you make your selections, fill in the necessary information below completely. You should complete Part I today in class; Part II will be for homework. You will turn in Part I & II completed tomorrow.

PART I:
Name of individual: _____________________________________________________________ War: _________________________________________________________________________ Years of Service: _______________________________________________________________ Branch of Military: _____________________________________________________________ Rank: ________________________________________________________________________ Birth location: _________________________________________________________________

Brief description of this individual: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Listen to AT LEAST two audio clips (interview excerpts) and record the following information: 1. Full Title of Audio Clip: _______________________________________________________

Summary: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

2. Full Title of Audio Clip: _______________________________________________________

Summary: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Print out 1-2 photos of this individual and paste them below; include a brief description under each photo.

Name of individual: _____________________________________________________________ War: _________________________________________________________________________ Years of Service: _______________________________________________________________ Branch of Military: _____________________________________________________________ Rank: ________________________________________________________________________ Birth location: _________________________________________________________________

Brief description of this individual: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Listen to AT LEAST two audio clips (interview excerpts) and record the following information: 1. Full Title of Audio Clip: _______________________________________________________

Summary: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Full Title of Audio Clip: _______________________________________________________

Summary: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Print out 1-2 photos of this individual and paste them below; include a brief description under each photo.

PART II:
After you complete Part I, begin writing a reflection of the information you learned today and the novel by selecting one of the questions provided below. 1. According to OBrien, Norman Bowker won the Combat Infantrymans Badge, the Air Medal, the Army Commendation Medal, the Good Conduct Medal, the Vietnam Campaign Medal, the Bronze Star, and the Purple Heart (141). Did any of the individuals you researched win any of these medals? Do you think winning these medals makes someone courageous? Why or why not? Include evidence from The Things They Carried to support your answer.

2. Eddie Rickenbacker claims Courage is doing what youre afraid to do. There can be no courage unless youre scared. Do you think your two veterans were scared and courageous? Do you think OBrien would agree or disagree with this statement? Why or why not? Include evidence from The Things They Carried to support your answer.

Response # _____
______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Lesson 8, Day 11: Chapters 17-19 Bell Ringer Quick Write Why does Norman ask OBrien to write about Kiowas death? Cite specific details from the text. After students share their responses to Bell Ringer, students will transition into a Stations Activity. Teacher groups students in three different groups using matching Station note cards (Station 1: Quote Explication; Station 2 Questions; Station 3: Article Reflection) Teacher asks students to report to each designated station and passes out a Stations question packet to each student. Teacher reads and explains directions for each station activity. Students rotate stations every 10-12 minutes and complete as much of the worksheet as they can before rotation. Exit Slip Quick Write In a minimum of three sentences explain who you think is to blame for Kiowas death and why. Homework Assignment Finish Stations Packet if you didnt finish it in class today.

Name: _____________________

Date: ___________________

The Things They Carried: Chapters 17-19 Bell Ringer: Quick Write Why does Norman ask OBrien to write about Kiowas death? Cite specific details from the text.

Exit Slip: Quick Write In a minimum of three sentences, explain who you think is to blame for Kiowas death and why.

Name: _____________________________________

Date: ___________________

The Things They Carried: Stations Activities Station 1: Quote Explication


Directions: Explicate and analyze the provided quotes (refer to your book for entire quote) and then find two quotes from Chapters 17-19 to explicate on your own. You may have to look up the context of the quote in the chapter to gain a better understanding of the meaning of the quote.

Quote
When a man died, . the climate (177).

Context, Connections, Thoughts

The filth seemed to erase identities,units of command (163).

Man, talk about irony. classic irony (165).

Station Two: Chapters 17-19 Questions


Directions: Collaborate with your group and answer the following questions in complete sentences. Cite specific examples from the text. 1. What are the men looking for in the field?

2. What does Lt. Cross think about while he searching in the field?

3. Who is responsible for Kiowas death?

4. According to OBrien, what function do stories serve?

5. Why does OBrien return to Vietnam?

6. Why does OBrien return to the field?

7. After his mission is complete, how does OBrien feel?

Station 3: Article Reflection


Directions: Read the following newspaper article about Alvin Reiners experiences in Vietnam and respond the following questions individually or within your group.

1. Look at the photo on the first page of the article and read the caption. What is Reiner doing and why? Why would they put this photo on the front page of the newspaper?

2. Why does Reiner say the less I knew the better?

3. What does Reiner claim becomes part of your life?

4. Why does Reiner sell his hunting rifle upon returning home? What does this say about his memories about the war?

5. How do you think Reiner feels about his experiences as a Vietnam soldier?

6. How are OBriens and Reiners experiences similar? How are they different? Use may list your similarities and differences below or use the Venn Diagram.

Similarities

Differences

Lesson 8, Day 12: Chapters 17-19 Bell Ringer What is a eulogy? After students share their responses to the Bell Ringer with each other, teacher will explain the purpose and how to write a eulogy. Teacher will model examples and show students how to write one. Students will practice writing a pretend eulogy for a deceased loved one or friend. Students will then individually start writing a eulogy for Kiowa in class and finish it for homework. (RAFT Assignment) Exit Slip Quick Write Why is it important to write a eulogy for someone? AND Show teacher at least one paragraph of your eulogy before leaving today. Homework Assignment Finish eulogy for Kiowa; Read Chapters 20-22

Name: _____________________

Date: ___________________

The Things They Carried: Chapters 17-19 Bell Ringer: What is a eulogy?

Exit Slip: Quick Write Why is it important to write a eulogy for someone? AND Show teacher at least one paragraph of your eulogy before leaving today.

Name: ____________________________________

Date: ___________________

Writing a Eulogy
Directions: Read the following steps on how to write a eulogy then read the sample eulogy for a friend. We will practice writing one after we discuss the steps and sample. 1. Gather information about the person you are writing a eulogy for. Its important to know how to describe that person accurately and fully to your audience, which is usually friends and family of the deceased individual at a funeral service. 2. Provide memorable experiences youve had with this individual. This helps comfort the audience know that the deceased led a happy life despite the past few days of emotional suffering. 3. Be aware of your audience. Its important to share memories with family and friends, but be aware of your tone. A eulogy should comfort the audience, not make them feel worse about the individuals death. Sample eulogy for a friend (see resource section to access sample eulogy)

Name: ________________________________

Date: ___________________

RAFT: Writing a Eulogy for Kiowa


In Chapter 17 In the Field, we learn of Kiowas unfortunate death. Many characters in the novel discuss and contemplate Kiowas death including OBrien, Jimmy Cross, the young soldier, and Norman Bowker. All of these soldiers blame themselves for his death.

Directions: Now that you have practiced writing a eulogy in class, write a 2 page, doubled
spaced reflective, personal eulogy for Kiowa using the sample handout you received in class today.

Select a ROLE: Tim OBrien, Jimmy Cross, the young Soldier, or Norman Bowker o Everything else is provided: AUDIENCE = Kiowas family and friends; FORMAT = Eulogy; TOPIC = Kiowas life experiences, his personality, your memories of him, and his tragic death

Lesson 9, Day 13: Chapters 20-22 Bell Ringer Quick Write How does OBrien feel burdened in this novel? Cite examples from text. After students share their responses, students will get into groups of about five or less and complete Character Silhouette Activity. The teacher will provide a handout, explain the activity, and students will have the remainder of the period to work with their groups. They students will be creating a large poster of Tim OBrien and providing evidence from the text to support various themes/topics provided by teacher. Teacher and students will discuss Tim OBriens character, beliefs, values, and experiences as a class after students complete the poster and display it to the class. Students will complete Reading Evaluation Sheet for homework, which allows the teacher to see if students enjoyed the novel or not. Exit Slip: In three to four sentences, what do you think Tim OBriens heaviest burden was and why? Homework Assignment: Select a final project topic from the provided list; Complete The Things They Carried reading evaluation sheet NOTE: The final assessment will be due at a later date (approximately five seven days); students will begin transitioning into a new unit after this lesson.

Name: _____________________

Date: ___________________

The Things They Carried: Chapters 20-22 Bell Ringer: Quick Write How does OBrien feel burdened in this novel? Cite examples from text.

Exit Slip: In three to four sentences, what do you think Tim OBriens heaviest burden was and why?

Name: ________________________________________

Date: ___________________

Character Silhouette: Understanding Tim OBrien


Throughout this novel, Tim OBrien explores the devastation of war and its effect on soldiers experiences and himself. While these stories seem truthful, we discover that the novel blends fiction with non-fiction.

Directions: Using chapters 20-22 and other chapters we discussed in class, you will work in
groups of five or less to complete the following activity. You will make a character silhouette on a large piece of poster paper that reflects Tim OBriens thoughts, feelings, and actions. See the picture below of topics you need to address; all ideas should include textual evidence with proper MLA citation and at least one other resource we used in class this unit. You must ADD one more topic to a corresponding body part to the poster; you should have FIVE topics total. Be CREATIVE and have FUN! Consult with your group and assign roles: Artist = draws the character on the poster, Writer = writes text on the poster, 2 Researchers = find information from the text and other resources; Mediator = helps everyone compromise on ideas to include

HEAD: Thoughts about war stories and their purpose, why he wrote the novel about Vietnam GUN: Emotional trauma from the war including but not limited to, killing others and watching others die, guilt, shame

MOUTH: Specific quotes from the text that express his beliefs about war, experiences, and others.

BOOTS: Physical exhaustion and burdens from the tangible things he carried through Vietnam

Name: _________________________________________

Date: ___________________

The Things They Carried: Reading and Unit Evaluation


Directions: Please answers the questions below based on the novel you just read, The Things They Carried by Tim OBrien. Please answer the questions honestly, your grade will not reflect whether you enjoyed or dislike the novel; it will reflect the thoughtfulness of your responses. 1. Two positive thoughts about the novel: 1. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Two negative thoughts about the novel: 1. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________

2. What was your favorite activity or assignment while reading this novel and why? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

3. What was your least favorite activity or assignment while reading this novel and why? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

4. What would you have liked to learn more about while reading this novel and why? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

5. Do you understand the major themes of the novel and why they are important? Why or why not? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

6. Would you recommend this novel to a friend? Why or why not? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

7. Please include any other comments or questions below about the assignments, activities, or the novel.

Summative Assessment: The Things They Carried: Final Project Directions: Select ONE of the following to complete as your final project. Read through each thoroughly so you address each piece of the question. If you have alternate idea for a project, speak with me in advance. Be aware and write down the following due dates Topic Selection Due: Rough Draft Due: FINAL DRAFT DUE: 1. Write an analytical essay on one character from The Things They Carried by exploring their traumatic experiences during the war and relating these experiences to one of the major themes of the novel. Minimum of three pages, double spaced, and must include citations from the text. 2. Write a comparison and contrast essay on The Things They Carried and another piece of literature/film discussed in class (poems, letters, movie, news articles, etc) Minimum of three pages, double spaced, and must include citations from the text . 3. Create a collage that reflects one of the major themes from The Things They Carried. Collage must include: text, pictures, and a title. In addition, a formal reflection of the meaning of the collage must be handed in as well. Minimum of three pages, double spaced, and must include citations from the text. 4. Conduct research on Tim OBrien and determine why he chose to write The Things They Carried. Must include two credible, outside resources other than the novel. Minimum of three pages, double spaced, must include citations from the text. 5. Interview a Vietnam War veteran. Write a descriptive essay that discusses your conversation and findings by comparing the veterans experiences with characters experiences in The Things They Carried. Must provide a list of at least ten questions for the teacher to review before the interview. Minimum of three pages, double spaced, must include citations from the text.

RESOURCES:
Dannenberg, James. What I Did Was Legal, But Was It Right? Newsweek. 18 Feb. 2002. Print. This article discusses how and why a young adolescent boy avoided the draft during the Vietnam War. He reflects upon his experiences now and in the past as he describes his decision to attend college instead of joining the military. Eulogy Speech Guide. Eulogy Speech Guide. EulogySpeech.net. 2010 Web. 9 May 2011. The website http://www.eulogyspeech.net/ provides a list of sample eulogies and ways to write a eulogy. The text is clear and easy to understand, which allows students to gain a better understanding of what is usually included in a eulogy. OBrien, Tim. The Things They Carried. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990. Print. This fictional novel is the main source of information for the entire unit. It focuses on a personal account of soldier, Tim OBrien, as he reveals this devastating, emotionally filling portrayal of American soldiers in Vietnam. Students will read all twenty two Chapters on this novel and reflect upon the physical and emotional impact human beings experiences. PBS.org. American Experience: Vietnam Online. PBS. WGBH, 2009. Web. 1 May 2011. This website provides a large amount of information about the events surrounding the Vietnam War including: timelines of events, personal essays and articles about experiences in Vietnam, video clips, visual imagery (photos), summaries of significant people of the war in the U.S., North Vietnam, and South Vietnam, interactive maps that include descriptions of battles and locations, Reiner, Alvin. A Look Inside the Day-to-Day Life of a Local Vietnam Soldier. PressRepublican. 11 November 2007, C1. Print. This article describes the past experiences of a local Vietnam veteran living in the Plattsburgh area. Alvin Reiner describes his day-to-day life in Vietnam, what he saw, how he felt, and the war itself. His article provides an in-depth account of his experiences in Vietnam.

Smith, Jack. "The things he carries: For Tim O'Brien, the Vietnam War has remained a crucible in his fiction, but the power of imagination and memory, and 'our elusive interior worlds,' loom large, too." Writer 123.7 (2010): 16-47. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 27 Apr. 2011.

This source contains a piece of an interview conducted by Jack Smith with Tim OBrien. Smith asks OBrien to explore how and why he blended fiction with non-fiction in his novel. OBrien reveals his purpose in this mixture of realistic fictional and non-fictional events, characters, and stories. OBrien expresses the importance of combining these two worlds to provide a very descriptive and engaging story of how war affects soldiers. Veterans History Project. Experiencing War: Stories from the Veterans History Project. The Library of Congress. 18 February 2005. Web. 6 May 2011. This website provides several personal experiences of soldiers through text and video clips. They provide descriptive experiences to inform others about the challenges and the courage they encountered in Vietnam. Zraick, Karen. Talking Out Loud About War, and Coming Home. New York Times. New York Times, 7 Feb. 2011. Web. 1 May 2011. This article discusses the current Iraq/Afghanistan soldiers that return from the war overseas and how they cope with their experiences. The article provides personal information regarding soldiers emotional mentality, civilians concerns, and reasons why a group of doctors founded this organization. INSTRUCTIONAL/ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATIONS: Instruction, assignments, and activities will encompass a variety of learning styles/intelligences including visual, auditory, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Lessons will occur in classroom environment If students feel uncomfortable reading certain passages in the novel, accommodations can be arranged for the student to skip that chapter or read a different novel Students can move seats to work in groups or move around to a different location within the room Students with disabilities: Blind Access to a Braille text so that the student can read along with the class; Deaf If the school has access to a teacher who can do Sign Language, the student could still participate in the class, but perhaps outside class time with the English teacher or the Sign Language teacher may be necessary; Learning Disabled Teacher would need to differentiate learning by challenging all students at different abilities; Wheelchair Any students with any physical disability will be able to participate in class discussions, group work, and complete the homework. All students will work together as much as possible to promote community in the classroom and to help address the diverse needs of each individual student

TIME REQUIRED: The unit will take a little longer than two weeks. Prep time for each lesson will take about a half hour to an hour every day. Grading should take approximately two hours each day. Bell Ringers and Exit Slips will be graded and returned to the students the following day; this provides a daily check for understanding by the teacher. Worksheets, Journal Reflections, or any other type of in-class activity should be returned to students within two to four days to ensure understanding. This allows the teacher to make adjustments to the schedule as needed. REFLECTION: Its important that students recognize and understand the brutality of war, the devastating consequences it inflicts upon individuals, and the irreversible effects on soldiers. By reading an engaging and personal story of various soldiers lives in the novel, students possess the ability to relate directly to certain characters as they follow the soldiers experiences. Even more, broadening their perspective of literature using current newspaper articles and interviews will supplement their understanding of how and why literature is created. Even more, by reading the novel, students improve their ability to write reflectively by including their thoughts about the novel in connection to their own lives. They also discover the importance of supporting their conclusions with specific evidence from the text. Students achieve an in-depth understanding of the major events in the Vietnam War and personal experiences of soldiers and non-soldiers in the war as well.