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PREPARATION OF SHAMPOO

A Project report By Team: Kasey Hebert

Sumitha.D XII A

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INTRODUCTION

Shampoo is a solution and hair care product that is used to remove dirt, oil, skin particles and dandruff from hair. These pollutants build up in hair over time and need to be removed to maintain personal hygiene and well groomed hair. It is necessary to remove these particles from hair without stripping the scalp of sebum which is natural oil. History The word shampoo in English is derived from Hindi chmpo and dates to 1762.The Hindi word referred to head massage, usually with some form of hair oil. Similar words also occur in other North Indian languages. The word and the service of head massage were introduced to Britain by a Bengali entrepreneur named Sake Dean Mahomed. Dean Mahomed introduced the practice to Basil Cochrane's vapour baths while working there in London in the early 19th century, and later, together with his Irish wife, opened "Mahomed's Steam and Vapour Sea Water Medicated Baths" in Brighton, England. His baths were like Turkish baths where clients received an Indian treatment of champi (shampooing), meaning therapeutic massage. He was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to both George IV and William IV In the 1860s, the meaning of the word shifted from the sense of massage to that of applying soap to the hair. Earlier, ordinary soap had been used for washing hair. However, the dull film soap left on the hair made it uncomfortable, irritating, and unhealthy looking. During the early stages of shampoo, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. Kasey Hebert was the first known maker of shampoo, and the origin is currently attributed to him. Commercially made shampoo was available from the turn of the 20th century. A 1914 ad for Canthrox Shampoo in American Magazine showed young women at camp washing their hair with Canthrox in a lake; magazine ads in 1914 by Rexall featured Harmony Hair Beautifier and Shampoo. Originally, soap and shampoo were very similar products; both containing the same naturally derived surfactants, a type of detergent. Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene, the first shampoo with synthetic surfactants.

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COMPOSITION Shampoo is generally made by combining a surfactant, most often sodium lauryl sulfate and/or sodium laureth sulfate with a co-surfactant, most often cocamidopropyl betaine in water to form a thick, viscous liquid. Other essential ingredients include salt (sodium chloride), which is used to adjust the viscosity, a preservative and fragrance. Other ingredients are generally included in shampoo formulations to maximize the following qualities: Pleasing foam Easy rinsing Minimal skin/eye irritation Feels thick and/or creamy Pleasant fragrance Low toxicity Good biodegradability Slightly acidic (pH less than 7) No damage to hair

Many shampoos are pearlescent. This effect is achieved by addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials, e.g. glycol distearate, chemically derived from stearic acid, which may have either animal or vegetable origins. Glycol distearate is a wax. Many shampoos also includesilicone to provide conditioning benefits.

Commonly used ingredients


Ammonium chloride Ammonium lauryl sulfate Glycol Sodium laureth sulfate is derived from coconut oils and is used to soften water and create

a lather. There was some concern over this particular ingredient circa 1998 about this chemical being a carcinogen, but that has been disproved. Sodium lauryl sulfate Sodium Lauroamphoacetate is naturally derived from coconut oils and is used as a

cleanser and counter-irritant. This is the ingredient that makes the product tear-free.

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Polysorbate 20 (abbreviated as PEG(20)) is a mild glycol based surfactant that is used to

solubilize fragrance oils and essential oils; meaning it causes liquid to spread across and penetrate the surface of a solid (i.e. your hair). Polysorbate 80 (abbreviated as PEG(80)) is a glycol used to emulsify (or disperse) oils in

water (so the oils dont float on top like Italian salad dressing). PEG-150 Distearate is a simple thickener. Citric Acid is naturally derived from citrus fruits and is used as an antioxidant to preserve

the oils in the product. While it is a severe eye-irritant, the Sodium Lauroamphoacetate counteracts that property. Citric acid is used to adjust the pH down to approximately 5.5. It is a fairly weak acid which makes the adjustment easier. Shampoos usually are at pH 5.5 because at slightly acidic pH the scales on a hair follicle lay flat making the hair feel smooth and look shiny. It also has a small amount of preservative action. Citric acid as opposed to any other acid will prevent bacterial growth. Quaternium-15 is used as a bacterial/fungicidal preservative. Polyquaternium-10 has nothing to do with the chemical Quaternium-15. This chemical

acts as the conditioning ingredient, providing moisture and fullness to the hair. Di-PPG-2 myreth-10 adipate is a water-dispersible emollient that forms clear solutions

with surfactant systems

SPECIALIZED SHAMPOOS
We have several shampoos specialized for various problems such as dandruff, dry scalp etc. some of them are listed here.

Dandruff
Cosmetic companies have developed shampoos specifically for those who have dandruff. These contain fungicides such as ketoconazole , zinc pyrithione and selenium sulfide which reduce loose dander by killing Malassezia furfur. Coal tar and salicylate derivatives are often used as well.

Gluten and/or wheat free


Many people suffer from eczema on their palms and their head.Some find that wheat and/or gluten (the protein found in many grains including wheat) is the cause, particularly if they are sensitive to this in food e.g. celiac disease wheat allergy. Other reactions can include dandruff, thinning hair and hair that breaks easily. Shampoo can often go into the mouth, particularly for children, so all individuals who are on gluten-free diets may prefer to find a gluten-free shampoo.

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Shampoo manufacturers are starting to recognize this and there are now gluten/wheat free products available. Wheat derivatives and ingredients from the other gluten grains are commonly used as binders to help the shampoo stick together and are also used as emollients in the form of oils. Following is a list of grain-derived shampoo ingredients. Most of these ingredients do not theoretically contain any intact wheat proteins, but may do so due to incomplete processing or contamination. Triticum vulgare (wheat), hordeum vulgare (barley), secale cereale (rye), or avena sativa

(oats), including any oil, protein, hydrosylate, or other extract from any part of the plant. Tocopherol/Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E), which may be derived from wheat Hydrolyzed Hydrolyzed wheat protein / hydrolyzed wheat starch, also sometimes listed

as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, stearyldimoniumhydroxypropyl or hydroxypropyltrimonium Cyclodextrin, which may be produced from starch by means of enzymatic conversion Amino peptide complex Maltodextrin, dextrin, dextrin palmitate, or (hydrolyzed) malt extract Phytosphingosine extract Amino peptide complex prolamine Beta glucan Disodium Wheat Germamido PEG-2-Sulfosuccinat Fermented Grain Extract AMP-Isostearoyl PG-Propyl Silanetriol PVP Crosspolymer Ethyldimonium Ethosulfate Yeast extract Phytospingosine Extract "Fragrance" is a broad category that may contain large numbers of chemicals that are

otherwise unlisted on the label.

All-natural
Some companies use "all-natural," "organic," "botanical," or "plant-derived" ingredients (such as plant extracts or oils), combining these additions with one or more typical surfactants.

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Baby
Shampoo for infants and young children is formulated so that it is less irritating and usually less prone to produce a stinging or burning sensation if it were to get into the eyes. For example, Johnson & Johnson's Baby Shampoo advertises under the premise of "No More Tears". This is accomplished by one or more of the following formulation strategies: 1. dilution, in case product comes in contact with eyes after running off the top of

the head with minimal further dilution; 2. adjusting pH to that of non-stress tears, approximately 7, which may be a higher

pH than that of shampoos which are pH adjusted for skin or hair effects, and lower than that of shampoo made of soap; 3. use of surfactants which, alone or in combination, are less irritating than those

used in other shampoos; 4. use of nonionic surfactants of the form of polyethoxylated synthetic glycolipids

and/or polyethoxylated synthetic monoglycerides, which counteract the eye sting of other surfactants without producing the anesthetizing effect of alkyl polyethoxylates or alkylphenol polyethoxylates. The distinction in 4 above does not completely surmount the controversy over the use of shampoo ingredients to mitigate eye sting produced by other ingredients, or the use of the products so formulated. The considerations in 3 and 4 frequently result in a much greater multiplicity of surfactants being used in individual baby shampoos than in other shampoos, and the detergency and/or foaming of such products may be compromised thereby. The monoanionic sulfonated surfactants and viscosity-increasing or foam stabilizing alkanolamides seen so frequently in other shampoos are much less common in the better baby shampoos.

Animal
Shampoo intended for animals may contain insecticides or other medications for treatment of skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas or mange. These must never be used on humans. It is equally important to note that while some human shampoos may be harmful when

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used on animals, any human hair care products that contain active ingredients/drugs (such as zinc in anti-dandruff shampoos) are potentially toxic when ingested by animals. Special care must

be taken not to use those products on pets. Cats are at particular risk due to their instinctive method of grooming their fur with their tongues. Shampoos that are especially designed to be used on pets, commonly dogs and cats, are normally intended to do more than just clean the pet's coat or skin. Most of these shampoos contain ingredients which act differently and are meant to treat a skin condition, an allergy or to fight against fleas. The main ingredients contained by pet shampoos can be grouped in insecticidals, antiseborrheic, antibacterial, antifungals, emollients,emulsifiers and humectants. Whereas some of these ingredients may be efficient in treating some conditions, pet owners are recommended to use them according to their veterinarian's indications because many of them cannot be used on cats or can harm the pet if it is misused. Generally, insecticidal pet shampoos contain pyrethrin, pyrethroids (such as permethrin and which may not be used on cats) and carbaryl. These ingredients are mostly found in shampoos that are meant to fight against parasite infestations. Antiseborrheic shampoos are those especially designed for pets with scales or those with excessive oily coats. These shampoos are made of sulfur, salicylic acid, refined tar (which cannot be used on cats), selenium sulfide (cannot be used on cats) and benzoyl peroxide. All these are meant to treat or prevent seborrhea oleosa which is a condition characterized by excess oils. Dry scales can be prevented and treated with shampoos that contain sulfur or salicylic acid and which can be used on both cats and dogs. Antipruritic shampoos are intended to provide relief of itching due to conditions such as atopy and other allergies.[15] These usually contain colloidal oatmeal, hydrocortisone, Aloe Vera, pramoxine hydrochloride, menthol, diphenhydramine, sulfur or salicylic acid. These ingredients are aimed to reduce the inflammation, cure the condition and ease the symptoms at the same time while providing comfort to the pet. Bacterial infections in pets are sometimes treated with antibacterial shampoos. They commonly contain benzoyl peroxide, chlorhexidine,povidone iodine, triclosan, ethyl lactate, or sulfur. Antifungal shampoos are used on pets with yeast or ringworm infections. These might contain ingredients such as miconazole, chlorhexidine, providone iodine, ketoconazole or selenium sulfide (which cannot be used on cats).

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Emollient shampoos are efficient in adding oils to the skin and relieving the symptoms of a dry and itchy skin. They usually contain oils such as almond, corn, cottonseed, coconut, olive, peanut, Persia, safflower, sesame, lanolin, mineral or paraffin oil. The emollient shampoos are typically used with emulsifiers as they help distributing the emollients. These include ingredients such as cetyl alcohol, laureth-5, lecithin, PEG-4 dilaurate, stearic acid, stearyl alcohol, carboxylic acid, lactic acid, urea, sodium lactate, propylene glycol, glycerin, orpolyvinylpyrrolidone. Although some of the pet shampoos are highly effective, some others may be less effective for some condition than another. Yet, although natural pet shampoos exist, it has been brought to attention that some of these might cause irritation to the skin of the pet. Natural ingredients that might be potential allergens for some pets include eucalyptus, lemon or orange extracts and tea tree oil.[16] On the contrary, oatmeal appears to be one of the most widely skin-tolerated ingredients that are found in pet shampoos. Most ingredients found in a shampoo meant to be used on animals are safe for the pet as there is a high likelihood that the pets will lick their coats, especially in the case of cats. Pet shampoos which include fragrances, deodorants or colors may harm the skin of the pet by causing inflammations or irritation. Shampoos that do not contain any unnatural additives are known as hypoallergenic shampoos and are increasing in popularity. [edit]Solid Solid shampoos or shampoo bars use as their surfactants soaps and/or other surfactants conveniently formulated as solids. They have the advantage of being spill-proof, and the disadvantage of being slowly applied, needing to be dissolved in use. [edit]Jelly/gel Stiff, non-pourable clear gels to be squeezed from a tube were once popular forms of shampoo, and can be produced by increasing a shampoo's viscosity. This type of shampoo cannot be spilled, but unlike a solid, it can still be lost down the drain by sliding off wet skin or hair. As an alternative to synthetic detergent gels, soap jelly was formerly made at home by dissolving sodium soap in hot water before being used for shampooing or other purposes, to avoid the problem of slow application of solid shampoos noted above.[citation needed] [edit]Paste/cream Shampoos in the form of pastes or creams were formerly marketed in jars or tubes. The contents were wet but not completely dissolved. They would apply faster than solids and dissolve quickly.

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Jar contents were prone to contamination by users and hence had to be very well preserved.[citation
needed]

[edit]Dry

shampoo

Powdered shampoos are designed to work without water. They are typically based on powders such as starch, silca or talc, and are intended to physically absorb excess sebum from the hair before being brushed out. Those with dark hair may prefer to use brown powders such as cocoa or carob powder. [edit]Antibacterial Antibacterial shampoos are often used in veterinary medicine for various conditions,[17][18] as well as in humans before some surgical procedures.[19][20]

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