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Journal of Coastal Research Journal of Coastal Research

SI 64

pg - 454 450 - pg

ICS2011 (Proceedings) ICS2011

Poland

ISSN 0749-0208

Use of trees as a tsunami natural barrier for Concepcion, Chile - 11th International Coastal Symposium
R. Aranguiz , M. Villagran and G.Eyzaguirre
Maritime and Port Research Center. Catholic University of Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile, raranguiz@ucsc.cl Department of Hydraulics and Environmental Engineering, Catholic University of Chile. mvillagran@ucsc.cl mvillagranv@uc.cl

ABSTRACT Aranguiz, R., Villagran, M., and Eyzaguirre, G., 2011. Use of trees as a tsunami natural barrier for Concepcion, Chile. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 64 (Proceedings of the 11th International Coastal Symposium), 450-454. Szczecin, Poland, ISBN 0749-0208 This paper presents some physical models, numerical simulations and field surveys as part of a research project on the use of tree barriers as a mitigation measure against tsunamis in the Bay of Concepcion, Chile. The physical model was performed using a mechanical system in one side of a flume, with a lock gate and steel frame, which maintained a water volume in order to generate a controlled increment of the mean water level. On the other side of the flume, a beach with slope 1:13 was installed. The tree barriers were modeled with cylindrical wooden sticks, and four different configurations were tested. Additionally, a numerical model of the 2010 Chilean tsunami was performed with TUNAMI-N. In all cases, the initial condition was defined by means of a static source. Finally, a field survey of the affected areas of the Biobio Region was carried out after the 2010 tsunami. The physical experiment demonstrated that these kinds of barriers can successfully absorb the impact of a tsunami in coastal regions. The numerical model showed that the area of flooding and the inundation height would decrease in developed areas, which could significantly reduce damage to property and individuals. Finally, the survey showed that in the most affected areas, pinus radiata and populus alba with trunk diameters larger than 20cm were not damaged. These observations demonstrate the feasibility of using this kind barrier as a mitigation measure. ADITIONAL INDEX WORDS: inundation area, inundation height, physical model, numerical simulation, field survey, tsunami run-up.

INTRODUCTION
Chile is located along the subduction zone of the Nazca plate beneath the South American Plate. In this area, there have been great earthquakes of over magnitude 8, which usually cause changes in coastal morphology and generate tsunamis (Moreno and Gibbon 2007). Historical records show that the Biobio Region has been affected by several tsunamis. In fact, in February 1570 (Encina 1956), March 1657 (Encina, 1970a), July 1730 and May 1751 (Encina, 1970b) destructive earthquakes and tsunamis hit the city of Concepcin, which until 1751 was located in what is now Penco, inside the Bay of Concepcin (see Figure 1). Therefore, the first mitigation measure was taken in 1751 as a retreat strategy. The last big earthquake that hit the region, which was generated in this seismic zone, occurred in 1835, destroying Concepcin and Talcahuano. The latter was also affected by a tsunami that came ashore 30 minutes after the quake occurred (Gil, 1945). On February 27th, 2010, a new earthquake and tsunami struck the region, in which Penco and Talcahuano where flooded. This event demonstrated that no mitigation measures have been taken, despite the historical tsunami record. After the February 2010 tsunami, national and regional Chilean authorities have been focusing on tsunami mitigation measures. In fact, the Government has requested tsunami flooding charts for 46 places along the coast of the Biobio Region before beginning the

reconstruction of the affected villages. Several researchers and engineers have proposed mitigation measures such as concrete walls, embankments and forests in older developed areas. However, to date, natural barriers such as trees have never been used in Chile with this specific purpose.

Figure 1. Biobio Region and Bay of Concepcion

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The use of coastal control forests has been studied by Harada and Imamura (2005), who propose that this kind of natural barrier helps to stop drift or ships carried by the tsunami, reduces tsunami energy and catches people carried back to the sea by a tsunami, alhough it does not completely stop the flooding. However, Shuto (1987), cited by Harada and Imamura (2005), pointed out that huge tsunamis could wash away trees which would cause secondary damage as floating material. On that ground, the behavior of trees under tsunami loads must be studied in order to define adequate species to be used.

Figure 4 shows a detail of the sticks used in the simulation and the cross section A-A indicated in Figure 3.

PHYSICAL EXPERIMENTS Experiment set-up


As part of this research, an experimental study was carried out to analyze the effect of trees on run-up reductions caused by tsunami. The beach was built on timber, with a 1:13 slope, and covered by a sand layer in an attempt to emulate the roughness of a sandy beach. Experiments were carried out in a glass-side wall wave flume 17.5 m long, 0.77 m wide, and 1.2 m deep, in the Hydraulics Laboratory, at the Engineering Faculty of Catholic University of Conception, Chile (see figure 2). The wave generator was based on the work of Esteban (2008), and it consisted of a lock gate with a mechanical elevation system that permits a fast and controlled opening process. This system generated a very similar tsunami wave if the amount of water storage beneath the gate was the same.

Figure 4. Cross section of the experiment (layout 1).

Tsunami wave calibration


When a tsunami wave hits the coast it can have different shapes, such as a bore or a plunging wave. During this experiment, a plunging wave was considered as the worse possible scenario. For that reason, several tests were carried out in order to set the water level and the height of the water column beneath the acrylic plate. After these experiments, a water level of 17 cm and a water difference of 10 cm at the lock gate were set. Also, the distance from the water line to the forest was set at 75 cm. Then a tsunami wave of 7 cm was generated, which considering Froude similarity and a scale factor of 1:100, implies a tsunami wave height of 7 m. Figure 5 shows the wave shape at the sensors, validates the positive profile of the whole wave and illustrates the plunging wave profile.

Experiment Set up Lateral View 1:100 Scale


Sensor 1 Sensor 2

Plan View

Figure 2. Experiment set up The forest was simulated with circular wooden sticks 8 mm in diameter and 11 cm in length, fixed to the beachs bottom. Different configurations and spacing were tested in order to compare the effect of the forest and to measure the run-up reduction. A first configuration without any tree was conducted as a pattern and run-up was measured. Three more configurations were studied, with different spacing and alignments (see figure 3). Figure 5. Wave shape at sensors and at Breaking point

Experimental results
The results obtained are shown in figure 7 and clearly can be seen that the presence of the wooden sticks cause a run-up reduction of 11% on average, Layout # 3, when the sticks are not aligned and more densely packed, being the most effective with a 13% reduction.

Figure 6. Example of the experiment Its also interesting to point out that the reduction on run-up also implies a similar reduction on flooding extension measured from the coast.

Figure 3. Lay out configurations of experiment

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Aranguiz, Villagran and Eyzaguirre Aranguiz, Villagran and Eyzaguirre Table 1: Estimated Manning coefficient for roughness (Kotani et Estimated Table 1: al, 1998). Manning coefficient for roughness (Kotani etCategory al, 1998). Estimated Coefficient Category Estimated Coefficient High density 0.08 residential area High density 0.08 Middle density 0.06 residential area residential area Middle density 0.06 Low density 0.04 residential area residential area Low density 0.04 0.03 residential area Forest 0.03 Forest Water area, 0.025 rivers and trees Water area, 0.025 rivers and trees this result is consistent with the plates displacements shown at the left side ofis consistent with the plates displacements shown at the this result the same figure. left side of the same figure.

Figure 7. Experimental results, Run-up reductions. Figure 7. Experimental results, Run-up reductions. The tests results agree with Irtem et al. (2009), Hiraishi and Harada tests results agree with Irtem et al. (2009), Hiraishi and The (2003), in the sense that the presence of a forest causes a reduction on tsunami sense Moreover the amount that causes a Harada (2003), in the run-up.that the presence of a forestreduction varies from one study run-up. Moreover the this study. reduction reduction on tsunami to other, being less in amount that varies from one study to other, being less in this study. The numerical simulation was made using TUNAMI code. To NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS doThe numerical simulation obtained from nautical charts and this, bathymetry was was made using TUNAMI code. To GEBCO bathymetry was obtained from nautical charts and do this, database, while topography was obtained from LIDAR information with 2.5m resolution. Four grids were from LIDAR GEBCO database, while topography was obtained used, namely 81, 27, 9 with 2.5m resolution. Four grids were used, namely information and 3. TUNAMI code 81, 27, 9 and 3.uses a roughness coefficient which is constant in TUNAMI code uses a (IOC, 1997), nevertheless, is constant the whole domain roughness coefficient which as a first approximation, this coefficient is modified only in as higher in the whole domain (IOC, 1997), nevertheless, the a first resolution grid in order to analyze the effect of in the higher approximation, this coefficient is modified only roughness on inundation area order to height. Table 1 shows different resolution grid in and flow analyze the effect of roughness on recommended manning coefficients Table 1 shows Further inundation area and flow height. (Kotani et al 1998).different investigation manning coefficients (Kotani et recommended will consider variable manning alcoefficient and 1998). Further higher grid resolution, namely 1 arc second. investigation will consider variable manning coefficient and Three scenarios were analyzed: 1835, 1960 higher grid resolution, namely 1 arc second. and 2010. However, only the results forwere analyzed: 1835, 1960 and 2010.this paper. Three scenarios 2010 are presented and discussed in However, The manning for 2010 are presented and discussed in this paper. only the resultscoefficients used in simulations were 0.025 and 0.03, which correspond to used in simulations respectively. In The manning coefficients water area and forest, were 0.025 and addition, the low tide during the tsunami, and land uplift due to 0.03, which correspond to water area and forest, respectively. In the earthquake are tide during in the model. and land uplift due to addition, the low considered the tsunami, the earthquake are considered in the model.

NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

Figure 8. Left: Rupture zone for 2010 earthquake, modified from Delouis Left: (2010), Right: 2010 and non-uniform from Figure 8. et al Rupture zone for Staticearthquake, modifiedinitial condition for simulation Right: tsunami. Delouis et al (2010), of 2010 Static and non-uniform initial condition for simulation of 2010 tsunami.

Simulation Results The results of the simulations are shown in Figure 9. As a Simulation Results

150km 2010 earthquake fault zone Arauco Peninsula in long and The wide, and extended from the was about 450km the south to northwide, and extended from the Arauco Peninsula in the south 150km of Pichilemu (Barrientos, 2010). The left side of Figure 8 shows the Pichilemu (Barrientos, 2010). The left The figure also to north oflength and location of the rupture zone.side of Figure 8 the extent of relative displacement between the plates shows the length and location of the rupture zone. The figure also (Delouis et extent of relative displacement between about10m shows the al, 2010). The maximum displacements are the plates at the northern part of the maximum displacements are about10m (Delouis et al, 2010). The rupture zone,while in the areas near the hypocenter, and closerthe rupture zone,while in the displacements at the northern part of to the city of Concepcin, areas near the were around 5m. The initial of deformation is a static hypocenter, and closer to the city sea Concepcin, displacements deformation, 5m. The initial sea deformation formulation were aroundwhich is generated by means of Okada is a static (Okada, 1985). This generated provides a Okada formulation deformation, which isformulationby means of deformation of the seabed, 1985). assumes that the provides a deformation sea is (Okada, and thenThis formulation initial deformation of the of the identicaland then assumes that the initial deformation of the sea is sea bed. To do this, the total seabed, to that obtained for initial deformation for the for event obtained by superposition identical to that obtained 2010the seaisbed. To do this, the total of several smaller for the 2010 event rupture model superposition initial deformation faults. Therefore, is obtained by proposed by Delouis et al (2010) was Therefore, several parts proposed by of several smaller faults. divided intorupture model changing the slip, width, length, depth divided into several parts changing the Delouis et al (2010) was and origin of the fault, while strike, rake and width, length, depth and origin of the fault, while strike, = slip,dip angles remain constant, namely, = 15 , = 18 andrake 110 diprespectively (Delouis, 2010). The = 15 ,side 18 and = and , angles remain constant, namely, right = of Figure 8 shows the total initial condition obtained. It is possible toFigure 8 110 , respectively (Delouis, 2010). The right side of see that shows the total initial condition obtained. It is possible to see that

Initial condition The condition Initial2010 earthquake fault zone was about 450km long and

comparison, the blue line shows theare shown in Figuregenerated The results of the simulations real inundation area 9. As a by the 2010 tsunami. It is possible real inundation area generated comparison, the blue line shows the to see that the inundation area with a 2010 tsunami. It is possible to see that the inundation area by the roughness coefficient of 0.025 agrees with recorded flooded land. It is important to mention that a large with recorded flooded with a roughness coefficient of 0.025 agreesportion of this area is a wetlandisand river mouth, except for the portion of this area is a land. It important to mention that a large circled sector, which corresponds river mouth, except for with small sector, When wetland and to developed areas, mostly the circled houses. which the manning coefficient 0.03 is mostly with small houses. When corresponds to developed areas, used, the inundation area at this specific place is slightly 0.03 is thus the inundation are at this the manning coefficient reduced,used, developed areas area outside the inundation, slightly reduced, is developed that are outside specific place isor the flow heightthuslower, such areasthe damage could be significantly reduced. the inundation, or the flow height is lower, such that the damage could be significantly reduced. After the 2004 Indian OceanSURVEY FIELD tsunami, researchers investigated the effectiveness of forests and vegetation bio shieldsinvestigated After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, researchers as tsunami protection. Gallagher et al (2010) carried out a field survey in the effectiveness of forests and vegetation bio shields as tsunami Upolu Samoa, with et al (2010) tsunami inundation distance, protection. Gallagher emphasis on carried out a field survey in vegetation composition and damage tsunami inundation classified Upolu Samoa, with emphasis on to structures. They distance, the species as unaffected, damage to and not recovering. In a vegetation composition and recovering structures. They classified similar manner, Tanaka recovering and not recovering. In a the species as unaffected, et al (2009) investigated effective vegetation structures and et al several investigated effective similar manner, Tanakaproposed (2009) species of herbaceous, bush and structures and proposed several species Their studies vegetation forest zones for Sri Lankas wet zone.of herbaceous, consideredforest force, number Lankas per unit area as well as bush and drag zones for Sri of trees wet zone. Their studies breaking moment. considered drag force, number of trees per unit area as well as breaking moment.

FIELD SURVEY

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Table 2: Observations in surveyed places

Location Perales Pud Dichato Penco Llico Mocha Island

Species Cupressus sempervirens Cupressus sempervirens Pinus Radiata Pinus Radiata

Figure 9. Inundation at the Bay of Concepcion with numerical simulation. Left: manning coefficient 0.025. Right: manning coefficient 0.3. A team of the Maritime and Port Research Center, (CIMP, for its name in Spanish) carried out a preliminary field survey in the most affected places of the Biobio Region after the 2010 Chilean tsunami (see Figure 10). These places were chosen because the inundation height was higher than 5 meters from the mean water level at the shore line. In fact, the survey team measured a maximum inundation height of 8m in Dichato and 6m in Penco. In addition, a maximum run up of 11m in Perales and 18m in Llico were also measured. The main task of this survey was to identify typical species growing in the coastal zones and their behavior under tsunami attack.

Observation Diameter larger than 30cm, uprooted. Diameter larger than 20cm, uprooted. Diameter larger than 20cm, no damage Diameter larger than 20cm, no damage. Diameter larger than 20cm, no damaged Populus alba Diameter smaller than 20cm, broken or uprooted Populus Diameter larger than alba, Pinus 20cm, no damaged Radiata

uprooted, even though wooden houses remained with no severe damage. The upper right photo corresponds to a pinus radiata forest over dunes at Pingueral, north of Dichato. The lower pictures correspond to populus alba. The left picture was taken at Llico, while the right one at Mocha Island. It can be observed that larger trees in Llico (with a diameter greater than 30cm) were undamaged, while the smaller ones were uprooted or broken. In a similar manner, the trees at Mocha Island were not affected, despite the fact that the house just in front of them was completely destroyed and removed.

Figure 10. Places affected by the tsunami and measurement of trees in the Biobio Region. In general, three species were mostly indentified, namely, pinus radiata, populus alba, and cupressus sempervirens. The former was found along the whole region, not only at the coastal line, and the later was mainly found at the northern part of the region. Meanwhile the populus alba was found in the southern part. In addition, other species were identified in some sandy areas on Mocha Island, namely Acacia melanoxylon. Table 2 shows observations at the places mentioned above. In general, it is possible to see that populus alba and pinus radiata performed very well under tsunami attack. On the other hand, cupressus sempervirens was uprooted in both of the places surveyed. Figure 11 shows some pictures taken in surveyed places. The upper left picture shows a cupressus sempervirens located at Perales. As seen from the figure, this tree was completely

Figure 11. Pictures of trees at surveyed places. Upper left: Perales. Upper right: Pingueral, Dichato. Lower left: Llico. Lower right: Mocha Island Populus albas good behavior can be explained by its strong and branched root, which goes deep into the soil with superficial secondary roots (Asturnatura, 2010). On that ground, they are not recommended for use near buildings. However, they are often used as windbreaks on roads near the sea. Also, they can withstand marine pollution and are capable of growing in a coastal sandy soil, resisting puddles of sea water in their root system (Infojardin, 2010). In the same manner, pinus radiata has strong and deep roots. This tree can reach 30 to 50m height in a short period of time. It

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Aranguiz, Villagran and Eyzaguirre Aranguiz, Villagran and Eyzaguirre can be found in sandy soil, with high amount of water (Infojardin, 2010). found in sandy soil, with high amount of water (Infojardin, can be The 2010). cupressus sempervirens has well developed roots with a strong cupressus sempervirens has well developed roots with a The secondary system, which provides proper anchorage (Asturnatura, 2010). Nevertheless, provides proper sensitive; strong secondary system, which its roots are very anchorage special care must be Nevertheless, its roots are and sensitive; (Asturnatura, 2010). taken when it is transplanted,very they must be watered until the root iswhen it is transplanted, and they must special care must be taken well developed. Excess of water can produce some diseases when the tree is adult (Infojardin, 2010). be watered until the root is well developed. Excess of water can This factsome diseases when thebehavioradult must be studied in produce could explain the poor tree is and (Infojardin, 2010). detail. This fact could explain the poor behavior and must be studied in detail. Test results showed that one of these tree barrier configurations CONCLUSION could decreaseshowed that one of theserun-up by upconfigurations Test results the inundation area and tree barrier to 13%. This experiment demonstrated that and kinds up barriers can could decrease the inundation areatheserun-up byof to 13%. This successfully reduce the impact these kinds coastal regions. experiment demonstrated that of a tsunami inof barriers can However, the amount of reduction tsunami in coastal of biosuccessfully reduce the impact of areached by this kind regions. shield is not yet clear, of further research is by this However, the amountand reduction reached needed. kind of bioThe result of the simulations demonstrated that by shield is not yet clear, and further research is needed. altering the manning coefficient,simulations demonstrated that bythe presence The result of the the flooding area decreases with altering the of trees instead of just grass or sand. This simple changepresence manning coefficient, the flooding area decreases with the showed that the instead of just grass or inundation height change showed of trees area of flooding and the sand. This simple would decrease in developed areas, which the inundation height would decrease that the area of flooding andcould significantly reduce damage to property and individuals. Nevertheless, the variable manning in developed areas, which could significantly reduce damage to coefficient must be investigated. property and individuals. Nevertheless, the variable manning Field observations showed that coefficient must be investigated. pinus radiata and populus alba behaved observations showed that pinus radiata demonstratedalba Field very well under tsunami forces. This and populus the feasibility of using these kinds forces. as natural barrier. behaved very well under tsunami of trees This ademonstrated the Furthermore, using these return trees of tsunamis barrier. feasibility of the historicalkinds ofperiod as a natural is long enough to permit historical of natural barriers strong enough to Furthermore, the the growth return period of tsunamis is long behave to permit the growth of natural barriers tsunami occurs. enough properly by the time the next strong enough to Nevertheless, other properties and tsunami occurs. behave properly byspecific time the next effects must be the investigated, other specific properties and effects must be Nevertheless,due to the fact that none of the identified species are native, thus due to the fact that none of natural environment, investigated,they could negatively affect the identified species are except pinus radiata, negatively affect the natural environment, native, thus they could which is widely cultivated in the Biobio Region pinus radiata, whichindustries and pulp mills are located except (large forest logging is widely cultivated in the Biobio in this (large forest logging industries and pulp mills are located Regionregion).. in this region).. The authors would like to thank the Maritime and Port Research ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Center authors would like to survey, asMaritime and Port Research The for funding the field thank the well as the topography and bathymetry data provided for numerical simulations. Center for funding the field survey, as well as the topography and bathymetry data provided for numerical simulations. Encina, F. (1970). Historia de Chile, desde la prehistoria hasta 1891, vol (1970). Historia538-541, Editorialla Nascimiento, 4ta Encina, F. 4, 487-491 y de Chile, desde prehistoria hasta Edicin, Santiago, Chile, y 538-541, Editorial Nascimiento, 4ta 1891, vol 4, 487-491 1970. Edicin, Santiago, Chile, 1970. Esteban, M. et al (2008). Pressure Exerted by a Solitary Wave on the Rubble et al (2008). Pressure Exerted by a Caisson Esteban, M.Mound Foundation of an Armoured Solitary Wave on Breakwater, United Nations University, Institute of Advanced the Rubble Mound Foundation of an Armoured Caisson Studies. Yokohama, Japan. Breakwater, United Nations University, Institute of Advanced Studies. Yokohama, Japan. Gallagher, T., Kaufman, A., Irvine, A., (2010). Towards a tsunami bio-shild design for theIrvine, A., (2010). from Upolu, Gallagher, T., Kaufman, A., Pacific:observation Towards a Samoa. [On Direccin URL: tsunami bio-shild design for line],Pacific:observation from Upolu, the http://www.pacificdisaster.net/pdnadmin/data/original/WSM_201 Samoa. [On line], Direccin URL: 0_Bioshield_Tsunami_poster.pdf, [reviewed on November 20th, http://www.pacificdisaster.net/pdnadmin/data/original/WSM_201 2010 0_Bioshield_Tsunami_poster.pdf, [reviewed on November 20th, 2010 Gedik N., Irtem E., Kabdasli S (2005). Laboratory investigation on tsunami Irtem E., Kabdasli S (2005). Laboratory investigation Gedik N., run-up Ocean Engineering 32 pp 513528. on tsunami run-up Ocean Engineering 32 pp 513528. Gil, J. (1945). Charles Darwin, viaje de un naturalista alrededor del J. (1945). 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CONCLUSION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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